# Space Propulsion

Pioneer 10

Pioneer 11

Voyager 1

Voyager 2

Launch Date Loss of Signal

Mar. 3,1972 2001 (1994 expected) (at 59 AU) 2.4 2.9

Apr. 5,1973 1996 (at 45 AU) 2.2 12.6

Aug. 20,1977 2012 (at 121 AU) 3.5 35.5

Sept. 5,1977 2013 (at 106 AU) 3.4 -47.5

Departure veIocity Asymptotic (AU/yr) Trajectory Angle to Earth Orbit Plane (degrees Closest Stellar Approach

Distance (ly) Star Years to reach

3.27 Ross 248 32,600

1.65 AC+793888 42,400

1.64 AC+793888 40,300

0.80 Sirius 497,000

Space Propulsion

Space Propulsion

Space Propulsion

1.

Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line except insofar as it is compelled to change that state by an external impressed force The rate of change of momentum of the body is proportional to the impressed force and takes place in the direction in which the force acts. To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

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2. 3.

dp / dt = F

r mm r F = −G 1 2 2 er r U (r ) = −G M r .Space Propulsion Every particle of matter attracts every other particle of matter with a force directly proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

The planets move in ellipses with the sun at one focus Areas swept out by the radius vector from the sun to a planet in equal times are equal The square of the period of revolution is proportional to the cube of the semimajor axis.Space Propulsion 1. 3. T2 = const x a3 . That is. 2.

Space Propulsion Circular orbit mV 2 GmM = r r2 V= μ r 2 rπ r3 P= = 2π μ V .

Space Propulsion .

98 x105 = ≅ = 7.489 24 x3600 μ [km / s] [km / s ] V1 = Vorb − Vrot ≅ 7.73x103 Vrot = 2πR ≅ 0.20 [ km / s ] .Space Propulsion Vorb 3.69 R 6.

Space Propulsion Gravitational trajectories H = r × mV angular momentum around point C ⎛ dr dH dV = m⎜ × V + r × ⎜ dt dt dt ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ = r × m dV = r × F = M ⎟ dt ⎠ M … torque around C Assumption: Central force: F II r r×F = M = 0 → dH =M =0 dt H = mr × V = const. to H . trajectory remains in same plane perp.

(rdθ ) = rV sin φ . force field must not be 1/r2 and not even conservative .dt ) / r dA ≅ 1 1 r.Space Propulsion Gravitational trajectories h = H / m = r × V = rV sin φ = const specific angular momentum = const dθ = (V sin φ .dt 2 2 dθ V sin φ h = = 2 dt r r dA 1 h = rV sin φ = = const dt 2 2 2nd Kepler‘s law: areal velocity is constant Plane trajectories and constant areal velocity follow from central force requirement only.

of trajectory dθ = − h du dθ V sin φ h = = 2 r dt r dr subst. ε is specific total energy.Space Propulsion Gravitational trajectories Assumption: conservative 1/r2 force field F =− dU mμ =− 2 dr r V2 μ − = ε = const. r=1/u ε+ ε + 2 μ .u − h u 2 2 general solution . 2 r ⎛ dr ⎞ ⎛ dθ ⎞ V = ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜r ⎟ ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠ 2 2 2 conservation of total energy.u − h 2 u 2 θ + C = −h ∫ du ε + 2 μ . magnitude2 of velocity in polar coordinates (r. θ) 2 1 ⎛ dr ⎞ 1 ⎛ dθ ⎞ − + ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜r ⎟ =ε r 2 ⎝ dt ⎠ 2 ⎝ dt ⎠ dr dr dθ dr ⎛ h ⎞ = = ⎜ ⎟ dt dθ dt dθ ⎝ r 2 ⎠ μ 2 h 2 ⎛ dr ⎞ h 2 2 μ =ε ⎜ ⎟ + − r 4 ⎝ dθ ⎠ r 2 r dθ = h/r2 2μ h − 2 r r 2 2 differential equ.

ε > 1 …hyperbola ε = 1 …parabola ε < 1 …ellipse ε = 0 … circle μ2 . cos(θ + C ) when θ is counted from minimum r.θ) when origin is in focal point. p is parameter and ε numerical excentricity of conic section.u − h u r= 1− 1+ h2 / μ 2ε .h 2 Is equation of conical section in polar coordinates (r.h 2 μ2 .Space Propulsion Gravitational trajectories θ + C = −h ∫ du r = 1/u 2 2 ε + 2 μ . cos θ Trajectories under influence of gravity of the sun are conical sections with the sun in one focal point 1st Kepler . then cos = -1 From geometry: p r= 1 + ε cosθ r= h2 / μ 1+ 1+ 2ε .

h 2 μ2 parameter. excentricity of trajectory follow from kinetic and dynamic parameters by analogy of anal. cos θ ε = 1 → specific energy ε = 0 → parabola ε < 1 → specific energy ε < 0 → ellipse numerical excentricity ε of conical section p= h2 μ ε = 1+ 2ε .Space Propulsion Gravitational trajectories r= h2 / μ 1+ 1+ 2ε . solution with geometry of conical sections from geometry a= p 1− ε 2 a=− μ 2ε all trajectories with same semimajor axis have same (specific) total energy . semimajor axis and num.h 2 ε > 1 → specific energy ε > 0 → hyperbola μ2 .

geometry μ 4π 2 a 4 p 4π 2 a 3 P = = h2 a μ 2 3rd Kepler But also: period of elliptical trajectory only dependent on semimajor axis .Space Propulsion 2 dA p P = abπ = πa 2 1 − ε = πa 2 dt a In case of closed trajectory ( ellipse) product of constant areal velocity and period is equal to area of ellipse 2 from kinetics: dA/dt = h/2 p= h 2 b = a 1− ε 2 p = a 1− ε ( ) from analyt.

h 2 μ2 . cos θ 2ε .h 2 a=− μ 2ε ε = 1+ μ2 p = h2 / μ geometric parameters of orbit can be derived from kinetic parameters of motion specific energy ε > 0 → hyperbola specific energy ε = 0 → parabola specific energy ε < 0 → ellipse type of conics dependent on total energy .Space Propulsion r= h2 / μ 1+ 1+ 2ε .

when we know at a given point the radius – vector from the central body the velocity vector Or. equivalently r. V and included angle α .Space Propulsion The orbit of a body is completely determined.

