ENGINEERING
PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
Graham & Trotman
First published in 1986 by Graham and Trotman Ltd. Graham and Trotman Inc. Sterling House, 13 Park Avenue, 66 Wilton Road, Gaithersburg, London SWlV 1DE MD 20877, UK USA
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Archer, . I S . Petroleum engineering : principles and practice I . Petroleum enginecring 1. Title 11. Wall. C.G. 622'. 3382 TN870 ISBN 0X6OlO6659 ISBN 086910b7159 Pbk
0J S Archer and C G Wall, 1986
This publication is protected by intcrnational copyright law. All rights reservcd. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mcchauical, photocopyi~~g, recording or otherwise, without the permission of the publishers.
Typeset in Great Britain by Bookworril Studio Services, Salford Printed and bound in Great Britain by The Alden Press, Oxforci
Contents
Preface Foreword CHAPTER 1 Introduction
1.1
CHAPTER 2 Reservoirs
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6
Petroleum Engineering: A creative technology
Conditions for occurrence Reservoir pressures Fluid pressures in a hydrocarbon zone Reservoir temperatures , Nature of reservoir fluids Reservoir data  sources
CHAPTER 3 Oilwell Drilling
Operations Costs Well completions and oilwell casing Completion Drilling fluid control Rheology of well fluids (drilling muds and cements) Formation breakdown pressures and leak off tests Data acquisition during drilling Mud fluids for core recovery Drilling optimization
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE
3.11 3.12 3.13
Turbine versus conventional rotary Special problc~ns drilling in Completion for production
I
CHAPTER 4
Properties of Reservoir Fluids
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Volumetric and phasc behaviour of hydrocarbon systems Applications to field ryrtems Compressibility Measurement and prediction of reservoir fluid properties Formation volume factors, B Gasoil ratios Direct measurements PVT analysis Generalized correlations for liquid systems
I
CHAPTER 5 Characteristics of Reservoir Rocks
Data sources and application Coring decisions Conventional and oriented coring Coring mud systems Core preservation Well site controls Core for special core analysis Corederived data Geological studies Routine core analysis Porosity Permeability Relationships bctween porosity and permeability
CHAPTER 6
Fluid Saturation: influence of wettability and capillary pressure
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Equilibrium conditions Laboratory measurements and relationship with reservoiv systems Pore size distribution Capillary pressure hysteresis Saturation dirtributions in reservoir intervals Correlation of capillary pressure data from a given rock type 92 93 96 97 98 99
1
CHAPTER 7 Relative permeability and multiphase flow in porous media
7.1 7.2 7.3 Definitions Fractional flow Effects of permeability variation
CONTENTS
vii 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 Wettability effects Laboratory determination of relative permeability data Residual saturations In situ wettability control Relative permeability from correlations Validation of relative permeability data for use in displacement calculations Pseudorelative permeability in dynamic systems Static pseudorelative permeability funttions 108 109 111 112 112 113 115 115
CHAPTER 8 Representation of volumetric estimates and recoverable reserves
Inplace volume Areal extent of reservoirs Thickness maps Lithofacies representation Isoporosity maps Isocapacity maps Hydrocarbon pore volume maps Probabilistic estimation Recovery factors and reserves Distribution of equity in petroleum reservoirs
CHAPTER 9 Radial Flow Analysis of Well Performance
Radial flow in a simple system Development of the line source solution Radial equations in practical units Application of analytical solutions in well test methods Pressure buildup analysis Skin effect Pressure drawdown and reservoir limit testing Gas well testing Well test procedures Well testing and pressure analysis
CHAPTER 10 Reservoir Performance Analysis
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Recovery from gas reservoirs Primary recovery in oil reservoirs Gravity segregation and recovery efficiencies Material balance for reservoirs with water encroachment or water injection Accuracy of the gross material balance equation 157 159 164 165 168
CHAPTER 11 Secondary Recovery and Pressure Maintenance
11.1 Displacement principles
viii 11.2 11.3
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
Factors influencing secondary recovery and pressure maintenance schemes Quality of injection fluids and disposal of brines
175 183
CHAPTER 12 Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery
Targets The influence of recovcry mechanism on residual oil Permeability improvement Miscible displacement mechanisms Miscible flood applications Chemical flood processes Heavy oil recovery Thermal energy Gas condensate reservoirs Volatile oil reservoirs 191 191 193 194 195 196 200 204 207 211
CHAPTER 13 Factors Influencing Production Operations
The production system Reservoir bchaviour in production engineering Wcllbore flow Field process facilities Natural gas processing Crude oil processing Heavy oil processing Produced water treatment Injection water treatment Crude oil metering
CHAPTER 14 Concepts in Reservoir Modelling and Application to Development Planning
14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 Models Equations of inultiphase flow Simulator classifications Sirnulator application Reservoir description in modelling Application of reservoir models in field dcvelopment 257
APPENDIX 1 SPE Nomenclature and Units
Units SPE Symbols Standard Symbols alphabetized by physical quantity Subscripts alphabetized by physical quantity
APPENDIX 2 Solutions to Examples in Text INDEX
310 357
It is. hoped that the material will also be of more general use to practising petroleum engineers and those wishing for aa introduction into the specialist literature. Dan Smith at Graham and Trotman Ltd. Wall 1986 . The authors would like to express their sincere thanks and appreciation to all the people who have helped in the preparation of this book by technical comment and discussion and by giving permission to reproduce material. Jill and Jane1 for typing seemingly endless manuscripts. particularly as practised in the offshore environments of NorthWest Europe. In particular we would like to thank our present colleagues and students at Imperial College and at E R C Energy Resource Consultants Ltd. Archer and Colin G. The book is arranged to provide both background and overview into many facets of petroleum engineering. John S. however.PREFACE The need for this book has arisen from demand for a current text from our students in Petroleum Engineering at Imperial College and from postexperience Short Course students. for his perseverence and optimism. and Lesley and Joan for believing that one day things would return to normality. for their stimulating company. The material is largely based on the authors' experience as teachers and consultants and is supplemented by worked problems where they are believed to enhance understanding.
and a study o f the current literature shows the vast amount o f effort now being applied to further the understanding and improve predictions o f the behaviour o f reservoir fluids and to increase their recovery. Petroleum engineers play a leading role in the design o f recovery systems which require flexibility in well placement and the sizing o f surface facilities for export processing to ensure that the products mcct the specifications required for transportation by pipeline or tanker. The prediction o f fluid behaviour in hcterogeneous reservoirs is aided by sophisticated mathematical modelling using powerful computers. With such a spread o f disciplines the availability o f a text. Imperial College. mathcmatics and computer science. Indeed. These studies and operations require the disciplines o f physics. describing the basics o f petroleum engineering. Petroleum fluids are complex mixtures o f many hydrocarbons and currently prediction o f their behaviour at reservoir pressures o f up to 14 500 psia (1000 bar) and 450°F (230°C) is based on attempts to understand their thermodynamics. The petroleum engineer's responsibilities are o f necessity very wide. That the oil and gas industry is profitable is largely duc to the emergence o f petroleum engineering and the techniques which have been developed for its application. The lnethodology in petrolcum rescrvoir development requires the testing and evaluation o f exploration and appraisal wells to discover the volume in place and productivity of compressible hydrocarbon fluids. The breadth o f the interdisciplinary knowledge needed by today's petroleum engineer is ever increasing. The authors are the present and past Heads o f Petroleum Engineering in the Department o f Mineral Resources Engineering o f the Royal School o f Mines. It now provides the technical basis for the exploitation o f petroleum fluids in subsurface sedimentary rock reservoirs. wells and plant. geology. and has an obligation to analyse all the data available and to interpret it effectively in order to forecast the future performance o f the reservoir. some o f the most powerful computers available today are dedicated to the modelling o f reservoir behaviour and a modern petrolcum engineer must be capable o f making full use o f them.Foreword Petroleum engineering has developed as an area o f study only over the present century. and skills are required to design for data acquisition which will allow updating of rescrvoir models in the light of production experience. is welcomed. The petroleum engineer is a resource manager. This may well lead to decisions on variations in the original production scheme. Londcn and . The knowledge of the reservebase is always insufficientas natural reservoirs are heterogeneous in their geometry and character. In all these activities safety and economy are mandatory. classical engineering.
London. Sweatman (exChief Production Engineer?British Petroleum Company and Visiting Professor Petroleum Engineering Imperial College. Through its e3tensive bibliography the reader will also be guided to more specialised branches of the petroleum engineering literature.FOREWORD xi both have had field experience with major oil companies before joining Imperial College. A. UK) . The Petroleum Engineering Section moved to its present location in the Mineral Resources Engineering Department at the Royal School of Mines in 1973 and currently runs undergraduate and Master of Sciences courses and has active postgraduate and postdoctoral research groups. The College has been a centre for the study of petroleum recovery since the early years of this century with courses in Oil Technology commencing in 1913. H. This book will both give students a good grounding in petroleum engineering and be valuable to the practising engineer as a comprehensive reference work.
.
in that design is based on observation of production performance and on a representation of the reservoir inferred from very limited sampling.5" API) requires special petroleum engineering effort.costs of production are significant. chemistry. Developments in the recovery of hydro . The exploitation of heavy oil (API) gravity less than 20" API) and of gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs (API gravity greater than 4. geology. economics and geostatistics. For example.1 has been adapted from Timmerman The terminology of the subject contains varying degrees of confidence in the representation of the inplace and recoverable resource base. reservoirs cannot be designed to fulfill a particular task.1). in terms of pretax cost of oil production from a 2000 mSS onshore well compared with a 3000 mSS offshore well.nature of the reservoir can be accumulated and the production methods can be modified. On a project basis. a petroleum engineer has a responsibility to present analyses of schemes that are both technically and financially attractive. Petroleum engineering can thus represent an exercise in the application of uncertainty to design.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. With the passage of time and cumulative production.I PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: A CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY The function of petroleum engineering is to provide a basis for the design and implementation of techniques to recover commercial quantities of natural petroleums. A route to problem solution in petroleum engineering shown as Table 1. but rather an illdefined naturally occurring reservoir is induced to produce some fraction of its contents for as long as is considered commercially attractive. mathematics. In Chapter 8 ['j1. The further recovery of hydrocarbons from reservoirs approaching the end of conventional development processes requires the costeffective application of enhanced (EOR) or improved (IHR) hydrocarbon recovery processes. Unlike many branches of engineering. particularly in highpressure or offshore reservoirs. Current exploration in maturing hydrocarbon provinces is centred on more subtle trapping mechanisms than structural highs and on smaller accumulations. physics. The economics of hydrocarbon recovery processes is inextricably linked with the practice of petroleum engineering. It is of necessity a broadly based technology drawing upon the foundations of engineering. a ratio of 1:10 might be expected. we discuss the representation of 'proven' quantities of hydrocarbon in terms of the availability of information and the existence of the technology to exploit recovery on commercially attractive terms. more information on the . 1. As an engineering subject it is a little anomalous. In the current climate of deeper reservoir exploration and increased exploitation ofoffshore reservoirs in the world's sedimentary basins (Fig.
.
The cost profile for the development of an offshore oil field on the Continental Shelf (UKCS) with some 75 million barrels of recoverable oil is indicated in Fig.. 1. has led to an increased economic and political awareness amongst petroleum engineers.2 shows the fluctuation in the average official Middle East crude oil price.r a t l o n a I l z e w l t h real.1 Problem solving in petroleum engineering carbon from oil sands and oil shales requires that petroleum engineering methods are combined with the technologies of mining engineers and chemical engineers... I 7 8 '79'80'81 '82'83'64'85' Year I I Upgrade base for study by literature search.. Break down problem into stages 2 . The investment was over £500 million in 1985 currency. I Make a techn~callysound. Revise ideas.be prepared to m o d ~ f y t Learn from the experience TABLE 1. which averaged some 400 million barrels of recoverable reserves for each reservoir. compiled from figures in Petroleum Intelligence Weekly.. ~ m p l e m e n and monitor result . and maybe develop more theory. think and compare data with expectation and physical behaviour.  A c t . Multidiscipl~nary may be needed to express interrelated phenomena..project analogy. Pound Organise data and applicableapproaches in solution... The effect of the exchange rate fluctuation between the pound sterling and the US dollar is also clearly seen. reliable and u n b ~ a s e dc o n c l u s ~ o n Write summary o f f a c t s leading toconclusion and supporting the proposed action. I Define theoretical bas's required for each s o l u t ~ o n and apply . Present results of study to win a l l necessary approvals to proceed.. Is simple approach required 7 order of magnitude o r d e t a ~ l e d :. The current fiscal environment.. .p e r f o r m intensive analysis of data and results. or at mid1985 exchange rates it was over US$600 million.1 INTRODUCTION Define objective of study (nature of the problem 0 6 26 =6 c?z Identify economic value of answer in terms o f costs and time i n study. ~nvolvement statistical correlation etc. The costs of reservoir development generally require an operating company to raise a substantial quantity of money from loans the repayment terms of which are linked to a representation of reservoir production uncertainties. Conduct study . If appropriate. Evaluate. express result probabilistically. The prices of oil in world markets is partly controlled by agreement amongst producing nations. . The variations have an effect on exploitation policies of operating companies. It is also very clear from this figure that much of the investment is exposed at least five years prior to any production revenue.. . Prepare outline study plan and evaluate availability.reliabil~ty and accuracy of data base. Fig. . /I ! ' 1 I Define study flow p a t h s a n d c r i t ~ c a paths l c a p t a l . Apply professional judgement and interpret result in manner that provides best f i t o f facts.ty Budget t i m e .2 Variation in price of average Middle East crude oil.. This fact alone leads to a petroleum engineering design criterion of high initial production rates to shorten payout times.in more detail to the problem. 1.3. particularly in NW Europe. The development of offshore oil fields on the UKCS with recoverable reserves less than 100 million barrels should provide a greater challenge to petroleum engineers than those under development at the end of 1983.: Dollar Select preferred approaches to solving t h e problem models. Figure 1..
4 Offshore exploration using the semisubmersible rig Sea Conquest (Photo courtesy of BP.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 0 5 T~rne (years) since discovery 1 0 Fig. 1.3 Capital expenditure profile for hypothetical 1985 UKCS offshore oil discovery with 75 million stock tank barrels of recoverable oil. Fig. 1.) .
The role of taxation in optimising the exploitation of the UK continental shelf.D. [2] British Petroleum Company plc BP Statistical Review of World Energy (June 1984). R.water.L~quid) Mlsclbie Hydro carbons ' Oil. (1983). 1. London (1983). Proc. Distribution and quantitive assessment of world petroleum reserves and resources.Pad or wells platform Updip/downdip lines and volatile Pressure Maint. [6] Brush. [5] UK Offshore Operators Association Potential Oil and Gas Production from the UK Offshore to the Year 2000. C. [4] Esso UK plc Opportunities for British Industry (1984). Co.ocarbon (Gas. D. Europec (1984).ocarbon (C02. Europec (1984). SPE Paper 13008. Mem 5. L 2 . [7] Marks.5 Petroleum recovery methods. 1983 and annually. Tulsa (1983).E.J. [9] Archer. [ l l ] Master.En. Q. Paper ~ ~ f l ( 1 ) . 1984). 1 7 Thermal for Heavy oi!s \ c O ~ ~ i O n Soak Drive Wet Dry 1 Mining technology applications New chemicals Insltu heating Cycling Gravlty drainage  / Combinat~on drive 1 i Other f u l d InjectionJ C02. Paper PD6(1). ElfAquitaine. SPE Paper 12988.N2 / \ ~~d. P a n wells . Reservoir definition and characterisation for analysis and simulation. J. N 2 ) s 1 dscble (water biocklng) MISCI~I~ and Woter~ontrol low I F T Fig.. S. Proc. Further small offshore oilfield developments. . A. [8] Underdown.S. 407. Technical Paper (Sept. References [I] International Petroleum Engineering Encyclopedia Pennwell Publish. 11th World Pet. Proc. 11th World Pet. 1101 Perrodon. gas separation and handling Remote and frontier areas facility design C h e m l c a l processes surfadnts poiymers \ ~ika~is Non hyd. Cong. Cong.S. [3] Department of Energy Development of the oil and gas resources of the United Kingdom (the Brown Book). Bias in engineering estimation. and Marsden.M. Pau 1983. 265. JPT (1982) 433. Proc. Dynamics of oil and gas accumulations. Pub.1 INTRODUCTION '+ Petroleum recovery pressure maintenance (supplelnented drive energy) Water injection natural reservoir energy) Solutiongas drlve '1: Natural water influx High rate '1' / Low rate \ Gas injection I] 4J Nuclear technology applications Stimulation l m m i ~ ~ b l eMkcible] Intermediate Combinatlon Compoctlon drlve Gas cop expansion  1 1. V.
JPT (Dec. Penrlwell Publishing. andHaynes. 727. E. Feb. Reprint Series 3 . Practical Re. D. 1984) and in Pet. [I41 Attanasi. Investment clecisions in pctroleurn exploration and production. SPE of AIME (1970). The Hague (1981). Risk analysis in capital invcstn~cnt~ Harvt~rdBusiness Review (Jan. [I31 Northern.R. Proc. Pr~trul~utrz E. [I61 Parrn. F. Economics and appraisal of conventional oil and gas (in the Wcstcrn Gulf of Mexico). UN Corg. E.L. I.~ervoir Engineering. Firia~icialrequirements ancl methods of financing petroleum operations in developing countries. [15] Tirnmerman. 2171. Grahanl Sr Trotman 177192.B.. J. Tulsa (1982). 1984). Trans.G. JPT (July 1964).6 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [12] Hertz. 2 vols.D.x~~lo~rrlion Strrctegics in Devrlopirzg Counfries. 176.H. .
Secondary processes.4. plankton and algae. as shown in Figs 2.e. The hydrogen content of the organic matter should be greater than 7% by weight for potential as an oil source. (b) the formation and migration of petroleum. The setting for hydrocarbon accumulation is a sedimentary basin that has provided the essential components for petroleum reservoir occurrence. including compaction. A temperature window in the range 140°F to 300"F. The discovery of oil by exploration well drilling in some of the world's sedimentary basins is shown in Figs 2. which may be correlatable with burial depth and geological time. solution. wet gases and gas. the principal source rock for North Sea oil averages about 5% carbon (. (c) a trapping mechanism. seems to be optimal for formation of hydrocarbon mixtures classified as oils. may lead progressively to the generation of hydrocarbon mixtures characterized as condensates. If the pore fluids cannot be expelled the pore fluid pressure may increase. can act to modify further the pore structure and geometry. The North Sea province is seen as a relatively young exploration area in a high yield basin. It is believed that petroleum originates from the anaerobic decomposition of fats. namely (a) a source for hydrocarbons. proteins and carbohydrates in marine or estuarine plant and animal matter. Petroleum formation requires that organic source clays become mature by subjection to pressure and temperature.Chapter 2 Reservoirs 2. The average organic content of potential source rocks is about 1%by weight. Prolonged exposure to high temperatures.2 in terms of intensity of exploration. is also sometimes known as a pool. The primary depositional processes and the nature of the sediments have a major influence on the porosity and permeability of reservoir rocks. This needs rapid sedimentation in organic rich waters and leads to the accumulation of organic rich clays in an anaerobic environment. which will have reached a fluid pressure equilibrium throughout its pore volume at the time of discovery.1 CONDITIONS FOR OCCURRENCE We may define a reservoir as an accumulation of hydrocarbon in porous permeable sedimentary rocks. the existence of traps in porous sedimentary rock at the time of migration and in the migration path. grains of sediment are subject to increasing contact and pore fluids may be expelled from the decreasing pore volume. The accumulation. i. From a petroleum engineering perspective it is convenient to think of sedimentary basins as accumulations of water in areas of slow subsidence into which sediments have been transported. A hydrocarbon field may comprise several reservoirs at different statigraphic horizons or in different pressure regimes. It is a rule of thumb that for each percentage .3 and 2. With compaction.1 and 2. The origin of sedimentary basins and the genesis. The Kimmeridge clay. maturity and exploration effort and volume by discovery. migration and entrapment of hydrocarbons is an extensive topic covered in the geological literature['10] and only the essential details are reviewed here.7% organic matter) with local rich streaks greater than 40%. chemical replacement and diagenetic changes. or shorter exposure to very high temperatures.
W. Exploration success (%) lo6 rn3 oil discovered per successful wildcat Fig.1 Wildcat well success v. 2.France / / / / / / ~. 2./'*Wyoming Oklahoma / / .Texas . / / / / *Reconcavo ~ouisiano// Alberta .1/ 1 / / / / I I / / I I I 5 1 0 100 Wildcat wells per lo4 krn2 50 500 1000 5000 10 000 Fig.5/ / / //* / / / / / . Gulf Coast (offshore) E /' / / Indonesia / / /aU. exploration yield and discovery (after [la]).Saharo / *~a?o{ //O / / / / / U S .E. Tunisia 0.2 Historical relationships between exploration intensity and yield (after [''I).S.o ro / */ N.~anada / / / / / W. / ~ichigan// / / / / 9 1L / //.Germany / / / / / 0. / ~sea ~ t h // / Illinois a . .100 50 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / // / / / / / / / / / California / / / / / / // / Arabian Gulf / N 1 / /' / / ~ Arctic Slope / / / ~ i g e r Delta osirte / N.Texas 10 L 5 E / Gippsland //.A /' / / / m ~ a r k t i s // S.
It is not. 2. 0 Gas pool Gas migration routes Surface oil shows rocks soure rock Fig.there is no consensus on this topic.)I'[ Oil pool I Oil migration routes . necessarily true that all the oil generated will be expelled or trapped in porous rocks. namely through the source rock and then through a permeable system. 2.2 RESERVOIRS Hydrocarbon generated+ 9  fossils" Fig.[ Fig.5 Migration pattern model for a section of the Congo coastal basin (after [61). The migration process involves two main stages. In the permeable system the transport occurs under condi .4 Variation in the quanhy of hydrocarbons contained in fine grained sediments as a function of temperature (after. some 13005000 cubic metres of oil per km2 m (1040 barrels of oil per acreft) of sediment could be generated. The movement of petroleum may have been as a solution in water or as distinct oil or gas phases . 2. point of organic carbon in mature source rocks. there may well be an initiation of microfractures which provide an escape route into permeable systems such as sedimentary rocks or fault planes. however. Migration of petroleum generated from source rocks is not well understood. Since the generation of petroleum is accompanied by volume changes which can lead to high local pressures.3 Hydrocarbon generation for normal geothermal ) I ' gradient (after. The source rock microfractures are believed to heal as pressures are dissipated.
the malor~ty being in the range 5004000 mSS. Limit of poroS1ty Stratlgraplcsand 'pinchout' trap Fig.5.7. 2. Stratigraphic traps result when a depositional bed changes from permeable rock into finegrain impermeable rock (Fig. 1 Cross section .UKCS. The character~sticforms of petroleum trap are known as structural and stratigraphic traps. we may have an expectation of. 2. 2. In our concept of the petroliterous sedimentary basin a5 a region of water into which sediment has accumulated and hydrocarbons have been generated and trapped.a regional hydrostat~cgradient. . I cross section Unconform~ty surface A Map I Fig. the Breiit Sand reservoirs arc characteristically faulted deltaic sands truncated by the Cretaceous unconformity. In the Viking Graben area of the northern North Sea.10. o r structural after the geological nature of the unconformity. 2.9).. 2..c. 2. out . Fig. RESERVOIR PRESSURES Hydrocarbon reservoirs are found over a wlde lange of present day depths of burial. Impermeable rocks provide seals above and below the permeable reservoir rocks. 2. Cross section In the North Sea and several other sedimentary areas. a style of trapping is found which results from the truncation of inclined permeable beds by an impermeable unconformity surface (Fig. It might be assurned that less than 10% of petroleunl generated in source rocks is both expelled and trapped.   .2. as shown in the example of Fig. as shown in Figs 2.6 Anticlinal structure.   '0wc.9 Unconformity trap. A t equilibrium conditions the density differences between the oil.10 Brent Sand trap .8 Strat~graphicpinch trap. with the great majority of known accuinulation being in the former style. It is debatable whether this trap should be called stratigraphic because of the trapping by fine grained sediments.7 Fault trap. 2. gas and water phases can result in boulldary regions between them known as fluid contacts. Fig. 2.8). Structural traps may be generally s~~bdivided anticlinal and fault traps which arc into described in terms of the shape of the sedimentary beds and their contacts. Examples of this process occur in thc more distal regions and in discontinuous sands of river channels.10 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE tions of a fluid potential gradient which may take the hydrocarbon to surface or to some place where it becomes trapped.6 and 2. . 2. oilwater and gasoil contacts. i. The down faulted mature Kimmeridge shale also provides a source for the oil as shown in Fig. Cross sect~on MOP Fig. Many reservoirs exist as the result of a combination of structural and stratigraphic features. in deeper water deltaic sediments and in the enveloping sediments of limestone reefs. The seal for the Middle Jurassic is either the clays and shales of the unconformity itself or Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge shale.
Abnormal pressure regimes are evident in Fig.2 RESERVOIRS That is. In reservoirs found at depths between 2000 mSS and 4000 mSS we might use a gradient of 11 kpalm to predict pore fluid pressures around 220 bar to 440 bar as shown in Table 2. TABLE 2. All show similar salinity gradients but different degrees of overpressure. simply because of the lower density of the hydrocarbon compared with water. pore fluids (Gf) and sediment grain pressure (G.5) .12. The pore fluids can be considered to take part of the overburden pressure and relieve that part of the overburden load on the rock grains. 2. 2. One particular mechanism responsible for overpressure in some North Sea reservoirs is the inability to expel water from a system containing rapidly compacted shales. Fresh water exhibits a gradient of 9. \ \ + G. depends on the salinity of the waters and on the temperature in the system.53 psilft).). = G.17 (0.11.G. or because of movement of closed reservoir structures. The value of G.1 1 Pressure regimes in Brent Sand reservoirs (after ['21). which is based on data from a number of Brent Sand reservoirs in the North Sea. There is a balance in a reservoir system between the pressure gradients representing rock overburden (G.). where X i s the depth below a reference datum (such as sea level) and G.44 psiift) to 12 kpalm (0. 2. Fig. Any hydrocarbon bearing structure of substantial relief will exhibit abnormally high pressures at the crest when the pressure at the hydrocarbonwater contact is normal. f Q .3 (0. possibly related to development in localized basins[12].433) 10. is the pressure exerted by unit height of water. A representation of this is G.12 Equilibrium gradients.1.1 Pore fluid pressure.45) 11. and is shown in Fig. Pressure + . Under certain depositional conditions. 2. in a water column representing vertical pore fluid continuity the pressure at any point is approximated by the relationship 8000 ~totfjord Px= X .79 kpaim (0. o g lloooLO L Heather Lye11 12 000 13 000I I I I I 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 Pore f u ~ d pressure ( P S I )+ Fig.79 (0. fluid pressures may depart substantially from the normal range (see for example MagaraI2]).433 psilft) and reservoir water systems are commonly encountered with gradients in the range 10 kpaim (0. bar (psi) Depth m SS (ftSS) Gradient kPa/m (psilft): 9.
Above thc wateroil contact. In layered sand systems which contact. the position Po = P. condition as an ecluilibriuln condition. 2. as follows: multiple fluid contacts can be found as shown in Fig. ) . water level (FWL). the pressure in the oil phase w~ll Pcl(XD) bc do not have equilibrium with a common aquifer. This leads to overpressured aquiferhydrocarbon ~ystemsl'~].14 Multiple fluid contacts showing tested interval indicationof LKO and HKW. defines the free P. Abnormal fluid pressures are those not in initial fluid equilibrium at the discovery depth.or overpressure.. The magnitude o f the overburden gradient is approxirnately 22. + Cl. 2. as in some reservoirs a zone o f the prcssure In the oil phasc is the pressure that the 100% water saturation can occur above the free oil had at the wateroil contact less the density head water level by capillarity. This difference accounts for gaskicks encountered sometimes during drilling operations as gas sands are penetrated.13 shows this under. There can be significant Top reserilolr .(owc).3 FLUID PRESSURES IN A HYDROCARBON ZONE At the wateroil contact. is the local oil density. is given by the average tcmperaturesalinity gradient ot wate.13 Pressure equrlibr~um a statlc system in calculated P.. P.. This may be the result o f upthrust or downthrown faulting.(goc). This effect is dcscrihcd o f the 011. At any depth XU above the wateroil further in Chapter 6.14. the rock grains take a proportionally increasing part o f the overburden load. As an equation o f a straight line this is W e will define a fluid contact between oil and water as the depth in the reservoir at which the pressure in the oil phase (P.. we can therefore write speaking. fro111 the surface datum o f sea level.. (goc) = P. The prcswre in the gas phase at the top o f the reservoir X I will therefore be: 5 a 9 a \.(owc) = P. Overpressure from the burial weight o f glacial ice has also been cited. = X. 2. can reprcsent any degree o f water phase ( P . X.6 kpalm ( 1 psilft). In Gulf coast and North Sea reservoirs overpressure is most frequently attributed to rapid deposition o f shales from which bound water cannot escape to hydrostatic equilibrium. G. Strictly At somc dcyth.Reference to Fig. Fig.pg Where g' is the ratio o f gravitational acceleration g to the universal constant g.12 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE As fluid pressure is reduced. Magaral" has described conditions leading to abnormally high and abnormally low pressures. at the samebetween P..(X.) equation difference at depth XT depth using the and the P. 2. The placing of tluid contact\ often rcsults horn . Pressure + where p. 2. The estimat~onand recognition o f flulci contacts are essential in evaluating hydrocarbons in place.) is equal to the pressure in thc where the constant C..w p Water Fig. Some explanations lie in reservoirs being found at present depths higher or lower than the depth at which they became filled with hydrocarbon. At the gasoil contact P .
i jt 5060 0.e. / z0 ak 10  $ 6a $ $ 200) +G C L 22 2 a E 30  / Indication. 2. i.2 RESERVOIRS consideration of information from several sources. The overburden and reservoir rock. using a suite of temperatures at a given depth from successive logging runs. . When temperature gradients are represented by a straight line from the surface to the reservoir interval.4 RESERVOIR TEMPERATURES Reservoir temperature may be expected to conform to the regional or local geothermal gradient. a typical geostatic temperature gradient in the reservoir interval of a northern North Sea well might be 0. The combination of uncertainties in fluid properties for gradient extrapolation and in well test intervals means that a fluid contact is often represented as a depth range until data from several wells in a reservoir have been correlated.@F/100 ft). temperature of the North Sea has been taken as 43°C. together with large surface areas for heat transfer within the reservoir. (a) equilibrium pressures from RFT or gradient surveys. can be used to obtain an indication of the undisturbed local temperature (Fig. (c) flow of particular fluid from particular minimum or maximum depth. ' i Mean predictive gradient Fig. (e) saturations interpreted from wireline log data. 2. Some of these difficulties may be resolved by capillary pressure analysis using representative core samples. The effect of shaliness is manifest in small pore throats and high threshold capillary pressure which give high water saturation.16. during microA/ log run 0Indication during sonic log run // a 0 . (b) equilibrium pressures from well tests.15). The local geothermal gradient can be disturbed around a wellbore by drilling operations and fluids.15 Geostatic bottomhole temperature from Horner analysis.e) = r e apsea rlme since c rcuot on stopped ar I ng tlrne t me slnce clrcJ at on stopped + Fig.16 Geostatic temperature gradient.1 A / during ~ n d u c t ~ o n run log i I 0. A particular difficulty in hydrocarbonwater contact evaluation concerns identification in the presence of increasing shaliness. 2. + e c 0m Geostatic bottom h oP temperature / . In many petroliferous basins this is around 0. and a Horner type analysis['41. lead to a reasonable assumption that reservoir condition processes tend to be isothermal. (d) fluid densities from formation samples. (g) fluid saturations from recovered core.0 ( og sca.029 Kim (1. The proving of an oilwater contact from flow tests gives rise to the terminology of LKO (lowest known oil) or ODT (oil down to) depths and HKW (highest known water) or WUT (water up to) depths. there may be an implied correction for water depth in offshore operations. 2. which have large thermal capacities. As shown in Fig.029"Kim (0.016"FIft). 2. 40~ EZ On $5 odan nco l. The mean . (f) capillary pressure data from core samples. The temperature profile from surface conditions will reflect rock property variations and can be obtained from maximum reading thermometers used with logging tools.5 At t t At 1.
The degree of understanding of reservoir continuity and properties should improve with each well drilled but will always be a subjcct of uncertainty. The relationship between APT gravity and the specific gravity of the liquid (relative to water) at 60°F (SGbO)is as follows: SG6. 2. gas.. Petroleum hydrocarbons consist predominantly of a series of paraffin hydrocarbons (CrrHZrrf2) together with some cyclic hydrocarbons (naphthenes C. The usual range starts with water density at 10" and rises to volatile oils and straw coloured condensate liquids around 60"70"..6 RESERVOIR DATA  SOURCES The determiAation of hydrocarbon in place and technically recoverable reserves requires the implementation of a data acquisition scheme. the volume of gas associated with unit volume of stock tank oil is a characterization property.H2. and aromatics C. The compositions of the arbitrary classifications might typically be as those shown in Table 2. conventionally the barrel but frequently nowadays the cubic metre. Although the range is continuous. and frcqucntly three.5 ("API + 131. phases present within the reservoir during its producing life (oil. the compositions and the physical properties of the phases present may change as production proceeds. a volume is meaningless unless accompanied by a definition of the conditions of mcasuremcnt. Exprcssed as a gasail ratio or GOR. By convention.H.. water). The proportions.14 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 2. or cvcn to CZO. The normal condition is sometimes used. The volume unit of measurement in the industry is the stock tank unit. The volumetric equivalence of one standard barrel of fluid (1 BBL) is as Follows: and is discussed further in Chapter 4. at O C and 1 bar. oil density has long been described using an expanded inverse scale authorized by the American Petroleum Institute the API gravity. or which may exist only within the hydrocarbon bearing interval as connate or intcrstitial water. If we define a phase as being a physically distinct and physically separable part of a system. All the phases are considered compressible. the volume resulting from unit volume of feed depends on the conditions of processing. reservoir appraisal and delineation stage needs careful planning and coordination in order to extract the maximum information. I11 communication of data it is inevitable that recourse to unit conversions will occur. Since stock tank oil is the result of a processing operation (gas separation). The economic justification of data acquisition is sometimes a difficult case to argue. but although compositional analysis is frequently taken to C1. for most purposes all hydrocarbons heavier than C6 or C7 arc frequently lumped as a composite fraction characterized by molecular weight and boiling point range.159 cubic metres (m3) A barrel at stock tank conditions of temperature and pressure is denoted STB.615 cubic ft (ft3) 1BBL = 0.5 NATURE OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS Hydrocarbon accumuIations are invariably associated with formation waters which may constitute extensive aquifers underlying o r contiguous to the hydrocarbons. In the petroleum industry.2. may require complete compositional analysis. Hydrocarbon reservoir fluids may be roughly classified as shown in Table 2. stock tank conditions used in the industry are 60°F and 1 atmosphere pressure._6). The data collected in thc prcdevelopment. = 141. as O NCM or nm3. then there will always be two. The cubic metre at stundurd conditions of 15°C and 1 bar is represented as SCM or sm3. Many North Sea oils are in the region of 37" API with GORs around 600 SCFISTB . the units at a reference condition of 60°F and 1 atmosphere pressure are commonly SCFISTB and SCMISCM.3. and pressures change in the essentially isothermal system. in some cases.5) 1 BBL = 5. It is most frequently necessary to relate the volume of a fluid phase existing at reservoir conditions of temperature and pressure to its equivalent volume at standard conditions. The analysis of reservoir performance depends upon the prediction of the physical properties of the coexisting phases at any time and. As with gases. although to different degrees. The relationship forms a term known as a forrri~ltion volilrne factor In addition to oil gravity or density. The cubic foot at standard conditions of 60°F and 1 atmosphere has found considerable industry usage in gas'volume measurement and is represented as SCF. the divisions are arbitrary. but since production facility design and peak .
