CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Marble and Granite are an integral part of India's natural wealth. Indian granite has been acclaimed all over the world for its rich and vibrant colour, durability and everlasting polish. Among the marble of the world India has perhaps one of the best green marbles in the world. The green marble, which is rare to find in other marble producing countries of the world, has become the argots exportable marble from the country. History of marble is very old. It is from the time of Mughal and British empires when the marvelous architectures of the country namely, the Tajmahal at Agra Victoria memorial at Kolkata, famous temples at Delwara and Ranakpur. These are testimonials of ancient marble industry in India. Rajasthan has been famous for its marble deposits, which have been worked for centuries. Rajasthan accounts for 95% of the marble produced in the country and its accounts for nearly 1200 million times at different varieties of Marble. Currently marble and granite are used worldwide mainly in 3 forms Granite, Marble slabs and panels, tiles and monuments. Slabs and panel constitute the premium market and the tiles market is at lower end and exports largely restricted to USA. The market for monuments is small and trend as well as quality oriented slabs and panels market is showing a consistent growth in the countries such as Kuwait, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Holland, Eastern Europe, Italy, Germany, Switzerland.

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The decorative and dimensional stone industry is expanding very rapidly due to its application in construction activities. Residential and commercial skyscrapers in the metropolitan cities need weather resistant, non-recurring ever lasting, aesthetic beauty converge on outer surfaces. Natural stone with different fabrics-and colours are the only alternative to concrete for the architect with the above benefits. Stones market in the world is flourishing. Marble and Granite are two decorative stone available in the state of Rajasthan in abundance. Rajasthan is an important producer of Marble, with more than 90% of share in Indian Marble production. This enables us to see with some justification that Rajasthan may represent India as far as Marble Industry is concerned. Marble and other mineral based industries are nerve center of Rajasthan economic development Although there are vast deposits of marble stone in the state, this industry could not develop in organized way. The base of all economic activity is to satisfy the needs of ultimate consumers. The management system, schemes, devices & structures should keep harmony with the basics of manufacturing and marketing. What are the basics of entrepreneurial success- it is to have satisfied customers. Marvels in Marble architecture have been achieved in Rajasthan, and no where else in the world perhaps, such excellent creations of art & sculpture in marble exits as in our country, Delwara and Ranakpur temples are living examples of ancient art Birla Temple at Jaipur shows that this art it still in existence in percentage. The nation, as whole could benefit if a concerted efforts is made by industry to keep alive rich heritage and try & recreate it for foreign buyers in abid to boost our exports.

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Marble The term "Marble" is derived from the Latin word "Marmos' which itself comes from the Greek Root "marmorous" meaning thereby a shining stone. Commercially, it is any rock composed pre dominantly of calcite, dolomite or serpentine that has hardness of 3 to 4 on Moho's scale and is capable of cut in blocks sawed and takes good polish. Petrographically, marble is a recrystalised (metamorphosed) limestone. Definition:Marble is metamorphic rock and highly crystalline formation developed from lime stone or dolomite by the combined influence of great heat and pressure.

CLASSIFICATION The American society for testing materials (ASTM) has defined a few terms relating to marbles as 1. Commercial Marble: Marble is re-crystallized limestone or dolomite limestone but in commercial importance the term marble has a much wider application. Commercial marble is any crystalline rock composed predominantly of calcite, dolomite or serpentine that is capable of taking good polish

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2. Calcite Marble: A crystalline variety of limestone containing not more than 5% magnesium carbonate. 3. Magnesium (Dolomite) Marble: A crystalline variety of limestone containing not more than 5% or more than 40% magnesium carbonate as the dolomite molecule. 4. Travertine Marble: Travertine Marble is cellular with the cell usually concentrated in thin layer that displays a stalactite structure. 5. Dolomite Marble: A crystalline variety of limestone containing not less than 5% and not more than 40% magnesium carbonate. 6. Onyx Marble: A dense crystalline form of lime carbonate deposit usually from cold water solution. It is generally translucent and shows a characteristics layering due to mode of accumulation. 7. Serpentine Marble: A Marble characterized by a prominent amount of mineral serpentine. 8. Verd Marble: A marble composed chiefly a massive serpentine and capable of being polished. It is commonly crossed by vein lets of the other minerals chiefly carbonate of calcium and magnesium.

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Physical Properties The desirable physical properties of marble may very with its intended use. Generally, strength, durability and appearance are the most important physical properties, though a number of other properties may influence the utility and value of marble. Hardness:Hardness is a measure of the resistance the surface of a substance offers to abrasion. In this respect the hardness of marble is more than that of most other limestone and depends on the chemical composition the marble. The presence of flint of silicate minerals increases the hardness marble. Hardness often impedes the workability of marble. While the cost of quarrying hard marble is certainly more than that of soft one. However, hardness is a desirable quality if the marble is to be exposed to abrasion during its end - use as sills, floors, steps etc. Abrasive Resistance:Abrasive resistance is determined by the composition and texture of marble. A tight texture will resist abrasion best. The index of abrasive hardness (Ha) ranges from 8 to 42 for marble. Colour:Colour is perhaps the most important physical property that is governed by the chemical constituents of marble. Generally calcite and dolomite marble are of pure white colour. Variations from the whiteness of pure marble are due to the admixture of foreign substances. Such impurities as are present in the form of bands of streaks give a clouded or non-uniform colour; when distributed uniformly they give a uniform coloration. Black and grayish shades are due to graphite; pink, red, or reddish brown are mainly due to the presence of manganese oxides or hematite; and yellow-brown, or cream are caused by minute grains of limonite.

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Texture:Texture of marble depends on the form, size uniformity and arrangement of its grains and on the nature and size of grains of accessory minerals. Depending on the grain size of the constituent minerals, marble is generally preferred for statues while coarse-grained equigranular marble is used for external purposes. Rift and Grain:Rift and grain indicate the direction of the easiest splitting in marble. This is generally parallel to bedding. Quarrymen always take advantage of this property while splitting or separating the block or marble. Translucence:Translucence is the capacity of marble for transmitting light. Fine-grinned translucent varieties or marble are used for ornamental purposes. The waxy look of some of the statuary marbles is because of its translucence.

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OCCURANCE
Marble deposits of the state can be broadly divided into 4 groups: White Marble: White Marble deposits of Rajasthan are located in Makrana area. The marble deposits occur in the form of series of ridges in an area extended for 8 km in length and 1.6 km in width. Most of this area is currently being exploited in the private sector. Nowadays-white marble is mainly available in Rajnagar, Amet, Saparao, and Banswara district. This marble is fine grained and has varieties which are pure white or they have a pink or yellow shade. Some of these varieties resemble to Italian Marble. Green Marble: Green marble is found in Kashariaji about 60 km south of Udaipur. It is specifically famous for its appealing colour, fine-grained texture. Block recovery is less as lots of cracks are found and hence it's generally used for making chips. Pink Marble: Found in Babarmal village of Udaipur district, the Pink Marble popularly known. As Udaipur pink marble is a massive and unique deposit most extensively used as ornamental stone. Other Marble: Other types of marbles like Yellow, Black and white striped, dark grey and homogeneous marble occur in different parts of Rajasthan.