3.V .Space Propulsion 1 2 Evaluate μ = GMSun The total energy per mass of the orbit is constant so by evaluating the kinetic and gravitational potentialenergy at one point in the orbit (EQ 10) we obtain The energy per mass of the spacecraft determines the orbits semi-major axis (EQ 11): This then gives the circular velocity of the orbit (EQ 3) 5 6 The period of the orbit is given by Kepler's third law: The areal velocity is know from the initial conditions (velocity and position) of the spacecraft.1) ( ) . sin α 2 Aell πa 2 1 − ε 2 = P P 2 7 A= ⎛ AP ⎞ ε = 1− ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝a π ⎠ 8 We now know the size and shape of the orbit and can determine the extent of the orbit from (EQ 16) and (EQ 18) rp = a(1 − ε ) ra = a (1 + ε ) cos Θ = 1⎛a ⎞ 2 ⎜ 1 − ε − 1⎟ ε ⎝r ⎠ 9 The final parameter is the true anomaly as determined by the angle the craft is from perihelion of the new orbit (see ellipse equation in Section 2. by taking the ellipse area as Aell = πa2(1-e2)1/2 E V 2 GM sun = − m 2 r 3 4 a=− vc = GM sun 2(E / m ) GM sun a 3/ 2 ⎛ a ⎞ ⎟ P = Pearth ⎜ ⎜a ⎟ ⎝ earth ⎠ A= 1 r. α being the angle between radiusvector and S/C direction The other method of determining areal velocity gives us the eccentricity of the orbit.

Space Propulsion Elliptical orbits passing through same point with identical velocities into different directions .

dp = d (mV ) = mdV + Vdm = 0 dV = −Ve dm m dm m ∫ dV = −Ve ∫ mi ΔV = −Ve ln mf Tsiolkovski equation .Space Propulsion Reaction propulsion momentum conservation mV = const.

therefore we can express the exponent as ΔV/ IveI ΔV mi =e mf ΔV ve • decreases exponentially with ve • final mass.Space Propulsion Tsiolkovsky equation mi ΔV = −Ve ln mf mi = e − ve mf since direction of ve (exhaust velocity) is opposite to velocity gain ΔV.ΔV/ve is always positive. the ratio .) . which can be brought into orbit with ΔV de…creases with increasing ΔV and increases with ve • initial mass increases exponentially with ΔV (@ mf = const.

ions.Space Propulsion Thrust Thrust is the force propelling a rocket. it is the reaction force to the force accelerating the exhaust particles. p = ⎜ N m ⎟Ve = m . We consider the exhaust consisting of N identical particles (gas.…) of mass m • dP d dN ⎛ • ⎞ T= = (N . electrons. stones.Ve dt dt dt ⎝ ⎠ m Ve T • mass flow [kg/s] exhaust velocity [m/s] thrust [N] . p ) = .

m p dt ⎠ 0 0⎝ 0 mp … propellant mass used during mission time τ Ve … exhaust velocity. or at least during thruster – on time intervals. total impulse can be written as I = T .τ ⎛ dm ⎞ I = ∫ Tdt = ∫ ⎜ ⎟Ve dt = Ve ∫ dm = Ve .s ] 0 tb When thrust is constant over time.Space Propulsion Total impulse Total impulse is the total momentum gained during the burn time tb of a thruster definition I = ∫ Tdt [ N . assumed to be constant during mission τ τ τ .

the higher is the velocity gain of a rocket upon exhaustion of ist fuel mass.Ve ) I sp = = = Ve dm dm [m / s] exhaust velocity.Space Propulsion Specific impulse dp dm I sp = what is the momentum produced per unit of mass expelled? The higher this ratio. assumed to be constant .• Isp is an important quality m parameter definition I sp dp / dt p T = = • = • dm / dt m m • [m / s] m Ve • mass flow [kg/s] dp d (m.

Space Propulsion jet power definition mVe2 Pj = =N dt 2 • dE j [W ] jet power is the kinetic energy. emitted per time unit from a S/C ⎛• ⎞ ⎜ N mVe ⎟Ve ⎠ = TI sp Pj = ⎝ 2 2 .

necessary to produce a unit of thrust • Psp = mVe2 / 2 mVe • = Ve 2 [m / s].[W / N ] .Space Propulsion specific power Psp = Pjet T [W / N ] specific power is the beam power Pjet.

I sp I = ∫ Tdt = I sp m p ≡ Tτ 0 • [N] [N. (rocket equ. [m/s] specific power [1] Tsiolkovsky equ.Space Propulsion these purely mechanical relationships are valid independent of the methods used to accelerate exhaust particles T = m .) mi / m f = e ΔV = I sp ln (mi / m f ) .s] [W] [m/s] thrust total impulse jet power specific impulse τ Pj = I sp = dE j dt = TI sp 2 dp T = Ve = • dm m Psp = Pj T = I sp 2 ΔV Isp [W/N].

