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Biology 1 // 1st Quarter

BIOLOGY AS THE STUDY OF LIFE A. Characteristics of Life 1. Living Things are made up of cells. Unicellular - made up of only one cell Ex. Amoeba - Amoebasp. Multicellular - made up of two or more cells. Ex. Human - Homo sapiens. 2. Living Things reproduce. Sexual - 2 parents contribute genetic material. Ex. Human sperm & Egg cell Asexual - 1 parent gives birth to genetically identical offspring. Ex. Binary fission of Paramecium; Hydra breeding 3. Living Things Grow and Develop. Growth - increase of cell number or size. Ex. Onion (Allium cepa) cells. Mitosis - cell division Development - changes from conception to death. Ex. Mosquito Life Cycle Metamorphosis - change in form 4. Living Things Obtain and Use Energy. Metabolism - sum of chemical activities inside an organism. Anabolism - simple to complex Ex. photosynthesis Catabolism - complex to simple Ex. digestion 5. Living Things respond to their environment. Ex. Blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochaerasp.) Irritability - ability to respond to a stimulus Stimulus physical/chemical change in the internal/external environment. Homeostasis - maintaining a stable internal condition 6. Living Things are capable of movement. Locomotion - movement from one one place to another Tropism - movement in response to a certain stimulus 7. Living Things are based on a universal genetic code. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule where genetic instructions are encoded. 8. Living Things, as a group, change over time.

SY 2011 - 2012
Adaptation - trait that helps an organism survive in a given habitat (structural, physiological or behavioral) Ex. Polar bears white fur; bacterial endosperm; Nocturnal silky anteater B. Themes in the Study of Biology o The Cell y Cells are every organisms basic unit of structure and function. y Two types of cells: prokaryotic (bacteria and archaea) and eukaryotic (protists, plants, fungi and animals). o Heritable Information y Continuity of life depends on the inheritance of biological information in the form of DNA molecules. y Genetic information is encoded in the nucleotide sequences of DNA. o Emergent Properties of Biological Systems y The living world has a hierarchical organization, from molecules to the biosphere. y Each step is a result of interactions among components at the lower levels. o Regulation y Feedback mechanisms regulate biological systems. y In some cases, regulation maintains in a relatively steady state for internal factors such as body temperature. o Interaction with Environment y Organisms are open systems that exchange materials and energy with their surroundings. y An organisms environment includes other organisms as well as non-living factors. o Energy and Life y All organisms must perform work, which requires energy. y Energy flows from sunlight to producers to consumers. o Unity and Diversity y Biology is grouped in three major domains: Bacteria, Archea and Eukarya. y The more closely related 2 species are, the more characteristics they share.

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Biology 1 // 1st Quarter


As diverse as life is, we find unity through the universal genetic code. o Evolution y Evolution is Biologys core theme. y It explains both unity and diversity of life. y The Darwinian theory of natural selection accounts for adaptation of populations to their environment through differential reproductive success of varying individuals. o Structure and Function y Form and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization. o Scientific Inquiry y The process of science includes observation-based discovery and the testing of explanations through hypothesis-based scientific inquiry. y Scientific credibility depends on the repeatability of observations and experiments. o Science, Technology and Society y Many technologies are goaloriented applications of science. y The relationship of science and technology to society are now more crucial to understand than before. C. Levels of Organization 1. Sub-atomic Particle 2. Atom 3. Molecules 4. Organelles 5. Cells 6. Tissues 7. Organs 8. Organ Systems 9. Organisms 10. Populations 11. Communities 12. Ecosystems 13. Biosphere D. Branches of Biology Molecular Level of Organization y Biochemistry chemical substances in living organisms y Bioegernetics energy transformations & exchanges y Genetics - hereditary factors y Genetic Engineering - deliberate changing makeup of living cells y Molecular Biology physicochemical organization of living matter
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SY 2011 - 2012
Cellular Level of Organization y Bacteriology - bacteria y Cytology - cells y Microbiology - microorganisms Tissues, Organs and Systems y Anatomy - structure of living things y Comparative Anatomy comparison of structures between animals y Embryology - early stages in the development of animals y Histology - tissue structure y Morphology - external anatomical structures y Organology - organs & their functions y Physiology - functions & life processes in organisms y Comparative Physiology comparison of functions & life processes between animals Organisms and Populations y Ethology - animal behavior y Mycology - fungi y Parasitology - organisms living within/on other organisms y Botany - plants y Dendrology - trees & their history y Zoology - animals y Arachnology spiders and scorpions y Conchology - mollusks & shell structure y Entomology - insects & life cycles y Helminthology - worms y Herpetology reptiles and amphibians y Ichthyology - fish y Mammalogy - mammals y Ornithology - birds Communities and Ecosystems y Ecology - organisms & their relationships with their environment y Limnology - freshwater ecosystem y Marine Biology - oceans & their ecosystem y Synecology structure, distribution, development of ecological communities Applied Biology y Agriculture - botany in growing food plants/crops y Apiculture - bees y Forestry conservation of trees/shrubs y Hydroponics - growth and culture of plants y Phytopathology - plant diseases y Pomology - cultivation of fruits & trees y Taxidermy - preparing, stuffing & mounting the skins of animals