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MARBLE DEPOSITS IN INDIA
Marble occurrences are widely distributed throughout India; but the occurrences of economic importance are limited to a very few states. Important deposits of marble are located in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana and Andhra Pradesh. Rajasthan is the leading producer of marble in India and has the largest reserves of good quality marble. A brief description of these deposits is given bellow: Rajasthan Rajasthan is a richest state in India with regard to marble deposits, both in quality and quantity. The important marble deposits are situated at Rajnagar areas of Rajsamand District, Makrana in Nagpur district; Babermal and Rikhabdev areas of Udaipur District; PerwaSerwa and Selwara areas of Sirohi district; Bar deposits of Pali district; Tripura-Sundari deposits of Banswara district; yellow marble deposits of Jaisalmer district; Jhri-Rajgarh deposits of Alwar district; Kishangarh deposits of Ajmer district and Moonda deposits of Sikar district. Makrana areas in Nagpur have one of the world’s famous marble deposits representing the typical outcrops of crystalline limestone of Raialo series. There are about five parallel fidgets of marble in this area with their width ranging from 130 to 490 ft. (40 to 150 m.) The marble is medium to coarse grained marble is harder and move resistant to abrasion but very easy to work with. There are three main belts of marble in Udaipur district, Viz. Babermal respectively. Coarse crystalline marble occurs at JhrlRaigarh in Alwar and Jaipur marble is known for its striped black colour. The Jaisalmer marble is yellow shaly fossiliferous limestone of Jurassic age. The Tripure - Sundari deposits have white, fine grained marble high in magnesia but low in silica. Devimate,

Rajnagar - Amet and Rikhabdev. They are known for pink, white and green marbles

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Geographical Distribution:
The major production of marble comes from Makrana, Nagaur distric, Rajnagar; Puthol, Agaria, Kelwa

Rajsamand district; Babarmal, Devimata, Jaspura, Daroli, Rikhabdeo areas of Udaipur district; Tripura Sundari, Nawa Tanda, Rohwal, Vitthaldeo and Paloda in Banswara district; Kayampura, Sawar Ajmer district; Andhi – Jhiri belt of Jaipur and Alwar district; Aspur – Sabla, Dewal, Lolakpur Kharnmin, Dachki and Rohanwara areas of Dungarpur district; and Selwara area of Sirohi district. These are also major production centers and account for nearly 90% of marble resources of Rajasthan. District wise geological and geographical distribution of marble and related calc-silicate rocks
S.No. 1. District Ajmer Deposit/Belt Kayampura,Narwar,Sardhana Pinglod, Reechmaliyan, Mangliawas, Hatundi Sawar, Bhilwara Supergroup Stratigraphic Position Delhi Supergroup

Bajata, Rajpura, Ghatiyali, Morhi, Ganeshpura. 2. Alwar Jhiri, Kho, Baldeogarh, Tilwar, Kho Raialo Dariba Gurha, Dhehalawas in Alwar tehsil Thanagazi, Navgalkheri Nalladeshwar Babeli-ThatraDelhi Supergroup Group

Jamrauli-Pheroti in Thanagazi tehsil Hisla –Narayanpur – Bijali SanauliBaraud in Behror tehsil 3. Banswara Tripura Sundari, north of Lorda, Lunawada east of Kewara, Nawa Tanda, Group Rohwal, Vitthaldeo, Paloa, Bhim Kund, Kotharia, Kekarwa, Khema Talai and Oda – Bassi Aravalli Supergroup

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4.

Bhilwara

Kanti,

Sarana

Kheda,

Pansal,

Bhilwara Supergroup

Manohargarh, Asind and Banera areas. 5. Bundi Umar, Pagara, Basoli Laxmipura, Sorodara and Haripura 6. Chittaur Mandaldeh Hingoriya, Damana, Bhilwara Supergroup Vindhyan Supergroup Vindhyan Supergroup Bhilwara Supergroup Marwar Supergroup Delhi Supergroup

Patoliya, Morwar and Rewara Sandwa limestone 7. 8. Churu Dausa Dunkar ultramafics Rasoywala, Dogeta, Mahmudpur Raialo Kalajpuri, Singhpuri 9. Dungarpur Aspur, Sabla Dewal, Sabli, Lolakpur Khanmin Rikhabdeo Khemaru, Dad, Malsurta, Dachki, ultramafic Rohanwara Delwara, Nathriya ki Pal, suite Group

Delhi Supergroup

Aravalli Supergroup

Mukundpura, Sisamagra, Kethaliya and Jagpura Bhainslana, Banethi, Panch Pahad, Kotputli 10. Jaipur Sandkotra, Rasoyawala, Singhpuri, Raialo Kalajpuri, Dugeta 11. Jaisalmer Habur Group Abur Formation Moolsagar, Amarsagar, Badabagh, Jurassic Chundhi, Shipal And Jethwahi 12. 13. Jalore Jhunjhunun Ropsi Bhagawat wala ki Dhani, Udaipur wati, Sior, Kali Pahari Udaipur wati Formation Delhi Supergroup Delhi Supergroup Bhilwara Supergroup Jurassic Cretaceous Mesozoic Delhi Supergroup

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14.

Jodhpur

Phalodi, Mongasar, Indolai ki Dhani Karnu, Moriya Chadi, Au, Deshnock,

Marwar Supergroup

15.

Nagaur

Makrana,

Gunawati,

Borawad,

Delhi Supergroup

Bidiyad, Kolhadungri, Bilu and Mored Mandla, Atabara, Latoti 16. Pali Bar, Bherunaka, Raipur, Sumerpur Ras, Desuri 17. Rajsamand i) Sanabtru – CharbhujaDelhi Supergroup Marwar Supergroup Delhi Supergroup

Kumbhalgarh- Kaliwara belt ii) Kankroli, Rajsamand, Puthol, Agaria, Talai, Nijharma iii) Pipli, Kuanriya 18. Sikar Rampur – Kotri – Khandela Saladipura Group Jhilo, Kani Khori, Loharwas, Kala Kogh, Dariba, Nimla, Toda, Delhi Supergroup Bhilwara Supergroup Dariba, Railmagra, Bhilwara Supergroup Bhogwandi Morchana, Kelwa, Arna Aravalli Supergroup

Rampura, Karoi, Kairpura, Narpura, Hasampur and Meena ki Dhani 19. Sirohi Selwara, Khandara Perwa, Deri, Serwa, Indi, Piloti, Delhi Supergroup

Morthala,

Ajari, Pench Devla 20. Udaipur Rabachh, Sayra, Piparna, Gogunda, Rikhabdeo Delhi Supergroup

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Dhelana,

Khanmin,

Bilkhai, Rikhabdeo

Bhadawa, Pipaldara, Saru, Ugmana ultramafic Kotra Modi, Bhutala, Chhipala, suite Undithal, Sultanji ka Kherwada, Kalighati, Kankan ka Guda,