....R2 .Space Propulsion The staging principle R j = (mi / m f ) j ΔV1 = I sp ln R1 ΔV2 = I sp ln R2 . ΔVn = I sp ln Rn velocity gains of individual stages initial / final mass ratio of jth stage ΔV = I sp ln( R1 .Rn ) total velocity gain (of final stage) ..

the velocity difference of the final stage with respect to the initial velocity is ΔV = I sp ln( R1 .R2 . ln R .Rn ) when the mass ratios of all stages are identical (Rj = R) ΔV = I sp ln(R n ) = n.I sp .Space Propulsion The staging principle when the rocket motors of all stages have the same specific impulse Isp...

St.consumed in a single – stage or a multi – stage rocket Assumptions: • initial / final mass ratios identical = R for all stages • mass of supporting structure in each stage is same fraction φ ….S i −1 propellant mass for ith stage. R = m L + m1 (1 + φ ) m L + φm1 m1 = R −1 mL 1 − φ (R − 1) ) 2. when the propellant is …. R = ρ= R −1 1 − φ (R − 1) m L + (m1 + m2 + m3 ) m L + (m1 + m2 )(1 + φ ) + φm3 ψ = (1 + φ )ρ mi = ρm L + ψ .acceleration of a payload of mass mL • compare the velocity gains.Space Propulsion • a fixed total mass M of propellant is available for …. mi . …. R = m L + (m1 + m2 )(1 + φ ) m L + m1 (1 + φ ) + φm2 m2 = m3 = R −1 [m L + (1 + φ )m1 ] 1 − φ (R − 1) ) R −1 [m L + (1 + φ )(m1 + m2 )] 1 − φ (R − 1) 3. St. Si … sum of propellant masses m1. m2. St.of propellant mass of respective stage (φ = „tankage factor“) 1.

S i −1 S1 = ρmL S 2 = m2 + S1 = ρmL + ψS1 + S1 = ρmL + (1 + ψ )S1 = ρmL [1 + (1 + ψ )] S 4 = m4 + S3 = ρmL + ψS3 + S 3 = ρmL + (1 + ψ )S3 S n = ρm L ∑ (1 + ψ ) = ρm L i 0 n −1 S3 = m3 + S 2 = ρmL + ψS 2 + S 2 = ρmL + (1 + ψ )S 2 = ρmL 1 + (1 + ψ ) + (1 + ψ ) L [ ] = ρm [ + (1 + ψ ) + (1 + ψ ) + (1 + ψ ) ] 1 2 2 3 (1 + ψ )n − 1 = m (1 + ψ )n − 1 ψ L 1+φ total propellant mass for n stages with equal tankage factor φ and equal initial / final mass ratio R In an n – stage rocket. velocity gain in each stage is and total velocity gain of n stages is ΔVi = I sp ln R ΔV = nΔVi = nI sp ln R .Space Propulsion mi = ρm L + ψ .

ln R S n = mL (1 + ψ )n − 1 1+φ . ln ⎢ −n ⎥ ⎣φ + (1 + ψ ) ⎦ ΔV = n.Space Propulsion Single.and multi – stage rockets using the same amount of propellant to accelerate same payload ⎡ (1 + φ )S n + m L ⎤ ΔV = I sp . ln ⎢ ⎥= m L + φS n ⎦ ⎣ ⎤ ⎡ 1+ φ = I sp .I sp .

ln ⎢ → I sp ln ⎢ − n ⎥ = nI sp ln( R ) = ΔVmulti −n ⎥ ⎣R ⎦ ⎣ φ + (1 + ψ ) ⎦ . we have rockets consisting of payload for tankage factor φ and fuel only and single.Space Propulsion Check 0.and „multistage“ rockets with same payload and fuel masses must have the same ΔV ρ= R −1 → R −1 1 − φ (R − 1) ψ = (1 + φ )ρ → R − 1 ⎡ ⎤ 1+ φ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ΔVsin gle = I sp .

Space Propulsion Mission Design and Attitude Control Task Mission design Orbit changes Plane changes Orbit trim Stationkeeping Repositioning Description (Translational velocity change) Convert one orbit to another Change orbital plane. other orbit parameters remaining constant Remove Iaunch vehicle errors Maintain constellation position Change constellation position (RotationaI velocity change) Remove vector errors Maintain an attitude Change attitudes Remove stored momentum Repositioning the spacecraft axes Attitude Control Thrust vector control Attitude control Attitude changes Reaction wheel unloading Maneuvering .

Space Propulsion coplanar orbit changes changing a circular orbit to a coplanar elliptical orbit 2 2 2 f generalised coplanar maneuvre ΔV = Vi + V − 2ViV f cos α ΔV is smallest when this term is largest cosα = 1 the transfer can be made at any intersection of two orbits. the least velocity change is necessary when the orbits are tangent and α is zero .

Space Propulsion Fuel consumption for orbital maneuvre with total velocity change ΔV ΔV Isp Tsiolkovsky: mi / m f = e required fuel mass: ⎡ ⎛ ΔV m p = mi − m f = mi ⎢1 − exp⎜ − ⎜ I ⎢ sp ⎝ ⎣ ⎡ ⎛ ΔV m p = m f ⎢exp⎜ ⎢ ⎜ I sp ⎣ ⎝ ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ .

350 − 7.4 km3/s2 Radius of Earth is ≈ R = 6387 km velocity on initial circular orbit: V = μ r = 398.14) km / s semimajor axis of final elliptical orbit: a= ra + rp 2 = (300+ 6378 + (3000+ 6378 ) ) = 8028 [km] 2 velocity at periapsis of final orbit: velocity change = Vp = 2μ μ 2(398.Space Propulsion Example 1: Simple Coplanar Orbit Change Consider an initially circular low Earth orbit at 300-km altitude.600. made at periapsis.600) 398. and vice versa.624 km / s ⎡ ⎛ ΔV m p = m f ⎢exp⎜ ⎢ ⎜ I sp ⎣ ⎝ ⎞ ⎤ ⎧ ⎫ ⎟ − 1⎥ = 750⎨exp ⎡ (624) ⎤ − 1⎬ = 167. change apoapsis radius but not periapsis radius. Orbital changes are a reversible process. .350 km / s r a 6678 8028 ΔV = V p − V = 8.600 − = − = 8.600.2 kg ⎢ (3100) ⎥ ⎟ ⎥ ⎦ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎠ ⎦ fuel consumption Velocity changes.4 = 7. the radius at which the velocity is changed remains unchanged.726 (300 + 6378. As you would expect. the plane of the orbit in inertial space does not change as velocity along the orbit is changed. What velocity increase would be required to produce an elliptical orbit 300 x 3000 km in altitude? What would be the fuel consumption for a 750 kg (empty) S/C if Isp = 3100 m/s ? The gravity parameter of Earth is μ=398.726 = 0.

acceleration in flight direction decreases during burn .Space Propulsion finite burn losses thrust vector is held inertially fixed during the burn orbital elements change continuously during burn angle between thrust and velocity increases during burn at constant thrust.

Space Propulsion Hohmann transfer: minimum energy transfer between circular orbits orbit circularisation transfer orbit insertion V= μ r rf > r i Vf < Vi nevertheless all maneuvers are accelerating transfer orbit: periapsis radius = radius of initial orbit apoapsis radius = radius of final orbit .

600 = 7.78 [km / s] 6387 + 200 Velocity in GEO similarly is 3. cont‘d . what is fuel consumption to bring a 1 t payload to GEO with a specific impulse of 3100 [m/s]? Velocity in LEO: Velocity in LEO: V= μ r = 398.Space Propulsion Example 3: Hohman transfer from circular Earth orbit (altitude = 200 km) to geostationary orbit (r = 42219 km).07 [km/s] Semimajor axis of transfer ellipse is a= (6387 + 200 ) + 42219 = 24403 2 [ km] Perigee velocity in transfer ellipse is: Vp = 2μ μ 2 * 398600 398600 − = − = 6387 + 200 24403 rp a = 10.22 [km / s ] Example 3.

44 [km / s ] Va = 2μ μ − = ra a 2 * 398600 398600 − = 1.78 = 2.60 [km / s ] 42219 24403 Apogee velocity in transfer ellipse is Velocity increase at circularization: ΔVcirc = 3. .91 [km / s ] ⎡ ⎛ ΔV m p = m f ⎢exp⎜ ⎢ ⎜ I sp ⎣ ⎝ ⎞ ⎤ ⎧ ⎫ ⎟ − 1⎥ = 1000⎨exp ⎡ (3910) ⎤ − 1⎬ = 2530 [kg ] ⎢ ⎥ ⎟ ⎥ ⎩ ⎣ (3100) ⎦ ⎭ ⎠ ⎦ Fuel consumption is: The efficiency of the Hohmann transfer comes from the fact that the two velocity changes are made at points of tangency between the trajectories.44 + 1.07 − 1.47 [km / s ] Adding up to a total velocity increase of ΔVtot = 2.47 = 3.60 = 1.Space Propulsion Velocity increase in transfer orbit insertion: ΔVi = 10.22 − 7.

Space Propulsion plane change maneuver ΔV = 2Vi sin α 2 without velocity change Plane changes are expensive on a propellant basis. The lowest possible velocity occurs at the longest radius. this plane change would require 292 kg of propellant.require a velocity change of about 1. . at apoapsis. For a 500 kg spacecraft. if one assumes an Isp of 3100 m/s The equation shows that it is important to change planes through the smallest possible angle and at the lowest possible velocity. that is.4 km/s. A 10-deg plane change in low Earth orbit would.

260 km/s.831 km/s For separate maneuvers.469 km/s.791 km/s. circularization maneuver: ΔV2 = 1.Space Propulsion Combined maneuver: ΔV1-2 = 1. . plane change maneuver: ΔV1 = 0. total ΔV = 2.

counter to the velocity vector (westward). What is the fuel consumption for that maneuver.Space Propulsion Example 5: Repositioning Consider a geosynchronous 1t spacecraft that is required to reposition by 2-deg. assuming an Isp of 3100 m/s? Δφ S/C moves in reposition ellipse „placeholder“ S/C orbits in GEO example 5. cont‘d . in a maneuvering time of one sidereal day (one orbit).

07466km/s = 5.17 km (circular) P= 86.689 [ s ] 360 360 P = 86.Repositioning.642.600) 398.66 [kg ] ⎨ ⎢ ⎥ ⎬ ⎟ ⎥ ⎩ ⎣ 3100 ⎦ ⎭ ⎠ ⎦ Propellant consumption under assumption of negligible mass change .09 s V= 3.09 + 478.66 m/s The same velocity change (in the opposite direction is necessary for recirculation of repositioning orbit ⎡ ⎛ ΔV m p = m f ⎢exp⎜ ⎢ ⎜ I sp ⎣ ⎝ ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ − 1⎥ = 1000⎧exp ⎡11.09 ΔP = P= = 478.164.164.3.08032km/s .164.164.08032 [km / s] 42164 42320 3.320 [km] 4π 2 4π 2 velocity at periapsis of an elliptical orbit with semimajor axis a velocity change to place the spacecraft on the reposition ellipse V= 2μ μ − = r a 2(398.78 [s] a=3 P 2 μ 3 (86.642.600 − = 3.07466 km/s ΔP is equal to the time required for 2 deg of motion on a geosynchronous orbit The period for the spacecraft on the elliptical reposition orbit is semimajor axis of the reposition orbit Δϕ 0 2 * 86.78) 2 (398.689 = 86.600) = = 42.32 ⎤ − 1⎫ = 3. cont‘d Space Propulsion The elements of a geosynchronous orbit are r= 42.