Better representation with viscosity higher than say 10 cp. Black oil 3045 Volatile oil 4570 Gas condensate Dry gas TABLE 2. The main sources of reservoir data.75 0. are shown in Table 2.1 The volume of Upper Jurassic source rock buried to maturation depth in the United Kingdom Continental Shelf has been estimated at 12 million km2m. Estimate the oil in place and the technically recoverable oil in the UKCS. No anomalies in phase behaviour.03 0. stating the assumptions made.200. The liquid phase has very high ratios of dissolved gas to oil and the gas phase can yield a substantial part of the stock tank liquid. Exists in a twophase region.4. which will be amplified in later chapters.08 0. .08 5075 10000 + Tank gas 0. May be recently sourced or degraded black oil.44 0.65 0.04 0.05 0.+ 0.04 0. Very low oil specific gravities.01 0.43 2545 2000 plateau production rates are calculated from reserve estimates. A gas phase at reservoir conditions but can undergo retrograde behaviour to yield low denslty oils In the reservoir.08 0.600. the narrowing of estimates in a probabilistic sense leads to greater confidence in capital commitment.1 5 4060 30006000 Separator gas 0.02 0.17 shows the types of interac tions using petroleum engineering and geological information during hydrocarbon exploitation. Also known as a dissolved gas oil system and constitutes majority of oil reservoirs.01 Liquid API gravity GOR After processing: Tank oil 0.04 0.2 RESERVOIRS 15 TABLE 2.03 0.03 0. Mole fraction compositions of hydrocarbon reservoir fluids Condensate Volatile oil Light black oil CI CP c3 c4 c 5 c. At surface may form tar sands etc.04 0.3 Dry gas Essentially light hydrocarbon mixture existing entirely in gas phase at reservoir conditions. Figure 2.2 Classification of hydrocarbon reservoir fluids Fluid A PI gravity Note Heavy oil <20 High viscosity.9 0.05 0. high otl density and negl~glblegasoil ratio. Examples Example 2.02 0. The source rock has an average carbon content of 5% and an expected convertibility of 4500 m3 oil per km2m of source rock for each percentage point of carbon.03 0. Crit~caltemperatures are greater than reservoir tempsrature.
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under favourable condrtions.) . 2.19). Initial reservoir pressure.20). and possibly the type of hydrocarbon. and can help in determining intervals for coring. 2. fluid saturations and hydrocarbon type. thicknesses of porous. Logs may be open hole or cased hole production logs. permeability . 2. (Photo courtesy of BP. Special core analysis techniques will indicate recovery potential. and velocity data for seismic interpretation is obtained.18 Sidewall core operation. wireline tests etc. permeability.* Yield data on lithology pore structure. and may help to determine depositional environments. and well productivitres. Hydrocarbon type and fluid samples are obtained (Fig. the lithology of the section.4 Source Sources of data  Drilling time logs Drill cuttings Mud logging and MWD (measurements while drilling) Sidewall cores Core samples I These represent the earliest information available.thickness estimates. pressure gradients. Small wellwall samples for lithology control (Fig. porosities and fluid saturations. dips and. porosity.18). Generally conducted in cased hole (Fig. Well tests and flurd sampling Fig.2 RESERVOIRS 17 TABLE 2. May give gross and net section thicknesses. hydrocarbon bearing layers. water contacts. 2. Borehole surveys: logs. Permeable intervals and movable hydrocarbon may be detected. The RFT tool can give valuable information on pressures and zonation.
(Photo courtesy of BP.20 Well testing on an offshore exploration rig.) . 2. (Photo courtesy of BP.) Fig.19 Riser system on an offshore well allows fluids to reach surface.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Fig. 2.
Inst. UKCS : A Sedimentological and Reservoir Engineering Study (7 vols). [6] Chiarelli. UN Conf. D.J. Energy Brown Book . JPT (1977). and Nelson. and Rouchet.J. Proc. How down hole temperatures and pressures affect drilling. Paper PD12 (3). A. W. R. l8l Jardine. Elsevier. map. The Brent Sand in the N .. andFertl. J.503. 103118.2 RESERVOIRS 19 References 1 1 Hunt. HMSO. Proc. Fr. ElfAquitaine. Distribution and continuity of sandstone reservoirs.M. [13] Jenkins. Amsterdam (1978). Bull. P. [3] Erdman.R. The Hague. AAPG 61 (1977). London (1984). Pressure buildup in wells. 1980. H. K. accumulation and retention of petroleum in the earth. W.A. Petroleum Exploration Strategies in Developing Countries. 191 . [lo] St. Leiden (1951) 11. [I 11 UK Dept. B. thermal history and bacterial origin. 1121 kobertson Research InternationaliERC Energy Resource Consultants Ltd. J.L. [18] Perrodon. JPT (1977). World Oil (Oct. K.E. [2] Magara. AAPG 37 (1953). Else\ier.1Distribution of carbon as hydrocarbon and asphaltic compounds in sedimentary rocks. [7] Le Blanc. D. B. Cong. .a [5] Chapman. et al. Proc.F. D . Cong. 3rd World Pet. D.P.E.H. Review of the petroleum geology of offshore NW Europe. Migration. Mem 5. Petroleum exploration methods. S. (Moscow) 2 (1971). 8th World Pet.Annual Report. [4] Hubbert. 873. J. 776. 13. John. Entrapment of petroleum under hydrodynamic conditions. L A . Roberts. 6 . [17] Simson. and Smith. [15] Grunau. R. Pau 1983. [16] Timko.H. 11th World Pet. Dynamics of oil and gas accumulations. Compaction and Fluid Migration. Bull. du The importance of vertical migration mechanisms of hydrocarbons. Seismic stratigraphy moves towards interactive analysis. 1954. Viking Graben. 73.R. [19] Kassler.Q. 1972). World Oil (March 1985). Distribution and continuity of carbonate reservoirs.N. R. Proc. Rev.A. Morris. and Twombley. (1983). AAPG Studces in Geolog)!10 (1980). techniques and costs. (1981) Graham & Trotman. Petrole 32 (1977). 95. IMM TransactionsSpecial Issue (1980). 189. Amsterdam (1973). A. [14] Horner. Natural gas in major basins world wide attributed to source rock type. a Concise Study. H. D. Cong. Sedimentary basins of the world and giant hydrocarbon accumulations. Problems of petroleum migration. Bull. Petroleum Geology. J.J. AAPG (1980). 100. and Corvel. Development of the ocl and gas resources of the United Kingdom.
gas) I I Observation lniection (gas.1 OPERATIONS The operation of drilling a well into a potential reservoir interval is the only way to prove the presence of hydrocarbon.1. A classification of wells can be made as in Table 3.o u t preventers and well head body . ~p . In an offshore system the drilling rig is mounted on a structure (Fig. water. .Offshore Exploration ~ I ~ S C O joint DIC M z a 3 ? L v . 3. Whether a well is drilled onshore or offshore is immaterial to the fundamentals of the process. . (Photo courtesy of BP. . . Ball  or flex8ble~olnt B I O W . 3.Hydraulic control hose for well head I ' ~tser connector  . or may be permanently or temporarily fixed to the sea bed (platform.) .2) which may float (a drill ship or semisubmersible rig).1 Well classification Onshore . jacket. 185'8 ca~lng cemented at 1000' Cement    casing cemented at 7 0 0 0 / 1 0 0 0 0 Development I Casing 9'8  Production (oil.Chapter 3 Oilwell Drilling 3. The main components of a well drilling operation are described with reference to Fig. 3. EOR) NOT TO SCALE Fig.1 Main componetits of a well drilling operation. n'nchor .1. 1  Crown block TABLE 3.
(Photo courtesy of BP.2 Offshore system.:e. incorporating radic p.ior . h .3 OILWELL DRILLING 21 Flare tower. 3.ncoa. Fig.) .
including diamond coring bit. 3. which has a composition engineered to providc (a) a density such that a pressure greater than the formation fluicl pressure is maintained in the drill hole.) jackup rig).5 Closed loop mud system. Thc mud syste~n a closed loop as can be secn in Fig.4 Bit types used. (b) that rock cuttings are carried away from the drill bit to the surface.) . (Note that the mud loop i shown in black. (c) that the drill bit is cooled.Drill~ng hose Fig. The drill hole is built using drill bits and steel casing for lining the drilled sections (Figs 3. The mud may bc waterbased or oilbased and have components that provide particular properties needed to control is the drilling. From the mud tank the mud is \ Fig.22 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Fig.4). 3. The drill bits are lubricated during drilling with a fluid known as drilling mud. 3. 3.) s . (Photo courtesy of BP.3 Large diameter and hole opening bits. (Photo courtesy of BP.5.3 and 3.
wells. and fast drilling and minimum cost are subordinate (within reasonable limits). The main power requirements on a drilling rig are designed to satisfy three major functions.2 COSTS The cost of drilling operations is to a large extent dependent on well location and depth and whether the well is an exploration or a development well. The effluent passes onto vibrating screens which separate the larger solids from the liquid slurry. In the case of development wells. WELL COMPLETIONS AND OILWELL CASING When drilling in relatively unknown areas.3. it is desirable to maintain sufficient of the hole cased and securely cemented so that a blowout from below the casing shoe is unlikely to occur (Table 3. Data acquisition is required within a reasonably predictable reservoir zone and so can be planned economically. 4 I l l Resul+:45000ib on bit 12 $ " stabil~ser 12f" bit Fig. as shown in Fig. safety and data acquisition are the preeminent considerations. power for the rotary table and power for the mud system. but operations can be planned with more certainty than for wildcats. The hose is connected at a swivel joint to a hollow heavyduty hexagonal pipe called a kelly. and an expensive element in the development expenditure of a field.3 OILWELL DRILLING 5 " drillpipe ( 6 4 Ib/rn) Tension I 8" drlll collars ( 5 0 5 Ib/rn) ingress. The weight acting on the drill bit is controlled by use of particularly heavy drill pipes called drill collars and by the tension in the upper part of the whole assembly or drill string. The drill pipe is connected below the kelly to provide a hollow pipe route to the drill bit.6 Design basis for drilling to 3000 mSS. pumped by a slush pump up the stand pipe and into the flexible hose. which passes to cyclone separators. Rotation of the drill assembly is achieved by clamping the kelly in a bushing in a rotary table. The budget for a well is generally presented in a document known as an AFE (authorization for expenditure). The emergent cleaned mud passes into the mud tank where and properties are peri~dically~checked chemicals added as required. Fast drilling is important both from the point of view of timerelated costs. At 3000 m some 1000 tons of cuttings will have been removed from a typical hole. As the most expensive phase of exploration data acquisition. A neutral point in the drill string is defined by the upper part in tension from the hoist and the lower part in compression on the bit.2) lists in great detail all the tangible and intangible components of well costs. safety is still a dominant consideration. 3. 3. In order to get to such a depth it is necessary to start with a larger hole near surface and progressively set and cement in casing.3. The table speed of rotation is controlled by the driller. The mud circulation system ensures that fluid emerging at the bit is brought to the surface carrying the cuttings. When drilling exploration and appraisal wells. a summary comparison in pounds sterling (1984) is as shown in Table 3. In . and guidance on its preparation For current UKCS can be found in the literature[12]. The kelly and its attached pipe are held in tension by a hoist system controlled by the driller. and of the acceleration of production.6.4). Typical drilling into sandstones at a depth of 3000 m would be achieved with a weight of some 45 000 lb on the bit and rotation at 100 rpm. to protect the drilled hole from caving and pore fluid 3. Such a document (Table 3. In some drilling operations some rotation can be achieved by use of a turbine located below the swivel. namely power for the hoist. drilling operations together with well testing and well completions justify careful planning and close supervision. 3.
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 3.2 AFE document R/g Water depth Total depth targef Function Rotary table elevation Site prep / Move on Days Drtll to TD Test Abandon/ Suspend Workover Tofaf Rig rate S~te survey TowIAnchor Markers Mobll~zat~on Riser tension analysis Slte preparatlon Anchors Gu~de bases Wellhead bod~es Wellhead equrpment Conductor lntermed~ate caslng Deeper caslng Caslng h e r Caslng accessorles Rock b ~ t s D~amondlPCD ~ t s b Core head Drlll~ng consumables Mud chem~cals Cement and add~tlves Fuel 011 Lubricants Cater~ng Accommodat~on Drllllng flu~d equlp hlre Dr~ll strlng tool rental tublng Complet~on Complet~on tub~ng accessories I Complet~on valves and packers Complet~on perforat~ng and flu~d Complet~on operations Complet~on Chr~stmas trees Abandonment and demob~l~zat~on Transportat~on Standby vessels Waste d~sposal Insurance Contractpayments (see detalls below) Mud englneerlng Caslng runnlng Cement servlces Mud and drllllng logs Turblne drllllng Dlrect~onal drllllngiSurvey Flshlng Dlvlng and u/w television Wlrellne logglng Veloc~ty ~allbratlon DST/Product~on testlng Core barrelloperator rental Sampl~nglFlu~d analys~s Ac~d~zat~oniFractunng lnspect~on servlces Rig te~ecommun~cat~ons SUBTOTALS !  .
3. rpm. and of any local difficult formations . caving shales etc. shows the effect on the dexponent as the abnormai pressure zone is entered at 6560 ft[16].7 0.7 TABLE 3. in addition. Pore pressure and fracture pressures for a typical well are shown in Fig.2 0. will enable local practices to be evaluated and implemented.lost circulation zones.3 OILWELL DRILLING TABLE 3.2 0. Pay zone and thief zone isolation 5.3 0. Figure 3. Freshwatersand isolation 4. .4 Reasons for casing in a well 1. When drilling through shale.7 Selection of mrnimum casing depth for interinediate strrnqs.4 4. shale may be softer.6 Development N North Sea (3000 mSS) Central North Sea (3000 mSS) Land (2000 mSS) 0. In a well drilled area.05 0.8 0. d= log [ R / ~ G N ] log [ 1 2 w / 1 0 6 ~ ] Surface Pressure .8.. ftlh. a sudden increase in drilling rate may occur since cuttings removal in the vicinity of the bit is aided by decrease in the mudpore pressure differential and.Yt is common to monitor a term known as the dexponent while drilling: in order to obtain an indication of abnormal pressure. In an abnormally high pressured section of hole. Confinement of production to wellbore 6. drawn from data on a well in SE Asia. W = weight on bit.1 0. Control of well pressure 2.2 0. D = hole diameter. knowledge of formation breakdown and fracture pressure. 3.7. Environment for installation of production tubing :j: general.3 UKCS well costs (costs in millions pounds sterling.9 0. where R = rate of penetration. A decrease in the value of d indicates the possibility of abnormally high pressures. this will require from one third to one half of the remaining distance to the next target depth to be securely cased. 1984) Exploration Semisubmersible (3000 mSS) Rig Transport Contracts Consumables Casing &wellhead Site preparation Overheads TOTAL 1. the rate of penetration tends to increase with depth.05 0. overpressured formations.t  Fig. lb.3 0.1 0. in. N = rotary speed. Wellbore caving prevention 3.
diameter.doted surface gravels and clays dolorn~te (~osslble lost fl L~thology Sea bed 150rn 1 36\ole. It is then essential to be able to continue drilling to target dcpth with a smaller diameter bit. In practice. i. and the reasons for casing a well as shown in Table 3.4. A North Sea well arrangement is shown in Fig.8 dexponent plot. ovcrpressures or lost circulation problems. This will allow continued drilling with a normal 4Yz5 in. drill string with bits up to about 8Y2 in. highly deviated wells. a string should be set at 6001000 ft. the possibility should always be considered that well conditions may require the final planned casing string to be set prematurely. or to complete a development ~ i e l l . and obtain the data ncccssary for an exploration well. 3. In turn.psi 150 0 0 1000 3 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 Fig. or for moderately high levels of production in a smaller liner is 9% in. 3. for deep. In addition. .e.9.30\sg at 210 r n 1 1 1 24" h0le. a new area.7.9 Pressure gradients. and eliminates the probleins associated I \\ Unconsol. in drilling to the casing setting point at 2000 ft. Pore pressure \ 10000 Pressure. in any difficult drilling situation. T o a first approximation. a protective casing should be set at about 2000 ft. The knowledge of pore pressure is of significance in drilling and in well completion. 3. Consider norrrzal pore pressure completion as summarized in Fig. thc smallest diameter of casing which will allow either for extended continued drilling.26 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCtPLESAND PRACTICE f abnormally high pore pressure zone ' d ' exponent Fig. this means that a well with a target depth of 10 000 ft (vertical) should have an intermediate casing set at about 5000 ft (vertical). potentially high productivity wells. 3.18~/8"csg 5 0 0 m at I I I Shaley _ innn. In drilling to the intermediate target of 5000 ft. lithology and preferred casing seats.
tensile load 0 lb Neglect buoyance effect of mud In the hole Fig. (c) tensile forces.Collapse 9+" N 8 0 471b/ft has Collapse rating 4 7 5 0 psi Collapse load 2 2 5 0 psi load 4 5 0 0 psi ( c ) Tensile forces  Surface 6 Max.3 OILWELL DRILLING ( a ) Burst forces 3500  Surface 13%'' J 5 5 681b/ft has effective burst rating 3 1 0 0 psi 5 0 0 0 ft Net burst at shoe 2 7 5 0 psi 1 2 $ " hole 10000 ft  t 4500psi ( b ) Collapse forces  Surface .Collapse load 0 psi . (d) tensile forces.10 Casing selection. . (a) Burst forces. tensile load 4 7 0 000 Ib 9 " : N 8 0 471b/ft has Tension rating 1 0 8 6 000 Ibs L M~n. 3. (b) collapse forces.
1 . the principal variations being: barefoot. The main design criteria in casing selection involve consideration of burst. The completions arc illustratecl in Fig.5 DRILLING FLUID CONTROL Drilling fluids (muds) are continuously circulated down thc hollow drill pipe. screen liner uncemented. In the largest hole possible through 9% in.7.45 psilft pore pressure gradicnt and a 0. and density. and in this or slightly smaller holes.4. 3. Fluids used in exploration and appraisal wells are almost universally waterbased. cemented casing.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 3 5 . From calculated values the ovcrtlesign safety factors are often as follows: Burst 1. and to remove continuously from the hole the drilled rock material.1 Barefoot completion This involvcs sctting a production string in caprock.10. drill pipc and small (less than 6 in.2 Llncemented screen liner This may be adopted for sand control . gravel packed linzr. proper density control is important . collapse and tension data in API ~ u l l e t i l l . viscosity and filtration propeities are modified and controlled by additives. The princip:rl purposes of drilling fluids are to effect a primary control of formation fluid pressures. casing. can be handled. Collapse 1. casing will provide a fairly adequate conduit in dcvelopnleiit wells. casing string to target depth has becomc a common standard for the highly deviated.5. 6% in. a variety of completion methods are possible.1 1 and are summarized below. and drilling into the reservoir. The completion with a 9% in. are shown ~) for a hypothetical case in Fig. consisting of dispersions of colloidal clays in fresh or sca water. and meets all requirements of exploration and appraisal wells. Tcnsion 1. which assurnc a 0. cemented liner.4 COMPLETION The adoption of a particular completion size thcn dictates the selection of other hole and casing sizes and several representative programmes are tabulated in Table 3. Even in exploration and appraisal wclls which arc to be abandoned.) bits.6 Conditions in a given wcll environment require selection of casing according to burst. Thc advantage is that therc is no restriction to flow. and no fluid control in completion interval. (b) when the emergency string has been run because of drilling difficulties.4. In all wclls. and trcatlnent and disposal of oil contaminated rock cuttings. returning through the annulus. 3.00.1 psilft gas colulnn.3 Cemented liner This may be required when: (a) when the Irlow stril~g size is larger than can be placed in final casing size. 3. highly productive wells of the North Sea. These dispersions are stabilized with peptizing agents. 7 in. For development wells. Completion string g5/8 7 65/8 Hole size Intermediate string 13% 10% g5/8 Hole size Surface string Hole size 12'/4 9% 8% 17% 14% 12'/4 20 16 133/n 24 20 17% All sizes are in inches with deep drilling with 3% in. The greater reliability and safety of testing in casing more than offsets the cost of the casing string (unless a zone to be tested lies only just below an intermediate casing string).4. casing can be run as a liner. The disadvantages are that there is no selectivity ila completion. Oilbased fluids have some advantaees. and arc widely used in development drillin[ where the problems of mud salvage and reuse. 3. 3. collapse and tension forces. 3.unconsolidated sand bridging on a slotted or wire wrapped perforated liner. 3.5 ~ 2 (and. the final casing string w l be run il and cemented if hydrocarbons wort11 testing are encounterecl offshore.
12 Newtonian fluid viscosity. is constant at constant temperature and pressure. with each layer moving at its specific velocity. a few hundregs of psi or tens of bars) when pressures are known.overpressures often exceeding 10001200 psi (i. (b) induced fracturing and lost circulation. Excessive pressures can lead to: (a) lost circillation in vugular or very high porosity zones. (c) excessive fluid loss and thick mud cake. Since in exploration and appraisal wells pressures are either not known or not fully established. parallel to the direction of flow.e. 3. The excess pressure should be the minimum consistent with safe control of formation pressures (i. of the order of one hundred bars).11 Completion practices. 3. (e) reduced rates of penetration. higher mud weights are often carried than would be normal in development wells . as shown in Fig. For laminar flow a fluid is sheared into laminar layers.3 OILWELL DRILLING Barefoot Completion (obsolescent) Open hole Screen liner Completion Cemented liner (perforated) Cornplet~on Cemented Casing Completion Fig. since some excess of mud pressure over formation pressure is essential for safe control of formation fluids.12. v' (shear rate) Fig.e. The determination of the rheological properties of drilling fluids and cements is complicated for a 3. (f) severe formation damage and plugged perforation etc.6 RHEOLOGY OF WELL FLUIDS (DRILLING MUDS AND CEMENTS) fluid is directly The shear stress (t) of a N e ~ t o n i a n proportional to shear rate (v) and gives rise to the . 3. definition of apparent viscosity p. (d) high differential pressure and pipe sticking. In such a condition veiocitv difference between 0 two adjacent layers Shear rate = v = distance between the two layers Shear stress = t = force per unit area of the laminar layer inducing the shear The apparent viscosity p.
it can nevcr be certaln that circumstances will not arise which will lead to abandonment of the well before it can be logged comprehensively by wireline. S 0 /  A ~ Power Law log l i Fig. Fig. (c) the fluids arc nonNewtorlia~~ and have in general a behaviour intermediate between a Ringham plastic fluid and a pseudoplastic power law fluid.30 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE number of rea~ons. as shown in Figs 3. a change in methane concentration. It is standard practice now to conduct a leak off test on formations after drilling out a casing shoe. A very sudden substantial increase in drilling rate shorild lead to a cessation of drilling while a check test is made for fluid influx and a possible kick. shales are harder to drill than thc moderately high porosity sands and loosely consolidated sandstoiles that constitute good reservoir rocks.2 Mud logging This i~lvolves the continuous analysis of gases extracted from the circulating ~ n u dI' by a chromato[' graph and a sour gas (H2S) detector. Changes in rate of penetration can then frecluently be correlated with sand and shale intervals. In a leak off test. MWD (measurement while drilling) logs. (b) flow distortion resulting from rotation and displacement of drill string and casing. It should be emphasized that it is not the object of a test actually to break down the formation. In general. a plot is made of incremental mud volume pumped against pressure. including (a) the variable geometry of the well circulating system. When this volumepressure relationship ceases to be linear.13 T. While background methane is Away\ present. the formation is assumetl to bc in a transition from The driller's log is the most immediate information available. this value of pressure at the casing shoe should not be exceeded.7 FORMATION BREAKDOWN PRESSURES AND LEAK OFF TESTS An essential factor in planning the control of any possible kick or blowout occurring while drilling involvcs the avoidance of including fractures in higher formations when controlling forrnatiolls at greater depths. so high formation pressures relative to the ruud pressures can accelerate drilling .log :well fluid behaviour.8. an event which must be avoided. elastic to plastic deformation and to be at its yield point.8.1 Drilling log ____I . 3. rotary speed and mud density. when higher formations are fully protected. 3. MWD. especially the rate of penetration under otherwise constant conditions. just as high mud weights and pressures retard drilling by a chip hold (down effect.14.a reverse pressure differential leading almost to spontaneous disintegration of the formation.8 DATA ACQUISITION DURING DRILLING In exploration drilling it is imperative that no source of data should be neglected while drilling is in progress . Additionally. such as weight on bit. The important sources of data while drilling is ill progress are: drilling logs.14 Log T . 3. and particularly increase? in ethane and heavier hydrocarbons.13 and 3. In any subsequent operations. mud logs. and prior indication of a porous sand interval can instigate a close examination of appropriate cuttings.well fluid behaviour The sophisticated MWD methods are under active development and are entering more common usage?' 3. 3. will frequently indicate thc: presence of hydrocarbon beanng intcr . 3.
9 MUD FLUIDS FOR CORE RECOVERY Some companies operate a policy of coring any good indication. cuttings will have been washed thoroughly by the drilling fluid stream and only residual oil traces will remain. If good indications of reservoir rock can be detected very early. 3. Figure 3. Obviously. An unchanged reservoir brine or reservoir crude would be the ideal fluid for securing unaltered specimens of reservoir rock. e. When an (objective is the evaluation of the interstitial water saturation.The constant increase in salinity. The log data shown includes from left to right the following data: (a) cutting percentage. logging and possibly testing an exploration well. or starch which requires a preservative. cuttings not representative of formation which exaggerated sandstone). Also. These may. and an oxidized crude would be severely altered.8. a precise identification can be made of the zones which are of the greatest interest for coring.g. (d) mud salinity in ppm. the mud itself will be tested directly for hydrocarbon content (ultraviolet lightlfluorescence or total analysis by distillation for hydrocarbons). bit through a shaly sand series with interbedded salt layers. Amongst the most common are tannin derivatives. Viscosity and filter cake control requires the presence of thinners (peptizing agents). an aqueous coring fluid is necessary.15 is reproduced from["] to indicate a well description log for a well drilling with an 8% in. be detectable by examination of the solvent extract or cut for fluorescence under ultraviolet light. When one objective of core recovery is the evaluation of residual oil saturation.58 glcc and 78 000 ppm salinity. cuttings at the surface can be collected and examined for apparent porosity. To avoid changes in wettability. and reservoir crude with minimum active additives is a preferred base. It was noted in reviewing the well history that the upper saliferous beds were drilled with nonsaturated mud and that salt did not show in the cuttings brought to surface (i. drilling break. particularly on wettability and capillary properties of the reservoir rocks. it is desirable that the drilling fluid should be as neutral as possible with respect to the reservoir rock minerals. good mud log indications and hydrocarbon indications in the cuttings. permeability and hydrocarbon content. an oilbased fluid is desirable. The production. or a high pH environment or a very high salt environment. which is broadly neutral.e. some operate a policy of never coring the first exploration well. which is unlikely to change significantly either the wettability of reservoir rock minerals or the physical state of clay minerals within the reservoir rock. To avoid clay alteration. Additives used specifically for filter loss are CMC (a cellulose derivative). The observation of substantial salt was made while circulating with the drill string stuck at 8774 ft. It is almost inevitable that a core will be heavily invaded and thoroughly flushed by mud and mud filtrate. (b) depth. (f) cutting description by the wellsite geologist. (e) gas detector (units % equivalent methane) showing amount of gas in the analysed gasair mixture coming from the degasser in the return flow line. complex phosphates and chromelignosulphonatellignin formulations. Given such indications. . storage and pumping of reservoir fluids will itself normally expose the fluid to some contaminants. The drill string became stuck in a salt section at 8774 ft and after freeing. The rationale of the latter policy is that after drilling. however. many of which require moderately high pH. Adationally. (c) rate of penetration in minlft. a brine formulation similar to the connate formation water is desirable.3 Cutting logs Provided that the travel time log between bottom hole and surface can be established. It should be obvious that the problems of formulating a good bland coring fluid for exploration and 3. Muds containing additives which severely affect the surface properties of minerals should be avoided. surfactants should be avoided as should high pH muds. The drilling mud was a salt waterbased mud in the upper section with a density of 1. the sharp increase in drilling rate and the total disappearance of gas indication are correlatable phenomena which should have led to the suspicion of saliferous beds. drilling was continued with oilbased mud. and shaly samples examined for stratigraphic and palaeontologic evidence of age. and a mud programme designed to give minimum alteration of core properties can be adopted. brine or crude would normally not give adequate pressure control in undepleted reservoirs. the formation pressures will be better known. A bland or unreactive mud system. with good sandstone cuttings. a decision may be made to take a complete formation core. scale 1=0 to 50 minlft FSD. is desired.3 OILWELL DRILLING vals. For maximum useful reservoir information.
with t coarse quartz gram. Optimization requires a careful balance betwccn the instantaneous drilling ratc o r rate of penetration. 13 . to grey or white Shale grey. coarse.roft. rubangular to sub rounded and rand coarse tovety coarse Wellsorted. 3. . grcy. and cffective coring is frequcntly best conducted in development wells (though well deviation can thcn be a problem). by which time wcar of teeth. Subtantial occurrence of salt Stuck plpe Wlrellne logging. gauge or bearings will generally have . hard. 3. white to light grey. subangular to rubrounded I Sandstone whole. grey. % a : "n SHOWS DESCRIPTION OBSERVATIONS .suhangular torubrounded. Conventional tricone rotary bits may last from 15 to 35 hours..32 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE CORES f I I MUD 1 HYDFiOCAR8ON .. "on calcareous. hard flne to medluln subangular to sub rountled. the ~lsefullife of the bit and the time taken in round trips.10 DRILLING OPTIMIZATION The cost of drilling is such that total costs of a development can bc rcduced sign~ficantlyif drilling costs can be reduccd .rllghrly brown. w ~ t h quartz grams..fine. soft.15 Well data during drilling through saliferous beds in a shaly sand series (after [''I). subangular to subrounded. wlth f ~ n ecarbonated sheets Some quartz grafns rned~urn coarse. subangular to rullraunded Siltstone dark grey. l ~ g h grey to brown. lam. appraisal wells is difficult. nated. Sandstone wli~te. anhydr~ric Siltstone. medium to coarse. Trdces of anhydrlte. t flne to medium.Sandnone. High caving percentage.the UKCS Murchison development progra~nrne managed to reducc drilling times from 5070 days to 3040 days for 10 000 ft TVD wells. Chanue to "11base mud Fig. No v~sual porosity Shale l ~ g hgrey.w~th quart7 rned~umto coarse grained Traces r i i salt. gradmg to I sandy riltrtnne. s~lty. randy. very fine.
(a) (b) (c) In future the combination of Stratapax and turbine may well become standard. the longest tooth (softest formation) bit which will actually cut rock without premature failure is the best overall choice. the strength of wire rope.use stabilizers or fluted drill collars or square section collars. For these bits. The capacity may be limited by: the strength of the pipe itself. Figure 3.12 SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN DRILLING 3.4 shows a variety of bits in general use. directional correction in deviated wells. Consequently turbines have largely been used in special operations.and the tool operates effectively at very low load and at moderately high speeds.1 1 TURBINE VERSUS CONVENTIONAL ROTARY In spite of the apparent logic of generating rotary torque and power downhole where the power is neededsnd applied.diamond bits driven by a turbine can be extremely effective.suot lubricating andlor deflocculating chemicals around pipe at stuck section.reduce pressure differential. kicking off a directional hole. diamond coring. but less effective than the best conventional practice in waterbased fluids. As a rule. The insert type bits used for very hard rock require very high loads for the rock crushing action necessary. is the most effective coring method. In particular. the strengthof derrick legs. and it will not be worthwhile having bits with bearings of very high durability. 3.in North Sea shales the bit has been especially effective in oilbased muds. The apparent power wastage. and turbine usage has been expensive. The effectiveness of cut does appear to have an unusually strong dependence on the nature of the drilling fluid . The special operations are particularly: % . With multiple cutting edges. The rotary speeds of turbines is ill suited to the conventional tricone bit. .) 2. The recent developments of Stratapax bits consisting of polycrystalline diamond compacts may prove to be the first major advance in bit design since the development of the tricone bit. (Stratapax bits may change this situation. rpm) than are possible with turbines ( i 5 0 0 rpm). In suitable formations . tooth and gauge wear will be a dominant factor. where a bent sub and turbine are now the standard method. and bearing failure is a dominant factor. 3. The longitudinal pull necessary to move the pipe may exceed the capacity of the rig to pull the pipe free. Conventional tricone rotary bits cut and perform best at lower rates of revolution (*I00 I 1 .12. Stratapax core bits are also becoming available and could be equally effective. and rock bit is restricted to some aspects of controlled directional drilling.minimize delays. the bits shear the rock in small cuttings . where the rotary torque is supplied at the surface. and in normal drilling where conditions are known to be favourable.1 Stuck pipe and fishing A common cause of stuck pipe is the existence of differential pressure between borehole and formation. if a thick impermeable mud cake is allowed to build up around a pipe lying stationary on the low side of the hole.moderately hard uniform homogeneous rocks .ideally all wearing similarly.use lightest possible mud weights. abrasive formations.use lighter muds (wash to water or in depleted sands to oil) . . high quality sealed lubrication bearings are desirable to maximize bit life. In soft. and the combination of turbine.keep pipe rotating while mud cake builds up after circulation has stopped. . is largely irrelevant in relation to the total power requirements of a drilling rig and the power availability.rather as a lathe tool or a shaper cuts . having very long bit lives under these conditions. Stratapax bits have outperformed conventional bits in aqueous fluids. v I 3. Diamond bits which can cut well at these conditions are not suited to all formations. On land in Holland. Turbine reliability has been suspect in the past. using 200300 hp at surface to provide 1020 useful hp at the bit. The remedies may be: avoidance . after sticking . turbine drilling has been slow to supplant conventional rotary.occurred . or the lower speed mud motor. where only 60 ft is cored in a single trip. Diamond coring with a turbine. . There have been several reasons for this: 1. the pipe is subject to a substantial lateral thrust.