Masaron ki Obri Jharoli Babarmal, Devimata Manpur, Aravalli Supergroup

Saramanpur, Narvari, Padla Jaspura, Daroli, Palwa, Kakarwa Sasodiyan ka Khera Bhilwara Supergroup

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MARBLE MINING
In general, open cast method of mining is used in India as against underground mining being resorted to in Italy and other countries. The method of mining is primitive and manual. Mining methods differ a little in each of the important centre in Rajasthan, Haryana, and Gujarat but are aimed at obtaining marble blocks of regular geometrical sizes without cracks and hauling-are important activities. Marble has been mined in Makrana for the last 350 years and this marble was used in monuments like Taj Mahal and Victoria Memorial. The sizes of quarries vary from 60 X 60 Mts. And the mines are being worked as on Rent-cum-Royalty Lease (R.C.R.L.) Overburden is removed by spades and scrapers and excavators and it IS done on the sides of the quarries. The exposed marble is visualized for possible excavation into blocks and help of joints and slip planes is taken for separation. The outcrop of marble is followed along the dip and mining continues up to depth of 6065 Mts. Two trenches of about 0.5 mts. Width are made. One is made along the strike and the other across the strike creating tow working faces. These are popularly known as Gali and Toad. The mechanical methods are similar except that wire-cutting machine is used for mining of blocks. After the marble is visible, patches are made and wire cutting machine is fixed by making trenches of channels across the length of the block. Depth of the channel depends upon the thickness of the block required. The two poles having two pulleys each with a helicoidally cutting wire are fixed one on each side of the block. The wire made of diamond segment moves with uniform speed while water used as cooling. The wire cuts through the marble and is wound on the winders which are 250 to 300 Mts. apart. This can cut 10 to 12 mts. a day with wire length of 1000 to 1200 mts. After vertical cut is provided upto the given depth, horizontal cut is made to release a block from the bottom. The block so obtained is tied by chain and pulled by winders or winches. Cranes and excavators are used for shifting the blocks as well as for loading and unloading.

Geological limitations attack the size of the blocks because of inherent natural cracks. Diamond Wire Saw which is improvises model of helicoidally wire used in Ambaji are Rajnagar areas. This machine gives faster production with high finish which ultimately increases the production capacity of gang saw. Processing The blocks are properly dressed at the processing plant and are than sliced into 2cm. thick slabs. These are then polished on polishing machines are fuljher machine edge cut in the required size. Diamond sawing gives smooth surface. In general, sawn slabs have been used in cut size for flooring while polishing is done after these had been fixed at the size. For vertical utilization, polishing and edge cutting are done in the plant itself and then these are fixed. Sawing Dressed blocks are placed with the help of a crane on the trolley of the machine so as to utilize maximum areas under the blades. These are cemented with plaster of Paris and wood wool. The trolley straightens under the frame and the abrasive action of diamond segment and water provides the vertical cutting slicing in the block. Grinding and Polishing A sawn piece is given a smooth finish to enhance its attractiveness. Rubbing, gritting, buffing and polishing are generally done with the help of various machines and abrasive available for the purpose. Polishing is done in 3 to 4 stages and the size of the grinding medium is reduced in every successive stage viz., 40, 80, 120, to 140 mesh size are deployed in successive finer stages-vf polishing. Polishing bricks are used on polishing machines with different grain sizes.

Edge Cutting This is process of trimming the edges with the face and squaring the ends and sides to finish the working dimensions without chipped corners. Edge cutting is done manually with the help of chisel and hammer. This is quite a laborious job and requires high skill. In mechanical method, edge cutting is done by cutting edges with emery wheels. Carborundum wheels are fixed to rotating discs, which in turn are attached to the main motor. The rotating disc moves on the marble slab and cuts it in the process of moving. Energy wheels are prepared by applying a mixture of carborundum powder and liquefied sulfur on wheels with grooved periphery. Oxalic acid is used to clean the cut slabs. Finally, wax polishing is done before the slabs are dispatched.

PROSPECTS OF MARBLE INDUSTRY

The following are some of the key factors influencing the prospects of marble stone industry in the country. A perfect and unbiased evaluation and introspection based on all these factors helps us to know our present standing in the industry, and plan the targets and make efforts to achieve the targets. (1) Raw Material sources. (2) Craftsmanship and manpower. (3) Infrastructure. (4) Location advantage. (5) Market. (6) Appropriate technology. (7) Government policy. 1. Raw Material Rajasthan is a geological "Wonder Land" and "UTOPIA" for dimensional stones. There is no other area in world that can boast of so many varieties of natural stones of good quality like granite, marble, limestone, slate, quartzite, serpentine, flaggy stones etc. usually each country is rich in one or two types of popular colours and varieties in the world than any other country. In an overall view the raw material deposits promise enormous potential and offers challenging task for the entrepreneurs. It may be worth mentioning the comments of a natural stone expert. Rajasthan is virtually a goldmine for dimension stone. They exits everywhere in so many forms. The abundance is mind boggling and that is the reason, the Rajasthan entrepreneurs are unable to realize the value of it.

2. Craftsmanship and Manpower Since times immemorial the Rajasthan stone craftsmen are one of the best in the world. Even now our artisans are as good as anyone else on individual basis. The only handicap is the productivity. Though he is very hardworking, he is the aided by the technology. He is not provided with modern tools. Technology is not upgraded with changing times. For Example for caring work on natural stone I the advance counties employs two kinds of techniques. One is CNC machining facility using diamond tool or Te tool which carves the stone according to the program input. The second is the artesian use flexible diamond tools which allow him to concentrate on the overall planning of the job and the finish he has in mind eliminating physical exertion by way of hammering. The work turnout is also very fast. In quarrying our workmen use even today a steel chisel which he has to sharpen several times a day by heating. The industry is not bothered to introduce even the tungsten carbide tip which can be easily sharpened and the shape will be retained for a longer time. Out thrust should be aimed at improving the productivity of existing manpower since total replacement of manpower will be capital oriented and does no suit our conditions. To fact, by striking a balance between, employment of skilled manpower and use of small tools and essential machines, cost of quarrying and processing can be bought below the European levels. 3. Infrastructure The infrastructure facilities like roads, communication, ports and banking facilities play an important role in deciding the prospects of an export oriented industry. Though Rajasthan does not have the same level of facilities, it has all the basic infrastructure and organization manpower to take up quarrying as well as processing in fact Rajasthan offers the following advantages in terms of infrastructure.