Space Propulsion Gravity assist maneuvre (slingshot) S/C may gain velocity in the sun – fixed system when passing close to a planet .

when m <<M << Msun Consider head – on elastic collision in a fixed coordinate system Mu 2 + mv 2 = Mu12 + mv12 Mu − mv = Mu1 + mv1 v1 = (1 − μ )v + 2u ≅ v + 2u 1+ μ μ = m / M << 1 .Space Propulsion Basically a 3 – body problem. approximation possible.

Space Propulsion 2 M P / rSOI ≅ M S / rP2 rSOI ≈ rP M P / M S .

Space Propulsion vectorial velocity addition at transfer between helocentric and planetocentric motions .

4 km/s) .Space Propulsion Gravity assist at Jupiter vP = 13.1 km/s passage behind planet passage in front of planet gravity assist at Jupiter can boost S/C velocity to hyperbolic orbit so that it can leave solar system (ΔV > (21/2-1) vP = 5.

Space Propulsion .

42E23 1.03E26 1.2 15.1 5900 0.87 35.05 24.10 9.10 18.47 2493 6051 6378 3394 71400 60000 25650 24780 1150 2.28E23 4.259 0.Space Propulsion Maximum energy gain in gravity assist at different planets (closest approach = rP) Planetary velocity [km/s] Mass [kg] Solar distance [106 km] SOI radius [106 km] Equatorial radius [km] v3.7 0.130 24.45 15.54 2.03 15.43 4.13 13.86 11.7 3.68E25 1.5 2870.6 228.80 5.4 1425.96 16.33 7.59 10.27 23.00 5 2 4 8 1 3 6 7 9 .02 29.90E27 5.99 7.4 4501.87E24 5.9 108.169 0.33 9.55 42.96 32.024 0.2 149.38 0.65 6.1 25.78 24.27E22 57.extr [km/s] ΔV [km/s] Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto 47.90 3.69E26 8.97E24 6.0 16.06 9.0 778.

7 6 gravity assists 2 6.7 .Space Propulsion CASSINI probe to Saturn and Titan Hohmann transfer total ΔV [km/s] flight time [y] 15.

69 [km / s ] R 6.k = εO = Δε O = − μ 2R μ 2R μ 2R − μ R =− ⎛ μ⎞ μ − ⎜− ⎟ = 2R ⎝ R ⎠ 2R μ ΔV = 2Δε O = μ 3. 2 r energy conservation ε = E/m … specific energy specific energy at rest on Earth‘s surface v = 0. r =a = R total specific energy in orbit near Earth‘s surface spec.73 x10 3 ΔV necessary for liftoff into circular orbit near Earth‘s surface . energy for liftoff from rest into circular orbit near Earth‘s surface ε gr = ε p = − V= μ R μ R ε 0. kinetic energy in circular orbit at Earth‘s surface. r = R (purely potential energy) velocity in circular orbit with Radius R spec.Space Propulsion Liftoff from ground v2 μ − = ε = const.98 x10 5 = ≅ 7.

69 [km / s ] R 6.98 x10 5 = ≅ 7.95 [kg / kg ] ⎟ ⎥ (3100) ⎥ ⎭ ⎦ ⎠ ⎦ ⎩ ⎣ .Space Propulsion Liftoff from ground μ 3.73 x10 3 ΔV = 2Δε O = ⎡ ⎛ ΔV m p = m f ⎢exp⎜ ⎢ ⎜ I sp ⎣ ⎝ ⎞ ⎤ ⎧ ⎡ (7690) ⎤ ⎫ ⎟ − 1⎥ = 1⎨exp ⎢ − 1⎬ = 10.

propellant consumption and mission time can be estimated when • • thrust direction is always tangential to trajectory (permanent attitude change!!) thrust << gravity force .Space Propulsion Spiraling up ΔV.

propelled by thrust T Specific energy = spec. product replaced by magnitudes inner . kinetic energy + + potential v ε = +U r 2 ∞ FG r d r = −∫ g r d r U r = −∫ m r r 2 () () ∞ () () dU = −g r dr () potential energy and its gradient ⎤ ⎛ dv ⎞ dε d ⎡ v 2 d v dU r d r + = v⎜ −gr ⎟ = ⎢ +U r ⎥ = v ⎜ dt ⎟ dt dt ⎢ 2 dt ⎥ d r dt ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ () () () time derivative of specific energy T T dε =v =v m m dt acc.Space Propulsion Spiraling up dv T = +g dt m equation of motion for S/C of mass m. to assumption. always v II T.

trajectories closely resemble circles (acc. to assumption T 0) v≅ μ r ε ≅− μ 2r μ T r m ε =− μ 2a dε dε dr T μ dr = =+ 2 =v ≈ dt dr dt 2r dt m r μ dr 1 T ΔV = ∫ dt = ∫ = − μ. 3/ 2 2 r m r t0 r0 t r = r0 μ r0 − μ r ΔV = v c . 0 − v c . r thrusting ΔV is equal to difference of velocities in initial and final orbit .Space Propulsion Spiraling up T T dε =v =v m m dt at every moment.

m = m0 − m(t − t 0 ) • T T ΔV = ∫ dt = m0 m t0 t • ⎡ ⎤ m (t − t0 )⎥ = − • ln ⎢1 − ∫0 • ⎢ m0 ⎥ t m m ⎣ ⎦ (t − t0 ) 1− m0 dt T ΔV = μ r0 − μ r = r0 ⎜ ⎝ μ⎛ ⎜ 1− r0 r ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ • ⎫ ⎧ ⎡ ⎛ I m0 ⎪ μ μ ⎞ m ⎤⎪ ⎢− ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎬ = m0 sp 1 − e −(vc .1 ) / Isp τ = t − t 0 = • ⎨1 − exp ⎜ − ⎢ ⎝ r0 r ⎟ T ⎥⎪ T ⎠ ⎦⎭ m ⎪ ⎣ ⎩ [ ] . 0 −vc . m = T / I sp t • dm/dt = const.Space Propulsion Spiraling up time required to spiral up from r0 to r assumption: T = const.