This is Fig. and the pressure below the test packer reduced to reverse tlie pressure differential. used to latch on to the plpe for recovel y. or n spear. there must be confidence that the packer will not stlck. Obviously. Wberc safety permits. This iniplics that the removal of tlie circulating pressure drop and the swabbing effect of the round trip have brought gas into the holc. (Photo courtesy of BP. 3.16 Blow out preventers (BOP) arrangement on offshore wells: (a) 21 l/4 " BOP on board Sea Conquest (b) detail of BOP (c) diagram of BOP and wellhead body. or possibly while making a connection. then formation fluids may enter the well bore. Kick: a small intlux of fluid while drilling.) . the fishing string latchcd In. a drill stern test stling can be run. gas is circulated out of the hole.2 Pressure control and well kicks If the pressure in the borehole is reduced below the formation pressure. If fluids continue to enter for any period of time. 3. A series of stages can be defined and encountcred: Trip g u ~ : situatio~lwhere after making a round a trip and resuming circulation. When thc pipe cannot be backed off for fishing.12. then a fishing job results. either through inadequate n ~ u d weight. The pipe must be backed off and a recovery string comprising (a) pipe sub (b) safety joint (c) bumper sub or rotary jars (d) drill collars (e) drill pipe run and an attempt made to jar the pipe flce. the well bore pressure will continue to fall and further fluids may enter. and that the hole below the packer will not collapsc completely. the pipe can be cut and an overshot. or through lost circulation or by swabbing.34 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE If thc pipe remains stuck. The inference is that mud pressure ant1 formation pressure arc finely balanced.
preventing flow of fluid from one horizon to another. Consequently. partly to isolate formations hydraulically. Blowout: a more or less uncontrolled flow of formation fluid either flowing to the surface or to a zone of n?tural or induced lost circulation down hole. . the integrity of the cement bond is of great importance.16(b) controlled by circulating against a back pressure (obtained by closing BOPS (Fig..16) and circulating through a choke).'. Ideally.3 OILWELL DRILLING Quick Cameron forged steel seals Fig.'. Eccentricity of casing.. the cement should bond firmly to the casing itself and directly to the wall of the hole.3 Cementation problems Casing is run and cemented partly to protect the drilled hole from collapse.. A number of factors can prevent the attainment of a good cement bond: Fig..1 6(c) . 3. Casing clearances in the hole can be smali. The mud weight is increased to a sufficient extent to control the formation pressures.I 1: . 3. preventing further fluid influx until the influx has been circulated out.12. and eccentricity can lead to very . 3. 3.
17 Productiontree assembly (Photo courtesy of BP). Perforation can then be carried out undcrbalanced. smaller than for full hole casing guns. 3. tubing and packer arc run and set.2 Normal completion In this case. the cement bond will be to a mud cake. not to the formation.itions are n~atle with a large size casing gun in a mudfilled hole. however. Drilling operatlolls on a well are completed with the installation of the Christmas tree (Fig. This enables the well to bc fully completed for production with tubing and Christmas tree installed (Fig. small clearance areas where gelled mud cannot be displaced by cement. The larger charges give better penetration.18). 3. prewash and operation in turbulent flow. then the more difficult and expensive operations of remedial squeeze cementing nlay have to be undertaken. Intervals can be perforated selectively in one or more batch runs.13. This is a use for centsa 1' ~zers. the BOPS flanged down and the well head and Christmas tree installed. after cementing. This prevents small contractions in the casing causing a rupture between cement and pipc. perforations may become plugged. or cominunication problems. Additionallv. 3. i. after cementing. 'nnd depths of penetration of the shots may sometimes be inadequate. 3. The tendency may be reduced by the use of scratchers. The explosive charges are.36 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE thereby limiting plugging of perforation by mud cake. perforating guns can be lowered down the tubing. that is with a reverse preqsure differential. When all perforations remain open. arise. it is necessary to perforate the casing to open a flow channel from formation to well bore. 3. After perforation. . If this mud cake is not removed. with a normal perforation density of four nominal half inch shots per foot. the perfor. If. This is effected by the detonation of shaped charges which can be placed or located selectively with a high degree of accuracy by correlation with a gamma ray log and a casing collar locator.e.17). Washed out hole. this will give an ideal conlpletion. Presence ofmud cake. Fig. Acsoss all porous permeable zones. the excess Dressure due to the dkterence in mudYand cement density (cement is at least 50% more dense than the average drilling mud) should be bled off. a mud cake will exist.1 Permanent completion With the larger tubing strings. 3. flow performance equal to or better than the theoretical uncased borehole. but if mud weights are excessive.13 COMPLETION FOR PRODUCTION For flow into a cemented liner or cemented casing complction. If the hole is washed out to excessive diameters. This is a factor to be considered while drilling arid requires careful mud colitrol and clay stabilizing muds in the drilling phase. subsequent gas or water problems. the cement lnay not fill the entire crosssection.13. and the well washed to oil before perforating.
8 psilft . Use the data of Table A 3.3 OILWELL DRILLING Spider support + Production risers +umbilicals z from surface Central export riser Riser connectors To loading buoy Control u m b i l i c a l s 4 Satellite well flowlines Fig.the fracture pressure can be represented by an average gradient to surface of 0.1 and Fig. assume the maximum surface pressure will be 8000 psi.125. Specify the minimum setting depth for an intermediate string casing shoe.18.312 and Tension = 1. A 3. The specific gravity of the steel is taken as 7. The minimum section design Iength is 500 ft. Examples Example 3.a gas gradient to surface of about 0.1. .15 SG fluid is left inside the casing. Buchan Field.18 Diagram of subsea production equipment.the pressure at 13 000 ft can be represented by an a\7eragepore pressure gradient to surface of 0.1 Design a 5Yz" OD API casing string from the following grades: 17 pounds per foot N80 grade or P110 grade LB threads 20 pounds per foot N80 grade or P110 grade LB threads 23 pounds per foot N80 grade or P110 grade LB threads for a well in which 1.84. 3.2 In drilling through a formation to 13 000 ft the following information has been obtained: . Assume the following safety factors: Collapse = 1.92 SG mud is left outside the casing and 1. North Sea.455 psilft . (See Appendix 11). The length of string is 13 000 ft and as abnormal pressures are anticipated. Burst = 1. Example 3.1 psilft can be assumed.
. . Proc.P. Houston. Bottom scavenging.C. Paper EIJR 365. B. Petrole Drilling Data Handbook.in. 1985). [IS] ENSPM Gc~ological and Mud Logging bl Drilling Control . Cony. Pct. EUR 244.G. [6] Bruijn. Effects of pore pressure and mild filtration on drilling rates in a permeable sandstone. Effect of bit hydraulic horsepower on drilling rate of a PCD coi~lpact JPT (Dcc. 121 Gray. N. K.H. and McEwan. Characterisation and control cf fine particles involved in drilling. P. . J. Russel. El~ropr in (1982). Well Design.L. 11th World Pet.J. Proc.E. JPT (Scpt 1985) 1613. H. M. (1983). 1271Black. N. bit. Proc. [3] American Petroleum Institute APT Bulletin 5C2 (1972). T. 27. Gulf Publishing Co.. Graham and Trotman. Paper PD5(3).W. D.P. AlME225 (1962). J. 13.P. Franc. (1983). E (TM) 93 (1982) (26) 2. 37. Pennwell. 1984). [ I l l ENSPM. Successful liner completion o n the Muchison platform. N. 353. [21] Rowlands. Kcmp.B. London (1982). [7] Bailey. OGJ (Dec. Inst. 321. G. Risk analysis of wcll completion systems. H. C. Composition and Properties of Oil Well Drilling Fluid. Planning techniclucs . and Medrano. 5 [S] Peden.R. and Booth. 1231 Woodyard. [4] Composite Catalogue of Oilfieltl Equipment and Scrvices 35th Revision (198283)> vols. SPE Paper 13001. and Graves. Tran. 21 10. JPT (Sept 1985) 1671. Graham and Trotnian.A.. Soc. A .A. Houston. Kluck.. I. Dearing.. D.D. Graham ancl T r o t ~ i ~ aLondon (1981). Dec. R.. Planning for deep high pressured wells in t h c northern North Sea.J. A.M.J. Drilling high angle directional wells. Annular pressurc and temperature measurements diagnose cementing operations. Holden. A. Experience with polycrystalli~lediamond compact b ~ t s thc northcrn North Sea.38 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE References [I] Craft.C. Paper EUR 339. The design ancl optimisation of gravcl packing operations in deviated wells. [I41 Tanguy. [lo] CSRPPGN Blow Out Prevention cmrl Well Control. [13] Baldwin. and Dibona. Proc. Proc. . J. [25] Mohnot.Key to drilling efficiency. [22] World Oil 1985 Tubing and casing joint tables. Houston Tx. L984). Europr (1982) 769. Bern.. Europ.~ Mar.H. G. R. Papcr PD5(2). PrenticeHall. SPE Pnpcr 13000. 11tl~World Pet. [26] Rernson.IPT(April 1982) 713. [9] ~ohnsbn. J. Pet.D. Cong..W. and van Donegen. Well Control Problems und Solutions. SPE Paper 12997. and Frederick. M. World Oil (Jan. Offshore drilling operations. M.IPT (Dec. and Darley. Tulsa (1980). B. [L7] van Lingen. W. [I61 CSRPPGN Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry Rheology Manual. 1982). and Oyeneyin.M. [19] Cooke. n. 181 Paterson. H. J. J. F. Downhole rheological behaviour of low toxicity oil muds. London (1982). Eng. (1980) 327. Conf. Dec. E. 6. Downhole rneasure~nents while drilling.L. 575. 120) Adarns. 361. and Kipp. [12] Adams. [18] Holster. Proc. Trans. Proc. Proc. Europc~ (1984). and Shute.H. The usc of MWD lor turbodrill performance optimisation. Llrilling und Production.a major factor governing penetration rates at dcpth. du.R. L. JPT (Sept 1985) 1622.J.C.7. [24] Denholni.M.R. D. S. 21 81. A.Cutulogue of Typictrl Cases. 187. a r ~ d Burdyulo. N. Europe (1984). Drilling costs. Gulf Publishing Company. Graham and Trotni. London (1978).R. Eurol~e (1984).
JPT (July 1985) 1231. M. et al. [29] Elliott.3 OILWELL DRILLING [28] Rabia. Specific Energy as a criterion for bit selection. L. JPT (Aug. A. An experimental study of well control procedures for deepwater drilling operations.R. Money.. R. JPT (April 1985) 655.. [32] Hill. [31] Warren.. JPT (Aug. JPT (July 1985) 1239.M. [33] Joosten. JPT (July 1985) 1225. 1985) 1523. T. . M. G.B. and Palmer. Development of specification for christmas tree and wellhead components. and Holden.R. Recording downhole data while drilling. c Qualifying drillstring components for deep drilling.W.C. W. C. Bottomhole stress factors affecting drilling rate at depth. 1985) 1511.R. and Robinson.T.H. [30] Bourgoyne. and Smith.C. H. T.
4. This situation is illustrated in Fig. due to the small compressibility of liquid systems (c). the compressibility is independent of the pressure. While the hehirviour of single component systems has no quantitative relevance to oil field systems. Fig.1 for propane.  .1 PVT diagram for propane (single component system). Expansion of the system will result in large decrements in prcssure for relatively small increineilts in volume (specific volume). qualitative bchaviour has some similarities.340°F . 4.e. temperature initially held ill the liquid phase at an elevated prcssure. A  . As expansion is continued. i.. 4. compressibility is small and constant. and terminology is the same.2 Phase diagram for a pure single component system. where 4.1 VOLUMETRIC AND PHASE BEHAVIOUR OF HYDROCARBON SYSTEMS Consider the pressurespecific VO~UIIIC relationship for a fluid at a constant temperature below its critical For most liquids over coinnlonly encouiltered pressure ranges. mol. (ideal gas) Gas reglon \ \ a Two pha: je . Fig. reservoir hydrocarbon fluicls are mixtures of hydrocalbons with conlpositions related to source. a prcssure will be reached at which some small infinitesilnal ga? phase will be found. Dew point ''~rlple I point Temperature Volume cuft/lb.Chapter 4 Properties of Reservoir Fluids As we have seen in Chapter 2. ..2.. and generalized i n Fig. history and present reservoir conditions. 4. \\ .
the critical point . (b) wet gas.1 Dry gas reservoirs In Fig.I L~quid 1 Gas C . 4. but is accompanied by a decrease in pressure (vapour pressure) as the composition of liquid and vapour changes.the pressure and temperature at which the properties of the two phases become identical . position B indicates reservoir fluid found as a gas condensate.the cricondentherm. (c) gas condensate.C. 1 Single phase quid 1 Single phase gas .4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS 41 This pressure is termed the bubblepoint or saturation pressure for the temperature considered. the reservoir temperature is above the cricondentherm (maximum temperature of twophase envelope). O n this envelope it is possible to establish a pressure above which two phases can no longer coexist . For isothermal production in the reservoir: position A indicates reservoir fluid found as an undersaturatedoil. For a pure substance.3. If the substance behaves as an ideal gas. 4. then the equation P V = n R T is valid. Since at any temperature the bubblepoint pressure and dewpoint pressure differ.2 APPLICATIONS TO FIELD SYSTEMS 4. Expansion to lower pressures and higher specific volumes occurs in a vapour phase. (d) black oil. and a locus of dewpoints which meet at a point .4 (b) is therefore more realistic.the cricondenbar and a temperature above which two phases cannot coexist . as shown in Fig. and even simple two or three component systems may demonstrate all the phenomena associated with very complex systems. but forms a phase envelope.3 Pressuretemperature phase diagram for multicomponent hydrocarbon reservoir fluid mixture. 4. This does not preclude the recovery of natural gas liquids from reservoir fluid as a result of change in temperature in flow lines or process facilities. Dry gas  ~ ~ / ~ ~ Cricondenbar c ~ l ) Temperature t (b) 1 Liquid 1 Gas Reservo~r temperature + Fig.the vapour pressure at that temperature .is not necessarily either one of these points. This point on the phase envelope is termed the dewpoint. decline in reservoir pressure will not result in the formation of any reservoir liquid phase. (a) Dry gas. Consequently.4 Phase diagrams of hydrocarbon mixtures. and Fig. the pressuretemperature relationship is not now a single line.4 (a).e. 4. the compressibility of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to the pressure. until only an infinitesimal quantity of liquid is present in equilibrium with the vapour. There are few natural gases yielding no gas liquids. .2. position C indicates reservoir fluid found as a dry gas. further expansion occurs at constant pressure . 4. nor must it be between them. A series of isotherms then generates a locus of bubblepoints. The isotherm at the critical point exhibits a point of inflexion so that Expansion in the liquid phase to the bubblepoint at constant temperature is similar to a pure system. at which the properties of liquid and vapour become indistinguishable. (a) Multicomponent systems exhibit slightly different phase behaviour from that of pure materials. 4. Temperature t Fig.the relative proportions of liquid and gas changing. Expansion through the twophase region does not occur at constant pressure. and i.B . The critical point .
2. resulting in an proportion of stock tank licluid may derive from a increased fraction of overburden being taken by reservoir rock grains.e. If the pressure can be reduced sufficiently. the critical temperature of thcsc systems is vcry much higher than the reservoir temperature encountered (i. Thc composition of gas varies only slightly when changing conditions (cxccpt at tank conditions).3 COMPRESSIBILITY in prcssurc leads to incrcascd condensation of a liquid phase.) (c) IOCUS u . Reservoir pore volume inay able constituents (C3 to Cs+) and a substantial change with change in fluid pressure. at liquid phase may reevaporate. the system exists as an indeterminate vupour phase. we can dciinc an pressures may not be obtainable in practicc.in which the composition of gas in equilibrium with liquid is comparatively lean (except at tank conditions). oil ancl of reservoir liquid phase is particularly rich in liquefi. (Nevertheless in absolute terms the maximization of liquid recovery from separator gas streams can be a valuable source of income. and Consequently. Isothermal expansion from the liquid phase leads to the formation of gas at the bubhlcpoint. and contributes only marginally to the separator liquid phase. This isothermal compressibility as a positive term c as phenomenon . c. 4.4 (cont. the gas is relatively lean. the vapour phase corresponding to condensate co~npositions conditions. the Reservoir iluids are considered conipre~sihle and.?. The pore volume compressreservoir vapour phase. but sufficiently low constant reservoir tcmpcraturc. and further reduction 4. Another phenomenon . As shown on Fig.4 Black oil systems Temperature t 4. Gas =densate a a' .is termed isothcrmal retrograde condensation. c. 4. the liquid recovery depends only marginally on the separated gas phase.isobaric retrograde hehaviour .call also be demonstrated. At pressures ~tbovethe cricondenbar. a condcrisate system. a substantial part of the stock tank liquid is derived from a reservoir vapour phase. greater than those of reservoir waters. and a monotonic irlcrcase ill \rolume of the gas phase as pressure declines further..water is c. I N' Process l ~ n e 1 \ ' ~ e w point locus Contrast. which in turn are This is also partly true of volatile oil systems. 4. those of liquid hydrocarbons.2 Condensate systems The critiarl temperature of the system is such that reservoir temperature is hetween critical and cricondentherrn as shown in Fig. but is not of interest under thc essentially isothcrmal conditions of petroleum reservoirs. 4.42 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE L i q u ~ d Gas Fig. Under these conditions the system exhibits isotherrnal retrograde condensation.2. is recovered from a phase Gas conlprcssibility is significantly greater than which is vapour at reservoir conditions. FTsurface . Upon isother~nal expansion.4 (d).dissolved gas systems .) Temperature t 4.3 Volatile oil systems These are within the twophase region under reservoir conditions..the condensation of licluitl upon follows: decrease in pressure . the black oil . greater than about 373 K)./.2. The liquid phase recovered (the condensate) from where V denotes original volurne and P is pressure. The concept of a system being represented by a gas dissolved in a liquid is thcrl invalid. The subscript whcrc the vapour phase in equilibrium with the tcr~ninologyfor the con~prcssibilities gas..4 (c). . the phase envelope is encountered at the dewpoint locus.
the pressure gradients developed. Beattie TABLE 4. The simplest equation of state is the ideal gas law: where V . so that a very high degree of accuracy is necessary in equations of state (or experimental data) used for the calculation of thermodynamic functions. i. and correcting for. the general order of magnitude of compressibilities is as shown in Table 4. obtained by a mass balance on the system at the initial and end points. the gas constant. intermolecular forces. or can be computed from plots or tabulations of experimental data. The value of R . The inadequacy of this relation was quickly recognized. will depend in part on the isothermal compressibility: Both of these factors can be found by differentiating an equation of state. See Table 4.35E05 24. The recovery from the reservoir can be. cf This is reasonable for a constant overburden load. The possible error in these derived functions is an order of magnitude greater than the possible error in the original data (or equation of state).OE06 17. the finite volume and real geometry of amolecule.2 for examples.e.5E05 psi' 3. Atmosphere Newton/m2 Cubic it Cubic ft ni3 "R O R K . This is a twoconstant equation of state.1 Typical system compressibilities System Symbol CW CO Cg Cg bar' 4. of moles. will depend on the system of units adopted.4.0 Pound Pound K~loaram Pounds forcelsq. = molar volume. Ct Ct In the absence of specific information.1.2 Values of the universal gas constant Moles Pressure Volume Temperature R 10. and the densities of the material at the two points (and at intermediate points) must be calculable or measured. dewpoint processing and sweetening will involve other thermodynamic functions of the gas. 4.g.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS TABLE 4. and one early modification was that of van der Waals: c= V  while the primary processing operations of dehydration. particularly the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient where a is a factor related to.0E06 689E06 172E06 2. The flow behaviour.73 0.1 Behaviour of gases Gas is produced from gas reservoirs by expansion of the fluid from the initial reservoir pressure to some lower abandonment pressure. and correcting for.ln.65E05 1000E05 250E05 3. b is a factor related to.4 MEASUREMENT AND PREDICTION OF RESERVOIR FLUID PROPERTIES 4. or PV = nRT where V = volume. n = no.63E05 14.729 8312.5E06 10E06 Reservoir saline waters Undersaturated black oils Gas at I 0 0 bar (1450 psi) Gas at 400 bar (5800 psi) Consolidated sands at 400 bar Unconsolidated sands at 400 bar ibility may be related to fluid pressure P rather than grain pressure (Pg) and treated as a positive term. and more and more complex equations (e.
Pli = PIP. pressure. in the a component mixture: . i f fluids are in corresponding states then any dimensionless reduced property calculable fro111 PVT data will be the same for thosc fluids. More rccently.that is the same as saying that the total pressure o f thc mixture is the sum o f the partial pressures o f each component. the specific gravity y is defincd as the ratio o f the density o f the gas to the density o f dry air taken at the same temperature and prcssurc then. reduced densities. These ratios are termed reduced values and subscripted R as follows: T R = TIT. one mole is taken as the pounds o f :t comlmnent equal to its molecular weight. the equation o f Peng and Robin~od"~ received widc acceptance has The apparant molecular weight o f a gas mixture behaving as i f it were a pure gas is defined as the sum o f the product o f individual conlponerlt mole fractions and molecular weights It may be noted at this tinie that Avogadro stated that under the same conditions o f temperature and pressure. A t low pressurc or for ideal gascs. For each ideal gas in a mixture of ideal gases. Since. compressibilities. In this context.4.  b ) = RT and yi = 4 7 j= 1 This equation has an acceptable accuracy for l~ydrocarhonsystenis over ti fairly widc range o f conditions. and the constants ]lave been modified by Soavel"]. VR = V /V~ For pure substances with simple n~olecules can be it shown theoretically that PIP. The applicability o f the law o f correspouding states will depend on the phase and temperature o f the substance.. VIV. A widely used twoconstant equation o f state is that of RedlichKwong which can he arranged to a form a A similar postulate by Amagat states that the sum o f the partial volumes o f n ideal components in a mixture is equal t o the total volume undcr the sa111c conditions o f temperature and pressure. accuracy is greatest in the vapour .five constants. At 14. for a gas. assuming ideal behaviour '/R = mass gas volume gas volume gas mass air  molecular weight o f ideal gas (mix(i~re ) rnolecdar weight o f air 4. BendictWebbRubin eight constants) have been developed in attempts to improve the accuracy.2 Law of corresponding states Fluids are said to be in corresponding states when any two o f the variable properties.g.73 x 102%olecules in each poundmole o f ideal gas and that a volunle o f 370.e. Since moles contain the same number o f molecules (or atoms).e.) i. volume and inole fractions are identical. . (V. fugacitylpressure ratios. temperature and specific volumc have the same ratio to thc critical values.7 psia and 32°F one pound lnolc o f gas occupies 359 cubic feet. and is therefore detined as = f (TIT.44 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Bridgemen . It can be shown that therc arc 2. .7 psi3 by one pound molccular weight o f any ideal gas. equal volumes o f all ideal gases contain the same number o f molecules. they are used to describe system composition. c. j.4 cubic feet is occupied at 60°F and 14. h The mole traction o f the ~ t component is \ymbolized as y. i. v= j=n p. Dalton has postulated that each gas exerts a pressurc equal to the pressure it would exert i f it alone occupied the total volume o f the mixture . .
0696 Density Ib/ft3at 60°F and 1 atmosphere 0.0053  Gas properties Molecular weight 28. molecular weight and boiling point of the mixture without determining the composition (see Figs 4. More complex rules for calculating critical constants have been formed. Specific gravity of undersaturated reservoir liquid at 60°F and reservoir pressure Fig. which are more accurate than Kay's rule given above. have been measured and are known.0 944. but this is generally adequ Pseudoreduced pressure. It has been found that the use of the true critical values of mixtures in corresponding states correlations gives less accurate results than the use of socalled pseudocritical constants calculated as the molaverage values for the mixture (Kay's rule).0897 0. where y.f"R) 547 493 737 1071 1306 188 3208 238 227 278 548 673 60 1165 Air Nitrogen Oxygen COP H2S H2 H20 .4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS 45  phase.0843 0. 4.4.3 Densitv (relative t6 air) 1.016 Gas Critical properties Pc(Ps~~) T. = critical pressure of component j. T .5 Trube diagram for specific gravity as a function of pseudocritical constants for undersaturated reservoir liquids (after ["I). Pp.5 and 4. i.e.0738 0. and is used for generalized liquid phase and gas phase correlations for hydrocarbon mixtures with a considerable degree of success. and is best for temperatures above the critical.08 2. For complex hydrocarbon mixtures (e. the critical values will depend on composition.0763 0.01 6 18.5194 1. 4. pseudocritical constants can be determined from specific gravity. the values of the independent variables.g. However. 4.3 Pseudocritical temperatures and pressures The reference state for the law of corresponding states is the critical state. but there will not normally be a simple procedure for calculating the true critical values from composition and the values of the pure components.96 28.1 159 0. = mol fraction of component j. Fig.6 Trube diagram for pseudoreduced compressibility of undersaturated reservoir liquids (after me]).01 32. TABLE 4. = critical temperature of component j.9672 1. the law of corresponding states has been widely used in smoothing and correlating experimental data on hydrocarbons.O 0.1764 0. and will also depend on the complexity and eccentricity of the molecule.1047 1. For mixtures.6).01 34. pressure and temperature at the critical point. the C7+ constituent of a system). For most pure substances.. PC.
.
3 and 4. the extension and smoothing of accurate laboratory measurements by an equation of state. defined as massiunit volume thus becomes at reservoir conditions: where z = f(P. the reciprocal of the pseudoreduced temperature using (90.4. 4. Because the law of corresponding states applies with satisfactory accuracy to mixtures of light hydrocarbon gases. t e ~ .4 Gas deviation factorZ The ideal gas equation would predict the equality RT For real gases at pressures of more than a very few atmospheres this is not true. if direct measurements of viscosity are not available. The magnitude of flow rates and potential drops will depend directly on fluid viscosities. 4. The viscosities of hydrocarbon gases at atmospheric pressure are established as functions of molecular weight and temperature.(14. and these generalized correlations (the StandingKatz correlations['] as shown in Fig.761'+4. and in the case of gases these will depend on pressure and temperature. it has been possible to correlate compressibility factors with reduced values of pressure and temperature. a NewtonRaphson iterative technique to calculate y.Hexane nHeptane nOctane nNonane nDecane Benzene Toluene Formula Hydrocarbon properties P. 0 6 1 2 5 ~ .06125pD. T ) and z is termed a deviation factor (or supercompressibility factor) expressing the degree of deviation from ideality.7. the reduced density from t. Through these two correlations the viscosity at any given reservoir conditions can be estimated.82t) .2t2 42.1s+2.5 Gas viscosities The reservoir engineer is concerned not only with the expansion behaviour of reservoir fluids.76t9.c. or direct calculation through an equation of state using the detailed composition of the gas to generate the necessary constants. = zRT The iterative procedure has been described by l~ake['~].4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS 47 TABLE 4. Critical constants for some commonly encountered components are reproduced in Tables 4.1. The behaviour of real gases can be expressed by the equation PV.~(l') 2 + 4. For more accurate work.4.4. and for natural gases and condensate well fluids in Fig. will be satisfactory methods. Again. Gas density.58?p2 + [(y +y2+ y 3y4)/(1y3)] = 0.(psia) Critical Properties Tc V. . The ratio of viscosity at a reduced pressure PR and reduced temperature TR. using first 4. but also by flow rates and potential variations.4?) y (2.(fi 3/lb) Molecular Gross calorific value Btu/ft at s. use is made of correlations based on corresponding states.7t242. weight ate for engineering accuracy with hydrocarbon systems.7) are widely used in approximate calculations of gas reservoir behaviour. Hall and Yarborough['I have used the StarlingCarnahan equation of state to calculate z.te .4 Hydrocarbon Methane Ethane Propane nButane iButane nPentane iPentane n. The . to the viscosity at atmospheric pressure and real temperatures T are then correlated with reduced pressure and temperature.2(1t) Then zY = 0 .
8 are and 4. after Carr et 111.S 0004/~ 2 0 I 30 I 4 0 I 5 0 I 6 0 I 7 0 I 8 0 I 9 0 I 10 0 I Molecular we~ght Fig. . 4.8 Viscosity (p. Fig.8.9 (left) Viscosity ratio for natural gases. 4. correlations.) at one atmosphere for natural gases. 4. Note: obtain p1from Fig.6 Gas compressibilities For a perfect gas: Pseudoreduced pressure. P .~''~ show11 in Figs 4. 4.4.9.48 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Gas grav~ty (Air = I 000) Mol % C 0 2  0009 Mol % H.
P. and this expression will be given an alternative definition of the gas expansion factor. In general we can write (In these particular units.e. = f(composition. pressure. and i and b are often added to define initial and bubblepoint conditions.) Regrettably. some writers also use B. Subscripts o. 14.... temperature) Defining a simple ratio does not.7 psia.. and the possible dependence on composition and volume changes with pressure. For real gases the gradient dzidP is obtained by drawing a tangent to the z against pseudoreduced pressure curve at the reservoir pseudoreduced conditions.il = B. . 520°R.e. of course... z = 1 It is frequently convenient to work in reservoir units of barrels. i. = B. Z = 0. In the case of gases. temperature) (Formation volume factor). Volume at reference conditions (Bg)' = Volume at operating conditions but this convention will not be adopted here. so that for any ideal gas.5 FORMATION VOLUME FACTORS 6 Formation volume factors have been given the general standard designation of B and are used to define the ratio between a volume of fluid at reservoir conditions of temperature and pressure and its volume at a standard condition. = f(composition.. thisdcan be done through an equation of state.. the definition of simple equations of state is complicated.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS For a real gas: P V = n z R T a n d z = f(P) V = nRTdV Z P (Formation volume factor). simplify the problem of calculating the factor.1 Gas formation volume factor 6. = f(composition. is used as follows: Since 4. to represent the reciprocal of the formation volume factor?i.615 and for the above example B 4. and for reference conditions. = B. gas formation volume factors have the same general numerical range as oil formation volume factors. or for real gases when the rate of change of z with p is small. The factors are therefore dimensionless but are commonly quoted in terms of reservoir volume per standard volume. 585"R. and this is also possible for a liquid above the saturation pressure.5. In this case the transformation P = Ppc. pressure.g. pressure. the evolution of gas with decreases in pressure. and gas volumes are frequently expressed in MSCF so that then so that Tz . With liquids below the saturation pressure. Thus B. compressibility can be represented by reciprocal pressure. is an initial reservoir condition gas formation volume factor and Bobis an oil formation volume factor at bubblepoint conditions. w are used to define the fluid phase.85. temperature) (Formation volume factor). 2000 psia. For a gas B. Po= X 'OoO reservoir barrels!MSCF P To 5. for reservoir conditions. = volume at operating conditions volume at standard conditions and For example.