(a) Reasonably good transport and communication network. (b) Good banking facilities. (c) Well trained manpower. (d) Political stability. (e) Proximity to ports. (f) Inland container depots and container freight stations. (g) Co-ordination between shipping and railway authorities. (h) Streamlined export procedures and policies. (i) Export thrust of the government. (j) Agreeable climate which facilitate quarrying and processing throughout the year. 4. Location Advantages India is strategically situated to cater to the important markets like Japan, Far East as well as Europe and Middle East. In all likelihood, the Pacific rim countries and Asian will register maximum growth of economy in the next decade. Upgradation of residential and commercial structures based on increased affluence, will open a big market for Indian stone which is available in close proximity. Indian exporters are in close proximity particularly for important consuming centers like Japan and Australia when compared to other producing countries like Italy and Spain. It has some disadvantage when serving North American market. The increased preference in that market for thinner tiles should come to the rescue of Indian exporters in the form of reduced freight cost.

5. Market The domestic market for natural stone which is growing at a phenomenal rate provides a clear advantage for industry. It has balancing effect on the exports and is supportive in nature for the industry. The preference world over is shifting towards natural stone. The growing energy costs are pushing up the cost of synthetic materials, and natural stones are becoming more competitive. The market is growing steadily for the natural stones over the years. The recessionary trend visible at present is only temporary. The long term, prospects are good. However, in view of the competition, our industry should be prepared to face the challenge in terms of quality and price and innovative marketing methods. They should aim at value addition, new product development and turnkey service aimed at much higher market share. The present natural stone consumption is in the order of 7 billion USD per annum. However, the trade in import and export of stone is much smaller. The preference is for use of local material in view of ready availability and cheap transport costs. By effective timely supplies and their superiority, the consumption pattern could be changed including better flow of the material. The present export - import trade in natural stone estimated at 3 billion USD is likely to grow at an annual rate of 7 percent in the next decade. The growth in the market offers an opportunity for increases, both in the domestic and export markets. Our efforts should also aim at higher overall share in export markets constantly winning the new segments like furniture, turnkey projects and also go into selective distribution. The India industry should concentrate on product upgradation, standardizations of their stone varieties and take up big promotional programmer. The Indian stones should be entered in all reference manuals used by architects and builders throughout the world. One such manual is prepared by Marble institute of America. In fact one· revised edition is now under preparation. It is doubtful that many Indian entrepreneurs have taken advantage of this.

The Indian entrepreneurs should have more presence in International forums and expositions to influence the marketing decisions of various consumer groups. 6. Technology Most of the growth and investment in marble industry is affected on the lines of Europe both in terms of technology and machinery. Having learned the fundamental processing systems and technology, we have reached a stage to consider whether to follow the Western technology blindly or to develop an appropriate technology of our own to oversee conditions. The technology should be developed to process local stone and blocks depending on hardness, size and other parameters. 7. Government Policy The present trend of liberalization, privatization etc. should help the industry. State Government should formulate its policies in considering grant of adequate areas on lease for sufficiently longer period so as to instill confidence and courage in the entrepreneur in taking the investment decisions.

MARKETING STRATEGIES
1. 2. 3. 4.

:-

Marketing Research Advertising Quality checking and dispatch Channel of distribution

1. MARKETING RESEARCH In marketing research they try to know that who is the customer, which means that who has some needs and has some demand, and what is his demand. Their agent does it. In marketing research there are sub steps, which are as follows: (i) Market Analysis In this step the agent provides information about the market that which type of market it is. The agents provide information about competitors’ product, their pricing strategy and other related aspect. (ii) Consumer Research In this step the agent does the research about the consumers. He tries to find who the buyer of company’s goods is. (iii) Product Research In this step the agent tries to find that which product of the company has demand. If the demand is diverted or changed he then suggests the company to produce such goods.

(iv) Advertising Research In this step the agent tries to find whether there is any need for advertising in the area. Then he finds advertising is needed on a large scale or small scale. Then he provides this information's to the company.

2. ADVERTISEMENT The company includes those activities by which the company's product can come into customer's view; the company tries to spread product awareness. For this purpose the company does many efforts as given below: • To participate in fair and exhibition. • To publish in those books which are related to the stone marketing. • By Agents. 3. QUALITY CHECKING DISPATCH In this activity mainly quality checking, labeling, packing is done. When the goods are produced, the quality is also checked simultaneously. If the quality is not according to the company's quality policy then it is rejected by the export department and sent it again to production department then the packing is done. After packing and branding the goods are put into container and dispatch. 4. CHANNEL OF DISTRIBUTION Channel of distribution is the channel, through which the products passes and reaches the end consumer. It starts from the producer to the consumer, along with many middlemen. The consumer never buys the product directly from the producer, there are middlemen who do the buying and selling, for example, a whole seller buys the products in large quantity, then the retailer buys the product from the whole seller, and finally the consumer buys the product. This chain is called the Channel of Distribution.

1. Company 2. Company

Agent Wholesaler

Wholesaler Consumer

Retailer

Consumer

MARKETING STRUCTURE OF MARBLE
Background Marketing are two ways of making any product available to final consumers. One is to sale directly to consumers either at place of manufacturer of through own depots and branches. Another is to sale through middle men of various categories like wholesalers, distributors, retailers, brokers etc. In Rajasthan, marble processing industry is predominately depends upon entrepreneurs. Each entrepreneur has one or two units. This makes heavy investment in marketing channel difficult. Due to lake of resources and infrastructure, these small entrepreneurs could not afford to have there own depots or branches at major markets. Channels of Distribution Based upon the responses and interviews the market channels can be broadly classified in following categories: 1. Consumers 2. Builders 3. Traders 1. Consumers In marble market, it is general trend to approach directly processing units for purchase of slabs and tiles, if the requirement of buyers is one truck load or more. Most of the responding units states that about 25% of their total sales revenue comes from direct buyers. This channel gives maximum margin on sales. The gloss and appearance of marble is main deciding factor in choosing any particular variety of marble. The price depends upon the appearance of the marble.

Therefore, buyers prefer to visit the processors and see the material personally before selecting. There is no standardization as to quality of pricing. Processors quote the price mainly on the basis of judging the preferences of buyers. This is most cost effective channel also. Processors do not spend much money on advertising publicity or distribution for this segment of- the market. However for healthy growth of market and to build up long term good will, processors are required to stream line their factory sales practices. As this segment provides maximum return, they must guide the buyers about quality, gradation, utility & after laying maintenance of the marble. 2. Builders This is rapidly growing segment of the market. Till now construction is being done generally by house owners themselves, but now this scenario is changing rapidly with scarcity of land, fast decreasing trend in size of family, increasing business and sophistication in technology, now potential house owners depend more on builders to get built up house. Hence in construction industry, builders’ share of activities is increasing very fast. It has become a very important segment of the market. Builders prefer marble flooring, as this helps them getting much higher prices on built up houses. How ever, they prefer low quality, small size slabs and tiles, popularly known as commercial grade marble. The margins on this type of sales are very low. Processors are also required to offer credit facilities, builders off take is always in larger quantities, which generates good business. This segment offers opportunity to liquidate accumulate stocks of odd size and quality. Builders are well knowledgeable buyers and makes buying decision mainly on three factors: 1. Pricing 2. Time schedule 3. Credit availability This increases the working capital requirements of the processing industry. Now days, almost 25% of sales revenue is being generated by this segment. Processors can develop this segment by investing in augmenting capacity and offering better credit - a-