Space Propulsion Spiraling up ΔV = v c . r r ΔV = 1− 0 vc . 0 − v c . e ( 7809 2 / 10 5 − 1 ≅ 11 . Time and propellant mass required for spiraling up a 100 kg payload from 300 km LEO (v = 7730 m/s) to escape velocity? .7 [ kg ] 2 / 105 ) 10 5 τ ∞ = 100 e 7809 −3 5 x10 ( − 1 ≅ 5.1 ) [ y] Example Electric propulsion: T = 5 mN. Isp = 105 m/s.0 r Isp >> ΔV − ΔV / Isp τ = m0 I sp T [1 − e ]= m I sp f T (e ΔV / Isp −1 → m f ) ΔV T ⎡ ⎛ ΔV m p = m f ⎢exp ⎜ ⎢ ⎜ I sp ⎣ ⎝ ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ − 1⎥ → m f ΔV ⎟ ⎥ I sp ⎠ ⎦ m∞ = 100 .

Space Propulsion Comparison of Hohmann and spiral transfer Hohmann ⎛ 2μ 2μ μ⎞ ⎛ μ 2μ 2μ ⎟+⎜ − − ΔVH = ⎜ − − ⎜ r r1 ⎟ ⎜ r2 r2 r1 + r2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 1 r1 + r2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ spiral ΔV = V1 − V2 ρ = r2/r1 ⎞ ΔV H ⎛ 2 ρ 1 ⎛ 2 ⎜1 − =⎜ − 1⎟ + ⎜ 1+ ρ ⎟ V1 1+ ρ ρ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ΔV 1 = 1− V1 ρ .

thrust (and specific impulse) Vr = dr2 T = dτ m f r1 μ .r2 .Space Propulsion Comparison of Hohmann and spiral transfer r13 (1 + ρ ) 1 a3 = Ptr = π =π μ 2 8μ depending only on orbital radii 3 τH τ SP → m f ΔV m f = T T r1 ⎜ ⎝ μ⎛ ⎜ 1− 1 ⎞ ⎟ ρ⎟ ⎠ also depending on S/C mass.

Space Propulsion Attitude maneuvres 3 – axis controlled S/C .

4} is pointing into +/. 22.Space Propulsion Thruster combinations to produce control forces and moments (HYPER. each with 3 thrusters. 3. 23.Y group {21.Z. 14} into +/. 12. 13. . 2. 2003) Option 1 Four clusters. 24} into +/. are located at the corners of the S/C on opposite diagonals: group {1.X group {11.

Space Propulsion Thruster combinations to produce control forces and moments (HYPER. 2003) Option 2 .

Space Propulsion .

Space Propulsion Attitude control thrusters on spin – stabilised S/C .

m2] tb H = duration of the burn [s] a = acceleration [m/s2] F m ω = αt b H = I vω v = at p = mv p = ∫ Fdt ≅ Ft m = mass [kg] t = time [s] p = momentum [m/s] H = Tt b = change of spacecraft angular momentum during the firing.m] Lin. analogon F = force [N] s = path [m] Θ ω = angle of rotation of the spacecraft [rad] = angular velocity of the spacecraft [rad/s] 1 2 Θ = αt b 2 α= T Iv s= a 2 t 2 v = velocity [m/s] a= α = angular acceleration of the spacecraft during a firing.m2/s] . [kg. [rad/s2 ] Iv = mass moment of inertia of the vehicle.Space Propulsion Kinetics for rotational motion of S/C rotational motion T = torque [N. [kg. analogon rotational motion Lin.

the spacecraft is left rotating at angular velocity ω= nFL tb Iv v = a. the angular acceleration of the spacecraft is T = nFL α= nFL Iv F a= s= F m a 2 t 2 at shut down.Space Propulsion Kinetics for rotational motion of S/C Linear analogon torque. produced by n thrusters. firing with equal thrust F during the burn. mounted at torque arm L. the vehicle will have turned by 2 nFLt b Θ= 2I v at shutdown.t p = ∫ Fdt angular momentum produced by a single firing is H = Ttb mp = nFt b H = I sp LI sp propellant consumed during the burn is I sp = F / m • .

3 or 10 15 10 13.[ft] Atlas Delta Space Shuttle Titan ll Titan III Titan IV 9.1 16. The maximum moment arm is constrained in a surprising way: by the inside diameter of the launch vehicle payload fairing Launch vehicle Fairing i.d.7 .6 or 12 8.Space Propulsion nFt b H mp = = I sp LI sp shows the advantage of a long moment arm.

Space Propulsion one – axis maneuvre .

1 – axis maneuvre. maneuver time is minimum rotation time is a fully powered maneuver with zero coast time thrust level required for each thruster at given minimum rotation time propellant required for a one-axis maneuver is twice the single burn consumption tm = tC + 2tb t min = 2t b = F =2 Θm Iv 2 nLt min 2. cont‘d Space Propulsion Θm = Θ (accelerating) + Θ (coasting) + Θ (braking) total angle of rotation is rotation during coasting is the coasting rotation angle is Θ = ωt c Θ= nFL tb t c Iv ω= nFL tb Iv total rotation during acceleration.Θ m I v nFL mp = 2 nFt b nFt min = I sp I sp mp = nFt b H = I sp LI sp . coasting and braking is ⎛ nFL 2 ⎞ nFL nFL 2 tb ⎟ + tbtc = Θ m = 2⎜ 2t b + t b t c ⎟ I ⎜ 2I Iv v ⎝ v ⎠ ( ) Θ= 2 nFLt b 2I v accel.

