Aperture (mollusc



Aperture (mollusc)
The aperture is an opening in certain kinds of mollusc shells: it is the main opening of the shell, where part of the body of the animal emerges for locomotion, feeding, etc. The term aperture is used for the main opening in gastropod shells, scaphopod shells, and also for Nautilus and Ammonite shells. The word is not used to describe bivalve shells, where a natural opening between the two shell valves in the closed position is usually called a gape. Scaphopod shells are tubular, and thus they have two openings: a main anterior aperture and a smaller posterior aperture. As well as the aperture, some gastropod shells have additional openings in their shells for respiration; this is the case in some Fissurellidae (keyhole limpets) where the central smaller opening at the apex of the shell is called an orifice, and in the Haliotidae (abalones) where the row of respiratory openings in the shell are also called orifices.

In gastropods
In some prosobranch gastropods, the aperture of the shell can be closed, and even completely sealed, with a sort of door or operculum. The aperture of many snail shells is more or less round, rounded, elliptical or oval. This shape usually corresponds roughly to the cross-section of the body whorl of the shell. The aperture of a snail shell can have many other forms: semicircular, trilobate or auriculate. In some gastropods, the aperture is narrowed by protruding plaits, which help make the soft parts of the animal less vulnerable to predation. The growth of the shell is provided for by non-continuous addition of minute layers to the aperture margin (also called peristome) from the mantle border, the principal agent in the secretion of the shell.
Three views of a shell of Norelona pyrenaica with the apertural view in the center

A shell of Semicassis pyrum, which has a large aperture and a pronounced parietal callus. The margin of the aperture is sometimes continuous or entire (Epitonium), or becomes continuous in the adult (Caracolus); very frequently it is interrupted, the left side of the aperture being formed only by the body-whorl.

For convenience of reference, the margin of a gastropod aperture is divided into three areas: • The parietal wall with the outer lip (labrum): the area next to the penultimate whorl of the shell. The siphonal notch is situated at the top. • The columellar wall with the columellar lip (labium): the wall next to the columella. The siphonal canal is situated at its base.

rounded above and below. much longer than wide. Dialeuca conspersula[2] distorted aperture . when it does not follow the spiral of the shell. Nerita. 2 Shape The shape of the aperture can be: • • • • • • auriform. linear. The aperture is descending or deflected.for example: Aerotrochus perdepressa[1] circular. Sometimes it departs from contact with the preceding whorl (as frequently in Cylindrella). narrow. oblong. when its greatest diameter is parallel with the axis of volution. semilunar. orbicular. as in Auriculella* bean . lunate. claw-shaped aperture . • • • • • • longitudinal. oval or teardrop .examples: Geomelania minor.examples: Hyalosagda arboreoides.Some Melongenidae have a claw-shaped aperture. greatest diameter oblique to the axis. ear-shaped. but turns downwards (such as in Helix). Urocoptis ambigua[4] . rotundate. semicircular or half-moon [3] . reverse of longitudinal.Aperture (mollusc) • The palatal wall: the outer free wall of the final whorl of the shell. transverse. crescent .Personidae has a distorted aperture. oblique. Conus Conus betulinus has a long and narrow aperture. Cypraea.

patulous when dilated and compressed when diminished at its entrance. example: Valvata sincera.Aperture (mollusc) 3 Indrella ampulla has an oval aperture. Architectonica rounded. the circle slightly interrupted. [5] Valvata sincera has a rounded aperture. egg-shaped. Consequently there is no siphonal canal but simply an opening for respiration. rounded aperture of Valvata piscinalis can be covered by an operculum • semicircular . • • • • ovate. quadrate.

have no aperture. .Aperture (mollusc) 4 Theodoxus danubialis has a semicircular aperture. • without aperture Some shells.examples: Leptopeas micrum. • with top angle acute . Janthina. Varicella griffithii[6] • triangular. like this Patella vulgata.