facilities. 3. Traders This is a very important segment of the market, which contributes almost 50% of the sales revenue. A trader has played a very important role in popularizing marble products through out the width & breadth of the country. Now one can buy the marble even at small towns in any part of the country. Traders generally visit the main processing centers once in a quarter to buy the marble. "They personally see & select the material, negotiate the pricing and get the goods dispatched in their presence. Every processor has about 8 to 10 traders as permanent customers, who gives them ready market and keep the unit running. The margins in this segment, depends upon the credit terms of offered. Traders keep different type & grades of materials to satisfy the customers need at last point of channel. Quality & high grade materials are also being lifted by them, as they are more informed and knowledgeable. Being in easy approach of consumers, they have to satisfy the needs of the customers and educate them. Margins at level of traders are quite good. To affect sales, traders mainly depends on providing commission to architects, contractors and mysteries, rather then spending on publicity and exhibition etc. Greater role of black money in construction industry and higher sales tax and octroi incidence has created a dual pricing system almost universal, bifurcated in invoice and cash prices. As invoice prices are much lower than actual prices. Assessment of working capital needs by banks is always on much lower side. This has hampered the growth of industry. Due to lock of credit facilities by banks, processors could not expand capacities beyond a certain level of activities. Industry remains segmented between a numbers of small units. Economics of scale and capacity to offer large quantity often remains out of capacity of most of processors. This has resulted in poor growth of export market and lack of organized efforts to develop domestic market. Marble handicrafts and articles industry could not develop much in India due to lake of organized efforts and paucity of working capital funds. This sector has potential to earn

much more foreign exchange and greater employment opportunities. It requires encouragement and support of the government.

EXPORT MARKETING
Marble sawn slabs had extensively been used in all varieties of construction work. Diamond sawn material replaced the conventional 25mm thick material. Polishing did not develop at the same speed as the polishing of floors was done after fixing. Good polished material does have good market and the architects would prefer beautifully polished slabs in the near future. Marble tiles and strips in standard sizes are cheaper and are gaining popularity. 30X15cm tiles have just entered the market and are gaining the larger market share. Crazy, marble chips and marble powder have become important building materials even for the common man. Marble blocks have reached new heights in prices due to increased processing capacity. Good quality marble blocks are sold at Rs1000 upward per cu. ft. With introduction of mechanized mining and diamond tooling, production of blocks has also increased manifold, increasing the availability of marble. Increased demand at profitable prices for blocks, slabs, and tiles in the domestic market left no incentive for exports. There has been no separate export promotion council and no cash assistance. Facilities of advance license for blocks have also been discontinued recently. Selling abroad can be promoted with technical data, physical properties, good quality with accurate tolerances, packing, transport and handling facilities at ports. Orders for large quantities could not be supplied as the production of blocks of uniform varieties in large quantities has been low. Low export prices created yet another problem. With mechanized mining and establishment of sophisticated polishing and edge cutting lines, polished marble can be exported. Italy exports 80% its total shipments in the form of polished marble. A concerted efforts is required oh export front in the form of promotional activities. These will include first developing quality orientation and large production base and then participating in fairs, advertising the products, standardizing the products and maintaining the quality. Presently exports from India are negligible in world trade of marble. Unlike granite, the export of marble is very recent phenomenon and that too, only one colour has been exported in any worthwhile quantity. This colour is green from Keshariyaji which is a small town 65km. Towards Ahmedabad from Udaipur. The original green marble

in international market came from three main countries i.e. Italy, Greece and Taiwan. Italy has very famous green marbles such as the PATRICA and VERDE ALP/. Greece is of course extremely famous for its TINOS green. Taiwan comparatively a latter entrant as compared to first two countries also has its very well known varieties i.e. EMPEROR GREEN (dark green) and HUALIEN JADE (light green). The name comes from the town Hualien, where the major green marble deposits are located. Green, because of its colour has always been used as borders in strips and normally as an accent colour. Green some how has achieved a status of being a very superior product and a very expensive marble. Green marble connotes and aura of prestige, of wealth, of class not associated with common place projects. Green therefore has been used in hotel lobbies, for counters, for column cladding and lift lobbies in facia and flooring in Banks, for counters and bathroom vanities in Hotels. It also used to create a design with pastel colours like white and cream when it is used in flooring areas. Green marble from India began to be exported in 84-85 in small way. As the market awareness spread, many importers from all over the world came to India in search of this Green Marble and slowly but surely the export increased. Green marble from kesariyaji comes in light, medium and dark green colours as well as in a variety of designs with or without white veins. Today almost 200 quarries are being operated in Kesariyaji belt, many of which are exporting the green marble. It is unfortunate that often greens which almost do not look like green have also been exported. This has led to the market for Indian green being down graded as compared to green from other countries.

MAJOR IMPORTERS OF MARBLE FROM INDIA:
Although the marble is exported to large no. of countries but the main importers are China, Indonesia , UK, USA, Iran, Italy, Pakistan ,Ukraine, Singapore ,Nepal ,Canada etc.

World Production of Marble
Total world production of marble in the year 1926 was 11.75 lakh tons. It has increased to 136.00 lakh tons. In the year 1994, total production of marble in the world was 207.90 lakh tons. Following table gives data of marble production:-

PRODUCTION (Qty in Lakhs tons)

Year
1926 1976 1986 1994

Marble
11.75 136.00 131.30 207.90

Granite
1.75 34.00 73.85 151.20

Slates
4.40 8.00 11.95 18.90

Total
17.90 178.00 217.10 378.00

India is ninth largest producer of dimensional stones, Italy occupying the first place and Canada being the second. Italy is rich in marble resources. Italy processes about 30% of world marble and this percentage has remained unaltered in recent years.

Exports from India :
Statistics available for export of marbles from India. It is grouped along-with other dimensional stones. Total exports of dimensional stones from India are as follows:-

Years 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

000' tons 630 692 788 983 1164 1396 1689 2060 2533 (approximately)

All India Granites and Stone Association has compiled some statistics on exports of marble and granite and published in 'Stona 96'. Following table gives the data of exports made in rupee terms: Exports ( Rs. In Crores ) Year 90-91 91-92 92-93 93-94 94-95 Granites 227.70 376.60 504.40 670.00 909.00 Marble 6.00 42.20 70.30 102.80 160.00

Although, marble exports are increasing every year, India's share of world trade is negligible.

WORLD TRADE & RAJASTHAN
India produced 12.85,000 Tons of marble in 1989-19990. The important producing states were Rajasthan & Gujarat. About 90% of total production comes from Rajasthan state. Rajasthan is richest state in marble both in quantity & quality. White & green are two varieties, in which world trade of marble is more than 75%. India exports mainly green marble which comes from Udaipur district of Rajasthan. Expect green, there is no large deposit of uniform patterns in other varieties; hence their importance in world trade is very low. Rajasthan produces 3.57% of world production of marble. Almost entire export of marble is from Rajasthan only.