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Biology 1 // 1st Quarter


Taxonomy identifying & classifying organisms y Veterinary Medicine - animal care/diseases y Wildlife Management conservation & maintenance of wildlife resources Interdisciplinary Studies y Anthropology - man y Astrobiology ecological conditions in other planets y Bioengineering - biology/medical science in engineering y Biogeography - geographical distribution of organisms y Biophysics - physical principles and methods in biological problems y Biotechnology - application of biology in other fields of engineering y Geobotany - locating mineral resources y Paleontology - fossilized plants
y ECOLOGY A. Introduction to Ecology 1. Biomes Freshwater Biome y Salinity: < 1-3% y Standing Water: ponds, lakes isolated species diversity y Shoreline Distance: Littoral Zone (Near) Limnetic Zone (Near-Surface Open Water) Profundal Zone (Deep Water)  Examples: lakes, streams Marine Biome y Salinity: >3% y Shoreline Distance: depth, sunlight, temp life zones Intertidal (Low/High Tide Area) Pelagic (Open Ocean) Benthic (Ocean Floor) Abyssal (Deep Ocean)  Examples: ocean, sea Estuarine y freshwater < estuarine < marine organisms highly tolerant to salt y Spawning & Nursing Grounds  Examples: salt marsh, mangrove swamp

SY 2011 - 2012
y Atmosphere y Hydrosphere y Lithosphere Biomes - Group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities Ecosystem - Relationship between Abiotic and Biotic Components; (NSC) Habitat - Area in which an organism lives Niche - Conditions in which an organism lives; the way an organism uses these conditions * Competitive Exclusion Principle Proposition in which states that two speciescompeting for the same resources cannot coexist if other ecological factors are constant Ecological Succession Another community is gradually replacing an existing community; Directional & Usually predictable y Primary Succession - Starts with a virtually lifeless area; soil has not yet been formed y Secondary Succession An ecosystem which had a disturbance will be replaced with a new one Pioneer Species - Colonize in areas where no communities exits Dominant Species - Most obvious species in the community Climax Community - A fairly stable collection of organisms that result from Ecological Succession 2. Flow of Energy in Ecosystems Ecological Pyramid - Shows relative amount of energy/matter contained within each trophic level y Energy Pyramid - Shows relative amount of energy being passed from each trophic level to another y Biomass Pyramid - Represents the amount of living organic matter in each trophic level y Pyramid of Numbers - Shows relative number of Individual Organisms at each trophic level Trophic Level - Gr. trophe; food or nourishment; feeding level Food Chain - The transfer of energy of organisms by eating/being eaten Food web - Network of complex feeding relationships B. Population Ecology Core Concept 1 - Five important characteristics of a population are its: y Geographic Distribution - area inhabited by a population y Population Density - number of individuals at a given time

Ecology - Study of interactions between organisms and their habitat y Gr. oikos, hose Ernst Haeckel (1866), German Biologist Houses = level of organization Biosphere - Portions of the planet in which life exists; (SC)