[5] "Aperture shape Round" (http:/ / www. but finally acquire adult characters. discoverlife. [6] "Aperture shape Taller than wide. org/ mp/ 20q?act=x_show_state& guide=Molluscs& character=Aperture+ shape& state=Oval+ or+ teardrop). Folds or plicae are named as follows: Folds or plicae 1. 4. infracolumellar columellar supracolumellar infraparietal parietal angular and twin paraller The dentate aperture of Multidentula ovularis References [1] "Aperture shape Bean" (http:/ / www. consisting of a thickened. 2. org/ mp/ 20q?act=x_show_state& guide=Molluscs& character=Aperture+ shape& state=Taller+ than+ wide. 6. These may be outer lip teeth.Aperture (mollusc) 5 With teeth Juvenile shells retain a sharp aperture for a variable period. 5. top angle acute" (http:/ / www. discoverlife.+ top+ angle+ acute). 3. suprapalatal upper palatal interpalatal lower palatal infrapalatal basal Lamellae are named as follows: 1. inflected or lipped aperture—which is sometimes more or less contracted by inflected calcareous projections called teeth. org/ mp/ 20q?act=x_show_state& guide=Molluscs& character=Aperture+ shape& state=Round). 6. discoverlife. discoverlife. org/ mp/ 20q?act=x_show_state& guide=Molluscs& character=Aperture+ shape& state=Bean). accessed 3 January 2011. [2] "Aperture shape Crescent" (http:/ / www. org/ mp/ 20q?act=x_show_state& guide=Molluscs& character=Aperture+ shape& state=Crescent). 5. [7] Scheme of an aperture of a gastropod showing terminology of teeth. [4] "Aperture shape Oval or teardrop" (http:/ / www. 7. 3. accessed 3 January 2011. accessed 3 January 2011. accessed 3 January 2011. reflected. discoverlife. 4. columellar teeth or parietal treeth. discoverlife. 2. plicae and folds. org/ mp/ 20q?act=x_show_state& guide=Molluscs& character=Aperture+ shape& state=Half-moon). [3] "Aperture shape Half-moon" (http:/ / www. accessed 3 January 2011. accessed 3 January 2011. .

org/ GnuBook/ ?id=manualofconcholo25tryorich#12) 6 . page vii. us. Volume 25. archive. Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae.Aperture (mollusc) [7] Pilsbry H. Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vertigininae) (http:/ / www. Philadelphia. (http:/ / www. archive. & Cooke C. A. 1918-1920. M. org/ details/ manualofconcholo25tryorich).

License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. 1993. Jr.wikipedia.org/w/index.jpg: derivative work: Tom Meijer (talk) File:Theodoxus danubialis.jpg  Source: http://en.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Francisco Welter Schultes File:Patella vulgata Napfschnecke.) (She was associated with Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia until 1946 .jpg  Source: http://en. JoJan. & Cooke C. UtherSRG.jpg  Source: http://en.php?title=File:Valvata_piscinalis_drawing_apertural_view.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Niccolò Gualtieri File:Indrella ampulla shell. Barbara Shack.wikipedia.php?title=File:Conus-betulinus-001.wikipedia. Made from This Earth: American Women and Nature.jpg  Source: http://en. U.php?title=File:Aperture_teeth.JPG  Source: http://en.jpg  Source: http://en.php?oldid=441487658  Contributors: Altenmann.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: George Washington Tryon. )) File:Valvata piscinalis drawing apertural view.A.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. Snek01. GrahamBould.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Multidentula_ovularis_shell.php?title=File:Theodoxus_danubialis.php?title=File:Patella_vulgata_Napfschnecke.wikipedia.wikipedia.org/w/index.org/w/index. Craig Pemberton.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Valvata_piscinalis_drawing.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.jpg  Source: http://en. 2 anonymous edits Image Sources.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: William Thomas Blanford (1832-1905) & Henry Haversham Godwin-Austen (1834-1923) File:Valvata sincera shell lateral. Lycaon.php?title=File:Norelona_pyrenaica_shell.wikipedia. 0/ .png  License: unknown  Contributors: Burçin Aşkım Gümüş & Eike Neubert File:Aperture teeth.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Pilsbry H. A.(according to Vera Norwood. Spawn Man.php?title=File:Indrella_ampulla_shell.Article Sources and Contributors 7 Article Sources and Contributors Aperture (mollusc)  Source: http://en.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.S.0  Contributors: Manfred Heyde File:Multidentula ovularis shell..JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: GrahamBould File:Conus-betulinus-001.jpg  Source: http://en. M. Pharos. Donald Albury.died ?. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3.org/w/index.php?title=File:Valvata_sincera_shell_lateral.org/w/index.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Semicassis_pyrum_(base).jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Miss Helen Winchester (born ? . ISBN 0807843962.org/w/index.org/w/index. page 70. (1838-1888) File:Semicassis pyrum (base).wikipedia.org/w/index. The University of North Carolina Press.org/w/index. Invertzoo.jpg  Source: http://en. Licenses and Contributors File:Norelona pyrenaica shell.wikipedia. Tom Meijer. 392 pp.

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