The isothermal rcscrvoir volume relationship for water containing some dissolved gas and initially cxisting above its bubblepoint condition is shown in Fig. pressure and gas  saturation on water formation volume factor.' but this effect is often ignorcd.13 a n d 4. may be expressed in terms of the volume change AV. It call be scen that loss in liquid volume due to evolution of gas as the prcssure reduces only partially compcnsates for water expansion. a plot of E against P is approximately linear over small pressure ranges. Fig. 0 Pressure + pb Fig.15. during pressure reductio~i and AVw.. volume changes are calculated through comprcssibility. 4. 4.10.50 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Gas expansion factor = E =  Volun~e reference conditions at Volume at operating conditions Note that for small changes in z *. 4.= and  Tz Po T. 4.'s constant P 250 F As shown in Fig. In general. B . 4. during temperature reduction The values of A V terms are shown in Figs 1.1 I and 4. 200F 150 F 100 F Pressure Upper line Lower line Pressure +  gas saturated pure water  Fig. rathcr than formation volume factor.1 1 Brine compressibility at different pressures and temperatures. and when pressure changes are large and/or water volumes are large.13 Volume factor for water..2 Water formation volume factorB.615 P Fig.. and this can be convenient for data smoothing and interpolating.. (the equation of a hyperbola) and L= 13.1 1000 5. For water. B . 4. . is generally taken t o be unity.13.12 Effect of temperature.12. 1 B. gases and dissolved salts can affect the compressibility and so the formation volu~nc factor. When pressurc changes and water volumes are small. These data are shown in Figs 4.5. 4. .10 Gas formation volume factor.
liquid.. The oil formation volume factor will be discussed in connection with the behaviour of dissolved gas systems.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS Reservoir temperature ( O F ) Fig. and displays similar behaviour to B. as shown in Black oil. curve (Fig. The necessary liquid properties are either directly measured or are determined from generalized correlations which can have an acceptable accuracy for the generally homologous family of components of crude oil systems. A unit volume of stock tank oil brought to equilibrium with its associated gas at reservoir pressure and temperature will almost invariably occupy a volume greater* than unity (the only little dissolved gas at exception would be an oil w ~ t h very high pressure). 4. The shape of the B.14 Correction term AV.that must be considered. and the compression of the liquid phase. 4. and indicates liquid shrinkage when gas comes out of solution below bubblepoint. . . 4.6 GASOIL RATIOS The dissolved or solution gasoil ratio. Fig. may convenient.5. 4. is a constant above bubblepoint pressure. R.17. it is the total system . taneous total producing gasoil ratio (free gas plus 4.16) reflects oil compressibility while all gas stays in solution at pressures above bubblepoint.Fig. i Pressure + 0 2 1 0 100 150 200 250 Reservoir temperature ( O F ) 300 Fig.. No simple thermodynamic equation exists through which these volume changes can be calculated and formation volume factors generated. The symbol R is generally the compositional changes in the gas with changing used for gasoil ratios and has the units of standard pressure and temperatures being ignored. R represents an instantions and reservoir (or other operating) conditions. 4. bubble point pressure.15 Correction term AVw.volumes of gas dissolved in a standard volume of sidering volume changes between reference condi.3 Oil formation volume factor B. When used alone. below ly be regarded as solutions of gas mixture in a liquid.16 Oil formation volume factor. the thermal expansion of the system with temperature change. The volume change is then a function of the partial molar volume of the gas in solution. and not simply the stock tank liquid phase. In con. The effect of pressure on the hydrocarbon liquid and its associated gas is to induce solution of gas in the liquid until an equilibrium condition is attained.oil plus associated gas . or dissolved gas systems. 4.
both these separations are carried out. When samples of separator oil and separator gas are recombined for test purposes.7 DIRECT MEASUREMENTS PVT ANALYSIS  The first requirement . 4.c. . temperatiire and composition) in flowing from the reservoir to the stock tank is essc~ltiallyunknown. v. then a bottomhole sample should be representative.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE wise variable composition (differential) separation. the and values generated are system properties valid within the usual range of data uncertainty. which is inherently less satisfactory. In the case of black oil (dissolved gas) systems. Measured gasoil ratios will frequently be erratic. Provided then that no leakage occurs from the sample. V. If a well flows under stable conditions.in taking measurements is that of obtaining a truly representative sample of the formation fluid. The alternative to bottomhole sampling is recombination sampling. It must be realized that all PVT analysis involves a basic and unavoidable inconsistency. and that transfer from the sample vessel to the test vessel is carried out without loss of any components.  +Gas samples measurement and analysis solution gas). Multiple samples are essential. and a step Gas 011 sample sample Mercury pump Fig. with a bottomhole pressure above the bubblepoint. and expasldcd in stages at constant composition..19. Fig. indicates only the dissolved gas content of the liquid.18. . and data is customarily replotted in terms of relative volun~e as shown in V. = Volume at any arbitrary preswre Volume at bubblepoint pressure . two processes can be followed .18 SchematicPVT analysis.a constant coinposition (flash) separation. VI. and is thus total standard volume of gas produced divided by total standard volume of oil produced.7. 4. 4. 4. standard methods are inadequate. The experimental layout is usually si~nilar that indicated in Fig. the changes in pressure. In the case of volatile oil and condensate systems. Provided that the pressurc at the bottom of a test well docs not drop below the bubblepoint. a particular problem is the choice of proportions for recombination. then tests should be rcprcsentative of samples. while with subscript s the symbol R. The symbol R . For operational convenience. and the results of the two separations are combined (in rather arbitrary fashion) to generate the data needed for material balance calculations. The thermodynamic path fc)llowed by a twophase mixture (i. Consequently this thermodynamic path cannot be followed or duplicated in a PVT analysis. In the laboratory.and difficulty .17 Solution gasoil ratio. and will occasionally vary over a range \vhich will make recombination suspect. to Pressure Fig. 4. to give the total volume at a series of pressures. then recombination should be valid. this inconsistency is relatively u~~important. and process simulation by laboratory experiment is necessary to validate thermodynamic relationships. except perhaps for gas condensate systen~s. A plot of the volumes and prcssures will identify the bubblepoint pressure. indicates a cumulative ratio since start of reservoir production. PV celi in thermostat bath 4.1 Flash liberation at reservoir temperature The fluid sample is raised to a high pressurc (substantially above bubblcpoint) at reservoir tcmpcraturc. and the separator gasoil ratio stabilizes throughout the test.
gas expansion factors as a function of pressure.3 Flash separation tests It is customary to carry out a separator test. This expansion yields the solution gasoil ratio as a function of pressure. 4. Consequently the expansion is not at constant composition. This will differ from the cumulative gas released in the differential process because of the different thermodynamic path involved in cooling residual oil to sta~dard conditions. The volumes of stock tank oil generated by a volume of reservoir oil is in fact dependent on the thermodynamic path followed between initial and final states.20 (b). For many systems. as shown in Fig. the system is expanded in stages. residual liquid volume]60oF Fig. u (b) %I Pressure Pb Pi 4. Pressure Fig.  The initial condition is VRi. and cooling this to 60°F will generate a stock tank volume (VST). flashing the bubblepoint liquid to stock tank conditions through a series of intermediate stages corresponding to possible'field separator conditions. The liquid remaining at 1 atmosphere at reservoir temperature is termed residual oil (and its volume the residual oil volume). the free gas phase at each stage is removed at constant pressure.7.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS as a formation volume factor. PVT reports frequently tabulate the ratio (VO d I liquid v o l ~ m e ] ~ .2 Differential liberation at reservoir temperature Again starting above or at the bubblepoint.. The liberated gas ratio RL is also plotted against pressure. and reservoir temperature .20 (a). The total gas evolved in this flash operation is the value taken as the total or initial solution gasoil ratio R. When this is done. The relative volume ratio (Vo)d/Vb is generally plotted as a function of pressure. the compressibility above bubblepoint of the liquid at reservoir temperature can be determined. and volumes of liquid at each pressure. 4. 4.20 Relative volume (a) and gas liberation (b) data by the differential process. and then measured by expanding to standard conditions. as shown in Fig. This ratio will be sufficiently accurate (given the uncertainties in sampling) to be used in this way.7. From the plot. We define: (Vo)d = Volume of oil obtained by a differential separation at any pressure.. the difference between residual oil (60°F) and stock tank oil obtained through a specific separation process can be corrected.19 Relative volume data by the flash process. although the basic inconsistency remains. 4. and the results are valid only for dissolved gas systems. In this case. 4.
and equilibrium ratios are available for the components at thc temperature required. Flash vaporization test Gas not removed Composltron constant Differentralliberation test Gas removed as it is released Compos~tion remaining of system varies Measures: vo/vb us. This is frequently referred to as initial solution G O R per unit volume of residual oil (60°F). samples may not be taken for all reservoirs. in material balancc calculations. Vb Measures. 4. = f (composition.7. the bubble point can be calculated.8 GENERALIZED CORRELATIONS FOR LIQUIDS SYSTEMS 4. P1. vtIvb c o RL CO ~.54 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE VI = Volume at bubblepoint and reservoir temperature The twophase formation volume factor B. If the incremental gas volurnes accumulated in a differential process are summed. Correlations are available for the estimation of bubble point pressure from other system properties.4 Summary of tests The laboratory tests can be summarized as in Table 4.1 Bubblepoint pressure The bubblepoint pressure or saturation pressure is a value of considerable interest to engineers. Since the produced G O R used in material balance calculations is the separator GOK.!. .8. The bubblepoint oil formation volume factor R. the differential separation values bcing used for the solution gasoil ratio.   / .5 Equ~l~br~um vapor~zation tests Conducted at reservoir temperature Laboratory test summary Flash separator test Conducted from reservoir temperature to surface conditions Relates oil properties at reservoir conditions to oil at stock tank conditions Measures. Relates oil properties at T. it is customary to use the flash separator G O R as the value for R. but in general the composition for a TABLE 4. from flash separator tests is used in the calculation of oil compressibility. temperature) If dctailecl co~npositionis known.5. This volume will not be the same as the total gas obtaincd by flashing bubblepoint oil through a specific separator process to stock tank conditions. together with the data generated. is calculated in consistent units from (VST)F = Volume of stock tank oil obtained by flashing a volume Vb of bubblepoint oil The solution gasoil ratio is thus R S = R A difficulty also arises with the definition of gasoil ratio. and a value will nearly always be measured experi~nentally. 4. and indirect approachcs may be necessary. the results will be a total for the gas originally in solution. Again an inconsistency remains.P to saturated oil properties at Pb and T. In fields with multiple reservoirs (or where the fact of separation of horizons is not established early on).
several previous correlations being necessary for the liquid phase.2 Formation volume factor Formation volume factor for a saturated liquid can be estimated[l]fromthe empirical equation . Twophase formation volume factors are most readily smoothed by the relation (Pb PI y = . it is frequently desirable to smooth experimental or correlation derived data to improve accuracy. 4. and R.0009 IT I Fig. . P O . P .P ) ) Bb (1 . Since the reservoir eauations usinn formation. . T) An empirical correlation using a large amount of data. 3000 LUUU PEP" 100 0125(API) I \boo and the oil compressibility within the range P + Pb will be needed for this. Depending upon the data available.. and is defined by  ' 4 *+@ . when the value of solution GOR is known at one pressure. The parameter is designated B.Rs) O This can be evaluated from the separate oil and gas formation volume factors at any . = B + B. Example GOR = 370scf/stb U Y I = 53 TR=200deg F yt=06 Pb' 2000ps10 Fig. . as follows: Po Bo = ( ~ 0 ) s c Rs (pg)sc + 4. the final correlation being of pseudoreduced compressibility with pseudoreduced temperature and pseudoreduced pressure. B. estimation for the compressibility can involve a number of crosscorrelations. volume factors involve difierences in thGe factors. over a range of pressures. the gas density and the oil density. the formation volume factor will be given by the equation BP = Bb ( 1 + c (Pb. 4.3 Twophase volume factor The total (twophase) formation volume factor is the volume occuvied at reservoir conditions bv the oil and gas assodiated with a unit volume of stdck tank oil.972 F = Rs [.21. The oil density at reservoir conditions can be estimated in appropriate units from the oil and gas densities at standard conditions and from the values at B. and the use of this value in the formation volume factor correlation. (RS. at reservoir conditions. ~ ~ ~ + 1. . and the solution gasoil ratio.~ ( P . The . 4.)"I + 0.8.22 shows a nomogram for an alternative method due to Lasater[16]. " 4 A I000 800 . y = gas gravity and Pb is in Psi. relationship is shown in Fig. Above the bubblepoint.25.22 Bubblepoint pressure using the Lasater correlat~on (after [I6]).000147 F ~ .8. .. so that B = 0.21 Bubblepoint correlation using Standing's data (after ['I). will then involve determining R. Evaluation of B.(Pb PI 4. 0 i. Figure 4.pressure.p b ) ) 1°4b ' io' i ~dk1&'&k6 ' ' 2bob I 100. at a series of pressures within the range by the inverse of procedure for bubblepoint pressure.. and developed by StandingI1lis where T = OF.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS dissolved gas system is represented by the solution gasoil ratio. P b = f ( R s .
For saturation pressure the relationship is log PI. a number of North Sea oils have been recorrclated by G l a ~ d ' ~The units uscd are oil field units ]. 4. tank oil). 'r the reservoir temperature in O F . correlating and extending data. Figure 4. the average specific gravity of the total surface gases.: against T chart (Fig. is obtained from thc f.25 (a) as a function of reservoir tempe~aturel'~.5 Water viscosity Water viscosity is dependent on salinity. Viscosity of dead oil. with Pb the bubblepoint pressure in psia. At the relationship is used where fp. 60°F.56 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE and the Y function is a linear function of pressurc (see Fig. corrected for temperature and the effects of dissolved gas. I? the producing gasoil ratio in SCFISTB.25 (b)) at pressures between 2000 and 10 000 psi. API is the degree API stock tank oil gravity and y .4 Oil viscosity The viscosity of a reservoir oil can be coilsidered to be the viscosity of a dead oil at some reference pressure condition (e.01 0 where D S .7psia Fig. 7.24 Beal correlations for crude oil viscosity.23).. 4.7447 (log P*.8. 14.8.) .['7] . although correlations are available for this purpose. an estimate must be made through the oil gravity.24 shows the essential correlationsl"]. The viscosity of dead oil at reservoir temperature and atmospheric pressure is the requircd start point. is desirable. and a measured value at this temperature. is the specific gravity of the stock oil. cp at reservoir temperature and 14.7psia 4. The viscosity of saturated oil is directly obtained.24 (b) 0 : I 5 I 1 0 I I 50 100 4. a correction for the excess pressure is needed. This can be a valuable relationship for smoothing.7669 1. If no measured viscosity is available. or a measured value corrcctcd to this tcrnperature. 4. It is preferable for the viscosity at the reference state to be measured. .23 Yfunction smoothing. The viscosity of various salinity brines at 1 atmosphere pressurc ( ~ 1 : ' ~is given in Fig.. The reservoir pressure in psia is P. 4.g.6 Recent North Sea oil correlations Using the correlation methods proposed by Standing. Q 10 20 30 40 50 60 (a) Crude oil gravity (API). r Fig. If the system is undersaturated. ' Fig.8. 4. elevated pressures.)" 4 10 000  Temperature reservoir + 3  + 1. 4.30218 (log P:::. especially near the bubblepoint. = 1.0.. 4.
58511 Fc = 1. the relationship is log (Bob. N2. For H2S.) 0.25 (c) and represents: log B. at any reservoir pressure P.25 PVT correlations for North Sea oils (after [13').26 (b) illustrates this relationship. which should be applied to the calculated value. 4. (e) and (f).91329 (log Bhob) .26 (a). " is shown in Fig. (p.90 in increments of 0.553 . The magnitude of the correction multiplier Fc.(0. H2S. Example 4. 6.5 x (0. = Fig.17351 (log B*J2 *  4 2 16 + g o 14 where 6 2 2 + 0 12 pr R 1 . 4.0 . and B. can affect the calculated values of saturation pressure described above.080135 + 0.0 ((2. For the twophase flash volume factor B. The relationship between P*band Pb is shown in Fig.019 (45 (API)) (yHzs) & + 0.0.wt Mol.1. can be expressed in terms of the mole fraction y of the nonhydrocarbon component present in total surface gases. For oil flash formation volume factor.968T Examples Example 4.fraction Critical press (psia) Critical temp.27683 (1% B'ob)' where where B*ob= R  1.366j (yi2)2 + + + rl For CO2.027 (API) . Fc =  693.65 X (API) 5. 4.47257 (log B". specifically C 0 2 . Bob. For volatile oils an exponent for the temperature of 0. as shown in Fig.0) = 2.26 (d) .02.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS 20 57 18 C C Figure 4.f"RJ .0.130 rather than 0. iyO(2 9 x 10000027R)1 = i3 f pressure correctIan 'actor 10 1 C p 5 0 :0 7 a 08 06 r s 04 02 The pressure of nonhydrocarbons.1 Tabulate values of API gravity for the specific gravity range 0. For nitrogen 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Reservoir temperature (deg F ) F. = 0.0015 (API!) (yHZs) + 0. the relationship between B.954 x lo'' ( A P I ) " ~ ~T~ ) i (0.2.8295)) yN2 + ((1. 4.110S9 ) .2 The composition and component critical values of a gas are as tabulated below: com~onent Mol.9035 + 0.70 to 0.8 (YC02) T1.093 (API) .172 is appropriate.
58 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Two Phase Flash Forrnatlon Volume Factor N2 correct~onto I C 0 2 correction to Pb .. .S y co. 4. Fig.26 PVT correlations for North Sea oils (after 13). YN.
= 10 x 1 0 . and the regional hydrostatic gradient is 0.465 psilft.. of air = 28. and is measured by expansion to 1 atmosphere.c f = 5 x l ~ . (i) Calculate the compressibility of gas at 2000 psia and 135°F.3 If a reservoir has a connate water saturation of 0. Volume of liquid Volume of gas (expanded to 1 atm. Example 4.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS 59 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Calculate the molecular weight of the gas. at what elevation would a gasoil contact be anticipated? (c) What would be the formation volume factor of the oil at a pressure 4000 psi? (d) Find the viscosity of the oil at bubblepoint pressure and 175°F. what density of drilling fluid will be necessary to control formation pressures at the crest (providing an over pressure of 500 psi). gasoil ratio 750 scflstb.44 psilft (below mean sea level)..24. gas gravity 0.~ ( ~ s i!gas as calculated in 42(a). 60°F) The pressure is then reduced to 14.9) Calculate the pseudocritical pressure and temperature.~ ( ~ s i )What are: l. at what depth would a gas water contact be expected? (k) If the crest of the structure is found to be 1000 ft above gas water contact. at 2500 psia. Calculate (both in vols/vol and in reservoir barrels/lOOO scf) the gas formation volume factor at 2000 psia and 135°F.275 litres c. Calculate the pseudoreduced pressure and temperature at 2000 psia and 135°F. (Mol wt.ml. expanded to 2000 psia and the free ga? removed at constant pressure.70. 2000 psia B . (h) Find the gas viscosity at 2000 psia and 135°F. z at 2000 psia . R.7 psia and the temperature to 60°F Volume of residual liquid 295 ml. ). liquid compressibility at 3000 psia B. Calculate the gas density at 2000 psia and 135°F..7 psia and 60°F.. Example 4.~ ( ~ s i ) . Molecular weight = 180. Calculate the density and specific gravity relative to air at 14. a as saturation of 0. pore compressibility . 4000 3000 2500 2000 1500 404 408 410 430 450 Estimate the bubble point pressure.' water: 3 x 1 0 . Volume of gas (measured at 1 atm.31 and compressibilities are respectively: c. The system is recompressed. Example 4. 60°F:21 litres) Estimate the following PVT properties: 388 ml 5. at a temperature of 175°F.s. (j) If the pressure of 2000 psia is the reservoir pressure measurement at 4100 ft SS and the regional aquifer gradient is 0.5 The following results are obtained in a PVT analysis at 200°F: Pressure psia System vol. (b) If a reservoir containing this hydrocarbon has an oilwater contact at 7000 ft s. B . Determine the gas deviation factor at 2000 psia and 135°F.4 (a) Using correlations find the bubblepoint pressure and formation volume factor at bubblepoint pressure of an oil of gravity 38" API. (a) total compressibility (b) effective hydrocarbon compressibility. at 3000 psia B.
G. The Properties qf Petrole~~m Fluids. Eng. Gas Processors Suppliers Association.Y. Eng. Sci. JPT 32 (1980). and Yarborough. M. [7] Hall. E.J.. 23. Fund 15 (1976). Trans. and Russell. [21] Cronquist. [19] Chew. Dallas (1977). Y. Chem. 1201 Long. D. and Katz. C. Application of a generalised equation of state to petroleum reservoir fluids. [41 GPSA Engineering Data Rook. T~c. J. 56 (1978). 11. H. The viscosity of air. Z'runs AIME 146 (1942). 1974).ch. A. M. 140. Handbook of Natl~ral Gas Engineering. New York (1959). Soc. Pet.B. D. OGJ (Feb. 1205. [6] Katz. J. 1 (1967). of [2] Clark. Volrrmetricand Phcrse Behavio~ir Oilfield Hydrocarbons. R. 131 Standing. 0. A PI Pub. water. Goodwill. Dimensionless PVT bchaviour of Gulf Coast rescrvoir oils. Trans.R.A. [14] Pcng. Kobyashi. AIME 198 (1953). Properties o i p e t r o l e ~ ~fluids. Overview of phase behaviour in oil and gas production. 379. Ind. Proc. Salt content changcs cornprcssibility of reservoir brines. Pet. Tulsa (l974). (1973). D.. and Ng. Trans. GPA.R. G.G. OGJ (Dec. AIME 165 (1946). W. 1966). Elements of petroleu~n reservoirs. G. [24] Yarborough.H. Am. 287. Washington D. 151 McCain. Clwnl. Application of laboratory PVT data to rescrvoir engineering problems. et ul. 182 (1979). SPE Monograph No. Bubble point pressure correlation. 1251 Robinson. A viscosity correlation for gas satulatcd crude oils. A new two constant cquation on state.L..D. E. Truns. Co~nparisons made for computei.Zfactor calculations. RP 44 (Jan. [8] Takacs. Pet. Cltern. 94. J. AIME 213 (1958). natural gas.L. A IME 216 (1959). [ i l l Carr. Eng. Generaliscd pressurevolumetemperature correlations. Can. C. D.B. L. G. 264.A. D. J.L. Hckim.. .L. Series. No. 86. D. 64. [IS] Matthews. and Connally. (1962). [23] Katz. 1197. Eng. 610.Y. Density of natural gases.. Cllem.B. and Chielici. 785. K. Soc. [17] Beal. IHRDC (1979). Pemwell.B. crude oil and its associated gases at oil field tenlperatures and prcssures. JPT (1983). D. Ch.S. [10] Dodson. C. D. L.J.C. 16. Somc applications of thc PengRobinson ecluation of state to fluid property calculations. Viscosity of hydrocarbon gases under pressure. D. [IS] Soave. C. 1976).L. Reinhold Publishing (1952). 27 (1972). [22] Firoozabadi. Equilibrium constants from a modified RedlichKwong equation of state. AIME 201 (1954). How to solve equation of state for 2factors. and Burrows. 59. 385. Pressure buildup and flow test in wells .Chesnut's water viscosity correlatior~. D.60 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE References [I] Standing. and Robinson. Pcng. L . Adv. McGrawHill Inc. and Katz. (July 1961). Tulsa (1973). C. Reservoir depletion calculations for gas condensates using extendcd analyses in the Peng Robinson equation of state. D.B. N. [9] American Petroleum Institute Recomlnended practice for sampling petrolcum reservoir fluitls. and Mayer. [12] Burcik. Trans. [16] Lasater. N. m [I31 Glasfl. 25. Engrs. 538.
. [27] Clark. L. ~ o m ~ r e s s i b i of tundersaturated hydrocarbon reservoir fluids. Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering. Trans. 341. C. JPT (Feb. J. and Clark.S. 1962). B.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS [26] Lohrenz.R. AIME 231 (1964). AIME 210 (1957).G.J. A. N. 143. Trans. Adjusting oil sample data for reservoir studies. li ~ [29] Dake. Elsevier Scientific. . Amsterdam (1978). Bray. 1171. I281 Trube. Calculating viscosities of reservoir fluids from their compositions.P.
cuts ctc. two partially conflicting objectives must be possible for those reservoir fluids to flow must be met when taking core samples. The first charac. this may then be examined for hydrocarbon traces. and when devclopment wells are drilled it In general. in case an opcn hole drill stem test is teristic is termed porosity. the study of core samples of the rcservoir Some parts of the core should then. with a hollow section drill pipe and drill bit. With conventionul equipment. It is frequently found that variation in thoroughly for detailed lithological. ped tightly in polythene or immersed in fluid and generally obtained by drilling into the formation sealed into containers for transit to the laboratory. Figure 5. traces is desirable (e.place. In addition. i. it is While some estimates of reservoir rock properties desirable to preserve the core in as unchangcd a can be made from electrical and radioactive log condition as possiblc prior to laboratory evaluation. any geological formation must exhibit two essential The recovered core represents the record of rock characteristics. be wrapA core is a sample of rock from the well section. possible and desirable. core fluorescence on a freshly rock. unless special core barrels To form a commercial reservoir of hydrocarbons. gas bubbling or oil seeping Storage capacity requires void spaces within the from the core. fluorescence and staining in solvent be continuity of those void spaces. are used. In the sccond place. results in cores up to 10 m in lcngth and 11 cm in solvc~lt cuts taken. after lithological examination and logging. cores.Chapter 5 Characteristics of Reservoir Rocks 5. will be minimized. the second permeability. These are a capacity for storage and type in the well scction and is the basic data for transn~issibility to the fluid concerned. Remaining parts hollow section. or changes in porosity and samplc with the dimensions of the internal cross. sedin~entologicdrilling conditions and in formation rock character al and palaeontological examination. the interpretation of geological and cnginecring propreservoir rock must be able to accumulate and storc erties.e. immediately rock are always essential. In the first through relatively long distances under small poten.). and transmissibility requires that therc should exposed surface. There is This is done in the hopc that drying out of cores with a facility to retain the drilled rock as a cylindrical changes in wettability.1 DATA SOURCES AND APPLICATION Friable or unconsolidated rock is frequently recovered only as loose grains. the shows the kind of data obtained from recovered core may also be recovered in a broken condition. survcys.1 prevent 100% recovery of the core.permeability due to washing with incompatible fresh sectional area of the cutting bit and the lcngth of the or sea water.g. fluids. . a careful onsite examination for hydrocarbon tial gradients. and some samples washed diameter.
g b * 0 5 9  C A stacked serles of moderate reddish brown. I 1 Core 4 Fig.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 63 Slabbed core Photograph Sedimentology Lithology Samples Porosity Permeability Grain densiiy Asreceived saturations Special coreanalysis Thin sections Detail pore structure Diagenesis Porosity type Environmental evidence Core from Preservedhestored state Capillary pressure Relative permeability Electrical properties Acoustic properties Compressive properties Clay chemistry effects Specific tests Grain size distribution *Mineral analysis Xray and SEM analysis Calibration of wireline logs Fig.1 Data obtained irom cored wells Sed~rnentology C Graln s ~ z e and (0 Descr~pt~on g% . . graded sandstones.3 Core log. g . current ripple larn~natedand crossbedded. 5. 5.
flow character o f the continuous pore space (. In general. The Fig. The arnourlt o f core taken is usually decided on the basis o f a technical argument between data collection. where possible. ment arbitration between departments. The case for coring therefore requires a careful presentation in which the need for the information is simply explained. Samples from the recovered corc are also used to study post depositional modification to the pore space (Fig. unless a good . and they may argue that the opportunity to recover samples o f the reservoir is only presented once in each well. As a further generality. together with the reasons for obtaining samples under controlled conditions. reservoir description leadillg to better 5. reach a give11depth.e.3).those conducted o n explorationiappraisal wells and those on development wells. it rnay be said that coring operations subdivide into two types ..2).speciczl core analysis studies) and character o f recovered fluids and source rocks (geochemical studies).'~lneers tend to argue that the possibility for losing the wcll is increased by coring operations. Study o f the bedding character and associated fossil and microfossil record may provide an interpretation o f the age and depositional environment (Fig. technical difficulty and costs. They will providc a The coring o f exploration wells tends to be record o f the lithologies encountered and can be minimal on the first well on a prospect.2 CORING DECISIONS well placcmcnt).for the coring operation and.2 Lithology and log character in zonation of case should be supported by a time and cost analysis Rotliegendes in Leman gas reservoir (UKCS) (afterL361).4) (diagetlctic studies). complete the well and move o f f to the next location. the rock sequence in a well. 5. it is often found that the control o f the coring program lies with exploratioll geologists for exploratiol~lappraisal wells and with reservoir eilgirleers for development wells.64 Gamma ray log PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE FD C. 5. by an indication o f the benefits in terms of incremental oil recovery (i. The incremental cost o f the coring may also he effectivelypresented as a fraction o f oil Cores provide an opportunity to study the nature o f value at peak production rate. The efficiency o f a drilling operation is often measured in terms o f timerelated costs to move on to a location. Geologists and reservoir engineers require core for reservoir description and definition. Drilling en. Petrophysical measurements o f porosity and permeability from samples o f the recovered core allow cluantitative characterization o f reservoir properties in the well section.each specialist wishing to ensure that sarnples are obtained under the best possible conditions. and that coring adds significantly in terms o f time to the cost o f a well. 5. This is in direct conflict with timeconsuming data retrieval and oftcrl results in coring dccisions requiring manage. 5. log Bulk density correlated with wireline logs (Fig. The diversity o f information that can be obtained from rccovered core implies that a number o f speci a1'lsts are involved in assembling a coring program for a new well .
These are more appropriately the responsibility of the reservoir engineer to define for the exploration department. regional analogy exists. The zonation may initially be in terms of reservoir and nonreservoir intervals. TQe presentation of results may also be defined by the reservoir engineers. and choice of cored wells should reflect this.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 65 Fig. wettability variation. The cored intervals will be decided on the basis of prognosis and analogy with the discovery well section. it is sensible to core early development wells as fully as possible in order to improve confidence in reservoir description and development plans.that is without reference to true north position. and the storage and transportation of recovered core. the basis for sample selection for special core analysis tests. The coring of development wells is largely controlled by reservoir engineers. mineralogical and reservoir continuity studies and by engineers for attributing reservoir petrophysical properties within the more detailed zonation. plug orientation. The conditions of core recovery. Routine core analysis on plugs drilled from the core is frequently commissioned by the exploration department. which should lead to more efficient reservoir management.core data being particularly relevant. Despite delay to first production. It is frequently found that the reservoir engineers do not fully participate in defining the core program for such appraisal wells.SEM of illitelsmectite formed at the expense of kaolinite. plug cleaning processes and even the test methods for routine core analysis.to know technical argument and project economics. sample selection and sample storage require particular definition since results will be affected by. subdivided in terms of rock units. It can be important to specify the plug frequency. In this case it is necessary for cooperation between engineers and production geologists to prepare the coring program. 5. The opportunity exists to influence the coring mud program. the basis for sample selection for routine core analysis.4 Diagenetic modification to pore space . A t this stage. Conventional coring . In exploration wells the geologists have a primary concern in describing the core in terms of its lithological variation and defining a basis for zonation. The decisions on how many wells to core are generally taken by management after considerations of need. for example. There may be some specialist advice from a laboratory group regarding some of these aspects. plug drilling fluids. In many North Sea reservoirs the geological complexity can only be resolved by a combination and integration of data from many sources . without particular regard to the conditions of sample selection or preparation of the plugs. 5. reservoir zonation may be better established and cores are required by the geologists for detailed sedimentological. in combination with geological zone description. The second well is often designated a type well by the exploration department and may be extensively cored. Correlation with wireline logs and between wells may be made on a preliminary basis which will be improved as sedimentological and petrographic studies proceed. A target of 30% cored wells will provide reasonable reservoir control in all but the most complex geology .the coring should however be 75% complete before the reservoir has 50% of its wells. Coring in highly deviated wells is naturally more of a risk than in straight holes or less deviated wells. It tends to be true that the degree of reservoir continuity and the number of development wells required form an inverse relationship and that core study can provide a basis for reservoir description.3 CONVENTIONAL AND ORIENTED CORING Conventional coring refers to core taken without regard to precise orientation .
This may be a limitatio~lin sedimentological interpretation where direction of orientation has significance in predicting reservoir continuity. rubber sleeve core barrel. Thc survey instrument is located within a Kmonel collar to prevent any magnetic disturbance from the drill pipe. 5.. may cause a Fig. The consequence o f this is that materials in thc mud system. Multishot survcy instruments are attached to the upper portion o f the muleshoe. The shaft rotates with the inner barrel. The cost o f oriented core offshore has recently been estimated as an incremental cost o f some US $50 per metre on convcntional core. The core recovered from these devices does not allow visualization o f rock in its exact reservoir condition orientation. The method is known as dirc. used to control viscosity.66 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE encompasses a range o f particular core barrels and cutting head and includes: steel core barrel. The top o f the inner barrel is attached to the inner barrel head. A tcchniquc that has found application in onshore coring1l2land is now achieving success in offshore coring involves the scribing o f grooves along the axis o f the core in a gyroscopically controlled orientation. filter loss. A shaft extends from the inner barrel head through the safety joint and into a muleshoc attached at its top. particularly where ovcrbank slump is greater than depositional dip.g.4 CORING MUD SYSTEMS It is inevitable that coring fluid will invade a porous reservoir rock to some degree. river channels) is o f particular importance in well to well correlation and may not he easily deduced from d i p meter data.ctionnlly oriented coring and requires periodic stops in the coring o operation to take a measureme~lt f orientation. Orientation o f cores is accon~plishedby running a conventional core barrel which has a scribed shoe containing three tungsten scribes (Fig.5). pressure core barrel. plastic or fibre glass core barrel. The survey instrument has a builtin marker which is aligned with thc oriented scribe in the scribe shoe at the bottom o f the barrel. sponge insert core barrel.5 Oriented coring:American Coldset oriented core barrel with Spenny Sun adapter ( I ) and scribe shoe (2)in place of conventional inner barrel sub. The scribe shoe is located at the base o f the inncr core barrel immediately above the core catcher assembly. The orientation in fluvial deposition systems (e. . The scribe shoe is added to the inner barrel by replacing the inner sub with the scribe shoe sub. weight etc. 2 5. 5.
Residual oil saturation: Eliminate oil base fluids. Initial water saturation: Eliminate water in mud system. (4) combination of 13. 5.6 Wetting surface. The principal changes that might occur are those changing the wettability of the core or the physical state of in situ clay materials. (3) oils. Best with formation brine composition muds. / / / Oil Surface Fig.6). Eliminate oxidation possibilities.5). (c) lubricate drill string. Exposure to air can result in oxidation of hydrocarbons or evaporation of core fluids with subsequent wettability change['' 4 6 . (b) reactive . The general limitations on mud composition dictated by formation evaluation requirements are as follows: + A mud laboratory is used to evaluate the compatibility and performance of chemical additives for drilling muds planned for a particular well. Minimum filtrate invasion: Use lowest mud weight giving control of formation. (e) formation protection. limestone. It is therefore necessary to use a bland or unreactive mud system.sand. Changes in the term through mud system chemistry will result in the recovery of unrepresentative samples. Formation damage prevention: Need compatibility with formation waters to prevent changes of clay chemistry or physical state. The use of refined oils and paraffins may cause deposition of plugging compounds. but in general these fluids would not allow adequate well control. marked for identification. (d) hole cleaning. (2) high gravity.clay compound. Failing these techniques. particularly with asphaltinic crude oils. Solids: (1) low gravity (approximate SG = 2. wrapped in a plastic seal and foil and stored in dry ice. The term o cos 0 controls the capillary forces and hence irreducible saturations in a particular rock fluid system. which represents the interfacial tension (IS)between oil and water under the reservoir conditions and the contact angle (8) measured through the water phase as the angle between the oil water interface and the surface (Fig.0). The core for routine analysis. The influence of engineers and geologists requiring core on the mud system recipe must be decided in conjunction with the drilling engineers as the primary functions of the mud are: (a) control of subsurface pressure. avoid use of surfactants and caustic soda. These may change porosity and permeability as well as flow properties determined in laboratory tests. The main constituents of drilling muds are classified as liquid or solid as follows: 5. (a) barite (approximate SG = 4. (2) salt water. the core plug may be wiped clean. . without special care for wettability change or drying of core fluids. following visual inspection at the well site. therefore use low mud circulation rate and high as practica$le penetration rate. Flushing will reduce any oil saturation to just about residual.5 CORE PRESERVATION The objective of core preservation is to retain the wettability condition of a recovered core sample. Reservoir brine (or a chemically equivalent brine) will prevent ion exchange processes in interstitial clays and maintain porositypermeability character. (b) lift formation cuttings. Retention of reservoir fluids (either oil or water) should maintain wetting character. Usually only samples for special core analysis are stored and transported under these special conditions. It is clear that the ideal coring fluids from a sample purity point of view would be reservoir brine or reservoir crude oil. 5 1 1 . Flushing from oil filtrate. chert and some shales. is placed in boxes.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS change in the relative affinity of the reservoir rock surface for oil and water. or to otherwise demonstrate the effect of any particular mud system on the term o cos 0. (b) iron ore lead sulphide (approximate SG = 2. 5. Liquids: (1) fresh water. Best fluid is lease crude if well control permits. This change in wettability is manifest in the term o cos 8. so core may be stored anaerobically under fluid in sealed containers. (a) nonreactive . and to prevent change in petrophysical character. It Unaltered wettability: Use essentially neutral pH mud.2).
transportation and storage.53. It is convenient to describe the bedding character and macrofossil character within the grain size profile. The main areas of study involve recog~litioll the of lithology and sedimentology of the reservoir and its vertical sequence of rock types and grain size. it should be possible to be more explicit during dcvelopmcnt drilling when reservoir zonation may be better understood. The environmentalidepositional model of a reservoir is largely based on the observations from individual corcd wells hut requires correlation of data between wells and integration with other sources of informa 5. the amount of sample required and the conditions for preservation. as shown in Fig. These plugs are used in routine core analysis. the fossil assemblages also provide indication of transport encrgy regimes (palynofacies analysis) which help support sedimentological interpretations. vertical flowpath etc. or a refincd oil (as long as the crude oil is not waxy or ~~sphaItinic~(p1ugging)). continuity and characteristics of the various zones. Core for routine analysis should be dispatched quickly following the wellsite geologist's preliminary observations. It is necessary to specify thc basis for zone recognition.6 WELLSITE CONTROLS Thc recovery of core at a wellsite requircs care in handling core barrels and an awareness of the ultimate use of the core. The plugs are usually about 4 cm long and are tritnmed to 2. nonpreserved core.3. It is necessary to preserve samples from all significant reservoir flow intervals and these intervals must span permeability ranges. The coolant used on the core plug drilling bit is important in Illany cores since it may possibly modify internal pore properties. It is now customary to pass the whole core along a conveyor belt through a device called a Coregumma surface logger which records a reading of natural radioactivity against equivalent downhole position of the core[']. While this approach may be inevitable with exploration wells.9 GEOLOGICAL STUDIES The purpose of geological core study is to provide a basis for dividing the reservoir into zones and to recognizc the geometry. 5. There is a danger in using tap water in that it may change the nature of interstitial clays by modifying ionic balances. The recognition of depositional and post depositional features is achieved by core description and by microscopic observation of thin sections from cores.68 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE is not rcally known whether this has any effect on the state of pore filllreplacement minerals recorded in subsequent geological analysis. and in an orientation to the whole core specified to represent bedding planes.7 CORE FOR SPECIAL CORE ANALYSIS The selection of core for special core analysis is frequently a rather loose arrangement resulting from a reservoir enginccring request to the wellsite geologist to preserve some represmtutive pieces. Core for special core analysis should be selected quickly and preserved in the agreed manner. the core is usually sliced along its major axis into three slabs (known as sluhhing).5 cm to eliminate mua invaded parts. Packing of transportation boxes should naturally he effective and prevent displacement of pieces. if salinity is low (danger otherwise of salt plugging). More usually core plugs are drilled at regular intervals (say 36 her metre)specified by the reservoir engineer o r picked at specific intervals. i. one third for curation and one third is often required by the licencing agency (e. One third is designated for geological analysis. I n cases of doubt it is preferable to prcscrve too much rather than too little and the geologists can always inspect the preserved core in the more controlled laboratory environment.g. 5. horizontal flowpath. Core should be wiped clean for visual inspection and marked for top and bottom and core depth in a box. Photographs of the fresh core prove illvaluable in correcting later misplacements and sometimes in locating fracture zoncs. After plug cutting. The best coolant would be a reservoir brine. Thc readings may be compared with the gainrna ray log readings obtained in .8 cm. 5. the Government). will generally form the bulk of the recovered core.8 CORE DERIVED DATA The nonspccial core analysis. The age of the individual rock units is usually establishcd by association with the lnicrofossil record (micropalynology) and this can be done as well with cuttings as with core samples. situ in the reservoir and used to position the core pieces more precisely. In addition. 5. The plug diameters arc of the order 2.e. Analyses may be performed on the sample of the whole core. This is achieved by visual observation and the rcsult recorded as a core log.