Table 2: Marble production in Rajasthan from 1991 to 2000: Year Production (in thousand Tonnes) 1991-92 1,800 1992-93 2,132 1993-94 1,982 1994-95 2,496 1995-96 3,213 1996-97 3,527 1997-98 3,441 1998-99 3,573 1999-2000 4,279 2000-01 4,760 2001-02 5,686

IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON THE MARBLE INDUSTRY
Recently, Government has introduced many new laws pertaining to the proper and sustainable development of marble industry, and these are well received by the persons related to the industry.

1. Removal of Excise duty: One of the major changes that the Government has introduced is the removal of the excise duty on marble (upto the annual sales of Rs.1 Crore). This is a major step as so far marble was the only mineral product in the country on which excise was imposed. The removal of the excise duty will reduce the landed cost of marble to the end user and this will surely increase the demand of marble in the market. 2. New marble policy: The new policy for the marble mining will facilitate the search of new marble areas in the state. The new policy not only allows the grant of mining lease for marble in the state but also permits the prospecting work for the search of new areas of marble deposits. In total it can be said that the Government had realized the importance of this industry and now seems to be committed towards the development of the industry.

RATIONALE OF THE STUDY
As far as this section of Research Project is concern, the very fundamental of Research is lies in this section. Rationale means what is the basic purpose behind the study or why the research is being conducted? Before conducting a Research, a Researcher should clearly indicate his aim of study. The study aimed at identifying the export trade of Marble. Here we are trying to highlight the India scenario especially for Marble. The study specifically determines the past and present condition of Indian Marble industry and find the export potential of it in world market. Our aim is to analyze the export potentiality of marble along with the problems faced by this industry. We will try to give certain suggestions for the growth of this industry. Government has also recognized that the stones market in the world is flourishing. This research is mainly done to enhance the exports of marble from India. The Industry Report serves to give an overview of the sector and capture the basic characteristics of the sector in terms of its overall size, present status and future potential. This research work will be of the great importance for the traders and manufacturers to understand the future demand and trend of the industry. The past statistics, data, and current information about the concern industry provides the platform for the Marble industry to envisage the future trend of the industry.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:
1. 2. 3. To identify Export potential for Marble. To analyze the past and present demand trend and forecast the demand for Marble. To give suggestions for the sector to overcome the problems of exporters.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research refers to search for knowledge. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. Redman and Mary define research as a systemized effort to gain new knowledge. We all possess some inquisitiveness and this inquisitiveness is the Knowledge of the unknown is termed as Researches. According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems formulating hypothesis. Research is thus an original contribution to existing stock of knowledge for its advancement. In short the search for knowledge through stock of its advancement. It is also the search for the knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to the problem is research. Research Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. When we are talking about research methodology we do not only talk about research method to be used but also consider the logic behind the research method that we are using in the context of our research study. We also have to explain why we are using a particular method of technique and why we are not using other, so that research results are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher himself or by others. THE STUDY: It is a study to know about the prospects & potential market for export of Marble and to identify the various competitors globally. The study is exploratory in nature. It is a study, which is a preliminary phase and is absolutely essential in order to obtain a proper definition of problem at hand. THE SAMPLE: Statistical data of export of Marble ranging from seven to ten years have been taken as sample.

TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION: Secondary data were used for the purpose of study. Secondary data includes those, which were collected from some earlier research work and were applicable or usable in the present study. TOOLS FOR DATA ANALYSIS: Trend Analysis: One way to describe the trend component is to fit a line visually to a set of points on a graph. Any given graph, however, is subject to slightly different interpretations by different individuals. We can also fit a trend line by the method of least squares. We had concentrate on the method of least squares because visually fitting a line to a time series is not a completely dependable process. Reasons for Studying Trends: The study of secular trends allows us to describe a historical pattern. There are many instances when we can use a past trend to evaluate the success of a previous policy. For example, a university may evaluate the effectiveness of a recruiting program by examining its past enrollment trends. Studying secular trends permits us to project past patterns, or trends, into the future. Knowledge of the past can tell us a great deal about the future. Examining the growth rate of the world’s population, for example, can help us estimate the population for some future time. In many situations, the secular trend of a time series allows us to eliminate the trend component from the series. This makes it easier for us to study the other three components of the

time series. If we want to determine the seasonal variation in ski sales, for example, elimination the trend component gives us a more accurate idea of the seasonal component.

We took year as an independent trend analysis is done on linear regression. The formula used is, Y = a + bX Where, a = constant, b = variable, x = number of years, Y =result

TREND ANALYSIS
EXPORT OF MARBLE TO USA
(Value in Rs. Lacs)
Year 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 Value 173.47 205.87 92.06 102.02 67.14 Trend Value 191.41 159.76 128.11 96.46 64.81 33.16 1.51 -30.14 -61.79 -93.44

TREND

USA

13 20 12 20 11 20 10 20 09 20 08 20 07 20 06 20 05 20 04 20 0 -1 1 -1 2 -1 3 -1

4 -1

8 -0 7 -0 6 -0 5 -0

300

200

100

0

-100

-200

Year

9 -0

Value in Rs. Lacs

Interpretations of Trend Analysis

There is a drastic continuous fall in the export of marble from India to USA from 2004-09. this is due to economic meltdown The meeting estimated that the natural stone business, comprising granite, marble, sandstone, slates and quartzite, has dipped by 60 per cent. USA has been diverted towards Italian Stone market because of poor quality of Indian marble.

TOTAL EXPORT OF MARBLE FROM INDIA
(Value in Rs. Lacs)
Year 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 Value 424.54 653.14 210.61 482.55 163.13 Trend Value 525.48 456.14 386.79 317.45 248.11 178.77 109.43 40.09 -29.25 -98.59

Total Export TREND
4 -1 13 20 3 -1 12 20 2 -1 11 20 1 -1 10 20 0 -1 09 20 9 -0 08 20 8 -0 07 20 7 -0 06 20 6 -0 05 20 5 -0 04 20

800

600

400

200

0

-200

Year

Value in Rs. Lacs

Interpretations of Trend Analysis
• Voicing concern over the nonuniformity of the State Government policies on stone

industries, Veeramani said, “The mining leasing policies and the royalty rates payable need to be leveled. The government is charging prohibitively and the policies are not export-friendly.” The stone industry employs around 25 lakh people from unskilled low-income groups, in the areas of mining, handling, processing and exports people from unskilled low-income groups. Despite this, the Union Government has not provided any support measures as given to textile and leather sectors, said an exporter. • the market. 2008-09 was said to be the most depressing year in the trade of marble. The trade of

marble was badly shuttered due to the recession with the down fall of demand of Indian marble in

DISCUSSION
As has been shown earlier, marble is one of the most attractive stone and there is growing demand for it. The major source of demand is construction actively in household, office, commercial and hotel sectors. Marble was once used for building construction by upper income households but now -adays its use has spread to middle class households also. Similarly, the usage which was concentrated in metropolitan centers has now extended to many other large cities. The growth in demand in this sector is calculated to be about 9 to 1 0 percent annum. About 35% of all marble is used for household purposes. Demand of 25% of marble comes from the offices and commercial complexes. The construction activity in this sector has registered a steady growth of 15 percent annum. Marble is mostly used for wall and flooring purposes. The number of hotels in India has been growing very rapidly in recent years. The number of hotel rooms is expected to increase by 150% by 2010. This sector accounts for 30% of demand for marble and the annual growth rate works out at 15%. It has been observed in the graph that the trend value of the commodity is continuously increasing in the respective year. But there is a need to take necessary measures like decreasing basic price, uplifting the quality, keeping a check on domestic consumption, adaptation of counter trade practice etc. If we want to earn a major source of exchange from the exportation of this commodity. Govt. of India should also focus on following: 1. India should reduce the basic price of the commodity so as to gain a competitive advantage over other countries. 2. Quality measure should be taken with great care and there should be proper

market segmentation, targeting and positioning.

