Contents

Abstract Acknowledgements…………………………………………………..….. 3 Introduction… ………………………………….…………………...………..4 Comparison between GIS & AIS...…………………………….…………...5 GIS Components ………………………………………………………..7

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Circuit Breaker…….………………………………………………….9 Disconnectors……………………………………………………….11 Earthing Switch……………………………………………………..13 Voltage Transformer………………………………………………..15 Current Transformer………………………………………………..17 Cables Compartment……………………………………………….19 Local Control Cubicles LCC………………………………………..21

SF6 Gas Sulphur Hexafluoride…………………………………… ……….23 Relief Device………………………………………………………….…….24 Tests of GIS…………………………………………………………………25

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Type Test……………………………………………………………25 Routine Test………………………………………………………...27 Site Test……………………………………………………………..30

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………31 Reference………………………………………………………………….32

disconnectors and earthing switches. voltage and current transformers. reliability and the reduced life cycle costs. . The high voltage GIS is highly reliable. and it’s compact and flexible design saves space as well as reduces civil work. Today GIS technology is successfully used for voltages up to 800 kV.Abstract In 1960 the first gas insulated metal-enclosed switchgear went into service in the German 110 kV network. type testing. connection modules.5 kV up to 145 kV applications. The encapsulation consists of non-magnetic and corrosion-resistance cast aluminum or welded aluminum sheet. After general study and search this report represented the most aspects of GIS 145 kV Type respect to the Manufacturers Manual and International Standards. circuit breakers. Up to ratings of 170 kV. This report discusses the following aspects of SF6 GIS: enclosures. three-phase encapsulated GIS equipment dedicated to 72. GIS is an attractive alternative to conventional air insulated substations (AIS) because of the increased availability. the three phases of GIS are generally in a common enclosure at higher voltages the phases are segregated. It can be assembled on site very quickly.

Appreciate the effort of my colleagues from several Departments those attend with me this course for their commitment and assist to deliver the material of this course to be useful for all of us. Switzerland for his help and kind behave. This was a very nice experience for me to have a training course on the Areva Factory – GIS 145 kV Yard. Moisés FORTES . I want to thank the Engineering & Design – Extra High voltage Division for giving me permission to commence this report in the first instance. I would like to express special thanks to Mr.Project Manager of Gas Insulated Substation-Areva . Mohammed Al Mubark whose help. I am deeply indebted to my supervisor Mr. stimulating. EHV Division Manager. I will not forget to give all my respect to our instructor Mr. .Acknowledgment I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this report. Abdulaziz Al-Wayel. and to do the necessary research work and to use departmental data and for their corporation and friendly assistance. suggestions and encouragement helped me in all the time of research for and writing of this report.Araua. and I am sure it will be useful for my future career. not only because he is my manager but because he is helping all engineers to achieve their successes and I am really appreciating his infinite support and cooperation for offering me this opportunity to attend this training course.

. GIS equipment is usually of modular construction. The range of application of SF₆ Gas Insulated Switchgear extends from voltage ratings of 72. low weight. Extensive in-plant preassembly and testing of large units and complete bays reduces assembly and commissioning time on the construction site.Introduction The increasing demand of electrical power in cities and industrial centers necessitates the installation of a compact and efficient distribution and transmission network. instrument transformers. disconnectors. safety against touch contact. high reliability. High voltage gas insulated switchgear (GIS) is ideal for such applications. low maintenance and long life. and in special cases up to 80 kA.5 kV up to 800 kV with breaking currents of up to 63 kA. All components such as busbars. circuit-breakers. cable terminations and joints are contained in earthed enclosures filled with sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF₆). Both small transformer substations and large loadcenter substations can be designed with GIS technology. The distinctive advantages of SF₆ Gas Insulated Switchgear are: compact.

SF6 has the advantages of being nontoxic and non flammable GIS Substation AIS Substation . In addition to having a dielectric strength much greater than that of air. or desert climates. It possesses a high degree of operational reliability and safety to personal. It is easier to install in difficult site conditions ( e.Comparison between GIS & AIS Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS) that uses compresses sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas overcomes many of the limitations of the conventional open type AIS. It is easier to install in difficult site conditions ( e. 4. It is totally unaffected by atmospherically conditions such as polluted or saline air in industrial and coastal areas. SF6 has the advantages of being nontoxic and non flammable. In addition to having a dielectric strength much greater than that of air. 3. on unstable ground or in seismically active areas) 5. as it offers the following advantages: 1. 4.g.g. 2. on unstable ground or in seismically active areas) 5. The space occupied by the switchgear is greatly reduced.