75 m Thrust of each engine = 10 N and Θm = π/2 = 1.5708 *112.Space Propulsion Example 6: One-Axis Maneuver Find the minimum time required for a spacecraft to perform a 90-deg turn about the z axis with two thrusters if the spacecraft has the following characteristics: Mass of S/C = 500 kg.5 kg.854 = = 0.75 How much propellant was consumed by the maneuver if Isp = 1900 m/s ? mp = 2 nFt m 2 * 2 * 10 * 4.Θ m I v = nFL 2 *1.102 kg 1900 I sp . Radius of S/C = 0.m2 Moment arm = 0.854 s 2 *10 * 0.75 m Moment of inertia about the z axis ≅(2/5)MS/C.5708 rad t min = 2.5 = 4.L2 = 112.

Space Propulsion precession of spin axis Hi … initial angular momentum Ha … applied angular momentum Φ/2≈ H a nFLtb = Hi I yω nutation angle caused by application of single thrust pulse Two pulses are required to precess the spin axis. The second pulse stops the nutation and provides the remaining half of the desired angle . the spin axis will continue to precess until a second pulse of equal magnitude and opposite direction is fired. both pulses are parallel to the spin axis. After the First pulse. The spin axis can be repositioned by selecting the timing of the second pulse. The first pulse is used to cause nutation at an angle of one-half the desired precession.

2094 rad/s) Specific impulse = 1900 m/s tb = ΦI vω 0.124 [ s ] 2nFL 2 *1*10 * 0. is required to precess a spacecraft spin axis by 3-deg (0.2094 = = 0.5 * 0.5 m Moment of inertia 112. or pulse width.05236 rad) under the following conditions: Thrust 10 N Moment arm = 0.3 [ g ] I sp 1900 burn time of thruster to produce nutation angle Φ/2 mp = 2 total propellant consumed by both burns .5 nFtb 2 *1*10 * 0.m2 Spacecraft Spin rate 2 rpm (0.Space Propulsion Example 7: Precession of Spin Axis What burn time.0013 [kg ] = 1.5 kg.124 = = 0.05236 *112.

It is important that the smallest possible impulse be used for the corrections because the impulse must be removed by the opposite thruster pair. When the spacecraft drifts across one of the angular limits ΘL . The spacecraft rotation reverses and continues until the opposite angular limit is reached. cont‘d .Space Propulsion limit cycle without external torque A limit cycle without external torque swings the spacecraft back and forth between preset angular limits. at which time the opposite thruster pair is fired. the attitude-control system fires a thruster pair for correction.

short burn time. Pulsing engines are characterized by minimum impulse bit Imin Imin = (F. and high specific impulse in pulsing operation.limit cycle cont‘d Space Propulsion Θ= nFL tb t c Iv nFL ⎛ Pw2 tc Pw ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ Θtot = + Iv ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ total angle of rotation Θ ↓ replacing 2tb Pw ΘL = (EQ 86) 1 nFL nFL tbtc = Pw t c 2 Iv 4I v m p .Pw)min The minimum impulse bit is a characteristic of a given thruster/valve combination cont‘d .cyc = 2 nFPw I sp the limit settings + ΘL are one-half of the coasting angle ↓ Θ = 2 ΘL (neglecting small rotations during accel & brake) each cycle includes two pulses. the propellant consumed per cycle is Propellant consumption is small for low thrust.

10 5 .100 750 .limit cycle cont‘d Space Propulsion pulsing properties of attitude – control thrusters Min thrust [mN] Cold-gas -Helium CoId-gas-Nitrogen Monopropellant N2H4 Bipropellant N2O4/MMH 50 50 500 10000 Min impulse bit [mN.s] 5 .1500 Pulsing Isp [m/s] 800 500 1200 1200 ω= nFL tb Iv tc = 4I v Θ L nFLPw coast time through 2ΘL t cy = t c + 2 PW = • 4I v Θ L + 2 Pw nLI min 2 n 2 I min L ~ 2 I sp I v Θ L length of a cycle (from +ΘL to -ΘL ) if minimum impulse bits are used. usually.cyc tcy .10 50 . PW can be neglected propellant consumption per unit time m p .cyc = 2 nFPw I sp mp = m p .

5 kg.241 average propellant consumption rate .32 [ g / cycle] 1900 I sp • propellant consumed per cycle mp = m p .5 m from the center of mass.241 [ s] nFLPw 2 * 5 * 0.030 time for 1 cycle m p .cy t cy = 0. ? tcy = 2 Pw + 4I vΘL 4 *112. For limit-cycle control to ΘL = 0. what is the propellant consumption rate if Isp is 1900 m/s.cy = 2 nFPw 2 * 5 * 0.5 deg (0.2 x10 −5 [kg / s ] = 1.008727 rad).00032 ≅ 1.008727 = 0.m2 inertia uses 5N thruster pairs mounted at a radius of 0.037 [kg / day ] 26.06 + 26.Space Propulsion Example 8: Limit-Cycle Operation A spacecraft with 112.5 * 0.06 + = 0. the pulse duration is 30 ms. and there are no external torques.00032 [kg / cycle] = 0.03 =2 = 0.5 * 0.181 = 26.