PROBLEMS
As we have studied the Marble industry is having good export potentiality. India has abundant of raw marble but due to out dated technology, financial limitations of exporter India's share in world marble industry is not satisfactory. On the basis of available information following basic problem of marble industry can be listed as follows: 1. As we are not having any regular program of training to labour, industry is facing large problem of skilled labour and unskilled labour is not able to work in a scientific manner. 2. Infrastructure facilities like power, road, water, telephone etc. are not available at mines. 3. Mostly Trade Fair is organized out side the country and to participate in such fair it needs high expenses, which cannot be afforded by a small exporter. 4. As such marble is not recognized as major mineral and different state having their own mineral policy. 5. The technology used in India is out dated; our existing production is not able to satisfy the requirement. The industry is facing large problem .of non availability of quality raw marble. 6. The advanced mining equipment for systematic mining of marble is not readily available in India. 7. The inland container depot facilities are only available in metro cities. For exporter in small cities it takes time for clearing and forwarding the cargo. 8. The number of paper submitted by exporter for export on a consignment is large and it is to be processed by various department of government of India resulting in considerable delay.

SELLING AND DISTRIBUTION PROBLEMS IN MARBLE STONE INDUSTRY 1. The dimensional stone industries in India are not organized and also not have a very good marketing and servicing infrastructure. 2. The data on market specifications, Standards, preference, designs in various overseas markets is not available to Indian entrepreneurs. 3. The Indian entrepreneurs lack innovation in presentation and advertising their products as compared to Italy, Taiwan etc. 4. Indian industry spends very little money, time and effort in development of new markets. 5. Indian industry does not concentrate on product upgradation and product adoption to suit to different markets. 6. Adverse publicity about delays in supplies, inconsistency in quality, lack of long term planning are causing problems for marketing efforts of Indian marble industry. 7. Packing and presentation of Indian marble products is well below the desirable level which should be constantly improved. 8. Lacks of common approach by Indian industry in pricing, quality etc. are causing loss of markets and value for the products. 9. Indian exporters are usually not flexible in negotiation of terms. This is also causing loss in competitive markets. 10. The Indian trade missions and promotional bodies are not very effective. There should be a better co-ordination between exporting community and the overseas trade bodies.

PROBLEMS RELATED TO FINANCE OF MARBLE INDUSTRY
1. The practice in overseas markets in selling stone is to offer credit for a considerable period. Most of the stone companies are not strong enough to extend such credit and the banks are not liberal in supporting the companies. This is causing loss of high volume of business. 2. The bidders for any project supply should provide a guarantee for performance of the contract in the form of a bond executed and co-accepted by the bankers. The Indian bankers are reluctant to provide such guarantees making it impossible for the Indian companies to bid for the projects. 3. As a whole the industry does not receive enough support from the financial institutions in comparison to other countries industry like Europe and Japan etc.

PROBLEMS IN EXPORT PROMOTION
1. Sizeable Quantity Not Available:Basic draw back of Indian Marble deposits is that no large quantity of material in uniform patterns & appearance is available. This makes exports orders execution very difficult task. 2. Recognition of Its Own In the Market:Most of the marble exports from India through middleman, due to which Indian exporters do not come in direct contact to buyers. As marble export is through middleman, exporters are not able to get good remunerative prices. A middleman sells the materials branding it as from their country. Hence India is not able to get good brand equity in marble market. This limits the export potentiality of Indian marble in major consuming markets

imports about 80% of world marble exports. India needs to build up recognition of its own in the market.

3. Exports limited to Few Countries:Indian's exports of marble are mainly to Italy, Gulf countries, Singapore, Malaysia & Burma, U.S.A. & Japan are very big market for marble & marble products. Indian marble still could not make a dent in these markets. Due to limited accessibility to world market, our export potential remains untapped. Italy mainly imports unprocessed marble. We could not get the advantage of value adding by exporting unprocessed marble. Also India could not built up the identity of its products in world markets. India needs concentrated efforts in building up the identity of its products in major consumption centers of world. Due to limited access of markets, Indian exporters are not able to fetch remunerative prices in the world trade. 4. No Recognition as Marble Producer:India's share in world trade of marble is absurdly low. It is below 1 % of total world trade of about Rs. 30000 Crores. India could not be able to convey its identity as producer of good quality marbles in world unscientific way of mining, fragmentation of lease area, lack of economies of scale etc. contributed to low profile image of India. To get respectable share in world trade, India needs to built up it image as major producer of variety of marbles. 5. No Agency To Promote Exports:There is not a single agency solely responsible for promoting marble exports. This is no export promotion councilor other similar agency. Even there is not a single representative association of marble industry in India. Lack of institutional efforts for promotional activities is a main reason for unsatisfactory performance in export front. Presently, marble is being locked after by Chemicals and Allied products export promotion council. Due to lack of institutional support, India could focus the trust areas of marble trade for exports. India is

famous for its rich tradition of handicrafts & stone articles. Unfortunately, there is no policy framework for development of stone article trade. Stone articles give very good value addition & can be a major foreign exchange earner. This trade also provides good employment opportunities. Similarly marble furniture is a very good & developing line of trade. There is an urgent need for formation Marble Development Board, which should be responsible for scientific processing, technological advancement, policy framing & support to trade. 6. Shipping Bottlenecks:Marble is mainly exported through Bombay and Kandla Ports 95% of marble exports is through these two ports. However there is heavy congestion at these ports. Not a single shipment could be made between Oct. 95 to July.96 from Kandla port due to heavy traffic bottlenecks and labors problems. This has adversely affected the reliability of Indian export. If deliveries could not to be ensured well in time, confidence of foreign buyers will be lost. These ports require immediate expansion of facilities and capacities. There is also an urgent need to develop another port on Gujarat. Coastal line for supplementing Kandla Port. The time taken at ports in giving berth to ship and delays in loading increases the cost and makes export unprofitable. Due to shipping bottlenecks and consequent delays in supplies, prices of Indian marble has come down to 1100 U.S. $ CU.Mtr. From 1400 US $ per CU.Mtr. Indian Marble fetches lowest prices in world. This trend can be changed by building up good images and ensuring reliability both in quality and deliver schedule. 7. Lack of Market Promotion Efforts:Indian marble processors are basically small entrepreneurs having just one or two sawing plants or small areas of quarry. They do not posses requisite economic resources to sustain the market campaign. There is no hard sell advertising, no significant participation in trade fares, no good publicity materials. Italy has only 2% of world population but process 30% of stones. Italy does not have granite processor. It organizes three international fares every year on stone technology. These fares give Italy a very good market promotion opportunity. There is not even a regular national fare on Marble in India. This shows poor