In figure below the single-line diagram of a double bus-bar arrangement is shown. .Comparison of Required Area between 220 kV GIS S/S and AIS S/S GIS Components In GIS all live parts are enclosed in compressed gas system which is divided into a number of compartments. This division enables the isolation of one compartment for maintenance or repair purpose while the other compartments remain pressurized.

Voltage Transformers 6. Disconnectors 3. Cables Compartment 7. Basic components that make up any one GIS bay are as follow: 1. Control Cubical . Current Transformer 5.In figure below the diagram shows a typical gas GIS circuit breaker Bay. Circuit Breaker 2. Earthing Switch 4.

but are also capable of making and breaking the circuit under the severest system conditions.1. Fault clearance time has been reduced during the last 50 years due to the high technology adopted in circuit breaker design and the use of static relays . the current may reach tens of thousands of amperes at a power factor as low as 0. Under short circuit conditions. It is duty of a circuit breaker to interrupt such currents as soon as possible to avoid equipment damage. however. Loss of system stability is consequence of slow fault clearance. Breaking or making the circuit under load conditions represents no real problem for a circuit breaker since the interrupted current is relatively low and the power factor is high.Circuit Breaker Circuit breakers differ from switches in that they not only manually make and break the circuit while carrying their normal currents.

Basic components of the circuit breaker are shown in the figure below as follow: 1. Fixed contact assembly 8. Barrier insulator 4. Bottom plate . Support insulator 3. Pressure relief devices 7. Interrupter 5. Cast enclosure 6. Cover 2.

enclosures. and conductors of different geometrical shapes to give an optimum layout. and mechanically lockable end positions . The main features are motorized or manual operation. electrical interlocking against incorrect operation. They are equipped with copper contacts that are spring loaded to give the disconnector high electrical efficiency and high mechanical reliability. Disconnectors must be carefully designed and tested to be able to break small charging current without generating too-high overvoltage.Disconnectors Disconnectors are made up from insulators. otherwise flashover to earth may occur The operation mechanisms of the disconnectors and earthing switches are of the same design for most GIS.

In threephase enclosed GIS designed.Earthing Switch Two different types of earthing switch are normally used. Voltage Transformer The most commonly used voltage transformer VT is of the inductive type. • Induced current switching of overhead lines. Slowoperating earthing switch are used for protection purpose when work is being done in the substation. • Insulated by removable earth link for measurement on individual phases of the primary circuit without gas handling. It is also possible to design a voltage transformer consisting of a low-capacitive voltage divider connected to an electronic amplifier. The capacitance between the inner conductor and a concentric measuring electrode near the enclosure is then used as the high-voltage capacitor. The fast-closing earthing switch can close against full voltage and short circuit power. the slow-operating earthing switch and the fast-closing (high speed) earthing switch. This design is suitable only for the highest system voltages . The high speed earthing switch is achieved by means of a spring-closing device. but are operated only when it is certain that the highvoltage system is not energized. The advantages of Make-proof earthing switch (high speed) are as follows: • High speed closing and opening by mechanical spring charged mechanism. three voltage transformers are placed in one enclosure.

• Integrated disconnecting facility for GIS and power cable testing without dismantling and gas handling. .The advantages of the voltage Transformer as follow: • Variable location on feeder and busbars.

• Flexible gas compartment allocation for optimal service oriented gas supervision. The return current in the enclosure is broken by an insulating layer. They are preferably placed outside on the SF6 busing or on cables. . In three-phases enclosed GIS design the cores of the current transformers are normally located inside the enclosure. thus ensuring a completely undisturbed electrical field between the enclosure and the conductor. the core of a current transformer is located outside the enclosure. Current Transformer In the single-phase enclosed GIS.

