Chemistry 1 // 1st Quarter

Units of Measurement Metric System Unites used for scientific measurements Developed in France during the late 18th Century SI Units Specified Metric Units Used in Scientific Measurements Has seven base units SI BASE UNITS Name of Unit -

SY 2011 - 2012
Measures out volume accurately up to +/10 mL Not good for determining volume Graduated Cylinder Accurate to about +/- 0.5 mL Burettes Accurate to about +/- 0.01 mL Volumetric Flask & Transfer Pipettes Accuracy up to +/- 0.01 mL
Scientific Notation A system of expressing numbers Makes the writing of very big or very small numbers easy ex. 35,000,000,000,000,000 = 3.5 x 1016 Significant Digits or Figures Rules: 1. All non-zero digits are significant. 2. Zeros between non-zero digits are significant. 3. Leading zeros are not significant, trailing zeros are. (This depends on presence of decimal point.) 4. Scientific notations remove the doubt in determining the number of significant figures. Operations: 1. Multiplication and Division - Least number of Significant Figures 2. Addiction and Subtraction - Least number of decimal places 3. PEMDAS - Convert to the correct number of Significant Figures only after doing the all operations. Chemistry The study of matter and the changes it undergoes A. Health and Medicine y Sanitation Systems y Surgery with Anesthesia y Vaccines and Antibiotics B. Energy and the Environment y Fossil Fuels y Solar Energy y Nuclear Energy C. Materials and Technology y Polymers, ceramics, liquid crystals y Room Temperature, Super conductors? y Molecular Computing? D. Food and Agriculture y Genetically Modified Crops y ´Natural Pesticides y Specialized Fertilizers

Physical Quantity

Abbreviation

Mass Length Time Temperature Amount of Substance Electric Current Luminous Intensity

Kilogram Meter Second Kelvin Mole Ampere Candela

kg m s k mol A cd

Metric Prefix Tera Giga Mega Kilo Hecto Deca Unit deci centi milli micro nano pico

METRIC SYSTEM Metric System T G M K h da (base) d c m µ n p

Multiple 1012 109 106 103 102 101 100 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12

6.02 x 1023 - Avogadra Law (Mole)
Types of Measurement Qualitative Associated with quality, kind ex. Shades of color; degree of sweetness Quantitative Associated with numbers ex. Mass, volume, length, area Accuracy and Precision Accuracy Closeness to the true value Precision Repeatability, reproducibility of Measurement

One drop = 0.05 mL 1 mL = 20 drops Few drops = 1-2 drops Several drops = 3-5 drops Graduated Beakers & Erlenmeyer Flasks

Matter - anything that occupies space and has mass o Substance - form that a definite composition and distinct propertied y Element - substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means

 

© PAT RIVERA

Chemistry 1 // 1st Quarter
Compound - substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions o Mixture - combination of two or more substances in which the substances retain their distinct identities y Homogeneous - composition is the same throughout y Heterogeneous - composition is not uniform throughout Substance Elements * 113 elements have been identified. * 83 occur naturally on Earth. CHEMICAL MEANS Compounds * 37 have been created by scientists. Matter PHYSICAL MEANS
y
Homogeneous Mixture Heterogeneous

SY 2011 - 2012
measures acidity means ´Power of Hydrogenµ y Neutral - pH = 7 y Acidic - pH < 7 y Basic - pH > 7 Neutralization - Acid + Base Salt + Water Salt & Water product of Neutralization electrically neutral equal amount of cations (postitive) and anions (negative)
-

Physical Means - separate a mixture into its simpler substances Chemical Means - separates compounds into its pure components Physical Change - does not alter composition or identity of a substance Chemical Change - alters composition or identity of a substance Extensive Property - depend upon how much matter is being considered Intensive Property - does not depend upon how much matter is being considered Mass - measure of quantity of matter Weight - force that gravity exerts on an object Volume - SI derived unit for volume in cubic meters Acids Base -

Solution end product of solvent + solute homogeneous mixture formed by 2 substances or more Solvent - present in larger amount Solute - present in smaller amount Colloids - particles do not settle Colloids - tyndall effect Particles - bigger than solution; smaller than suspension
MEDIUM Gas Liquid Gas none DISPERSED Liquid Liquid aerosol Ex. fog; mist emulsion Ex. milk Solid Solid Aerosol Ex. smoke Sol Ex. Blood

Solid

foam Ex. whipped cream Sold Foam Gel Solid Sol Ex. Styrofoam Ex. Gelatin Ex: Glass Coarse mixture - mixture of substances which when you mix all the substances you can see that the substances that are mixed were not dissolved John Dalton Father of Modern Atomic Theory Also known for his research on color blindness Dalton·s Atomic Theory (1808) 1. ‡ Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms. ‡ All atoms of a given element are identical. ‡ The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements. 2. ‡ Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element combined together. ‡ The relative number of atoms of each element in a given compound is always the same. 3. ‡ Chemical reactions only involve rearrangement of atoms. ‡ Atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions.

substance that yield Hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water have sour taste cause color changes in plant dyes react with certain metals to produce Hydrogen gas react with carbonates and bicarbonates to produce Carbon Dioxide gas Oxoacids contain hydrogen, oxygen and another element Aqueous acid solutions conduct electricity substance that yields hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water has bitter taste feels slippery (most soap contain bases) cause color changes in plant dyes Aqueous base solutions - conduct electricity

pH

Law of Definite Proportions y ´Proust·s Lawµ y Made by French Chemist Joseph Proust y A chemical compound always contains exactly the same proportions of elements by mass y One of the basic Laws of Stoichiometry

© PAT RIVERA

Chemistry 1 // 1st Quarter
Law of Multiple Proportions y ´Dalton·s Lawµ y One of the basic Laws of Stoichiometry y If two elements form more than one compounds between them. Then the ratio of the masses of the 2nd element combined with the 1st element will be ratios of small whole numbers. Law of Conservation of Mass y ´Lomonosov-Lavoisier Lawµ y Masses of substances in a closed system will remain constant, no matter what processes are acting inside the system. y The mass of the reactants must always be equal to the mass of the products.

SY 2011 - 2012

Y Z

X
-

Limiting Reactants limits the production of products totally consumed in a reaction determines that amount of products

W

X - Element Y - Atomic Number = #p Z - Atomic Mass = #p+#n W - Charge = #p-#e p - Protons (Positively Charged); e - Electrons (Negatively Charged); n - Neutrons (Neutral) Atomic Mass (Abundance)(Mass1)+(Abundance)(Mass2) Isomers - Compounds with same molecular structure but different structural formula Isotopes - elements with different numbers of atomic number Isobars - atoms or ions with the same atomic number mass but different atomic numbers Allotropes - different forms of the same element in the same physical state Molecule - combination of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds Diatomic Molecule - contains only two atoms ´Have N o Fear Of Ice Cold Beer!µ Polyatomic Molecule - more than two atoms Ion - Atom or group of atoms with a positive/negative charge Cation - positive Anion - negative Monoatomic ion - contains only one atom Polyatomic ion - contains more than one atom

© PAT RIVERA

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.