(d) combination techniques.10 ROUTINE CORE ANALYSIS 5.e.The oilwater contact would therefore be tentatively placed at the midpoint between these samples at 2537. In order to do this. In addition.10. The core cannot be . Full diameter cores are analysed only when there is reason to believe that plug samples will not reflect average properties. conventional core analysis. The use of whole core pieces tends to downgrade heterogeneous character that would be pronounced in small plugs. 5.1%. The validity of subsequpent measurements made on unconsolidated samples treated in the foregoing manner is the subject of contention. because of ease of core cutting. Plug preparation may require frozen drilling to prevent movement of sand grains. whole core analysis. (c) high temperature (up to 650°C) retorting at atmospheric pressure (not relevant for hydrated clays in sample).10.1. they are certainly influenced by them. In order to provide valid analyses. (c) Rubber sleeve core (also plasticifibre glass sleeves) The purpose of a rubber sleeve or plastic sleeve in a core barrel is to support the core until removal in the laboratory. An example of this would be vugular carbonates where vug size may represent a significant volume of the plug sample. analysis of core '1. and analysis is generally significantly more expensive than conventional core analysis. The techniques are reported in API booklet RP490 entitled Recommended Practice for Core Analysis Procedure[']. samples of recovered core are subjected to measurements and the results plotted andlor tabulated. Thus a rapid change in oil saturation from a relatively high volume to near zero in a similar lithology and reservoir quality interval suggests the presence of an oilwater contact. however.1 Principles and methods Routine core analysis is primarily concerned with establishing the variation of porosity and permeability as a function of position and depth in a well. some analyses may also be performed on cuttings and sidewall cores. The samples are. The observed OWC may not be coincident with the free water level (FWL). (b) distillation of water and solvent extraction of oil (need to know oil gravity). different rock systems require various analytical approaches with particular names. i. The change in core oil saturation as received in the laboratory shows a dramatic change between 2537. The zone appears to be of one rock type and is thus likely to have consistent capillary character. If the cored interval passes through an oilwater contact this may be observable from the residual saturation data. but it is clear that any grain reorientation or lack of similarity with real reservoir overburden stresses will invalidate results.5 m and 2538 m from 19.2 Residual fluid saturation determination In the API Recommended Practice. (a) Conventional core analysis This technique is applied to samples drilled from the whole core piece.6% to 1. The experimental techniques should give accuracy of +5% of the true as received saturation condition. The placement of the contact will be between adjacent samples of relatively high and relatively low values. 5. but its utilization provides a method of at least recovering a core sample. The technique is therefore applied particularly in formations which are friable or unconsolidated. Sponge inserts in core barrels are sometimes used to retain reservoir fluids. in order to provide insight into reservoir geometry and continuity. the methods for determining the saturation of fluids in the core as received in the laboratory include: (a) high vacuum distillation at around 230°C (not so good for heavy oils). Although the core saturations reported do not represent saturations in the reservoir. recovered in rubber sleeve['.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS tion. The cleaning of whole core sections can be difficult and timeconsuming. 3 ' 3 ' visually inspected at the wellsite and is often frozen prior to transportation. and capillary pressure data (see Chapter 6) will be required to determine the FWL. usually biased towards the more consolidated reservoir quality intervals. Such samples are taken at regular intervals along the core and may represent a statistical sample. There are several disadvantages in the method. The plug sample may be supported by some kind of sheath while in a frozen state and is often then placed in a core holder where simulated formation pressures are restored and the temperature restored to reservoir conditions. as shown in Table 5. (b) Whole core analysis The technique refers to the use of the full diameter core piece in lengths dependent only on the integrity of the core and the size of porosimeters and permeameters available.75 m and confirmation sought from log data.
S. GYIBR V.67 A.4 7.29 0.80 2.A.8 20.5 0.8 6.3 2.70 21 17 14 11 19.4 19.70 3637.5 21. cemented wlmica 3632.ST.A.4 12.67 2.70 3.p.F.9 24.p.p.9 5. A.GR well cemented w.68 2.A  A.35 3633.00 10 4 0.0 39. matter S.mica 3635.71 2. rubble 3633.F.9 2'67 A.18 0.w.0 0. q/cc 2.A.GR sub.1 18.8 3.2 20.70 3636.9 0.W.p.A A.ST.00 3636. .70 3635.35 3632.2 0.8 3.0 3. matter S. rubble 31 30 38 85 17 26 25 32 74 14 19 19 24 62 13 15 15 20 53 10 21.ang. GY. SlLTCalcitic A.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 5.cemented wimica A.1 Laboratory measured oil saturation in recovered core Sample depth (m) 4 f%) k (mD) So (core residual) % TABLE 5.W.GR. wlorg.29 5.0 41.3 19. GYIBR F.25 0.0 38. V.35 3636.6 0.GR.6 2. V.A.A.76 2.Pore Saturation Helium tion porosity porosity % % SO STW Grain dens. GY.F. Depth Vertical permeability milliDarcy KA KL Formation description S.GR without calcitic n.A.A A. F.0 37.00 n.0 14.69 2.83 13.2 0.70 3634.00 3634.16 4.18 4.68 A. withoutiorg.F.1 0.6 2.69 V.A. poor calcitic wlovrite V.2 Horizontal permeability milliDarcy KA KL Presentation of routine core analysis results Satura.ST.8 15.2 17.77 2.8 2.2 2.GR cemented wimica 3637.35 3634.25 6.v.68 2.67 A.68 2.ST. V.4 1.5 0.16 0.9 2.
The most usual limitation in the applicability of these measurements is their lack of representation of the bulk reservoir. For the purpose of recognizing stratification effects.04%.cementation. the effective pore volume is measured by compressing a known volume of gas at a known pressure into a core which was originally at atmospheric pressure. These data are usually not plotted in this way by service laboratories. where a weighed sample of cles. In this . void spaces are microscopic in scale. 2Dimensional representation of pore space Fig. It will normally only be possible to distinguish any effects of dual porosity if the coarse system has a flow capacity about two orders of magnitude greater than that of the fine system. but the flow capacities of the different types of porosity. recrystallization. The rock description is provided only as a guide to character and does not pretend to be the geological sample description. Data may also be presented as a point plot against depth.1 1 POROSITY Porosity is generally symbolized $ and is defined as the ratio of void volume to bulk volume. 5. These ment equated to its volume.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 5. as shown in Fig. 5. where a weighed uncrushed sample is placed in a Boyle's law porosimeter apparent diameters of voids rarely exceeding a few. crushed core is placed in an unreactive refined liquid (e. it is preferred nowadays to show permeability variation with depth on a linear scale. or a very few. This is especially so in silty or highly cemented formations. With lesser contrasts. The grain volume is the difference between the total gas space of the void volume plus annulus and the calibrated volume of the core holder. tens of microns (Fig. It has been customary to plot permeability on a logarithmic scale.g.10. Fig.10. as shown in Table 5. In the grain volume determination. Processes subsequent to sedimentation . For regular arrangements of uniform spheres.2. solution. the lower porosity range normally being of interest only in dual porosity systems. 5.4 Data presentatiqn Routine core analysis is usually presented in tabular form. to determine grain volume. The porosity of reservoir rocks may range from about 5% of bulk volume to about 30% of bulk volume. and in some circumstances it may be necessary to define a system as a dual porosity system having primary and secondary porosity. Grain volume measurements should be reproducible to 0. Two methods are in use: 5. weathering.7 Representation of permeability with depth. but this is no@ useful exercise. behaviour is virtually indistinguishable from single porosity systems with some heterogeneity. 5. equivalent to (b) the dry method.7. partly to present the values on a condensed scale and partly because it is often found that lithologically similar samples show a linear relationship between porosity and log permeability. The distinguishing factor between primary and secondary porosity from the reservoir engineering point of view is not the origin or mode of occurrence.3 Grain density Grain density measurements are sometimes presented in routine core analysis reports. + I I 5. fracturing .8 2D representation of pore space. toluene) and the displace. Isolated pore space The dry method is preferred.8).can modify snbstantially the proportion and distribution of void space. these may be defined as coarse and fine porosities. although since it is the physical nature of the porosity that is of interest. The void spaces in reservoir rocks are most frequently the intergranular spaces between the sedimentary parti(a) the wet method.the proportion of void space can be calculated a theoretically.
in which the pore volume is considered equal to the sum of any oil. the bulk volume is usually determined eithcr by caliper nleasurements or by displaccmcnt of mercury in a pycnometer (Fig. . only the interconnectcd porosity is of interest since this is the only capacity which can make a contribution to flow. the techniques of routine core analysis provide for rncasurcment of bulk volume and either void volume or grain volume. for laboratory purposes. mercury. P P .1 1.\ is applied to as received core plugs. .72 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE situation. (c) bulk and pore volume porosimeter. 5.I Measurement of porosity Porosity may be determined from measurenlents on plugs drilled from recovercd core or estimated from (a) Bulk volume pycnometer  wireline log responses. calibration curve V' againstP2/(P1P2) can be established using steel blanks.P ~ * ~ ~ be Reference mark lsolatlon valve Solid volume (Calibration curve v against p2/plp2can . Porosity may be measured directly on corc samples in the laboratory. 5.9). . Micrometer mercury pump I I I I Fig. (b) Grain volume ( Boyle's l a w ) Sol~d reference p1 Sample or sample !iLL Ilf Reference Gas chamber volume v = v. (a) Bulk volume pycnometer. oil or.9 Measurement of core plug porosity. and also may be estimated in situ by well log analysis. water. From plug samples. In routine core analysis. Dead weight tester . (b) grain volume (Boyle's law). established using steel blanks) (c) Bulk and pore volume poroslmeter 7 . The void volume is represented as the interconnected pore space that can be occupied by a fluid such as gas. 5. A technique known as the summation of fluid. generally only porosities greater than about 10% are likely to be of commercial interest. 111 reservoir engineering.
5.9(b) and the grain volume of the sample or solid volume of say a steel cylinder is denoted by V. in the sample chamber thus influences the observed pressure in the system compared with the pressure without the presence of a sample.T DISTILLATION Water content as fraction of bulk volume J j. A similar. The Boyle's law method is used to provide an estimate of grain volume.P2) The form of the relationship between reservoir condition porosity Q R and zero net overburden laboratory porosity 4)L in terms of pore volume compressibility cp (VlVlpsi) and net overburden pressure APN (= overburden pressure . The sum of the oil + water volumes as a fraction of total bulk gives the porosity. In this method which has a reprbducibility of about 2% of the measured porosity. involving injection of mercury into small and irregularly shaped sample chips or regular plugs. A destructive method of porosimetry. + pieceof fresh sample containing asreceived' fluids Plug for Piece for gas volume determination by mercury injection I Weigh fragment Several hundred qram sample for crushing and disti~~ation i 1 Inject mercury to displace gas from pores buileave liquids Gas content as fraction of bulk volume I RET0R. the weight increase of the sample is directly proportional to the pore volume. while core recovered at surface tends to be stress relieved. Samples are not usable for further experiments after mercury injection. a calibration curve defining the relationship between known solid volumes in a sample chamber and reference pressures and volumes is required. against P2/PIP2 is . In general 1 ($1 . a mercury injection capillary pressure curve and pore size distribution factor can be obtained en route to the porosity measurement. high pressures may be necessary to approach 100% displacement. nondestructive but inherently less accurate technique of porosity measurement involves evacuation of all air from the pore spaces of a cleaned.10 Porosity by summation of fluids. With low porosity. These processes are indicated gas in Fig. Rock at reservoir conditions is subject to overburden stresses. and therefore laboratory porosity values are generally expected to be higher than in situ values. the helium porosimeter using this principle has found wide acceptance. 5. So long as any clay then minerals in the pore space remain u n r e a c t i ~ e [ ~ ~ ] . and corrections for mercury and steel vessel compressibility may become necessary. Dual porosity systems can be investigated by the technique if the test is conducted in equilibrium steps14]. is designed to replace air with a measured volume of mercury.5% around the percentage value calculated. In precision work. The presence of clay bound water provides a limitation a'nd the values of porosity are considered to represent 10. generally established using steel blanks. A further representative piece is subject to mercury invasion to provide the gas filled volume. A schematic representation is shown in Fig. Total porosity may be obtained from crushed samples during the measurement of grain density. but at pressures of 600010 000 psi. The maximum amount of mercury injected is equal to the pore volume of the sample. The method is destructive in that oil and water from a representative part of the core are determined by distillation of fluid from a crushed sample. Nondestructive testing is generally preferred since other types of measurements are often required on a common sample.. attainable with standard equipment. Oil content as fraction of bulk volume Porosity = water fraction + oil fraction + gas fraction Fig. 5. It is not usual to perform routine porosity determination with anything approaching a restoration of reservoir stress.fluid pressure) psi has been found for Brent sands["]as follows: " A calibration curve of V. By conducting the test with small increments of mercury injection and noting the . Accuracy is reported high and reproducible to one percentage point in the range of porosities of 8 4 0 % . dry weighed sample and the introduction of water into the pore space.10.pressure required for displacement.$2) c = . fine pore structure systems. The magnitude of the overestimation will depend upon the pore volume compressibility of the rock and the initial in situ porosity.4) ( P I . most of the pore space contributing to flow is occupied.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 73 water and gas occupying the sample. The volume of V.
Fraction Fig. in general the solid matrix can be considered nonconducting.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Inserting some typical valucs. The Effective Overburden Pressure : 0.1 1 Formation factor (forced a = 1). 5. say: $L = 0.27 c.1 1.5% porosity.4500 = 5500 psi The measurement of porosity on consolidated samples in routine core analysis might generally be expected to yield values of the true fractional porosity k0. .1 Porosity. 5.0 PSI 0.2 Formation resistivity factor Although when clays and shales are present the rock itself has some conductivity.5% and 27.e. = 10 000 . = 3 x lo" psi' AP. a true value of 27% porosity may be measured between 26. i.005.
11. In interpreting formation lithology and saturation. being infinite when c$ = 0. conductivity and spontaneous potential logs are used in addition (Fig. the saturated core being held between electrodes in the bridge circuit.4 Porosity logs The porosity measurements from core plugs are frequently used to validate porosity interpretation from wireline logs. Most wireline logs are designed to respond.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS electrical resistance of a rock sample fully saturated with a conducting fluid (brine) is therefore very much greater than would be the resistance of a sample of fluid of the same shape and The ratio The form of the relationship is shown in Fig. m = 2. the formation density tool response will be discussed further as it provides a particularly useful porosity indication in known lithology. forming an element of a bridge circuit. Obviously. The 5. and a relationship proposed is I Resistivity of rock fully saturated with brine where a = 1 (taken as 0. conductivity bridge. and 1 KO True formation resistivity when ( = 1. and perhaps at reservoir temperature in some cases. This index is a function of brine saturation and to a first approximation R. and in instances where localized mineralogy may influence response. 5. formation factor and resistivity index. The tests should be performed at a range of net overburden pressures. reader is referred to the specialized log interpretation literature for particular details of their calibration. An example is shown in Fig. 5. in different degrees.) The formation factor can be measured by means of an a. These two quantities. after[25]). 5.12 Resistivity index for a Berea sandstone sample. In making comparisons it is necessary to note that the core sample represents information essentially at apoint and on a small scale compared to the averaged response of a logging tool. At partial brine saturations. . In heterogeneous formations.81 for sandstones.1 1. 5. such as cesium Fig.c. response and application[j21. are important in electric log validation.= 2. and an index is is termed the formation resistivity factor (or formadefined: tion factor. 5. the neutron log and the acoustic log. the resistivity of rock is higher than at 100% satujation. 1 for carbonates).13. The principle of operation concerns the scattering of gamma rays as a function of the bulk density of an environment irradiated by a gamma ray source. it should be expected that overburden corrected core porosity will not match log The main logging tools for porosity are the compensated formation density log.2) and perhaps to the fluid occupying the pore space. to lithology and porosity (Fig.12. the gamma ray tool and variations of the induction.3 Resistivity index where n . As a particular example of wireline log use. Brine resistivity is determined by a platinum electrode dipped into the brine. Resistivity of rock fully saturated with brine = Resistivity of the saturating brine Rw 5.1 1. or resistivity factor) and is designated F. (This is known as the Archie Ea~ation[~]. the formation resistivity factor will depend on porosity.
from the source and the long spaced detectors 1 ft away.. A n average rate is obtaincd by cumulating all counts for a given time and dividing by thc time. A new photon of lower energy is created which in general moves In a different direction to the incidcnt photon and whrch can be considered proportional to bulk density. It is usual for two detectors to be used: the short spaced one being some 6 in.. It is therefore clcar that ipterprctation of the tool response requires some knowledge of the forlnation lithology and fluids present in the porc space as well as the heterogeneity of the investigation region. is known as V. measured by a GeigerMueller detector is an inverse exponential where pf is the average density of the pore fluid containing pore water. of the well bore.13 Bulk volume interpretation from logs for a 100 ft interval of a North Sea production well (after ["I). In such shale formations the bulk density is modificd for shale density pYhas follows: . and collimation ensures that Compton scattering from formation rocks provides the prime detected energy. The bulk density measured by thc density log is the weighted average of the densities of the matrix and pore fluicl such that Fig. 5. The response is invalidated in poor conditions. The main interaction at an energy level around 3 MeV is known as Compton scattering. In shaley formations a shale index. As a result. This socalled vertical bed resolution is dependent on the heterogeneity of the formation and on tool design and logging speed. the count rate does not change as abruptly as a physical boundary or as a change of character is encountered by the detcctorsource combination. Since the returning gamma ray intensity... Radiation intensity at the detectors is measured in number of cvents per unit time and because all radioactive processes are statistical ip nature the count rate fluctuates around an average value. The count rate of a detector at a fixed distance from :r source of constant intensity is very closely a sole function of the formation bulk density p . investigation region. whereby a photon collides with an atomic electron and some of the photon energy is imparted to the electron. 137 which emits 0.66 MeV gamma radiation. and p is the density of the rock matrix in the . the high density solid tungsten preventing unwanted photons from reaching the detectors. The detector responses are influenced by their specific length and depth.TROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE function of the bulk density of a formation.. and empirically represents the fraction of shale in formations. hydrocarbo~lsand rnud filtrate. high densities are indicated by low count rates and low densities by high detector count rates. defined from FDCneutron crossplots or perhaps from gamma ray readings. Both detectors are located in inserts in a tungsten carrier. Gamma radiation has neither charge nor mass but may be attenuated by matter as a funct~onof electron density. Gamma ray flux from the source is focused into the formation ancl results in about 90% of the instrument response coming from a region within 6 in..
75 10 I I I I 10 30 50 70 Neutron q5N ( API ) Fig. 5. . X x \"i 2.\. \\ . 5.16.ed r ?'. Core data in particular may not be generally representative of an interval and is influenced in practice by ease of cutting and picks of good reservoir rock. (a) 8 . 5.5 Porosity distributions Data from both core and log derived porosity interpretations may be used to provide zonal properties. f a 0 a x x Tn .14 and 5.16 Porosity distribution.C t K h . 5. .1 1.15 90 110 +A Fig.50 Sand x .25 I 4  _ ' T! Min I Max < & a n 0 1.50 K 1.f 4 @ma I C  /Trend 2 . ' 2. core corrected porosity against p~ in a given zone. 1. The nature of coring fluid influences the magnitude of pf in the porosity calculation and p provides limits on a crossplot of together with . The distribution may or may not be skewed and may or may not show a trend of value with depth. 2 L Trend 2 x X / n \\' X \' X 2. The log porosity validated by core observation is the most useful working set since it will represent a continuous depth section.14 Porositybulk density crossplot.\ x I X . a 5  Fig.r> :. as shown in Figs. LI Z 1./Trend Cr. most core data is discontinuous. \\ 1 2. it is therefore important to recognize bed heterogeneity and boundary factors (zonation) as well as the scale of the observations.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 77 In correlating core compaction corrected porosity measurements with density log data.75 (b) r \ . ' \ .15. Sometimes it is observed @hat given lithologies in a reservoir with a particular depositional and diagenetic history will show a characteristic distribution of porosity in a given zone. 5.\. In contrast.00 r*. as shown in Fig. 5. 9 100 u ?  B ? S 0 ef Pb . One of the more common forms is a truncated normal distribution.25 Clay Recorded density value \ x'\ x .00+ .
there is not.. electrical conductivity and diffusivity. Combinations of different rock units often show up with a multimodal histogram character and this requires separation into subzones. A gradient in potential can also be defined 5. The core alialysis porosity histogram is usually only a part of the log derived porosity histogram since sampling is unlikely to be statistically meaningful. The three terms can be considered to be the energy components of the fluid liable to vary during a flow process .h 'd Q A  dh constant dL . this provides one method of evaluating permeability variation from log and drill cuttings data which can be of value. 5.17 Multimodal porosity. then has the dimensions of length. it may be possible to establish an approximate relation between porosity and permeability. Nevertheless. conductivity. a rate of transfer is proportional to a potential gradient. If the potential terms are divided throughout by g.constant A dL i. the acceleration due to gravity.1 Fluid flow in porous media The permeability of a rock is a measure of its specific flow capacity and can be determined only by a flow experiment. and either some measure of apparent pore diameter. any unique relation between the porosity of a rock and its permeability (except that a rock must have a nonzero porosity if it is to have a nouzero permeability).and their sum can be considered to be a potential per unit mass of fluid. the mean porosity of the unit is the arithmetic average. and the potential energy of position . 5.17. the kinctic energy. and is defined similarly by a transport equation dG?' Q. Permeability has direct analogies with thermal and the gradient in potential is a measure of the irreversible energy losses. so that if no energy losses occur an energy balance on a unit mass of flowing fluid is and if irreversibilities exist Poros~ty. Kozeny model). but these have a limited application. and and d@ =dX dX Darcy rZ7' originally studied the vertical filtration of water deriving experimcntally the relation = U= g. and permeability (e.+ Fig. For unconsolidated rocks it is possiblc to establish relations between porosity. Since pcrmcability dcpcnds upon continuity of pore space.the pressure energy. and very high and very low values are sometimes missing. or of specific surface.U = ..g .12.78 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE For a truncated normal distribution.12 PERMEABILITY 5. Again for rocks of similar lithologj~subjected to similar conditions of sedimentation.e. in theory (nor in practice). but this is !ikely to be of local value only. as shown in Fig. Basic equations of fluid mechan~cs (Euler or Bernoulli equations) apply the staterncnt o i encrgy conservation to a flowing fluid.
Z) pgf and the potential difference between points 1 and 2 is then as shown in Fig.18. however. For the oil industry. and the milliDarcy is more commonly used.18 Linear Darcy flow.2 Datum correction The equation and Qi' may be considered a potential per unit volume.g. .h ~ pg' ) = p2 and this is the defining equation for the measurement of permeability by flow measurement. dpIdL = atmlcm. For horizontal flow dZ1dL = 0 and Darcy's equation can be written as is encountered so frequently that its restriction to horizontal flow may be forgotten. and this is defined by pZc p2+ (2 .) pg' = (h2 .12. the unit adopted is termed the Darcy. as shown in Fig. g' constant = (Nd2).5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 79 where dh1dL represents a manometric gradient. where Q = cm3is. The corrected pressures are then P I C = PI + ( 2 . the product g dhldL can be related directly to the potential as defined above. and that the residual constant has dimensions of acceleration and rock geometry. It is. and since kinetic energy changes are generally negligible Fig.19. The group constant k = ~ d = permeability 2 is taken as the characteristic of the porous medium controlling fluid flow within the medium. a valid equation when all pressures are corrected to a common datum level (frequently in reservoir practice a level such that equal volumes of hydrocarbon lie up dip and down dip of this datum. p = density of fluid. giving initially a correctly volumetrically weighted average pressure). Obviously. mean throat diameter). particularly by King Hubbert showed that the constant includes the fluid density and viscosity. The Darcy can be large for a practical unit. A rock has a permeability of 1 Darcy if a potential gradient of 1 atmlcm induces a flow rate of 1 cclseclsq cm of a liquid of viscosity 1 cp. and p = viscosity of fluid. 5. p = cp. Further experiments and analysis. an absolute length unit could be adopted and 1Darcy lo* ( ~ m ( )~~1 0mm2) '~ For an incompressible fluid (or for a small pressure interval for which an average density may be used) :[ and P + g'Z= . A = sq. where N = final constant of proportionality and incorporates a shape factor. 5.A. 5.+ g ' z P 5. With dimensions of L'. d = characteristic length dimension (e. cm.
field units as follows: Q = I In field units with Q in RBID and length tcrins in feet. area is in square fcct.3 Linear and radial flow equations We may now summiiriw the equation for steady state linear and radial flow of a single phase fluid as follows: (a) Linear system.) P In (rclr'b") 1. The effect is described in terms of a skin effect S./ which yields = _ Fig. From Darcy's law we can write kA dP Q=  dr The curved surface area open to flow is 2nrh so P Fig. 5. 5. = r e" W External boundary Net thickness h 1 Radial dlstance r from well Z \ re Flowing steady state pressure at well is p. y is a specific gravity rclativc to pure water.P.19 Datum correction. (a)Geometry. ...80 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Datum (b) Radial flow system. 5.00708 k h ( P .4335 y sin a I In practical situatioils thcre may well be a rcgion of altered permeability around the wellborc. this becomes Q= 0. as shown in Fig. It is incorporated into the steady state equation as follows: r.20.21. permeability is in milliDarcies. which may increase or decrease the pressure drop in comparison with an unaltered systcm. Integrating between the wellbore and the external boulldary of the system we have 12i P. viscosity is in centipoise and volumetric flow rate is in reservoir condition barrels per day.127 X lo' kA El [ (Pjf'Z) + 0. as shown in Fig..21 Radial flow system. which may bc positive for reduced permeability and negative for improvement. 5.20 Linear flow in dipp~ng bed.12. 5. then we have an expression in . (b) pressure distribution . + pg' sin a If pressure gradient is measured in psiift.f Fig. 5.
At low pressures.6 in the milliDarcy range. In the laboratory. Along with routine core analysis measurements of horizontal permeability. and for convenience. are usually reported for full diameter is samples (kg(. For this reason the Klinkenberg corrected permeability is also called KL (L = liquid). and kg(. cm3/s. p = fluid viscosity. N2. The horizontal permeabilities of k. it is sometimes found that vertical measurements have also been specified..22 Permeability measurement.. He) in permeability determination to minimize fluidrock reaction.23). When corrective measurements are not made. The outlet end pressure is often atmospheric. measurements are often made on a full diameter core piece. The permeability for horizontal laminar flow of a single fluid through a granular material has previously been given by i compliant sleeve Fig. Darcies.. k = constant called permeability. charts are available for typical corrections but these may be erroneous in specific circumstances. In carbonate reservoirs where heterogeneity is anticipated. the sample is placed in a device called a permeameter which comprises a compliant sleeve sealing the plug samples along its long axis and a steel container with end caps and pressure regulators into which the sample is placed. For gas flow where flow rate is measured at standard conditions. normal to k. atmicm. the relationship between rate and pressures upstream and downstream at isothermal conditions is given by and calculated permeability is plotted against lip. This real permeability is equivalent to the permeability that should be obtained for flow with the core saturated 100% with an unreactive liquid.4 Laboratory determination of permeability cap steel &linder Permeability is an anisotropic property of porous rock in some defined region of the system. Routine core analysis is generally concerned with plug samples drilled normal to the long axis of the whole core. 5. that is.1 2. 5. This is known as the Klinkenberg correction[" for gas slippage and involves making several measurements of permeability at different inlet pressures. The mean permeability is determined as where the units are Q = volumetric flow rate. The true permeability is the extrapolation of the measured data on a straight line to the point UPrn = 0 (i. The nature of the liquid used in checking Klinkenberg corrections may be important in clay sensitive or reactive formations.22. infinite mean pressure). then The linear Darcy relationship for gas flow at standardconditions thus becomes .e. Linear flow of gas through the core plug is established (flow rate proportional to pressure drop is checked). cp. dPidL = pressure gradient across sample. permeabilities in PI Qi = P 2 Q 2 as shown in Fig. (Fig. permeability corrections are unnecessary for permeabilities approaching 1 Darcy but may be in the order of 0. in horizontal plane). A = sample crosssectional area. In general. 5. Using conventional equipment. The region between the compliant sleeve and the inner walls of the permeameter is subjected to a confining pressure (about 200 psi) in order to prevent the flow along the long axis of the plug. the permeability measured is higher than the real permeability and a correction is required. Sometimes these samples are specifically requested along bedding planes where it has been noted that the long axis of the whole core is not normal to the bedding plane.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS plug sample / 5. it is directional. Any plug drilled along the long axis of the whole core is termed a vertical plug. Dry gas is usually used (air. cm2. Such samples are referred to as horizontal plug samples. For P2 = 1 atm.
The representation of iJow restriction is at the heart of permeability characterization and is manifest through definition of transmissibility. angular and irregular.y.5 Anisotropy of permeability While permeability as defined in petroleum usage is ayropcrty only of the rock (having the di~nension L ). 5. the sedimentation process will ensure that vertical perlneability will he less than horizontal permeability even in tllc absence of tight streaks. Core data represents microscale observation as shown in Fig. with k.24. injectcd water tonguing. 5. Whenever sediments are poorly sorted. the property is not necessarily identical in all size samples or orientations. generally the smallest value.the !lorizorrtr~l permeability.24 Effect of scale of observation and measurement in permeabilitydata from a Rotliegende aeolian sand cross bed set in the Leman gas field (after [361). 5. With special pcrmeameters. The direction of greatest interest in reservoir samples is that parallel to the bedding planes . k. the quantificato tion is as follows: 0 Fig. . Application in reservoir simulation models is of intermediate scale. values of caprock permeability can be determined down t c around 1 0 ' D. # k . The direction perpendicular to bedding planes is of considerable interest in connection with movement in the gravitational field: gas segregation. Locat~on miniof Fig.23 Klinkenberg permeability correction. Consequently. f k. D The accuracy is usually within f5% of the true valuc. 5. in general. The sedimentary environment may also lead to the orthogonal permeabilities in the 1101izontal direction also being unequal. and well test derived data is of macroscale. although the measurements arc poorer at high and low permcabilities. but this is generally a lesser effect than the vertical to horizontal difference.z indicate direction. injected gas override..82 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE t * /@)/( / kL The utilization of permeability anisotropy information is very much scale and problem dependent.12. kA T=L QP = AP k \ the range of I x 1v4 up to 20 D can be measured. gravity smearing or accentuation of unstable displacement fronts. In the representation T with subscripts x.
26 Linear beds in parallel. so the pressure gradient will be different and also different between layers.12.12.25. be remembered that in general &e. Fig. This applies when beds are homogeneous such that PI ./k. These are linear beds in series and parallel with no crossflow between beds. 5. ./p.kr product where k. The only source of permeability data for observing the nature of a distribution is from core analysis measurements. The relationship between well test derived permeability Era and core averaged permeability k. is a relative permeability. This type of distribution was first reported in the literature by Law and has been noted by others. and there is a For equal A then =L/~{L. 5. 5.7 Permeability distributions In a given rock type unit. 5. It will not be true when water displaces oil since ko/po ahead of front is different from k.25 Linear beds in series. 5. it may be expected that a truncated log normal frequency of permeabilities will occur.) The approprhte mean is thus a harmonic average permeability kH. 1. however. can be represented empirically to account for scale by use of a coefficient a  2. is an effective_ permeability and really should be considered as a k. kre5 kcor It should.6 Averaging permeabilities Warren and Price [20]showed that the most probable behaviour of a heterogeneous system approaches that of a uniform system having a permeability equal to the geometric mean Fig.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS The value of k may be from appropriately scaled observation. Crossflow is also promoted by capillarity. Linear beds in series For constant flow rate we can add pressure drops. zA.P2 is constant in all beds at equal distances. as shown in Fig. It has also been shown analytically that the mode of a log normal distribution is a geometric average.26. then A x h so iS is an arithmetic average. behind. Crossflow between adjacent beds can occur unless there are permeability barriers. Linear beds in parallel See Fig. When all beds are the same width. which essentially means a unit having similarity in pore size distribution as a result of depositional and diagenetic history. a = : 5. Two simple systems can be analysed in linear geometry to determine an appropriate mean to represent an equivalent homogeneous system.
The idealized truncated log norntal distribution is shown in Fig. (c)semilog multlfit. normalization of the frequency axis is rccomrnended for ease of comparison. 5. Permeability distributiolls in a reservoir can be used diagnostically to aid zonation and subzonation. (a) Semilog. In zonation it is important to recognize depth and thickness trends with permeability which can be differcnt but which can give rise to the s a n e apparent distribution. . the sand unit probably rcpresents three regions. 5. In these circumstances.28 Multimodal permeability distribution. so any practical relationship represents a best fit and may be represented by a convenient inathematical relationship. Statistical linear scale porosity Logarithm of permeabil~ty Fig.84 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE strong possibility that the plugs will not represent a true statistical sample of the unit. Some . As shown in Fig. 5. The low permeability zone may sometimes relate to diagenetic damage of pores and exist in a particular depth andlor saturation interval of a given depositional unit. (b) loglog. 5.28. Empirical correlation of porosity with permeability is frequently attempted in order to provide an estirrlate of permeability as a function of depth. Reservoir zonation within and between wclls can be aided by histogrant analysis. rnln Logar~thrn perrneab~lrty of t rnax t Fig.29 Porositypermeability correlations for glven rock types. tests such as the KolmogorovSniirnoff test have found application in testing whether or not sarnple sets belong to a particular population [I"'"]. 5. .27 Truncated log normal distribution.27 and has the property that the mode is equivalent to a gcometric average of the sample values. Fig. There is no theorctical relationship between porosity and permeability in natural porous systems. The easiest relationship to test is that of a straight line and it has frequently been noted that a plot of porosity against the logarithm of permeability leads to an approximate straight linc. 5. so a depth record of permeability is not generally available.13 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN POROSITY AND PERMEABILITY Porosity from validated log response provides a continuous representation of pore volume as a function of depth in a well. The application of any relationship is purely in the nature of an inout operutor so any reasonable functional form will suffice. Core analysis data can rarely do this.