The scope shall also include necessary cable supports and cable terminations suppliers shall be made for proper electrical and mechanical interface. Cables Compartment It is sealing end box for underground cable termination which is suitable for SF6 gasfilled for accommodating XLPE or LPOF single core copper cable terminations. The boxes shall be designed to accept the cable along with its terminations cone from below. • Variable length for optimal.The advantages of the three-phase Current Transformer as follow: • Cores in air outside the SF6 • Gas compartment to reduce access of moisture and to suppress gastight bushings for secondary connections. .

Optimized solution for IEC dry-type (plug-in type) power cable connection. 3. no need for special foundation (steel beams….Cables compartments have some features as follow: 1. LCC includes control and alarm functions as well as the correct distribution of auxiliary power supply for the relevant GIS bay. Local Control Cubicles “LCC” LCC is the interface cubicles to all secondary systems of a substation which are represent a station control and protection. . Fixation to the GIS floor by cemented anchor bolts.etc). Adjustable support structures for minimum requirements for the GIS floor. 2.

interlocking bypass. • Control of Disconnectors & Earthing switches ON/OFF control. Relief Device It is a device which fitted in each gas compartment including GIS surge arrester to relieve over pressure created by internal arcing faults automatically and instantaneously. Reactions may. anti-pumping. . Metering 4. However. colorless and heavier than air. heating. interface to synchronizing devices. • Supervision of SF-6 Gas Compartments Supervision of the gas pressure (stage 1. Measuring 5. with vaporizing arcing contact material). • Alarm indication & Signalization Alarm unit for alarm indication and signalization. This result in the formation of gaseous sulphur fluoride and solid metallic fluoride are powder and in the presence of water or moisture also in the development of hydrogen-fluoride and sulphur dioxide. and supervision of spring charging time. • Arc Detection System • Interlocking Interlocking between the high voltage mechanisms on the GIS • Human Machine Interface (HMI) Mimic equipped with control switches and position indictors. Interlocking 3. interface to protection devices. On cooling. panel lighting. • Control of Circuit Breakers Control of the closing and tripping coils.g. Remote control 2. Main functions realized in the local control cubicles: • AC-Supply Motor drives. and double action prevention of the mechanisms. Some of these decomposition products are conspicuous through their unpleasant piercing odour. supervision of operating times and intermediate positions. and panel sockets. Electrical discharges and arcs will decompose SF6 gas. almost water insoluble. odorless.it is in charge for a safe and reliable operation and monitoring of all switchgear elements. non-inflammable. Protection SF6 Gas (sulphur hexafluoride) The properties of SF6 gas are many and this is why GIS now being commonly used more than AIS because pure SF6 gas is chemically very stable. a large part of the decomposed gas recombines. inert. non-poisonous. also occur with design material (e. • DC-Supply Control and alarm indication • General control functions Remote & local control. stage 2) • Terminal Interface 1.

Tests of GIS • Type Test 1. Capacitive Current Switching Test .

VTs and other protective devices (rupturing disc. safety and system reliability are increased. Checking the Dimensions 3. Surface treatment ( cleaned and painted ) 4. Voltage Transformer HV Test 5. HV Site Test 2. production and commissioning are simplified. Gas-Insulated Switchgear GIS Areva Manual – Switzerland . Supply of Casting 2. control gears (CB. Control Panel Conclusion The GIS comprising of busbars. DS/ES). TRANSMISSION MATERIALS STANDARD SPECIFICATION 32-TMSS-02 (Revision no.2. The plug-in technology reduces assembly times at site to minimum. In conjunction with the computerized.0) 2. and project planning. Reference 1. The new optimized gas-insulated switchgear unites progressive and futuristic concepts and techniques. Operating and Mechanical Endurance Test 4. digital bay control and protection system. Water Burst Test 5. Dielectric Test • Routine (Production) Test 1. The use of vacuum circuit breakers ensures unrestricted mechanical and electrical functionality throughout the service life of the system. operator convenience. pressure gauges. Temperature Rise Test 3. Pressure and Tightness Test • Site Test 1. CTs. HV Test Equipment . etc) enclosed in metallic enclosure and filled with pressurized SF6 gas. Both appropriately rated sensors and conventional instrument transformers can be used for the monitoring of current and voltage.

IEC 60044 “ Instrument Transformers” 5. CIGRE Working Group 15-03 CIGRE paper 15/23-01. IEC 60376 “Specification of Technical Grade Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) for use in Electrical Equipment . 1992. 4.3.