planning and lack of direction on the part of industry and other Govt. agency. Government should provide all out facilities and assistance for participation in international trade fares to Indian entrepreneurs. Govt. should also participate in these fares in a big way. India should also host at least one international fare on Marble every year. These fares are very good opportunity for image building. They also provide medium to contacts buyers directly. A big participation in trade fares can establish India's name on world Marble Map as a major processing country, similarly advertisement in trade Journals. Display at good location and interaction with architects shall also be very useful for promoting exports.

Suggestion s for Increasing Market Share
We may have well attended to the following things to in crease our market share in the international market. 1. Compile and publish the information on marble for benefits of entrepreneurs. 2. Evolve a uniform progressive policy congenial for the healthy growth of the industry & exert pressure on various states Govt. For uniformity in rules. 3. Area of quarry should be increased for employing modern technology. 4. Congenial export import policy with facilities to import quarrying equipment & machinery without duty easy removal of rejections and encouraging import of blocks to reap benefits of value addition. 5. Formations of joint ventures with technologically advanced firms and multinationals. Who have requisite resources and capabilities to develop the trade and exports. 6. Indian processors should collaborate with stone distributors in different part of world to promote their products and service the customers; such arrangement is in existence till yet. 7. Indian companies have to go global by taking over processing units in other parts of world and set up their own distribution channels to gain access to market, technology input at proper prices and the brand names. 8. Lack of common approach by Indian industry in pricing, quality etc. is causing loss of markets and value for the products. Joint promotion strategy is lacking among Indian entrepreneurs. In fact they complete with each other resulting in lower prices. They are also loosing project in the absence of consortium bidding where as Italian and Spanish companies are bidding in consortium.

9. Most of the entrepreneurs do not confine to quality, consistency and delivery schedules. Which in turn result in rejections, bad reputation and fewer repeated orders. It is of paramount importance to maintain and all the time strives for improvement to sustain the competitive market. 10. Encourage Indian industrial units to obtain ISO 9000 series for having easy entry in the international market. 11. Hither to primarily rough blocks of marble are exported of late, processed marble export is also increasing. It is possible to achieve greater levels of export of processed marble within next 3 to 5 years. 12. It Indian entrepreneurs concentrate on and product fabrication, special finishing and project supplies, value addition will be sawing and polishing where value additions is hardly 50%. 13. The overall cost of sawing, polishing and sizing is much more in India than many countries inspire of man power cost advantage. This is totally neutralizing the advantage of cheaper raw materials and creating over all disadvantages in view of distant markets. 14. Poor and in-effective packing of the finished goods will impair the quantity and presentation of finished goods. 15. Allocation of certain percentage of Royalty on marble to promote Research and Development, infrastructure in mining areas, trade promotion, and organizing and participating international exhibition will boost exports in significant way. 16. All steps should be taken to emerge India as the second stone center of the world after Italy with mutual co-operation of the entrepreneurs and the Government. This suggestion will help to regain or carve out rightful place for India in the international market.

CONCLUSION

The industry will surely grow in the times to come but it is expected to grow in a centralized manner. Heavy mechanizations will largely prevail. Though new areas have been discovered in Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat but it will take those years to catch up with marble industry of Rajasthan as the Mundies for marble are in Rajasthan only. The prices of marble are expected to further go down with the increased competition and as the cost of production are expected to come further down in future. The total production of marble is expected to increase at the rate of 12% per annum or more and the exports of marble and products thereof from the country are expected to increase at around 20% per annum. Domestic consumption of marble in the country is prognosticated to increase at the rate of around 10% per annum.

At international level the future of Rajasthan marble industry seems to be promising. Many of the famous mines of Europe have already exhausted. China presents a tough competition, as it too has vast marble producing areas, developed processing industry and very competitive prices but the quality and colour of marble from China are not very appealing. Moreover, construction activities in China have almost reached to their saturation, but the urbanisation of India has in fact just started, which provides a huge scope of domestic consumption.

Under the given set of circumstances, India is expected to dominate the marble industry in the world, with Rajasthan to be the hub of activities. On the basis of the studies made in the paper we can infer that marble industry of the state is shaving a bright future, and will keep on growing inspite of all odds. The industry will rule over the world with increased production of good quality marble, decreased production cost and increased exports.

IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY

FOR MARBLE EXPORTERS FROM INDIA: The study would help the exporters in identifying the potential markets for exports in world market, to know about the global competitors, changing rules and regulation of various countries new varieties in these products etc. It would help them in knowing the reasons behind the decline of exports of these products in certain markets. At last, it will also help them in understanding the current scenario of this industry. FOR RESEARCHERS The study being exploratory in nature highlights some area where researchers can carry on further study to understand the working of Marble industry. Further research can be undertaken to identify the factors that play a significant role in affecting the demand and supply of marble in the international market. Research can also be undertaken to determine if the problems in the commodity sales are due to poor international marketing strategies, low quality, inadequate packaging, and infrastructure problems, sanitary and phyto-sanitory measures as applied by developed countries etc. FOR STUDENTS OF FOREIGN TRADE The students of foreign trade, who are interested in exploring about industry, export of thrust product from India to developed countries like U.S.A., Italy, Japan, etc. can know the current scenario of these products trade, global production, global competition and potential markets. The study would act as a guide for them in further study. Particularly the students who are interested to know about the export of marble, this project report will be very interested to them.

Bibliography
Webliography: • Data and other related information was retrieved from 01/08/10. • • Meaning & types of Marble was retrieved from Data of current export www.wikipedia.com on 15/08/10. was retrieved from www.google.com on

of marble from India. on 10/08/10.

www.departmentofcommerce.com • •

Conceptual Framework was retrieved from

www.graniteland.com on 02/08/10.

Details of marble production and its type n other feature. Was retrieved from http://ibm.nic.in/marble.pdf on 10/08/10.

Data

on

marble

trade

of

India

was

retrieved

from

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:E6IA9fe86W4J:www.cdosindia.com/papers/06%2520-%2520PROGNOSTICATION%2520OF%2520MARBLE %2520INDUSTRY%2520IN%2520RAJASTHAN%2520-%2520Dr.%2520Gagan %2520Goyal.doc+latest+events+on+marble+export+from+india&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk &gl=in on 09/08/10. • Data and some general information was retrieved from

http://www.gogostone.com/info/detail/6-1574.html on 14/08/10.

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