M is the magnetic moment. Orbit inclination Tm = DB where Tm is the magnetic torque on the spacecraft.600 km3Is2). p the atmospheric density. 4. depending on vehicle orientation Constant force but cyclic on Earth-oriented vehicles Influenced primarily by Spacecraft geometry. where F = ρCdAV2/2 with F the force. Orbit altitude Formula Tg = 3μ r3 Iz − I y Θ ~ 4x10-5 [Nm] where Tg is the max gravity torque. µ is the Earth's gravity constant (398.m2. q = 0. Ls the center of pressure to center of mass offset. where PS is the solar constant. Spacecraft configuration Ta = ∑ Fi Li Ta is the summation of the forces Fi on each of the exposed surface areas times the moment arm Li to the center of each surface to the center of mass.5). As is the area of the surface. if smaller) axes. r the orbit radius. A the surface area. i the angle of incidence of the sun. B can he approximated as2M/r3 for a polar orbit to half that at the equator.Iz and Iy are moments of inertia about z and y (or x. and q the reflectance factor that ranges from 0 to 1. Θ the max deviation of the z axis from vertical in radians. Residual spacecraft magnetic dipole. Cd the drag coefficient (usually between 2. Spacecraft geometry.Space Propulsion Simplified equations for external torques Disturbance Gravity gradient Type Constant or cyclic.617 x 10-6 N/m2.6 is a good estimate Magnetic field Cyclic Orbit altitude.0 and 2. . and V the spacecraft velocity. 8 x 1025 emu at Earth. and r is radius from dipole (Earth) center to spacecraft in centimeters Aerodynamic Constant for Earth-oriented vehicle in circular orbit Orbit altitude. Spacecraft surface area The worst-case solar radiation torque Solar radiation Tsp = Ps As Ls (1 + q ) cos i ~ 7x10-7 [Nm] is due to a specularly reflective surface. and B the Earth's magnetic field in Tesla. D the residual dipole moment of the vehicle in A.

F is time – averaged thrust propellant mass required to compensate for the external torque H = Tx t m = Ft m mp = T nF nFL tm = tm = x tm LI sp I sp LI sp cont‘d .Space Propulsion dir. torque one-sided limit cycle with an external torque on the spacecraft. rotation occurs until a limit line is reached and a thruster pair is fired for correction total angular momentum H supplied by the propulsion system exactly equals the momentum induced by the external torque Tx during mission time tm. of ext.

One sided limit cycle, ct‘d

Space Propulsion

S/C rotation is accelerated by from zero speed at the extreme limit +ΘL (point 1) through an angular path of < 2ΘL with an angular acceleration αx, generated by the external torque only. The opposite limit angle will be reached after an angular interval 2ΘL and a “pass” time tp (approximately equal to half the cycle time tcy).

1 2Θ L = α x t 2 p 2

tcy =~ 2t p = 4

ΘL

αx

=4

ΘL Iv Tx

angular speed ωL, at the end of the cycle, at – ΘL (at point 2) is Now the thrusters are firing, producing a thrusting angular acceleration α. They reduce this angular speed to 0 (at the turning point 3) after a burning time of PW/2 From that follows the impulse per thruster, required to turn around the angular speed of the S/C, so that it moves against external torque up to an angle of not larger than ΘL If minimum impulse bits Imin are used, the rotation limit must be wider than a minimum ΘL, in order to avoid thrusters being fired in the direction of external torque. This would cause excessive propellant consumption.

ω L = α x t cy / 2 = 2

Tx Θ L Iv

ω L = α .PW / 2 =

nLFP W 2I v

FPW ≤

4 Tx I v Θ L nL

2 n 2 L2 I min ΘL > 16 I vTx

Space Propulsion
forced limit cycle
A forced limit cycle occurs when thrusters are fired in the direction of the external torque; that is, when the condition
2 n 2 L2 I min ΘL > 16 I v Tx

is not met

propellant consumed in a forced limit cycle is

Iv R2 tm mp = LΘ L I sp

R [Hz] = 1/tcy = limit-cycle rate of the system tm [s] = mission duration

R can only be calculated numerically from a higher order equation containing the parameters Imin, PW, Tx, Iv, L, ΘL.

Space Propulsion
reaction wheel maneuvres

To perform a rotational maneuver with a reaction wheel, the flywheel is accelerated by a motor. The spacecraft accelerates in the opposite direction.

cont’d

reaction wheel, cont’d

Space Propulsion

A S/C can be rotated by an angle Θ by application of a torque T for time interval t this torque can be supplied by an accelerating flywheel; angular acceleration αW is supplied by a motor The resulting S/C rotation angle is

Θ=

Tt 2 2I v

T = αwIw
αW IW t 2
2I v

Θ=

and the increase in wheel speed:

Δω w = α w t

The S/C can be returned to its original position by applying the opposite torque to the flywheel; the net increase in flywheel rotational speed then is 0 (neglecting friction). Due to unbalanced torques however, the flywheel eventually will reach its upper angular speed limit and then is not fully available for maneuvering any more. To become maneuverable again it must be „unloaded“, i.e. its angular speed must be brought to 0 again.

cont’d

max to unolad the wheel. max nFL nFL propellant consumption for unloading is mp = nF .reaction wheel. = I sp L LI sp cont’d . an equal and opposite momentum must be supplied by the thrusters: time required for unloading is H = Tt = nFLt t= I ω H = w w. in order not to produce net rotation of the S/C. cont’d Space Propulsion total angular momentum of a fully loaded wheel is H = I wω w . a torque in the opposite direction must be applied to it by the motor for a certain time.t L I wω w .

75 [ s] nFL 2 *1* 2 . and how long does it take? (JPL Venus Mission. 1994) The Magellan wheel characteristics are: maximum momentum = 27 N-m-s maximum wheel speed = 4000 rpm = 418. cont’d Space Propulsion Example 9: Reaction Wheel Unloading How much propellant does it take to unload one of the Magellan wheels. moment arm = 2m pulsing specific impulse 1500 m/s. the propellant mass required to unload it is mp = H 27 = = 0.879 rad/s The thruster pair to be used has the following characteristics: thrust = 1 N.reaction wheel.009 [kg ] LI sp 2 *1500 engine burn time required to unload is t= H 27 = = 6.