Examples of the crossplots are shown in Fig. + b@. It is clear that a statistically significant volume of data is necessary to identify the relationships.. . Define relationship between log derived in situ porosity and Klinkenberg and compaction corrected core permeability at common depth. but be based on a data spread of permeabilities between 1500 mD and 10 mD. 4. reservoir units may be represented by curves or multiple lines. s where a = .k. p~ = formation density log response. 5. logarithmic scale porosity against log derived @ corrected core I$ and obtain relationship. . Since flow rate is directly proportional to permeability the potential errors are significant.  . Depth match core and log data. One has been the direct correlation of core corrected permeability with well test interpretation and log response informations [j31. As might be expected. Compare compaction corrected core C$ histogram with log derived @ histogram and define appropriate zonation. only data from unimodal histograms are plotted for defining a particulz permeabilityporosity relationship.... It may also be apparent that the degree of fit of the equations is important as a calculated permeability is above there are other approaches [j8]. b. The most usual sequence of operations to provide the correlations is shown i n r a b l e 5. from core against Klinkenberg and compaction corrected core permeability (bedding plane direction) and obtain best fit.+ C A T + ) .. ik.29. 1.3 @ . obtained empirically. In poor correlations a porosity of say 25% may be used to predict a permeability of 300 mD.@ = neutron log response...Krelationships Oo / + .  .5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS required from a porosity value at a particular depth.. The form of the correlating expression in a given zone is as follows: k = aCf(ap. .. In addition to the correlation methods outlined TABLE 5. Explain anomalies. a. 5. log response. AT = acoustic . Use each relationship in appropriate zone to predict permeability at each depth value of interest and plot permeability log..c = coefficients .3.
. what is the hydrocarbon saturation'? What would be values for exponents of 1.2 (see Appendix 11) together with the densitySNP crossplot in Fig. Evaluate the water saturation using the WaxmanThomas e q u a t i o ~(~R = 0 . = 0.4 0.120 12. = 5 Om and R . (g) Use this value to determine porosity.5 0. m = 2 .84 blm metres. The Coates and Dumarioir equation ['']is a modification of one by Timur '"I and is expressed as follows: where ~2 = 3.86 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Another form promoted by a logging service company requires knowledge of irreducible saturation and is based on pore geometry and log response.2 Using the logs in Figs A5..1 Om. to what value of V. Examples Example 5.056 Rm.205 6. c m ' m e q ~ ' . What is the porosity? In an updip location the same formation has an apparent hydrocarbon saturation. + (log + : + 2.h for each level.n=2.3 evaluate the following information for the permeable zones A and B.75  .2. . = 0. (c) Determine R.0 0. at A and B using i) The Simandoux equation ii) The niodified Simandoux equ a t'lon iii) The Poupon and Lcvcaux equation (Indonesia Equation). If the exponent of the resistivity ratio equation is 2.equivalent on thc modified Si~nandoux Using these values of R .5 Rm. 0 4 6 0 ~ ' .165 8..1 and A5. (h) Calculate S . NAIL VTI. 111 an offset well. = model? If R. . Example 5. C and shale.268 Calculate the constants of the Archie equ at'ion.3 0. Laboratory analysis has shown that Q. (d) Establish the clean line and the shale line for garnma ray. B./. a thick water bearing layer is encountered having a resistivity of 1.2Y Example 5.3 mcqlcc. (a) Tabulate log values for the zones A.212 X~ and C = 465 p.density crossplot. (f) Integrate information from the two shale indicators and select the most appropriate value of V. Read garnma ray values for zones A and B and convert to VVh. Assumea=l.29 Ilm. n = 2). Note these are Dresser Atlas logs in a sandy formation of a well drilled with an oil base n ~ u d there are n o resistivity logs or an SP..m=2.!. for zones A and B..1 A series of core samples from a well give thc following formation factor: porosity relationships: FRF: : 30 0. = 1.. (b) Determine Rw by considering only zone C. and VAh calculate the water saturation from the basic Simandoux equation. The water resistivity is 0. and from a shale zone (as included in table). and a truc resistivity of 11. a l .2.8and 2. A5. Evaluate V. and plot all points on the DIN Crossplot.IS this Q.2. (e) Establish the shale point on a neutron .092 19. 23 .1 8 ~ ~ +./. .3 A shaley sand has t i porosity of 26% over an interval within which R.
when the pressure at the HWC is 1450 psi. The effective distance from the HWC to the outcrop is 10 miles. after Klinkenberg correction? .4 Darcy's law in differential form is: (a) Show that the equation for isothermal linear flow of an ideal gas in Darcy units reduces to: (b) If a gas flows through a core sample discharging to atmosphere at a rate of 6. The aquifer sand has a net thickness of 65 ft. and gas viscosity at ambient temperature is 0. what is the permeability of the sample? Dimensions are 1in.2 ccsls when a manometer upstream of the core records a pressure of 190 mm Hg.. Example 5.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS Example 5. length. Sea level  f2501 Example 5. what is the rate of water influx in barrels per day? Assume the specific gravity of the aquifer water is 1. Length 1in.6 The following results were obtained in flowing dry gas through a cleaned extracted dried core plug: Core dimensions: Gas viscosity: Atmospheric pressure: Upstream pressure (mm Hg) Diameter 1in. A hydrocarbonwater contact exists at 5250 ft.038. Under dynamic conditions.018 cp. a width of 3000 ft and a permeability of 750 mD.018 CP 760 mm Hg Downstream pressure Atmospheric Atmospheric Atmospheric Flow rate (standard conditions) (cm3/min) What is the permeability of the sample.5 A n aquifer is known to outcrop at the sea bed where the water depth is 250 ft as shown in the figure. 0. diameter x 1in.
8 A reservoir is boundcd by three faults and an oilwater contact forming a tilted rectangular block of 3000 ft x 1000 ft x 150 ft.7 cp Oil formation volume factor = 1.7 A core sample is saturated with brine. the height of the brine above the core is as follows: Time (s) 0 100 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Height (cm) 100. A production rate of 1000 bbllday of tank oil is obtained flom a number of wells lying close to the upper fa~llt boundary.7 psi Compressibility of water = 3 X 10\ols/psi Example 5. (b) and radial flow (c).0 45.135 rblstb Density of oil at reservoir conditions = 50 lblft' 150 f t 5750ft (a) What is the pressure at the oilwater contact? (b) If the pressure at the original oilwater contact at abandonment is 500 psig.02 gicm Viscosity of brine = I centipoisc g 1atmosphere . The oilwater contact is 1000 ft long at a depth of 5750 ft.0 96.1 82.= 1 0 ~ y n e l c m ' = 981 cm s2 Core Example 5. both in linear (a).9 Find the expressions for the average permeability of beds or zones of differing permeability when in scrics and in parallel.48 cm 1 atmosphere = 14.e. (c) Calculate the mean permeability for the following cases: .0 13.0 30.0 67. what sizc of aquifer would be necessary if water drivc of thc reservoir werc to be complete? (i. 1porc volumc of invading water) Use the following relationships: I BB Liday = I .5 Brine What is the pernleability of the sample? Assume that: Density of brine = 1. and mounted in a burette as shown in the accompanying diagra~n.0 20. g Average pressure at producing wells = 1750 p ~ at 5000 ft Net sand thicknesc = 150 ft Permeability to oil = 150 mD Porosity = 26% Viscosity of oil at reservoir conditions = 0. When flow is started.84 cm3/s 1ft = 30. (d).88 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Example 5.
G.D. 42. H. G. G. Tech. [lo] Cuiec. Prediction of formation compaction from laboratory compressibility data. [5] Anderson. [20] Warren. Proc. Pet. Oriented cores guide Eliasville redevelopment. Wile)! Interscience (1973). A statistical reservoir zonation technique: JPT (1962).M. (Dec. J. Tech. and Whiting. Viking Graben. [3] Archie. 11 (1972). [7] Amyx. J. A P I R P 40 (1960). Pet. Permeability. 1979). Bass. McGraw Hill (1960). An analysis of high velocity gas flow through porous media. Can. [13] Law. A.H. Penwell.. R. A critical review of core analysis techniques. [17] Coates. Tulsa (1975). SPWLA. 263. measured. Trans. 202. Trans. D . Pet. R. Interpretation. J. L. AIME (SPEJ) 222 (1961). JPT (Feb 1979). Flow in heterogeneous porous media. Properties of Reservoir Rocks: Core Analysis. Pet. [23] Wong. (1980).P.S. Gas turbulence factor in a microvugular carbonate. Correlating and averaging connate water saturation data. D. 1211 RRIIERC . D. Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology.S. C. J. (1970) 1241 Firoozabadi. Tech. S. SPE (1962).M. 4 (1965). [6] Klinkenberg. J. Symp. Pet. 38. Pet. [15] Keelan. Can. Study of problems related to the restoration of the natural state of core samples. [18] Teeuw. 68.L. AAPG Bull 36 (1952).J. [16] Newman. A statistical approach to the interstitial heterogeneity of sand reservoirs. Vol 7 The Brent Sand in the [22] Gewers. and Dumanoir. J. J. 236.R. and Nichol. UKCS: Sedimentological and Reservoir Engineering Study. Tech.J. 16 (1977). D . G. A. Reservoir rocks and petrophysical considerations. Can.M. Tech. Can. \. absolute. H. and Price. Pore volume compressibility of consolidated friable and unconsolidated reservoir rocks under hydrostatic loading.W. J. (ed.W.E.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS Zone Depth (parallel) Length or radial extent (series) 89 Permeabilitv (mD) References 6 [I] American Petroleum Institute Recommended practice for core analysis procedure. [19] Testerman.C. J.) Petroleum Production Handbook (Vl. J. 129. 211. [14] Davis. R. SPEJ (1971). Can.K.E. Graham and Trotman (1980). A new approach to improved log derived permeability. 889. 153. 42. and Katz. 6 (1967). Pet. L.L. AIME (1944). effective. J. JPT25 (1973). V2). API Drilling and Production Practice (1941).R. World Oil (1948). [4] Monicard. (1969). averaging and use of the basic geological engineering data. 174. Coring and Core Analysis Handbook. [12] Bell.L. [8] Frick. Int. [2] Ryder. Effects of liquid saturation on turbulence factors for gasliquid systems. [9] Buckles. 200. D. 14th Ann. Eng. [ l l ] Havlena. The permeability of porous media to liquid and gases. Tech. Can. L. (1973). 278. T. . J.Physical Properties. Petroleum Reservoir Engineering .
. H. polositp and residual water saturation relationships for sandstone reservoirs. and Archer. for (1983). SPE ?'roc.R.J. W. 77. Significant contributions in formation evaluation and well testing. R. and Kahn. Pet. J. Log. I. Eval. M. The measulerneat of pctrophysical properties of unconsolidated sand cores. I. J. [38] Wall. Proc. R. Paper EUR 273.C. (1963). Proc. [44] Jcnnings.Y.). P. lt~st. J.S. AIME 213 (19581. Geol.S. . Syrnp. 1281 Hubbert.W.M. Proc 6th Europ. Permeability . A. Symp. 2225. AIME Form. Clay Min. Statistically analysing core data.G. 24th SPWLA Ann.F. (Woodland. A. The Log Analyst 9 (1968). [39] Archer.J. 1984). JPT (Dec. Core handling and rne>~surement Syrnp. New York (1962). and Hurst. Carnbriclgc (Apr. Applications of clay mincralogy in reservoir studies. J. JPT (1974). Thermal properties of reservoir rocks and fluids. In Developtnenl in Pefrolel~m Engineering .J. Proc. (1966).W.M.W. 23. Rc~v.J.. B. 51 (1965). 1321 Swanson. J . J.J. [40] McHardy. Determining interblock transmissibility in reservoir simulators. Fall Mtg.J. Proc. Papel M (1979) [34] Muecke. N.C. 759. A. T. SNS. 144. Dalmont. Symp.1.M.K.R. R. techniques for obtaining reliable reservoir characteristics. Paper A (1979). Wilson. 1311 Timur. F. and Ali.. Trans. . and Thomas. H.troleum and the Continental ShrlfofNW Europe. and Tait. 1351 N a ~ t e ~ a a l .S. E.L. ed.F.90 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [25] Peveraro. Errors in corc oil content data measured by the retort distillation technique. J. M.R.J. 4] The effective compressibility of reservoir rock and its effect on permeability. Proc. 2 ( 1 979).C. H. M. R . 222. (ed. Electron microscope and Xray diffraction studies of filamentous illitic clay from sandstones of the Magnus field. Statistical Arzalysis in the Geological Scierzcc7s. 1985). Determination of rock properties by quantitative processing of geophysical borehole logs. A. and McHardy. V . (301 Miller.the key to shaley sand evaluation using theWaxmanSmils equation in the absence of core data. and Young. Darcy's law and the field equations of the flow of underground fluids. SPWLA. 691. Conference.L. .K. A. C. Pet. 1411 Hook. Paris (1 856). 1432. J. SPWLA. J. and Randall. J . JPT (June 1967). A. 195. SPWLA 22ndAnn. (June 1981).. [48] Pallat. L > J ' 7 0 . D. [43] Dupuy. [37] Passmore. Oxford 17 ( 1 982). Symp.386.W. 29. 1574. 1491 Trudgen. Clay Mitz. Barking (1985). [26] Juhasz. JPT (1973). Applied Science Pub.Formation fines and factors controlli~lg their movement in porous media. Determining areal permeability distributions by calculations. The yublicfbuntains in thc Town of Dijorz. The relationship between permeability and morphology of diagenetic illite in reservoir rocks. JPT (1979). J.D. 145 1361 Van Veen. 1471 Rathmell. Europec (1982). F. . In Pt. Geology of the Leman gas field. Wilson. Wiley. [2Y] Torouyi. DawciWilson) Elsevier Applied Science Pub. 1421 ~ r u g e rW. Prediction of permcabil~ty from logs by multiple regres. M. AIME 207 (1956). Houston (Nov. [4h] Luffel. P. 223. Hemstock. W. The precision of core analysis data and sorne implicatio~is reservoir evaluation. F. Trans. R. A.S. P.. 1331 Allen. and Hoffnlan. Relationship of facies and reservoir quality in Rotlicgendes desert sand stones. Z . and Cable. NormalisecL Qv .V. J . 1960). and Timur. An investigation of permeability. 6lh ELITOP.. [27] Darcy. and Pottier. S.ion. JPT (1961).. [ i McLatchie.pore size distribution correlations. Barking (l975). Application of statistical methods to detailed stuclics of reservoirs. 4IstAnn.
P.W. 0 . DaweWilson): Elsevier Applied Science. Hilchie Inc. Barking (1985).E. D. [56] Threadgold. 800. D. London (1985). 83. Advances in Formation Evaluation. Graham and Trotman. R. a ~dvancid Well Log Interpretation. D. Pennwell. JPT (July 1970). 1551 Hilchie. Coring. IjA). Fundamentals of Well Log Interpretation. Essentials ofiModern Open Hole Log Interpretation. L 2 . [53] Dewan. Tulsa (1983). and Jenkins. In Developments in Petroleum Engineering . Amsterdam (1984). [54] Desbrandes. R. Encyclopedia of Well Logging.W. D . Golden.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS [50] Bush. (Dev..1 (Ed. Proper hydration of clays for rock property determinations. [51] Keeland. Sci. 43. Colorado (1982). in Pet.C.T. Elsevier. World Oil (March 1985). [52] Serra.. J.
we can write 6.1 EQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS where 8 is the angle measured through the wetting phase (water) fluid that the surface rnakes at the contact with the pores wall (Fig.2 Immiscible fluids interfacein a confined capillary. 6. R. can also be defined in terms o f these radii and in A pressure differential is required for nonwetting terms o f the interfacial tension o between the phase fluid to displace wetting phase fluid and this is immiscible fluids. thc PC tcrm is positive for unconfiiled result o f nonwetting phase fluid (hydrocarbons) immiscible fluid pairs. .Chapter 6 Fluid Saturation: Influence of Wettability and Capillary Pressure The curvature o f the interface suggests that the oil phase pressure Po is greater than the water phase The equilibrium saturation distribution in a pet..1 Pressures at an interface. The angle 8 is known as the contact angle. This happens as a convention.1) assumption that RI = R2. By the pore space characteristics. Oil drop Fig. phase fluid (water) during migration o f hydrocar.pressure P.. Capillary pressure may be defined as the pressure difference across a curved interface between two For an i~nmisciblc fluid pair coilfined in a circular immiscible fluids. equivalent to a minimum threshold capillary pressure and is dcnendent on vore size.and R2. and making the in a water environment (Fig. 6. i.2). The curved interface has two entering pore space iilitially occupied by wetting principal radii o f curvature normal to cach other. It can be shown that the capillary pressure bons from a source rock region into a reservoir trap. 92 Fig. Using the example o f an oil drop crosssection pore of radius r.e. 6.. The capillary pressure PC is defined as roleurnreservoir prior to production is governed by the difference between the two phase pressures. 6.
together with contact angles and interfacial tensions.. The relative spreading concept applied to fluids on a surface may be used to illustrate the understanding of wettability description applied to an oilwater system in a reservoir. The relationship for PC (reservoir oilbrine) is obtained using the appropriate value of (a cos 8). (b) preferentially water wet. The presence of certain authigenic clays.) = (0 cos @)lab The migration of hydrocarbons into an initially water filled reservoir rock and the subsequent equilibrium vertical distribution of saturation is modelled in the laboratory by a nonwetting phase displacing wetting phase drainage capillary pressure test. denoting fluid pairs by the subscripts 1 and 2 (a cos PC(" = PC. 6.6 FLUID SATURATION 93 TABLE 6. 6. air and brine with a ( a cos 0) value of 72 may be used to measure PC (airbrine) in the laboratory. . Reservoir. The degree of wettability exhibited depends both on the chemical compositions of the fluid pair. For example. by convention. T P Laboratory. particularly chamosite. particularly the asphaltine content of the oil. and the displacement is effected by increasing air pressure in a series of discrete steps in watersaturated core plugs sitting Strongly (a) water wet (b) Preferentially (C)Neutral water wet wettabll~ty (d) Preferentially Oil wet Strongly (e) Oil wet Fig. T. (a) Strongly water wet. T. Pure quartz sandstone or calcite surfaces are likely to be wetted preferentially by water..3 Wetting contact angles in confined capillaries. The main practical difficulty comes from obtaining a smooth representative pore surface at reservoir conditions of temperature and pressure on which to make measurements. T. In Fig.P Laboratory. 0 140 30 48 72 (50) 4 480 The angle 8 is influenced by the tendency of one of the fluids in the immiscible pair to spread on the pore wall surface in preference to the other.P 30 30 0 0.. (c)neutral.2 LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH RESERVOIR SYSTEMS Since a cos 8 = rPcM it follows that the capillary pressure measured in any given porous system using a particular fluid pair will be related to that obtained with any other fluid pair merely by the ratio of the a cos 8 terms. T. through the wetting phase fluid. ( 0 COS 8)res PC(.1.P Reservoir. (d) preferentially oil wet. and on the nature of the pore wall...3. Contact angles are measured. and the fluid which spreads more is said to be the wetting phase fluid.. (= 26 dyneslcm). i. 8 is measured in the water phase to aid comparisons. T. The qualitative recognition of preferred spread is called a wettability preference.1 System Wetting phase Brine Brine Brine Brrne Oil Gas (After 1261).P Laboratory. Air and brine are frequently used as the pseudoreservoir fluids.e. A table of typical fluid pairs of interest in reservoir engineering is shown in Table 6. may promote oil wet character. The capillary pressure forces that influence allowable saturation change in pores of a given size are thus directly influenced by wetting character. It will be seen later that fluid displacement characteristics can also be used to deduce wetting character. 6. Nonwetting phase Oil Oil Gas Gas Gas Mercury Conditions T = temperature P = pressure . (a cos Use is made of this relationship in conducting laboratory tests with fluids other than reservoir condition fluids. (e) strongly oil wet.P Reservoir.
4 Gas liquid drainage capillary pressure measurement. The first applied pressure differential does not cause any desaturation of wetting phasc and is interpreted as meaning that the threshold capillary pressure of the largest pore sizes has not beenieached. 6.) lies in this region.6. In laboratory tests this final irreducible saturation value is often beyond the breakdown pressure of the porous plate and is sometimes obtained by centrifuge spinning at a rotational force equiva1en..PC. nonwetting phase should be most difficult in the smallest borc tube (highest threshold pressure)... A number of cores of similar petrophysical propertics can be analysed simultaneously.5. a decreasing pore size is invaded by nonwetting phase fluid until an irreducible wetting phase saturation S. is reached and no further increase in differential pressure causes further desaturation. llr it will he observed that entry of the since P. Wett~ngphase saturat~onSw Fig. I  Neoprene d~aphragm Atmosphere \ Screen \ Porous plate 10300 03 1 Pressure regulators transducers and d~g~tal voltmeters qI I m Cyl~nder Alr compressor Fig. and measuring the quantity of any produced wetting phase. The physical significancc of threshold pressure may be apprcciated by an analogy with capillary rise of water in different bore glass tubes suspended in an open tray of water. 6.. 6.. Again. (3) Repetition for several successive pressure levels.. The laboratory test results may look like those shown in Fig.. If the density of water is denoted by P w . In higher permeability reservoir rocks (500 mD) the value of PC. The nonwetting phase fluid finds it easier to enter the largest pore spaces in the porous rock first since. ..arid PC (S. For pressures greater than the minimum threshold pressure.4. The crosshatched region in Fig. As a result of an increase in pressure (ecluivalent to PC since PC = Pa. The relationship between applied pressure differential (equivalent to capillary pressure) and saturation thus gives a characterization of pore size distribution. Between 0. may be indistinguishable from zero applied pressure. for a given rockfluid system. (2) Liquid saturations measured after equilibrium saturation has been reached.P.5 which lies between . 6.94 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE on a semipermeable porous diaphragm.5 psi and 3.5 Laboratory measurements of drainage capillary pressure.. 6. with equilibrium being controlled by the core plug taking longest.) is known as the transition zone region. as shown in Fig. The apparatus layout is shown in Fig. There will be a threshold pressure for each pore radius which has to be overcome by the applied pressure differential in order to move wetting phasc fluid from that pore.) the water saturation decreases and its value is established by weighing the core plug. 6.0 psi some desaturation is achieved and the minimum threshold pressure (P. (1) Portion of liquid in saturated cores is displaced at a particular pressure level by either gas or displacing liquid..t to about 150 psi.
Using the free water level as a datum and defining its position in the reservoir as the place where oil phase pressure Po equals the water phase pressure P.e. which is a convenient datum and where Po = r PW=PFWL it also follows that the saturation which occurs at Po = PFWL POg/gc . + gradient pressure gradient Fig.7 shows fluid gradients for the oil and Since we also have the relationship water phases which are defined in terms of density of the fluids. . H where gig.81. The FWL is thus a property of the reservoir system. The threshold capillary pressure found in reservoir rocks is proportional to the height above the free water level (FWL) datum.6 Capillary rise above free water level. then at the FWL and P. In British units this ratio is unity. = PFWL. From our definition of capillary pressure as PC = Po .pw g/gc.P . . i.P. The relationship between height above free water level and capillary pressure is derived from consideration of the gravitycapillary pressure force equilibrium. = 0 = P ~ ( F w L ) H = f (Sw) Figure 6. The free water level in the dish provides a convenient datum location. Fig. . 6. or g' is the ratio of the acceleration due to gravity and the gravitational constant. .P O I The saturation which exists at this height H i s a rock property dependent term and is obtained from laboratory tests P = f (Sw) C therefore Po . while an oilwater contact observed in a particular well in the reservoir will depend on the threshold pressure of the rock type present in the vicinity of the well and there may then be a zone of 100% water saturation from some height above the FWL..7 Static pressure gradients in a homogeneous reservoir interval. . H height H will depend on a pore radius term r. At some height H above the free water 20 cos 0 PC = level. .(PFWL.P W g/gc H) therefore H(pw . where a region of 100% water saturation will be found. the capillary pressure at a depth equivalent to H above the free water level is given by P C P C = ( P F M ~ LP O = g/gc g/gc H ) ..6 FLUID SATURATION 1 2 3 Pressure + . and in SI units is 9. 6.
4 lbmlft?) Well 'clean 011' Top transltlon zone  Transition zone Lowest location . is usually deterrnined using a mercury injection test. The magnitude of the threshold capillary pressure can influence the location of fluid contacts predicted by gradient intersection methods from RFI' data since the tool respo~idsto filtrate invaded zone character (P. 6. Although this test is destructive. the threshold height H. which has been shown to influence saturation distribution.v.. the nonwetting phase with respect to air. The shapes of the capillary pressure curves can be used diagnostically to compare samples of similar rock type. Figure 6. = PI..). DFWL DOWC+ Hr = In frequently used oilfield units where P is in lbfisi.8. 6. then the depth of the FWL (= DFWI. is equal to unity.9).g/gc . f . 6.96 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE PC(sW) = therefore 20 cos H . for oil production Observed OWC (Pc=Pc+)  gz  level (PC= 0 ) Fig. .10 shows a number of diffcrcnt characteristic mercury injection capillary pressure curve shapes..PO) PC = 144 (Note: 1 glcm" 62.8 Static water saturation distribution and definition o contacts and transition zone in a homogeneous reservoir. + P. The FWL depth is usually determined by noting an observed OWC in a well and conducting a drainage laboratory capillary pressure test on a rock sample from the interval to find the threshold capillary pressure.3 PORE SIZE DISTRIBUTION The pore size distribution in a givcn rock type. The pore size distribution function D. H i s in feet and fluid densities are in units of Ibmift'. it has the advantage that high pressures can bc attained and mercury. (pwr p PO) 20 cos 8 H(SI. in the sense that the sample cannot be used again. is determined from the volume of mercury injected over a givcn pressure step '"1 (Fig..) = r . 6. then H ( P . can be forced into very small pores.H(s.). which is equivalent to the height of an observed oilwater cdntact above FWL in a particular rock type is given by The water saturation distribution in a homogeneous reservoir is shown in Fig.S/gc  (PW  PO) Similarly. . and gig.
The condition PC = 0 in the imbibition direction effectively defines the residual nonwetting phase saturation which is therefore a property of the particular rock pore size system and should be recognized as such. for practical purposes. has led to the assumption by many reservoir engineers that.i= Sw Fig. 6. and the rate would be different depending on whether phase saturation was decreasing (drainage) or increasing (imbibition). The experimental difficulties in determining the definition of the imbibition direction capillary pressure curve. 6.6 FLUID SATURATION The pore size distribution would be expected to control the rate of saturation change in a given wettability system for a given phase pressure difference. This is close to the truth in systems without strong wetting preference and with essentially monosize pores and the magnitude of the difference APc(Dm may often be negligible in comparison with viscous force pressure gradients. The directional effect is attributable to the threshold pressure dependency on pore radius.10 Characteristic mercury injection capillary pressure curve shapes. Poorly sorted Slightly fine skewness Poorly sorted Slight coarse skewness Fig.11 Capillary pressure hysteresis. Unsorted Well sorted Well sorted Coarse skewness Sw Well sorted Fine skewness Fig. the imbibition wetting phase threshold pressure is sometimes called a capillary suction pressure. 6. I I \ r pore radius 0 (lSH. The hysteresis phenomenon gives rise to the curve pair character shown in Fig. capillary pressure hysteresis does not exist. combined with the difficulties of using the information in reservoir simulation models.4 CAPILLARY PRESSURE HYSTERESIS When wetting phase pressure is increasing.11. (This last assumption depends on whether the gradients are being compared over large distances between wells (macrosystem) or over small pore . C 6. 6.9 Pore size distribution function.
The observed oilwater contacts representing thc effects of threshold entry pressure are denoted OWC. 6. Prof~le t well a Depth FWL0 sw 1 Fig. A well penetrating all sands as shown will log a saturation profile as shown.98 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE diameter distances on a nlicrodisplacemcnt scale. the reader is referred to the literature [' 291. '3" 6. Each sand has a capillary pressure curve. In this example.13 Saturation discontinuities in a layered reservoir and an example of multiple observed oilwater contacts. depth related to saturation.13. four sand units are connected only at a co~ntnon aquifer.k4 with kl>k4>k3>k2. . as shown in Figs 6.) For the application of hysteresis in the dynamic pressure of reservoir fluid displacement. 6.12 Observed oilwater contacts and their relationship with free water level in a layered reservoir with a common aquifer.5 SATURATION DISTRIBUTIONS IN RESERVOIR INTERVALS In real reservoir systems it is expccted that a number of rock type units will be encountered.12 and Well 6. whose free water level is denoted as FWL. and different irreducible water saturations. Multiple oilwater contacts and transition zoncs which arc shown can be seen to relate to appropriate portions of each sand's capil 11 tk/ sand 1 Fig. but a single free water level. Each unit can have its own capillary pressure characteristic and the static saturation distribution in the reservoir will be a superposition of all units. The sands are labelled 14 and have pern~eabilities k.
with the exception that (kl+)O was preferred. This behaviour is important to recognize in correlating oilwater contacts and in the zonation of reservoirs. 6. 6./ o cos 8 will be dimensionless. 6.15. A further correlating technique makes use of an observation that in a given rock type. 6. as shown in Fig. capillary pressure curves from samples of different permeabilities often form a family of curves. Following the establishment of the correlation from representative rock samples under laboratory conditions. Logarithm of permeability  Fig.16. . an approximate linearization can be made by plotting the logarithm of capillary pressure against the logarithm of permeability as isosaturation lines. Since permeability has the dimension L2 (the unit of area).14 LeverettJfunction correlation. Those curves are often obtained for sands where large permeability variations occur in a very narrow range of porosities. There will therefore be a particular correlation for given rock type.14) will apply as a correlating group for all measurements of capillary pressure using different fluid systems. Thus we may write ~P.6 CORRELATION OF CAPILLARY PRESSURE DATA FROM A GIVEN ROCK TYPE From our definition of PC = 2 o cos 0ir where r is a mean radius.16 Correlation of capillary pressure with permeability in a given rock type.) With this shape of curve.15 Effect of permeability on capillary pressure in a given rock type. 6..6 FLUID SATURATION 99 lary pressure curve. as shown in Fig. 6. so long as the porous rocks have similar pore geometries.. we may note that the grouping rP. then the dimensionless capillary pressure term (J) is also a function of saturation.. then we could substitute V'k for r and maintain the dimensionless nature of the group. 6. Leverett [q in fact defined a dimensionless capillary pressure group in this way. s w Fig. Since capillary pressure is a function of saturation. and lack of correlation can suggest the need for further zonation.  o cos 0 Fig. it is used to predict reservoir saturation distribution.  This relationship (Fig. This enables easier interpolation and regeneration of particular capillary pressuresaturation relationships to predict reservoir saturation distribution.
Academic Press. 13 (1974). 152.2 I f . [6] Mohanty.S.4 0.. .F..a network apploach. in the previous example (6.E. It is described as follows: Sw (fr 1. and BIandner. Tech. and Singhal. (1980). [S] Melrose.4 5. 89. 33.7 16.8 (percent) Given that the sample was taken from a point I00 ft above the oilwater contact. SPE Paper 9406. AIMB 142 (1941). = 45 lbsiftz) p .J.5 15. Example 6.25 anhi a permeability o f 500 mD.8 0. [4] Leverett. 70.2 Pc(psi) 0 1 4 6 8 9. 70 (1 948). and the permcability and porosity had been 100 IIIDand 18% respectively.K. Role of capillary forces in determining nlicroscopic displacement efficicncy for oil recovery by waterflooding..7 32. what is the average water saturation over the interval'? (pw = 64 lbs1ftz. [2] Muskat. the interfacial tension o cos 0 had been 25 dyneicm. construct the mercury capillary pressure curve f o r a sample o f similar lithology with permeability 25 m D . Chem.R.3%.0 1.3 0. AIiME Ann.L) References [I] Morrow. M.1 82.. J. Capillary bchaviour in porous solids. M. [8] Pandey..C~ern. The determination of pore size distribution from gas adsorption data.4 43.P. Physics and thermodynamics of capillary action in porous media. Use a Jfunction method to generate the reservoir condition capillary pressure curve and estimate the depth relative to the free water level o f the top transition zone and the observed oilwater contact. W.G. and Scriven. 15 (1976). Surface Arc~rrand Porosilq~. Soc.C. . J. 54.K. The reservoir condition oil has a specific gravity o f 0.6 10.H. Ind.s of Oil Production. and Sing. Example 6.5 23 100 It is believed that the reservoir is better represented by a porosity of 0. K. Eng. Physics of oil entrapment in water wet rock.3 A drainage capillary pressure curve using an airbrine fluid pair ( o cos 8 = 72 dynelcm) is generated using a core plug o f porosity 0. Full Mtg. [3] Gregg. C.9 0. Can Pet. L.6 0. Davis.1 An oil water capillary pressure experiment on a core sample gives the following results: 01 w capillary pressure 0 4.2 0.. 62 (June i970). Powder Tech. C.. Evaluation of the capillary pressure curve techniques for dctcrn~ining pore size distribution . N. S.C. J.22 and permeability 150 mD.1). B.0 0. T. The reservoir condition value o f o cos 8 is taken as 26 dyneicm. Plzysicul Princip1e. Am. A.7 0.5 11. Use a mercury interfacial tension of 370 dyneicm. porosity 1.0 (psis) water saturation: 100 100 90. London (1967). [7] Shull.785 and formation water at reservoir conditions has a specific gravity o f 1.2 29.5 0.100 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Examples Example 6.7 35..3 5.C.026. K. McGraw Hill. N Y (1949). what is the expected water saturation at that clcvation? I f thc hydrocarbon bearing thickness from the crest o f the structure to the oilwater contact is 175 i t .2 13. . Trans. Adsorptiori..