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Biology 1 // 1st Quarter


Population dispersion - patterns of spacing in relation to other members of a population y Growth Rate number of Individuals added to/taken from the population y Age Structure Core Concept 2 - Three factors can affect population size: the y Number of Births y Number of Deaths y Number of Individuals who enter or leave a population Immigration (Into) Emigration (Exit) Growth Rate number of Individuals added to/taken from the population o Exponential Growth (JCurve) - Individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate o Logistic Growth (S-Curve) A populations growth slows/stops following a period of exponential growth Core Concept 3 - The biotic potential of an ecosystem is affected by environmental resistance, thus resulting in a maximum carrying capacity. Logistic Growth (S-Curve) - A populations growth slows/stops following a period of exponential growth o Biotic Potential - Maximum Rate which a population could increase under ideal conditions o Environmental Resistance Unfavorable Conditions that prevent a population from reaching its maximum GR o Carrying Capacity Maximum number of individuals a given environment could support Core Concept 4 - Factors that limit population growth include both densitydependent (ex. competition) and densityindependent (ex. natural disasters) factors. Limiting Factor - A factor that causes population growth to decrease o Density-dependent factors - becomes limiting only when population reaches a certain level o Density-independent factorsaffects all populations in similar ways, regardless of population size
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SY 2011 - 2012
Factors Limiting Populations: o Competition o Crowding and stress o Human disturbances o Natural catastrophes o Parasitism and disease o Predation o
LIMITING FACTOR POPN DENSITY EFFECT Densityor none Dependent DensitySimilar Independent Similar Core Concept 5 - Understanding the Patterns in Human Population Growth is important in addressing population problems around the world. Factors Controlling Human Population Growth through time: y Centralized Agriculture y Infectious Disease y Industrial, Technological Revolutions y Modern Medicine EVOLUTION Charles Robert Darwin (1809 - 1882) Born February 12 1809 Named after his uncle (Charles) and his father (Robert). Grandson of Erasmus Darwin (English physician, natural philosopher, physiologist, inventor and poet). Voyage of the Beagle (1831 - 1836) Darwin joined the crew of the HMS Beagle in December 27, 1831 as a naturalist. 5 year cruise around the world to chart unknown territory, especially along the S. Am. Coastline; visited the Galapagos Islands. y Galapagos Islands - Group of Small Islands 1000 km west of Ecuador; Characteristics of Organisms varied the most noticeably. Darwins finches o 13 Specimens collected o Brought home to England and studied by Ornithologist John Gould What Darwin noticed during the Beagles Journey: o Diversity of Life - Degree variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or an entire planet o Fitness of organisms Ability of an individual to

PAT RIVERA

Biology 1 // 1st Quarter


survive and reproduce in its specific environment due to physical traits and behaviors that help it adapt to the environment
On the Origin of Species (1859) June 18, 1858 - Darwin received a paper from Alfred Russel Wallace, who was still at the Malay Archipelago. July 1, 1858 - Charles Darwin first went public about his views on the evolution of species. The papers of Darwin and Wallace were read at a meeting of the Linnean Society of London. November 24, 1859 - Darwins book was published Two Main Concepts of the book: y Evolution - Process of Change in Species through time y Natural Selection - Adaptations; Struggle for Existence January 1860 - Thomas Huxley & Joseph Hooker became Allies with Darwin; Richard Owen was outraged 1866 - Survival of the Fittest became a substitute for Natural Selection after Herbert Spencer coined it in his 2-Volume book Principles of Biology. Ideas the Shaped Darwins Theory: y Economics - Competition for limited resources y Plant & Animal Breeding - Artificial Selection y Geology - The Earth is more than just a few thousand years old Natural Selection as a Mechanism for Evolution: y Overproduction - each species produces more offspring than will survive to maturity y Variation - There is variation among offspring y Competition (Struggle for Existence) - Organisms compete with one another for limited resources y Survival to Reproduce (Survival of the Fittest) - Individuals that possess the most favorable combination of characteristics are the most likely to survive. Natural vs. Artificial Selection Operate in Similar manners Natural Selection occurs over much longer periods of time; without any goal or purpose. Natural Selection in Populations Natural Selection involves interactions between individual organisms and their environment, but individuals do NOT evolve.

SY 2011 - 2012

A population is the smallest unit that can evolve. Lamarckian vs. Darwinian Lamarck o Desire to change - Inborn urge to better themselves; Innate tendency toward Complexity and perfection o Use and disuse - change toward organisms could alter their shape by using their bodies in new ways. o Inheritance of Acquired traits - If an animal acquired a body structure during its lifetime, it could pass that change to its offspring. Darwin o Overproduction o Variation o Competition o Survival to Reproduce
STATE OF THE PLANET David Attenborough - Producer and writer

Part 1: Is there a Crisis? Together with leading experts, David Attenborough examines the latest scientific evidence in order to discover if the planet's ecosystems are really in crisis. If so, he asks how it could have come about, and what is so different now that prevents certain species from adapting to survive, as they did in the past? Part 2: Why is there a Crisis? Attenborough presents some stark facts. He states that humans are now triggering a mass extinction on a similar scale to that which wiped out the dinosaurs - but at an unprecedented rate. He investigates the five main activities of mankind that are most likely contributory factors: y Habitat Loss y Introduced Species y Pollution y Over-harvesting y Islandisation Part 3: The Future of Life As Homo sapiens relentlessly encroaches on the natural world and its inhabitants, the viewer is presented a choice: leave behind a flourishing planet or a dying one.

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