W. and Prehn. J. Thomas. M. and Tippie. Trans. H. [28] Morrow. and Welge. P.L. [lo] Donaldson. (1977).. Trans. Chem.B.F. 114. 223. E.. 60 (1938).J. SPE Paper 6856. S. Trans. P.K.. A. OGJ (July 26. [17] Purcell.M. Emmett.. Evaluation of capillary character in petroleum reservoir rock. SPEJ (March 1966). J.C. 1965). Baker. Wettability determination and its effect on recovery efficiency. Surface area measurements on sedimentary rocks. World Oil (May 1981). SPEJ (1969).S. a [14] Rose. Hodgins.L.. McCaffery. SPEJ (Sept. and Harris.. [19] Slobod. F. Trans.. and Teller. P. AIME 160 (1945). [23] Holmes. W. 369. V. SPEJ (March 1966). Special Core Analysis.K. and Leas. Determination of the structure of porous media.S. Trans.C. Application of airmercury and oilair capillary pressure data in the study of pore structure and fluid distribution. C. and Drake. P. E. AIME 195 (1952). Interfacial phenomena and oil recovery: capillarity. R.B. Trans. W.J. Ramey. 289. The restored state method for determination of oil in place and connate water. L. O. R. E.J. Capillary equilibrium in porous materials. SPE of AIME (1980). 199. and Marsden. C.A. Fall Mtg. 25. R. 149.. and Silverberg. Wettability as related to capillary action in porous media. AIME 186 (1949). Eng. and Brunner. 440. AIME 192 (1951).. SPEJ (Oct. Reed. Chem. AIME 127 (1938).H.S. Use of centrifuge for determining connate water. Spec.R. In Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Water as a Driving Fluid. Measurement of capillary pressure in small core samples.H. [33] Dunmore. J. and Lorenz. [12] Burdine. Eng.F.6 FLUID SATURATION [9] Kimber. D . Pore size distribution of petroleum reservoir rocks.D. Comparisons between log and capillary pressure data to estimate reservoir wetting. E. 127. [29] Batycky.R. SPEJ (March 1971). 259.A. Trans. Interpretation of capillary pressure data.G.. AIME 189 (1950). Trans.K..A. H. Interpreting capillary pressure and rock wetting characteristics from unsteadystate displacement measurements. W. 153. [13] Brunnauer. [16] Donaldson. N.C.L. Ann. Fund 17 (1945). G. W. [31] Sinnokrot. The adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. F. A. 127. L.1947). H. and Batra. 55. N. r211 Brown. Ind. and Reichertz. AIME 192 (1951). [15] Brooks. 139. Studies Section CL Inc. J. [30] Melrose. Gournay.W. Chem. [26] Core Labs Inc.R.J. [20] Schilthuis. [24] Dullien. Kendall.P. R.C. 309. R. L.A.A. AIME 198 (1953). and Manning. I. 195. Chambers. 13.B. 111. Ind. Proc. Am. Drainage capillary pressure functions and their computation from one another. R. Trans. SPEJ 15 (1975). L . 55. 13. [25] Bruce. S. [27] Pickell. Soc. Paper SPE 9403. Physical characteristics of natural films formed at crude oilwater interfaces. 1970). .T. Connate water in oil and gas sands.L. and Purcell. AIME 189 (1950). Capillary pressure investigations. 782. 55th Ann.S. N. Pore size distribution in porous material.C. residual oil and capillary pressure curves of small core samples. Effect of temperature level upon capillary pressure curves. Surface area measurements of geologic materials. W. (April 1974). 1974). J. W. 67. and Hickman. 62 (Oct. SPEJ (1966). [la] Hassler. Swanson.A. [11] Ritter. [32] Mungan. F. Properties of linear waterfloods. [22] Rapoport.L. and Fisher. and Bruce. Fall Mtg. W. D.R. B . B .
i.occ~~rs a twophase system when ..)refers to phase volumetric flow ratc.(wzin 1) in Note that S. k .0 Fig.k.1 and 7. i. It has been convenient to relate the relative permeability to saturation as it is observed that effectivepermeability decreases with decrease in the phase saturation. where the subscripts w and nw refer to kc.. 7. = k x w (.(. d@'/dL refers to datum corrected permeability scale is often normalised by representing relative permeability as effective permeability pressure gradient (pseudopotential).. refers to phase viscosity. increasing wetting phase saturation).) (i. = k . S. k. Tn twophase systems the relationships are ex.. The process represented in these figures is one o f imbibition where qO.1 Representation of effectivephase permeability.e.sw. where k . Similarly. the nonwetting phase reaches thc residual nonwetting phase saturation.divided by permeability to nonwetting phase at the pressed as functions o f saturation.1 DEFINITIONS Relative pcrlncability is a concept used to relate the absolute permeability (100% saturated with a single fluid) o f a porous system to the cffective permeability o f a particular fluid in the system when that fluid only occupies a fraction o f the total pore volume. 7. is the relative permeability o f thc phase.. is the effectivepermeability o f the phase.e. kI. k. as shown in Figs minimum wetting phase saturation. u I I O t SWmin Sw t Swmox 1. it maintains a relationship for linear flow o f the form I E x a. k is the absolute permeability o f the porous system. wetting and nonwetting phases respectively.e.. The relationship really expresses the Darcy flow o f a twophasc or multiphasc system in a porous system. represents the irreducible wetting phase saturation. In oilwater systems in particular.2. the relative refers to cffective phase permeability.z.. kc.Chapter 7 Relative Permeability and Multiphase Flow in Porous Media 7. i...
SWrnin Swmox Fig. where k. as indicated in Fig. as shown in Fig.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 103 1 Sw = Sw. In the oilwater system this is often expressed symbolically as k . 7. 7. In gasoil systems the third phase..4 Gasoil relative permeability.4. water. 7..2 Representation o relative permeability.3 Oilwater relative permeability (imbibition direction). 7../k. 7. or Swirr Fig. In the gasoil system.3. is the oil permeability at connate water saturation. which in . = k.. the direction of displacement is particularly important as the process can represent a drainage process such as gas drive (gas displacing oil immiscibly) or an imbibition process. such as: (1) movement of an oil zone or (2) aquifer into (3) a receding depleting gas cap.. f critical gas saturation Sgr residual gas saturation Sgmox (=ISwi) Fig.
= P. ..kdd ratio Curve(semilog scale). 7. fM..2 FRACTIONAL FLOW Phase permeability characteristics are also frequently presented in terms o f permeability ratios k. 7.0td M = 1+ M kd kdd where M kd Eldil = . .. A .  Fig.ikk and kJko (Fig.. capillary pressure effects can bc represented at differentsaturations in terms o f mobility ratios M 4(1 =4. q.. as shown in Fig. In liquid imbibition processes (gas saturation decreasing from a maximum initial value) the gas permeability goes to zero when the residual or trapped gas saturation (S. 7. and the expression becomcs .6).7 (right) The fractional flow curve for water displacing oil.5. 7. + 4 .. 7. and modification to laboratory data may be necessary. It is therefore argued that experiments in the laboratory can be coilducted with or without irreducible water present.. The reservoir fractional flow o f wetting phase displacing fluid in an oilwater system with water as the displacing fluid is therefore 4 w. In a system where gas saturation increases from zero (a liquid drainage process) it is observed that gas does not flow until some critical gas saturation (S.7. = s. as shown in Fig. = 4. where q. 7. The directional differences may be incorporated in reservoir engineering calculatiolls by determination o f frontal saturation and the use o f pseudofunctions. Sd s d m a x l0 swi The 16.5 Directional aspects of frontal gas movement. This is attributed to the physical process o f the gas phase becoming continuous through the system in order to flow. The directional aspect may perhaps be appreciated by consideration o f the difference between bedding plane gas advance towards a production well and downward gas movement vertical to the bedding plane in the vicinity o f a production well. dd = displaced fluid. The calculation o f frontal behaviour is discussed under the hcading o f fractional flow analysis.6 Fig. = so+ s .s .) has been attained. kdd k1Pci and subscript d = displacing fluid.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE reality is always present in reservoirs is considered to stay at irreducible saturation and play no part in the displacemcllt processes. This is because the fractional flow o f displacing fluid (fcl) at the outlet end o f an i~lcompressible linear horizontal system with no For the condition in which viscous flow forces are considerably greater than capillary forces. Pd . and the effec 1.. Writing a Darcy law expression for steady state flow o f each phase in a linear horizontal system we  kIc. AP. The directional aspects o f relative permeability representation are often more pronounccd in gasoil systems. 7. we can write Po .) is reached.. are reservoir condition rates.
14 and 11. the saturation of oil and water is uniform and no fluid segregation exists. viscosities in centipoise and permeabilities in milliDarcies. Typical shapes of the effective permeability curves and the f. the distance Xf travelled can be related to the volume of displacing fluid injected W. curve are shown in Figs 7.t) and the gradient of the fractional flow curve at the front with respect to saturation: OL  Xf Distance X from OWC at time t Fig. This technique is applicable to relatively thin reservoir intervals where diffuse or dispersed flow is assumed . The intercept of the tangent at fw = 1 indicates the average (S. A tangent drawn to the fractional flow curve from the initial water saturation has two important characteristics. using field units of RBID for the total flow rate q n length terms in feet.1 Analysis methods Analysis of the fractional flow curve by the method of Buckley and Leverett and Welge [I0] allows the recovery performance of a homogeneous reservoir to be determined. the fractional flow of water. (= q.9 Linear saturation profile before breakthrough. From BuckleyLeverett theory for the rate of movement of the frontal saturation. The tangent point indicates the saturation SWf of the displacement front shown in Fig.) saturation behind the front up to the time of water breakthrough at the outlet end (production well) of the system. 7. + Sw Fig. In the BuckleyLeverettIWelge analysis of displacement of oil from a system with a uniform initial water saturation S. the length of the system.this means that over any part of the crosssection. 7. This is a condition assumed in the laboratory core analysis determination of relative permeability rock curves. a graphical technique can be utilized.  7.2. and will be negative for displacing fluid moving from an updip to a downdip position. is given by (Note for a constant injection rate and an incompressible system q r = q. 7. Therefore where tb is the breakthrough time: .9.. This leads to an equivalencing for all times up to breakthrough 9f the saturation change behind the front to the volume of displacing fluid injected: At breakthrough the distance travelled by the front Xfwill equal L. y as a specific gravity. it will be positive for the displacing fluid moving from downdip to updip. = ~ I N J . q.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW In tilted reservoirs of dip angle a.. as shown in Fig. Since the angle a is conventionally measured from a horizontal axis to the axis of a line in the direction of flow.8 Fractional flow analysis. 7.5.8.
k'. 7.and k'." = (1n) k.' LA@[ 1 1 . Stratified reservoir analysis by analytical methods is subiect to constraints regarding end point mobility ratios and the reader is referred to the original papers by Dykstra " and Parsons "A. the outlet end of the system (production well) will experience an increasing water saturation with time. Displacement stability can be analysed in relatively simple homogeneous linear reservoir systems. i. " " ' .) is reached..n)SWi .  S " . Welge demonstrated that and 3. s41 and by Stilcs '"'1. In terms of the water phase saturation S. that is gravity segregation dominates any capillary forces..e. + The reservoir condition recovery factor after breakthrough is obtained from the ratio of oil produced to initial oil in place. at Sw.]. . It is imagined that after breakthrough. 7. In both cases the effective permeability characteristics of each pore size rock type are required. and its gradient from the fractional flow curve is C~fwldSw1s.. = k. In this case. and material balance methods are needed f7'1. and since at this front we are dealing with endpoint relative pcrmeabilities (i. the average water saturation m the reservoir will increase with increasing volume of injected water until a maximum value of (1 .. Since sw Fig... n(l  S. Immiscible displacement in a system having a transition zone cannot be handled by the geometrical constructioi~ methods appropriate to a uniforrn initial saturation distribution. 7.10 Fractional flow gradients after breakthrough. A t any time after breakthrough.e. rock typcs may be analysed analytically if they are totally stratified.. the weighted average saturation S" is given by . the particular outlet end saturation is defined as S. a sharp interface is assumed to exist between the displacing and displaced fluids. k. o r by numerical modelling techniques if crossflow is significant. The Welge analysis is used to calculate the average water saturation. the gravity segregated distribution of oil and water at any distance X along the flow path can he represented as shown in Fig...3 EFFECTS OF PERMEABILITY VARIATION Reservoirs characterized by a number of different .  S .. It makes use of the fract~onal flow curve at a saturation greater than the frontal saturation and relates ally such saturation to its fractional flow saturation gradient... 7. where endpoint mobilities are used and the approach of Dietz ["'I applied. For a wateroil systcm.. at S.106 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE After breakthrough of the frontal saturation at a production well for a water displacing oil system. = k.So.3 1 b y a thickness weighted distribution."= S.) + (1 .. then appropriate relative permeabilities at the weighted average saturation S. time after breakthrough This relationship at can be seen in Fig.10.' n and k." are k T M= n . then the relationship between time and the attainment of a given outlet end face saturation is readily obtained. In terms of saturation this will be S. and the fraction a of flood'ed thickness.
In this technique.sor))j The time taken tb to reach this condition in the particular layer j is thus (tbIj= (Wib1. the piston displacement assumption means.(or from So. feet.. S. The stability of displacement in a homogeneous 2D system will depend on the mobility ratio of the fluids and the dip angle a of the where the subscript D refers to the displacing phase and DD to the displaced phase... effectively transforming a homogeneous 2D displacement to a 1D problem solvable by a BuckleyLeverettiWelge technique. In this way pseudorelative permeability relationships may be used to solve displacement problems in thicker sands.S. therefore.. in field units of RBID.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 107 .. milliDarcies and specific gravities. centipoise. 7." and k. 7.. (q)j As each layer reaches breakthrough. krott krof = 1 ." relationship. This leads to S. to So. as Fig. The pore volume of each bed between the injection and production points is (PWj = (LA@). the total fractional flow of water at a producing well is determined at a number of times as each thin bed achieves water breakthrough. The volume of injected fluid needed to change the saturation from Swito Swiro. In such an application the fractional flow curve is generated from the k.1 1 Dietz analysis.12 Relative permeabilities for segregated flow. the injection rate is where qT is the total rate.) at breakthrough of the displacing phase is (Wib)j= (LA@(l S w i . . for say a wateroil SW" Fig.So. Note that for downdip displacement a will be negative and that for all endpoint mobility ratios less than or equal to unity the displacement is unconditionally stable and becomes pistonlike." . In any bed j.12 this indicates that a straight line relative permeability relationship with average saturation is appropriate.Swi kr.t Flow direction Oil immobile connate water + reservoir. The flow is considered incompressible and q~ the reservoir condition injection rate is considered equal to the total reservoir condition production rate.so." v. Dietz showed that the maximum rate for stable updip displacement was given.sor [ + [ I As shown in Fig.SWj.!! = krwJ 1 . Since there is no crossflow between beds.SWi and 1 . the calculation technique is facilitated by rearranging the actual beds in a sequence with the highest kh product beds at the top... 7. Pistonlike displacement in stratified reservoirs characterized by thin beds with no crossflow between them can be analysed very easily by the Stiles[j5] approach. For equal oil and water mobilities the pressure gradients in all beds are assumed equal and the displacing fluid is distributed between beds in proportion to the bed kh." .
108 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE system.14 Effect ofwettability on effective permeability.) The fraction flow of water is given. In a laver not yet at breakthrough. for water wet and oil wet systems is shown in Figs. the wettability of a surface depends on the term o cos 8. the recovery will be (So. at most values of water saturation.13 Oil recovery efficiency.)IS. I n r and the reservoir condition wateroil ratio as WOR = qw 40 The recovery factor at any time will be obtained by evaluating frontal positions and conducting a material balance. The inost frequent laboratory measurement of wetting tendency is through the Amott testl'l.4 WETTABlLlTY EFFECTS Wettability effects in fluid displacement are d~splayr ed by etfective and relative permeability culve characteristics. less pistonlike approach to a residual saturation (the So.. = k . and capillary pressure controls the sequence of porc..Oit wet preference L + o Z 2 > 0 K  0 1 4w = (41 + 42) 4 . 7. (sol)l  SO. * The establishment of in situ wettability conditions14'l is therefore very important in the proper conduct of laboratory experiments.Water wet preference . plus the oil from any layer which has not yet achieved breakthrough. at most values o f water saturation. by: earlier water breakthrough. Oil wet systems tend to be character~zed. which should duplicate or account for field conditions. as PV water injected Fig.. saturation change so long as viscous flow forces are not controlling.d.0 ~ ' ' ~The] effective permeability character '~ . the oil remaining is (Pv~{x(s. For an illcompressible flow system t h i ~ easily calculated since the proportions is at the outlet are equivalent to inlet rate distributions. The total production at any time t is therefore the water from any layer which has reached breakthrough.S. . plus the oil from any layer which has reached breakthrough. 7. occurs at lower values of water saturation.: 7e the condition k .r)~+(lx)(soI)~} where is the distaace of the front from thc injection location.~).pDLIA in Darcy units is greater than about 2.)l] (L%. 7. The recovery factor for such a layer at that time is thus = J I 1 I \ \ Fig. The overall economic rccovery factor will be controlled by surface handling facilities and economic rate. and the layer continues to take water from the injector. at reservoir conditions. As discussed previously.14.). that only water flows thereafter. in comparison with water wet systems. lower values of k. approaches zero by a film drainage mechanism) : higher values of k . In any layer which has broker] through.4. the term qI. = (47 . In practice it may in fact be sealed off.13 and 7. A t sonle time t i n a system in which two out of n layers have reached breakthrough we have . but this only indicates the condition of the as received sample. . + (1X)(So. Viscous forces tend to control when. lower initial water saturatiolls for a given pore si. 7.
7. and severe errors can occur with heterogeneous samples.5 LABORATORY DETERMINATION OF RELATIVE PERMEABILITY DATA Laboratory determination of effective permeability is generally conducted as a special core analysis test on representative and carefully preserved core plug samples. nitrogen or helium.15 Unsteady state relative permeability measurement: (a)constant rate. Bossler and Naumann[l31. The determination of relative permeability is based on observation of the fractional flow of displacing phase fluid from the outlet end of the core plug and its relationship with saturation. or with gases such as air.15 and 7. or unsteady stateand equipment arrangements are shown in Figs. Room condition relative permeability tests can be conducted at outlet end pressures of one atmosphere and at room temperature using refined oils and synthetic brines.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 109 7. The displacement theories d Buckley and LeverettL81 are combined with that of Welge['olin a technique described by Johnson. Flow rates are determined according to the method of in Rapoport and Leas[761 order to minimize the effects of capillary pressure forces in retaining OIL COLLECTOR BRINE COLLECTOQ KdSKA PUMP / CYART RECORDER / Fig. A reservoir condition test is conducted at^ reservoir pore pressure conditions and reservoir temperatures with real or simulated reservoir fluids. 7.16. . Unsteady state relative permeability tests simulate the flooding of a reservoir with an immiscible fluid (gas or water). Gas displacement processes require a significant back pressure (say 20 bar) to facilitate flow rate interpretation. Such reservoir condition tests may model displacement under steady state[231.The detection of the breakthrough time of the displacing phase at the outlet core face is critical in the representation of relative permeability. (b) constant pressure.
40 No. cond.1 shows the results o f a number o f different room condition and reservoir conditions unsteady state tests conducted on different small plugs o f sandstones. These data indicate the significance o f temperature in that the flooding efficiency ratio appears to correlate with temperature and might be considered influenced bv wettabilitv. cond. TRES (OF) PREs psi 3430 2100 199 176 Before BT Room cond. Between five and ten stages are usually needed to establish relative permeability curves. 0. Figure 7. In cases where reservoir condition mobility ratios are signiricantly greater than unity.15 0.40 0. To some extent this conclusion is based on the applicability o f Rapoport and Leas LVpn core flooding criteria. The flooding efficiency ratio is defined here as the breakthrough to total oil recovery ratio for the reservoir condition test divided by the equivalent ratio for the room condition tcst. T o obtain cores o f lengths TABLE 7. 0.30 1. cond. For reservoirs with more corescale heterogeneity and with mixed wettability.35 Flooding efficiency ratio 1. 7.15 Residual oil satn (fraction PV) Room cond. The steady state piocess providcs simultaneous flow o f displacing and displaced fluids through the core sample at a number o f equilibrium ratios. 0.30 0. For each test pair the injection rate and oilwater viscosity ratio was constant.07 . A B Resv.06 0.13 Resv. wetting phase fluid at the outlet end face discontinuity. It has become clear that the room condition tests are not necessarily a good guide to reservoir conditions behaviour. Table 7. Capillary pressure tends to be ignored and a major difficulty is the determination o f saturation at each stage.26 Resv. the steady state laboratory test at reservoir conditions and with reservoir fluids is preferred.110 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE CONSTANT DISPLACEMENT R l l S Y A PllMPS Fig.17 shows the effect o f core length on observed breakthrough recovery at u constant LVpD factor in a strongly water wet outcrop sandstone. At each ratio from 100% displaced phase to 100% displacing phase an equilibrium conditiorl must be reached at which the inflow ratio o f fluids equals the outflow ratio.16 Steady state relative permeability measurement. In short cores. 0. The unsteady state or dynamic displacemcllt test is most frequently applied in reservoir analysis o f strong wetting preference.30 0. and at which thc pressure gradient between inlet and outlet is constant. 0. At such a condition the Darcy law equation is applied to each phase to calculate effectivepermeability at the given steady state saturation. the velocity may be too high for proper imbibition processes to take place between fingers o f invading water. 0.25 Between BTand WOR = 100 Room cond. Experimental evidence suggests that core lengths o f at least 25 cm are needed to obtain consistent results.1 Comparison between reservoir condition and room condition waterflood tests Oil recovery (fraction PV) Sample Reservoir cond. there is some evidence to suggest that conventional short core plugs (7 cm) should not be used.26 0. and with homogeneous samples.
7. A 30cm cont~nuouscore 3 0 c m . 7.18 Comparison of composite and continuous core performance with'homogeneous water wet outcrop sandstone.7 08.6 \ \ cp l \ \ p 0. Composite cores should have component sections of similar petrophysical character in any representative section. 7.e. l 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0!60'70'8 019 1'0 0 1 1 1 1 Pore volumes of water injected \ \  Fig. as shown in Fig. In most laboratory tests.this contrasts with a dynamic but otherwise equivalent wettability process of water displacing oil where residual saturation between 20% and 40% might be expected. \ Wetting phase \ residuals \ \ 0.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 111 Core length (cm) Fig. 7. 7. Figure 7.19 Comparison of field and laboratory capillary numbers and residual saturations.19. The capillary number concept has been used to represent the residual oil saturation resulting from competition between viscous and capillary forces. i. When composites obey this rule. 7. T k influence of capillary pressure is exerted at pore scale rather than at interwell scale and. 8 piece composite core Fig. potential for mobilizing the residual oil saturation from conventional recovery processes is the target in improved hydrocarbon or enhanced oil recovery (IHR or EOR).2 G ' 0 ~ 0 . but some field analyses tend to support its application. and they are maintained in capillary contact by compressive stress. In gravity stabilized oil drainage by gas advance into an oil zone.17 Effect of core length on breakthrough recovery at constantLVb. Its scaling to field conditions is O problematical. can influence the location of residual fluids. depending on wettability. residual saturations approaching single percentage figures have been claimed . capillary and gravity forces and little effect of rate on residual saturation is observed. The greater than 25 cm in the bedding plane from reservoir rock cores it is necessary to butt together small cores and construct a composite core.6 RESIDUAL SATURATlONS Residual saturations tend to be dependent on pore geometry and on direction of saturation change with respect to wetting phase. Fig.40. This may not be true in the field. the viscous flow forces are designed to dominate Fig.20 shows the ratio of . 7.18 shows that they can behave as a continuous sample.0 '$A A Laboratory / 1 Field Measured Residual Logarithmic scale I I I 'y Number I 1 Field Capillary 0. 0 I 1.20 Correlation between residual saturation ratio and capillary number (after [271). NC = V / L ~ / (cos 0) .
21 Effect of permeability on critical displacement ratio (after 1271). Figure 7. 7. I(. plug cleaning etc. but smoothing relations are not unacceptably illaccurate.volrs..~). It is. wettability will changc cffcctivc phase permeability characteristics. A comparison with true in situ wettability is. Air permeability ( r n d )  Fig. or purely empirical relationships. then. I *Crit~cal ratio \ . attractive to attempt to formulate theoretical semiempirical. reliable.22 Influence of near wellbore velocity on residual oil mobilization (after lz71). The accuracy of approximate correlations may then be little worse than the present accuracy of the more usual measurements! idealized pore models have their greatest application in calculating relative permeabilities. ( K J K . core transportation. Both static and dynamic capillary pressure measurements can be used to ..IK. The capillary numbel at which increased recovery starts can be used to represent mobilization.K. Methods for restoration of in situ wettability conditions Id51have been proposed and are presently under scrutiny. and gives generally lcss satisfactory results.7 IN SlTU WETTABILITY CONTROL All laboratory measurements on core samples are dependent on preservation of reservoir condition cliaracteristics at the time of testing. reproducible. It is therefore clear that any core cutting. exhibit gcllcral similarities of form. extrapolating. processes which altcl. normalized plots of relative permeability.22.lK) against saturation. :111d the more rapid expcrimental techlliqucs generally show poor rcproducibility. 7. for a range of laboratory tests lz71.21 shows that when the ~nobilization represented as a critical displacement is ratlo (units I. and scveral simple idealizecl flow models lead to acceptable smoothing relations.8 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY FROM CORRELATIONS In spite of the wide variety of porc structure in reservoir rocks.112 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE I residual oil from chemical flood processes to that from waterflooding as a function of N. dlsplacernent Veloc~tlestoo low for ' i r~ Rod~aldistance r Fig. of preferential wcttabilities between fluids and rock surfaces. The clit~cal displaceruent ratio for a given rate and permeab~lity is shown in Fig. Some restoration of wettability is claimed by conditioning cores at reservoir temperature in the prescncc of reservoir cr~ldcoil for some days or weeks. This is particularly so since accuratc. extending (or even dispensing with) cxperimental measurements of effcctive permeability.then it is apparent that oil can be liberated more easily frorn higher permeability re\er. demonstrate wettability change and contact angle modification. The imbibition case is more difficult to model. difficult to demonstrate. and in fluid properties. 7. to assist in smoothing. plug cutting. however. 7. With transformat~oninto rad~al coordinates it is possible to show that residual saturations in high velocity regions around a wellborc may be different from that some dictance away. The drainage case is conceptually the simplest. 1 7. cxperilncntal measurements are lengthy and troublesome.
The direct application of core plug data in simulators where thick grid cells are modelled will result in improper representation of gravity forces it can be shown that straight line relative permeability relationships are more representative of the gravity segregation of fluids. These include: Z (a) wettability change associated with coring fluids. Gravity forces are generally negligible in core plug tests.( s ~ " ~ . The test can be conducted at reservoir conditions using reservoir (or simulated reservoir) fluids. = irreducible nonwetting phase saturation.. Drainage case Krw = (SW3)" where a = 4 (Corey model).3 Use of correlations With a limited amount of fairly readily determined experimental data . K.9 VALIDATION OF RELATIVE PERMEABILITY DATA FOR USE IN DISPLACEMENT CALCULATIONS Laboratory derived relative permeability data reflect a number of characteristics which may be associated entirely with handling procedures and which may not be typical of in situ reservoir behaviour. Drainage case = (1 . 7. = KrCul. represent the ratio K. residual nonwetting phase saturation..~ 0. and the phase permeabilities at these saturations. (b) resaturation of plug and saturation distribution.8.23. = (1 . particularly with respect to viscosity and interfacial tension. particularly with respect to steady state or unsteady state displacement mechanism and nature of the moving interface through the system with effect on distribution of residual fluid. together with selecting and use of relevant core plugs to represent zones of interest. 2. Core plug experiments tend to be run at high viscous:capillary force ratios and the system represents a disperse or diffuse flow regime.s.8. plug cutting and preparation. In simulators.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 7. 7. There are no proven rules for obtaining valid relative permeability data for use in models. Recognition of these effects.e. straight line relative permeability curves do not lend themselves manipulation as the initial to stable n~m~erical gradients to and from irreducible saturations are too steep.2 Correlations for nonwetting phase relative permeability 1. As a practical compromise some curvature is usually provided.lKub. (c) test fluids. lmbibition case Krw = (Sw * l4imb (Sws)imb = (Sw*)drainage.8.The value off might. A n alternative correlation is the Pirson model: 3/2 Krw = SW3 (SwY) .5 Krw. (d) test method. for example.Sw*)(1 .1 Correlations of wetting phase permeabilities 1. Normalized end points can be adjusted using factors based on experience. these smoothing relations can be used (or modified) to generate complete relative permeability curves. . i.5 ~ )s 2..x f. Laboratory experiments can explore the sensitivity of derived curves for rate effects and hysteresis in given test methods using core obtained and prepared in ways which minimize wettability alteration. lmbibition case where S. This at least ensures that a given curve set will reproduce the fluid recovery and where Swi = irreducible wetting phase saturation.irreducible water saturation.y2(Sw*)2drainage 7. Particular concerns in use of laboratory derived data arise from the scaling of microsize core plug displacement to reservoir simulation grid size displacement. a = 1013 (statistical model).. or 0. 7. The results of waterflood core tests can furthermore be processed using the same reservoir simulator as the reservoir model. can minimize the problem of applying relative permeability data in model studies. as shown in Fig. and be a function of permeability and/or pore geometry.*)~ (1 + 2Sw3) K. storage.
thc relativc pcrrneability of the upstream cell block at 'the start of a tirne step is often used in effective transrriissibility calculations.D core flood simulator to history match oil recovery and pressure gradients as functlon of cumulat~ve qo = k oA ~ [@i%] p<. from Darcy law for onc fluid in xdirection flowing across the boundary between Cell 1 and Cell 2 in Fig.R methods Check base for Kr is compatible w ~ t h slmulat~on pressure distribution measured in the laboratory A flow diagram representing the usc of a 1D simulator for checking corctlood relative pcrmeabilities is given in Fig.24 and follows the ArclierWong method. In order to aid numerical stability. 7.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Fig. wettability an appropriate sam~le used for core flood at reservoir condit~ons ~ t h w pressure grad~ents function as of cumulat~ve ~ s p l a c ~ n g d curves uslng JBN or J . . 7. A / .25 Flow between cells.1 I J . Fig.e.25. M o d ~ f y curves kr and check PC Check lab derived curves in I . i./ 07 ' weighted average kr curves ~f necessary to represent reglon of reservolr In the slze of g r ~ d block appl~ed the model For In th~n cells the lab curve may / / ' I . Relative permeability in simulation models is used to dcterminc trarlsfcr of fluid between grid cells at grid cell boundaries. 7. 7.23 Curvature at end points in use of straight line relative permeability curves./' Fig. DXI The potential term (a') can include any capillary pressure contribution.24 Application of laboratory derived permeability in reservoir simulation (after [301). /' '1 I I I / //I I I )Jpstream cell I I I I I I M / / 1. I Is h ~ s t o r y match acceptable? t +  DX /7 . 7. / Downstream cell ' 1 I I '2 J / I I I .{DXI Dx2] .
as shown in Fig. considering the position of the local oilwater contact from its initial position at the base of the bottom layer (n = 0 ) to its final position at the top of the top layer (n = N). hjkj ( n = N ) Total thickness I I 115 Permeability ( m d ) k Layer N I H I i I Fig. The current methodology for creating pseudos in a dynamic flow system is due to Kyte and Berry [js]and essentially determines the functions by summing flow rates from fine grid systems into the equivalent coarse grid and recalculating the effective permeability using Darcy's law (Fig. h.27. different pseudofunctions may be generated for different regions of the reservoir. 7.28. The sole purpose of the curves is to reproduce the fluid and pressure distribution and displacement characteristics of the fine grid system in a coarse grid system. in each of which segregated flow staight line relative permeability curves are assumed to apply. In large field simulation. = N 7. as the reservoir unit approaches flood out to residual oil may be calculated assuming crossflow through the vertical component of permeability. 7.10 PSEUDORELATIVE PERMEABILITY IN DYNAMIC SYSTEMS It is often a convenience in reservoir modelling to reduce the number of grid cells in a system in order to reduce model run costs. f . . = C n+l 1 hT hj kj k.. 7. The pseudofunctions generated will depend on position in the reservoir system and are clearly also dependent on ordering and thickness of the layers. as shown in Fig.26). k.26 Pseudorelative permeability functions in coarse grid definition. For each condition of equilibrium oilwater contact from n = 0 to n = N we can write n+l N s w Fig. The dynamic pseudorelative permeabilities can be significantly different from calculated static pseudos or from modified pseudos obtained by history matching observed reservoir behaviour.. This is essentially an advance of bottom water.1 1 STATIC PSEUDORELATIVE PERMEABILITY FUNCTIONS As a start point in many reservoir simulation problems. ( k d ..  1 (krw)n at ( S w ) n 1 n hj kj k d . 7. The generation of a pseudocurve is described for a reservoir unit with N thick layers. 7. static pseudofunctions provide an insight into possible performance.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 7.27 Layer system representation for static pseudocalculations. The flow behaviour of a reduced cell system may be matched with that of the full definition system by use of a set of pseudorelative permeability curves in place of the original curves. ev d D re i psuedocurves _ Heterogeneous flne g r ~ d cells The average saturation S. at (SW). ' \ .
but actual shape will depend on layer ordering and reservoir character. Prepare the steady state relative permeability curves for this sample and comment on its characteristics.2 A linear horizontal sand reservoir of length 1 mile between a water injector and an oil producer is 1 milc bide and has a net thickness of 50 ft. Examples Example 7.2765 RBISTB. The oil production rate is constant prior to breakthrough .29 Pseudocurve character which might result from static calculations. The porosity and initial water saturation distribution are uniform and are 0.$16 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE The resulting pseudorelativc permeability curve is shown in Fig. Thc viscosity of the laboratory brine is 1. o9 o6 1 04 3 Fig. 7.25 and 0. Thesc data can then be used in 1D displacement calculations or in coaise simulator cells.1 cP.1 The following laboratory data have been obtained from a steady state room temperature rclative permeability test: Air permeability Helium porosity Plug length Plug diameter 20 mD 20% 9 cm 3.28.29. Thc reservoir pressure can be considered as 5000 psia and at this condition the oil formation volume factor is 1. 7. 7.2 cm Core average water saturation (from weight change) (% PV) Oil flow rate (cc/h) Brine flow rate (cc/h) Pressure drop psi (from transducer) The viscosity of the laboratory oil is 2 cP. Fig. rcspectivcly. Example 7.28 Flow in layered system used for pseudocalculation.
". Other relevant reservoir zone data are as follows: .17 0.60 0.) = 0.4 The intitial saturation distribution and relative permeability data for a linear isolated sand reservoir subjected to water drive are as follows: Distance from original water oil contact (ft) 0 10 12 18 26 35 50 90 350 SW (% PV) 100 79 75 65 55 45 35 25 16 kr w 1. Represent the initial saturation distribution graphically as a series of steps equivalent to the continuous distribution.06 0.79.0 0.5.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 117 at 10 000 STBID and water injection is used to maintain reservoir pressure in the 'incompressible' system. a density of 48 lb/ft3 and a relative germeability in the presence of connate water of 0.5 x lo" RBISCF.09 0.10 0.5.70 water saturations at the following times: 0.03 0. The withdrawal rate from the reservoir zone is 9434 RBID.00 0. 0.54 0.16) and residual oil saturation (S.70 8 Example 7.30 0. If the oil formation volume factor is 1.0 years. The gas has a reservoir condition density of 17 lblft .13 ' 0.25 0.778. Further estimate the reservoir condition water cut and recovery factor one year after breakthrough assuming water injection continues at the initial rate. Show by calculation whether you consider the gas injection stable.02 0.79). The reservoir dip is 10". The gas formation volume factor is 7.55 0.35 0.37 0.38 0. a viscosity of 0..05 0.. The end point mobility ratio has been estimated as 2. The relative permeability data for the reservoir are given as follows: Sw 0.0 and 2.65 kro 0.98 Calculate the fractional flow curve C for the water saturations between initial water saturation (S.23 0.94 0. Determine the position of the 0.00 kw 0. Estimate the frontal saturation of the injection water prior to breakthrough and the time in years of water breakthrough at the production well.63 0.90 0.45 0.125 RBISTB what oil production rate in STBID might be expected initially? Example 7.3 It is proposed to inject gas into an updip well of a linear geometry oil reservoir at a rate of 15 x lo6 SCFID. 1. ) 0.23 0. = f .44 0.427 0.52 0.80 0. The reservoir is 8000 ft wide and 100 ft in net thickness and has a permeability of 800 mD.02 0.73 0.0 0.02 0.8 cP.28 0.028 cP and a relative permeability in the presence of residual oil and connate water of 0.75 and 0.9. The oil has a reservoir condition viscosity of 1.00 kro 0.oo 0.
Prod. 156. E. N. S. AIME 198 (1953).M. A I M 6 192 (1951). Richardson. J. 47.. [3] Amott. AIME 192 (1951). [4] Geffcn.S. li..E.W. 500 mD.T. Tran.. 2000 mD and 2500 mD. Trrrns. Observations relating to the wettability of porous rock.M. Mon.T. Tcrwilliger.. Water relative permeability at the residual oil saturation of 30% is 0. l957).T . [S] Morse. R. W.A. Trans. J . Laboratory measurements of relative permeability.C.R. 107. S.51 cp Water viscosity (res. From botto~n top the layer permeabilities are 50 m D . AIME 216 (1959). ' = 0 5 References Relative permeability calculations from pore size distrihutioll data. 1954).' . [8] Buckley. J . A.K. 10. 50md 50 Sw.~. W.rms. 34. Each layer is 10 ft thick and the oilwater contact is initially at the base of the lower layer. Relative pcrnleability mcasurcn~cnts small cole sa~ilples. = 030 kr.M.5. C. 99.K.05 Distance from the original owc to the first line of producers 1s 350 ft Determine the frontal saturation after six months production using the material balance expression: Example 7. 98. I E m U ) 2000md 20 1500 1 In each layel 1 ? 30 500md Assume + 40. P. gravity = 1. [2] Corey. = 0 15 So.0 9 kr. D. [7] Jordan.83 cp Reservoir oil specific gravity = 1. J. M.118 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Average reservoir thickness = 100 ft Averagc reservoir width = 8000 ft Formation dip = 6" Permeability = 276 m D Porosity = 21. OGJ (May 13.01 Rewrvoir water sp. T. R.. 19 (Nov. P. Parrish. 111 Burdine. For simplicity to assurnc that in cach layer the following propertics apply: Oil relative permeability at the initial watcr saturation of 15% is 0.R. J.9. The interrelation between gas and oil relative permeabilities. 1500 mD. cond.5 Prepare the static pseudorelative permeability curve for a five layer reservoir assuming bottom water advance.C.. Hafford. Mechanism of iluid displacement in sands. McCardcll. Trans.A. and Hocott. Kerver. on OGJ (Aug 23. J.5% Oil viscosity (reservoir conditions) = 1. and Levcrctt.L. AIME 146 (1942). Owens. and Blair.71.A.) = 0. 1947) [6] Osoba.. Experimental investigation of factors alfecting laboratory relative permeability measurements. and Yustcr. Effect of rate on oil recovery by waterflooding. and Morsc.
Penwell. H. Trans. 1982). G. Proc.A. P. Trans. Gournay. J. C. Davis. present and future. Div. (1981).).L.R. 271. SPEJ (Aug.J. Use of a reservoir simulator to interpret laboratory waterflood data. 2. JPT (Oct. R. 807. [21] Treiber. [ l l ] Kyte. L.Y.D. 92. N. Research on E O R past. (June 1961).. The Reservoir Engineering Aspects of Waterflooding. Europ. Accuracy of JBN estimates of relative permeability.M. D.M. Pet. Tulsa (1976). 423. Tech. 1972). 15. Pet. Irrig. Trans. Vol. In Surface Phenomena in EOR (Shah. 209.. [30] Archer. R. J. Soc. W. Huppler. J. L..E.R. SPEJ (Dec. 1972). Flow of Fluids Through Porous Materials. A I M E 213 (1958). and Watson. AZME 195 (1952). R. [31] Tao. [14] Colpitts. [17] Mungan.W... J. [18] ~alathiel.E. 579.J.F. S. 243. 13. AZME 216 (1959). 175. [29] Hvolboll. J. Certain wettability effects in laboratory waterfloods. [13] Johnson. SPE Monograph No. Bossler. D.A. Relative permeability measurements using reservoir fluids. 3 (2) (1964). Proc.T.. and McCaffery. 398. and Blackwell. 81. G. 1979). F. Laboratory displacement of oil by water under simulated reservoir conditions. 56th Ann.O. 1216. and Mattax. 3 (1971).O.H. L A . [16] Sandberg. R. 1973). 19th Ann. and Sippel. Laboratory evaluation of the wettability of fifty oil producing reservoirs. and Hunter. L.S. and Scriven. ed. CIM (May 1968).). [15] Kyte. [12] Mungan. SPEJ (Dec. and Wong.A. E. R. R.T. 1978). 1973).T. A steady state technique for measuring oilwater relative permeability curves at reservoir conditions. J.P.F. J. and Owens. The effect of fluid flow rate and viscosity on laboratory determinations of oilwater relative permeability. C.C. Mtg. . and Langley.T. AZME 216 (1959). [34] Brooks. E. Linear waterflood behaviour and end effects in water wet porous media. Calculation of relative permeability from displacement experiments. D. Fluid flow within a porous medium near a diamond bit.G. T.J. A.O.E. (1981). L. JPT (Feb. D. # [28] Larson.P.W. and Rapoport. S.K. Fall Mtg. Graphical techniques for determining relative permeability from displacement experiments.. 36. [26] Brown. (Feb.J. and Perkins. 1973). Tech. C. 239. JPT (Feb. 1191 Rathmell. [32] Sigmund.61. M. Reservoir waterflood iesidual oil saturation from laboratory tests. Plenum Pr. and Naumann. A simplified method for computing oil recovery by gas or water drive. 370. 1966). and Corey. Oil recovery by surface film drainage in mixed wettability rock. H.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW [9] Cardwell.C. The meaning of the triple value in noncapillary BuckleyLeverett theory. and Salathiel. G.. Can. J. on EOR (1981). Drain.O.E. Paper 6824.E. [33] Collins.. Effect of reservoir environment on wateroil displacements. Properties of porous media affecting fluid flow. J. 247. J. SPEJ (Feb. [20] Jenks. [25] Craig. Elementary mechanisms of oil recovery by chemical methods. Symp. [27] Taber. [23] Braun. 66. A. Methods for accurately measuring produced oil volumes during laboratory waterflood tests at reservoir conditions. V. Proc. Tech. T. Numerical investigation of the effects of core heterogeneities on waterflood relative permeabilities. N. An improved unsteady state procedure for determining the relative permeability characteristics of heterogeneous porous media. Archer. F. (N. W . ASCE (1966). Proc. 91. Ir. SPEJ (April 1984). W. Paper SPE 10155.R. Braun. Pet. SPEJ (Oct. SPEJ (May 1978). 0 .D. V. [22] Huppler. 1970) 381. SPEJ (Dec. V.F.. [24] Jones. Pet. L.H. [lo] Welge. R. P.T. Trans.M. Morrow. and Rozelle. AZME 213 (1958). Naumann. 531. The provision of laboratory data for EOR simulation. 343.H. Trans.R. J.S.
SPE (Oct.J. A. Full Mtg.S. D. 12693. J. EOR. 345. P. C.H. J .. Restoration of the natural state of core samples. Mtg. 349. J. W. 1501 Davis.B. 4th Symp.M. SPEIDOE 12689.W. and Bondor.E.A: VHF electrical measurement of saturations in laboratorv floods.A. Sci (8).CPE2608 (1969). 1491 Dietz. SPE 12915. Simulation of stratified waterflooding by pscudo relative permeability curves. 205. Use of permeability distribution in waterflood calculations. J.M. Proc. Tulsa (April 1984). SPE (Oct. Fall Mtg. 9. J. models. A theoretical approach to the problem of encloaching and bypassing edge water. Trans. H. and Henderson. 105. SPE 8847. SPEIDOE. A I M E 207 (1956). Tulsa (April 19S4). Three phase oil relative per~ueability [43] Carlson. H. o f oil i the U. Simulation of relative permeability hysteresis to the non wetting phase. A. M. A. 81. Caudle. A. Koninkl Akad.E. R.P. D. [53] Dykstra. Rathjens. Dempsey. R. 1571 Evrenos. Three phasc relative permeability. and Scriven.R. 1541 Johnson. Truns. 56th Ann. (0ct.E. Calculation of imbibition relative permeability for two and three phase flow. 829. 2nd ed. [48] Coats. 1975).L. and Comer. .Dec. Trans. S. Tulsa (April 1980). Proc. .E.S.L. [51] Fayers.E.K.T.G. M. SPE 5634.53. An investigation of three phase relative permeability. and Honarpour.S. SPE 10157. T. Estimation of three phase relative permeability and residual oil data. . EOR.J. Predicition of oil recovery by waterflood . 63. Can. API (1950). 1975). and Erickson. Reservoir simulation with history dependent saturation functions.A. J. (1953) Amst. and Wylie. Proc. AIME 216 (1959). SPE Paper 2582.. Statistical network theory of three phase relative permeabilities. D. Pet. and Berry. N. Tec11. Ann. Sensitivity studics of gaswater relative permeability and capillarity in rcservoir modc!ling. Full Mtg. The relative permeability function lor two phase flow in porous media . F. Proc. L . A Oil production after breakthrough as influenced by mobility ratio. L.5hB. [38] Manjnath. J.T. 121. SPEI DOE EOR. A.H. 83.R. SPEJ (June 1968). [58] Kyte. [45] Cuiec. drainage and imbibition.N.H. SPE (Oct. 1973). Tech. SPEJ (Aug. [46] Hearn. 805. C.L.A. A.. Truns. Tulsa (April 1984). and Wasan. [47] Berruin. Pet. 51stAnn. Proc. 1371 Ramakrishnan. SPE 6044. Henderson. 1st Jnf SPEIDoE Svmn. Davis. C. 1976). and Morse. SPEJ (March 1971). [39] Corey. The use of vertical equilibrium in two dimensional simulation of three dimensional reservoir performance. Fundamentals of rcservoir engineering. and Sheldon. (1978).H. K.effect of capillary number.B. A I M E 207 (1956). 1981). 163. [52] Dyes. [40] Stone.. [42] Dietrich. New pscudo functions to control numerical dispersion. A I M E 186 (1949).L. [55] Stiles.120 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [35] Torabzadeh. [59] Dake. and Parsons. 397. and Handy. J. (May 1984). C. Computed relative permeability. from rock properties. 160. 1976). Reg. [41] Land. 4th Symp. L. Sec. F. L.. Tru~ls.W. Elsevier Dev. H. The effect of temperature and interfacial tension on wateroil relative permeabilities of consolidated sands. 12690. Proc.a simplificd graphical treatment of the DykstraParsons method. 4th Syrr~p. Full Mtg.(July 1971). 44th Ann.I. I M E 201 (1954). [36] Heiba. Proc. [56] Ashford. 269. The effect of capillary pressure and gravity 011 two phase flow in a porous medium. L. Rec..H.E. [44] Killough. B. Waterflood performance of heterogeneous systems. 149. F. R. (1969). 147. SPEJ (Feb. EOK. Proc. JPT (July 1979). Rocky Mt. Proc. Proc. L.T. . van Weteizschuppen. n The prediction of oil recovery by watcrflood. 37.A. I Pet. V .
7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW
121
[60] Jacks, H.H., Smith, 0 .J , and Mattax, C.C. The modelling of a three dimensional reservoir with a two dimensional reservoir simulator  the use of dynamic pseudo functions, SPEJ (June 1973), 175. [61] Woods, E.G. and Khurana, A.K. Pseudo functions for water coning in a three dimensional reservoir simulator, SPEJ 17 (1977), 251. [62] Chappelear, J.E. and Hirasaki, G.J. A model of oilwater coning for 2D areal reservoir simulation, SPEJ (1976): 65. [63] Koval, E.J. A method for predicting the performance of unstable miscible displacement in heterogeneous media, SPEJ (June 1966), 145. [64] Handy, L.L. and Datta, P. Fluid distribution during immiscible displacements in porous media, SPEJ (Sept. 1966), 261. [65] Higgins, R.V., Boley, D. W. and Leighton, A.J. Unique properties of permeability curves of concern to resen20ir engineers, U.S. Bur. Mines Rept. Investig., RI7006 (1967). [66] Hagoort, J. Oil recovery by gravity drainage, SPEJ (June 1980), 139. [67] Bragg, J.R. et aL A comparison of several techniques for measuring residual oil saturation, SPE 7074, Proc. Symp. Impr. Oil Rec., Tulsa (April 1978), 375. 1681 Deans., H . A . Using chemical tracers to measure fractional flow and saturation in situ, SPE 7076, Proc. Symp. Impr. Oil Rec., Tulsa (April 19781.399. [69] ~ o v e , ' ~,:~~ n. g e nJ.K. and Read, P.A. i , Visualisation of laboratory core floods with the aid of computerised tomography of Xrays, SPE 13654, Proc. Clif. Reg. Mtg. SPE (March 1985). [70] McCaffery, F.G. and Bennion, D.W. The effect of wettability on two phase relative permeability, J. Can. Pet. Tech. (Oct./Dec. 1974), 42. [71] Singhal, A.K., Mekjerjee, D.P. and Somerton, W.H. Effect of heterogeneities on flow of fluids through porous media, J. Can. Pet. Tech. (JulySept. 1976), 63. [72] Fulcher, R.A., Ertekin, T. and Stahl, C.D. Effect of capillary number and its constituents on two phase relative permeability curves, JPT (Feb. 1985), 249. 1731 Melrose. J.C. et al. waterrbck interactions in the Pembina field, Alberta, SPE 6049: Proc. 51stAnn. Fall Mtg. (1976). 1741 Archer, J.S. Some aspects of reservoir description for reservoir modelling. Proc. Intl. Seminar North Sea Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Trondheim (December 1985). [75] Slider, H.C. Worldwide Practical Petroleum Reservoir Engineering ~Methods,Pennwell Books, Tulsa (1983). [76] Rapoport, L.A. and Leas, W.J. Properties of linear waterfloods, Trans. A I M E 198 (1953). 139.
L

L
2
Chapter 8
Representation of Volumetric Estimates and Recoverable Reserves
8.1 INPLACE VOLUME
The volume of hydrocarbon in place in a reservoir depends on: (a) the areal extent of the hydrocarbon region of the reservoir; (b) the thickness of reservoir quality porous rock in the hydrocarbon rcgion; (c) the porosity of reservoir quality porous rock in the hydrocarbon rcgion; (d) the saturation ot hydrocarbon in the hydrocarbon region. This is represented in terms of avcrage properties as follows where A = area (avg), EN = net thickness (grpss thickness x net thicknesslgross thickness) (avg), @ = porosity (avg), S,, = water saturation (avg), V = reservoir conditioo volume of hydrocarbon. At standard conditions, the volurne of hydrocarbon in place is the reservoir condition volume divided by the formation volume factor. Each of the components of the volumetric equation is subject to uncertainty and spatial variation. We shall now examine the source and representation of these data and develop a probabilistic approach to volumctric estimation.
8.2 AREAL EXTENT OF RESERVOIRS
The areal extent of reservoirs are defined with some degree of uncertainty by evidence from drilled wells combined with geophysical interpretation of seismic data. The amount of well cclntrol has thc main influence on the mapping and representation of reservoir structure. Maps tend to represent time stratigraphy as depositional units. Since reservoir fluids are contained in, and recovered from, permeable beds, the combination of permeable elcments of a number of time stratigraphic units leads to mappable rock stratigraphic units having (a) areal extent, (b) thickness, (c) petrophysical properties.
Fig. 8.1 Example o a structure contour map on top f
porosity.
8 VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATES AND RECOVERABLE RESERVES
.Completed producers
proposed well locations
XAbandoned gulf wells
Fig. 8.3 Top sand structure map, Rough gas
Structure contour maps are used to connect points of equal elevation. It is customary to map structure at the top and base of porosity and the map indicates the external geometry of the reservoir. The map shown in Fig. 8.1 shows the boundaries as a fluid contact, a porosity limit to reservoir quality rock and fault boundaries. The contour intervals are regular and represent subsea depths. The map would be labelled top sand, base sand or refer to a geological age boundary. The difference in elevation between the hydrocarbonwater contact and the top of the structure is known as the closure or height of the hydrocarbon column. Structure maps of the top sands of Thistle oil reservoir[l61and the Rough gas field[l51are shown in Figs 8.2 and 8.3. A schematic crosssection of the Rough field is illustrated in Fig.
Contour i n t e r v a l
50 feet
o Well control
8.4["1. The area contained within each structural contour can be measured by various mathematical techni
Fig. 8.2 Top sand structure map, Thistle oil reservoir. (after
tive
carbon/ contact
Fig. 8.4 A schematic crosssection of the Rough field. (after!151)
124
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
qucs but is most ssually performed by a digitizing process or with the aid of a calibrated device called a planimeter. A plot of the area contained within each contour against the conlour elevation for the top a11d base structure maps establishes the basis for calaulation of rock volume, as shown in Fig. 8.5 The area contained between the top arld base structure and limited by the fluid contact can be measured from the plot by planimeter and is equivalent to the gross rock volume of the hydrocarbon interval. The validity of the maps, the scale and the accuracy of planimetering all influence the numerical value of the rock volume obt2tined.
Helghest elevat~onon top structure
Fig. 8.6 Net pay thickness isopach. well test interpretation. It is custo~naryto use a porosity cut ofJ' in log analysis equivalent to some f D minimum pern~eabilityon a porosity permc;~bility :z crossplot (i.e. 8 % porosity at 0.1 mD permeability). :r c In addition, VLl.iy and water saturation are often 0 included 2 s additional delimiters, i e . if Vc,,, 40% 1 > and S,, > 60% i  then the rock might in a particular 0 Area conta~ned contourby circumstance be considered sonreservoir quality. Fig. 8.5 Rock volume estimation. The net: gross ratio defines the thicksless of reservoir quality rock to total thickness in a given unit. Isopach maps of sand tliickness in the Rough field and the R4urchison field are shown in Figs 8.7 and 8.8. 8 3 THICKNESS MAPS . The area contained within a given isopach car1 be plotted against isopach value, as shown in Fig. 8.9. Contours of equithickness points in a reservoir can he drawn and are again influenced by geolo@cal and The area enclosed by this plot represents the net geophysical interpretatiorl and well control. Where rock volume and can be obtained by planirnetry. When a reservoir is composed of a nurnber of thickness represents for ma ti or^ thickness normal to different rock types or S ~ I S Iunits, and they ;ire ~ the plane of the reservoir (true bcd thickness) the mapped separately, the thickness rnaps are known contours are called isopachs. Often the thickness of a bed is mapped as a vertical thickness and such a for each rock type as isoliths.
He~ghest elevat~on on base structure 
z
0 L


I
1
contour should strictly be known as an isochore. A thickness mapped between top and base porosity and including nonreservoir material is known as gr0s.y reservoir i~opach.If the impermeable beds are excluded it becomes a net reservoir isopach. I the C thickness is measured from a zero datum of the hydrocarbonwater contact. the map would be either a net or gross pay isopach. Figure 8.6 sl~ows net pay thickness isopach map a and the zero contour indicates the fluid contact. Sand thickness is increasing downdip in this representation, cind the sand pinches out at the top of the structure with a change in lithology to nonreservoir material. The definitiol? of reservoir qoality anci nonreservoir quality material is a petrophysical definition based on core analysis, log analysis and
8 VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATES AND RECOVERABLE RESERVES
125
8.4 LITHOFACIES REPRESENTATION
Rock lithology can provide a guide in contouring, and lithofacies maps are generally presented as ratio maps, typically sand: shale or limestone: anhydrite (Fig. 8.10). The ratios follow geometric progressions (1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8 etc.) and equal contour spacings do not therefore represent equal changes in lithoC logy.
Reservoir sand. Shale ratio 4 1 2 122:l
0
2:1  4 : l
24.1
Fig. 8.10 Lithofacies mapping.
8.5 ISOPOROSITY MAPS
In a given reservoir zone or subzone, the areal variation in mean porosity may be represented. The porosity control values are thickness weighted average porosities for the zone at each well. The shape of the isoporosity map shown in Fig. 8.11 may be obtained by application of geological modelling, by statistical techniques such as Krige mappjng [I719] or by computer controlled contour mapping! A n example of an isoporosity map of the Rough gas field is shown in Fig. 8.12.
Fig. 8.8 lsopach map (a) and mesh perspective diagram (b) of Brent Sands, Murchison reservoir.
Porosity C . I. 5%
Area enclosed
Area contained by contour Fig. 8.9 Hydrocarbon volume from net pay isopach.
Fig. 8.11 lsoporosity map.
126
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE

I
I
I
Fig. 8.12 Rough field porosity map  average gas saturation 63% (after [151).
Fig. 8.14 Rough field permeability map (after [15]).
8.6 ISOCAPACITY MAPS
Isocapacity is used to denote equal values o f a permeabilitynet thickness product, which is significant in appreciating well production capability. The product is frequently mapped instead o f pcrmeability, as permeability for a particular zone is sought as a functional relationship with porosity ( k = f n (@)). Figure 8.13 shows an isocapacity map in which the absolute permeability has been obtained as an arithmetic average in the zone, i.c. at a well
8.7 HYDROCARBON PORE VOLUME MAPS
As has been derived previously, an estimate o f hydrocarbon porc volun~e can be obtained by comb~ningthe net rock volume from isopach mapping with a mean porosity @ and a mean hydrocarbon saturation ( 1  S,,). The porosity should be a volume weighted average, 1.e.
The data, when modified for effective permeability can be validated by well testing. A permeability map o f the Rough gas field is shown in Fig. 8.14.
and is obtained by dividing the reservoir into regions o f constant porosity and measuring the bounding areas and mean thickness. The isosaturation map may be derived by noting the relationship in a given rock type betwecn irrcducible water saturation and porosity. The porosities and saturations in a hydrocarbon zone are generally considered interdependent. Contouring o f any isosaturation map must respect capillary transition zone characteristics and, as a consequence, regional average values areoften o f more practical use than a contoured map. Saturation should be weighted average: represented as a pore volu~ne
Fig. 8.13 lsocapacily map.
A n altcrnative to this approach is the dircct mapping o f hydrocarbon porc thickness (HPT) at each well control point. HPT is characterized at a well in a given zone as L$ . h N .Sh) whcre TI, = 1 St,,,. average porosity The ( in the net thickness interval hhi is likcly to be an I arithmetic average, as indicated from a porosity histogram. At the hydrocarbonwater contact Sjl is
8 VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATES AND RECOVERABLE RESERVES
zero, and at the porous rock limit $ is zero. Figure 8.15 shows the form of an HPT map. A map of HPT in the Rough gas field is indicated in Fig. 8.16. The shape of the contours might be suggested by geological controls such as structure, depositional environment and/or diagenetic modifications. The planimetering, or any alternative way of measuring area, of the areas represented by each HPT value results in data for a plot of area against HPT, as shown in Fig. 8.17. The area under the curve generated represents the hydrocarbon pore volume of the reservoir unit.
Area t
Fig. 8.17 Hydrocarbon pore volume from HPT maps (area under curve = net hydrocarbon pore volume).
8.8 PROBABILISTIC ESTIMATION
It should be apparent that there are a number of ways to map any given set of data. A numerical value of hydrocarbon pore volume thus represents one outcome of a given map combination. The presentation of hydrocarbon in place as a probabilistic estimate rather than as a deterministic value seeks to show the uncertainty of the estimate. The association of ranges and distribution shape with h, each of the components A,(@Sh), NIG of the volumetric equation is a subjective technical exercise. One method, which has found widespread use in arriving at a probabilistic estimate, is the Monte Carlo approach [''I. Since standard condition (Vsc) volumes are usually needed, the reservoir volume of hydrocarbon in place is converted to a standard volume by use of an initial formation volume factor (Bhr)for the particular hydrocarbon, and its uncertainty is included in the estimation: HCPV Vsc = Bhi where HCPV represents reservoir condition hydrocarbon pore vojume. The shape of distributions and maximum and minimum values are generally agreed in specialist group committees, and rectangular and triangular distributions (Fig. 8.18 (a) and (b)) based on subjective assessment of reservoir characteristics are most frequently used. The distribution can easily be converted into a cumulative frequency curve which can be sampled at random. The repeated random selection of values and their probabilities from each independent variable set leads to the calculation of a large number of volumetric estimates (Fig. 8.19). The cumulative frequency of these estimates is used to show the likelihood that a given value will be at least as great as that shown, as indicated in Fig. 8.18 (c). The independent variables considered in
Fig. 8.15 Hydrocarbon pore thickness map.
Fig. 8.16 Rough field hydrocarbon pore thickness map (after ['51).
Prior to drilling a well which indicates the presence of hydrocarbon. which are again reduced to Rectangular dcstribution (no preference).19 Representation of volume in place calculations. Each of the five values has a probability of 1 in 5 or 20%. gross thickness. e.18 Representationof independent variables.20 The recoverable volume of hydrocarbon from a indicates the change in volumetric estimate from particular reservoir will depend on reservoir rock [I4]  . Mln Value  Max Value + Fig. area. In common usage[']. (b) triangular five. A n alternative method attributed to Van der Laan is suited to desk calculation and makes use of a number of values of each variable . (5) a very pessimistic value (say 0.5 chance of yielding a lo\< value) .21) are used to represent concepts the potentially misleading best estimate value to of certainty at given levels. very optimistic value.3 or 5 values to represent the probability distribution. Bhi and R F (i. a . and a final range of five values. hG. ($Sh). (2) an optimistic value (say 0. predrilling through discovery and appraisal to early production and finally to late time depletion. Min Max reduced to five by averaging successive groups of Value five.at is known as a proven probable value and the 10% the 50% cumulative probability value. (4) a pessimistic value (say 0.V/G.e. are then obtained. When the distribution is symmet90% level is known as aproven value. 8. . (1) a very optimistic value (say 0. Figure 8. hydrocarbon porosity.128 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE volumetric and reserve calculations are A. (c) resultant distr~bution introduced. 8. formation volume factor and recovery factor). The process is repeated until all parameters are distr~bution (strong preference).8 chance of yielding a low value). These methods may give a clearer idea of the The values on the cumulative frequency graph possible spread of results and divert attention from (Figs.g. level is known as a proven + probable + possible value. 8.9 chance of yielding a low value). the other possibilities.9 RECOVERY FACTORS AND RESERVES It is also important to realize that the distribution of values can change with time as more information about a reservoir becomes available. there is no proven value. net gross ratio. 8.I \  + . (3) most likely value (say 0.3 chance of yielding Value a low value). and these are 4 i. ranging from multiple calculations or from multiple random from very pessimistic through the most likely to a sampling of distributions. The next parameter is then combined to yield a Fig. (a) new suite of 25 values. All combinations of two parameters (say h and $) Ot are computed (giving 25 products). the 50% level rical the expectation value of the field can be found.2 chance of yielding a low value) .18 and 8.
(b) discovery. Np is the cumulative stock tank oil production then. 8.) to residual conditions (Shr)in a completely contacted region and implies a particular recovery mechanism (i. (c) appraisai. waterflood.20 Time (and data) variation of probabilistic estimates. The heterogeneity of the reservoir pore space will influence pressure gradients during dynamic displacement of hydrocarbon and leads to regions of poorer recovery than would be predicted by laboratory measured residual saturations.. (a) Predrilling.). in terms of the cumulative recovered hydrocarbon. as well as on economic conditions. 'v I P . Cqjtj Bhi Cqj RF= HCPV where qj is an interval standard condition volumetric production. (d) delineationlearly production.e. G. It is not achievable throughout the reservoir. tj is an interval time. is known as a recovery factor. and fluid properties and continuity.8 VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATES AND RECOVERABLE RESERVES t Y 'k l'hL1h Value O min  max O min max Value + O min Value  rnax Value  Value  Value  Fig. at some time t and pressure P The recovery factor at any stage of reservoir depletion is represented without spatial distribution . is the cumulative standard condition gas production. ~ For gas. at some time t and pressure P. Bhi is a hydrocarbon initial formation volume factor. (f) late time depletion. then. all volumes being represented at a standard condition. The ultimate recovery factor refers to the change in saturation of hydrocarbon from initial (= 1S. (e) mature production. The fraction of original hydrocarbon in place that will be recovered. For oil. where G is the standard condition gas in place. where N is the stock tank oil in place. chemical flood etc.
hni = net thickness. and the reservoir operation will then be considered unitized. Under such conditions it is prudent that the owners or operators where A = area. ($I ' (1Swi Shr) Bhi Proven + probable 0. Swr = average connate water saturation. international boundaries.10 DISTRIBUTION OF EQUITY IN PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS It frequently occurs that the boundaries of a petroleum reservoir straddle lease lines and. fluid boundaries. The basis for agreement depends on apportionment of equity in the unit. MHV. Shr = average residual hydrocarbon saturation. proven probable reserve at the 50% level and proven probable +possible reserve at the 10% level.1 V Recoverable reserve __f Fig. The lack of agreement between licence or lease owners over the proper representation of residual hydrocarbon saturation is the main reason why this formula is rarely applied in equity agreements.130 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Recovery factors representing a given deveiopment concept can be calculated using the techniques and methods of reservoir dynamics and represented probabilistically as a distribution.21 Probabilistic representation of recoverable reserves. in that agreement is the main concern. The mapping of the reservoir follows rules agreed in geological and geophysical subcom + . It is appropriate that we consider unitization in this chapter as most equity formulae are based on volumetric estimation of hydrocarbons in place. experience indicates that it rarely provides a basis for agreement. Although recoverable rather than inplace hydrocarbon may appear equitable. hN . The use of this approach involves the least amount of contention but is nevertheless a major exercise involving the establishment of rules for defining net pay.. Specialist subcommittees from all parties are required to formulate the bases for agreement of all parameters in the volumetric formula if unitization is to proceed. The summation of hydrocarbon pore volume for each grid cell leads to a deterministic evaluation of initial hydrocarbon in place (standard conditions). 8. Bhl = initial hydrocarbon formation volume factor. = A . In North Sea reservoir operation the equity determination most frequently applied in joint operating agreements is on the basis of stock tank oil in place. The resulting cumulative frequency distribution shown in Fig. i.e. 8. For each randomly selected parameter set the calculation: Recoverable reserve (standard conditions) = recovery factor x hydrocarbon in place (standard conditions) of each lease region enter into some sort of agreement to develop the reservoir in a cost and energy efficient manner. = porosity. The final definition of parameters may sometimes be only quasitechnical. saturation and mapping techniques. transition zones. namely proven reserve at the 90% level. This is because economic recovery factors will be influenced by well density in heterogeneous reservoirs. The ultimate recovery formula is also known as the movable hydrocarbon volume (MHV) formula. by defining upside and downside potential of the reservoir. + + 8. This means that the reservoir should be operated as a unit and the costs and revenues shared in an agreed manner. porosity. The use of computer models to represent a threedimensional reservoir as a number of grid cells in which property variations are expressed is now commonplace. Development decisions are often taken assuming reserves at the 6070% probability level. This allows a recoverable reserve estimation t o be performed using a Monte Carlo technique and for the results to be represented probabilistically. in some instances. and ultimate recovery factors may be uncertain because of their origin with core tests and the representative nature of samples. The recoverable reserve histogram can be used to develop a risk ratio for application in development decision making.21 is used with the same connotation as that of the hydrocarbon volume in place estimation.
particularly where log interpretation involves wells drilled with both oilbased and waterbased muds. The reservoir engineering subcommittee will usually undertake the responsibility of defining fluid contacts and will be involved in agreements regarding zonation. One owner or licencee in a unitized reservoir will agree to act as the Operator of the unit on behalf of all members.22 shows reservoir regions defined in the Dunlin field volumetric study r31. historical costs and revenues may be reapportioned according to the nature of the Joint Operation Agreement. The definitions of net thickness and porosity tend to emerge from the agreements reached in petrophysical subcommittees on log interpretation methods and corelog correlation. For a resultant computer model of n grid cells. The fluid properties relevant to each computer grid cell allow areal and vertical variation in initial volume factors for hydrocarbons but depend on agreement reached in the reservoir engineering subcommittee on the use of fluid samples and the calculation methods for PVT properties (see Chapter 4). This of course presupposes some agreement on vertical zonation and reservoir boundaries. Interaction with a reservoir engineering subcommittee is necessary to reach agreement on representation of capillary transition zones and the validation of log derived saturation in a given rock type with capillary pressure data. is then * a 0 Platform oil producer e r ~njecow e n ~ Platform dry hole ' ~ \ y48\ . . The mapping exercise provides gross reservoir rock volume as top structure and isopach (isochore) maps of each reservoir zone or layer. Reservoir engineering methods for zonation are described in Chapters 5 and 14. The compaction corrected core porosity is often taken as a standard.8 VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATES AND RECOVERABLE RESERVES 131 mittees. Following any redetermination. 8.. The petrophysical interpretation agreement will also define the methods for interpretation of saturation from well logs. Figure 8. and the exercise may be conducted by an independent expert if there is no unit concensus. The equity determination may be reviewed or redetermined at certain times in the development lifetime of the reservoir. The equity distribution between leases or licenses is obtained by arranging the computer grid system such that it follows the lease boundaries and it therefore facilitates regional subvolume calculation.22 Reservoir regions defined in the Dunlin field for volumetric calculations (after [31). \ ~ ~ \\ 1 Fig. the deterministic total hydrocarbon in place at standard conditions V.
132
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
Examples
Example 8.1
The table shows values of net sand thickness and area for a reservoir. The porosity varies linearly with sand thickness from 0.15 to 0.28, the water saturation varies hyperbolically from 1.0 to 0.33 from water contact to crest, and the oil formation volume factor is 1.355. What is the oil in place? Table of net sand isopach values v. area within contour
lsopach value (ft)
350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0
Area within contour (acres)
0 400 730 965 1200 1520 2150 2600
NB. The general equation of hyperbola is x2 y2 a2  b2 =1 and the relationship between x (= S,, fraction) and y (= h, ft) can be fitted using the expression
164 h = 139 sinh x
where sinh x is lh (ex  eFX).
Example 8.2
The probabilistic distributions of reservoir properties are summarized in the following table at the cumulative frequency levels (equivalent to cumulative probability greater than a given value) of 90%, 50% and 10%. These data might correspond to minimum, most likely and maximum values. Compare the deterministic and probabilistic estimates of the recoverable reserve in stock tank barrels of oil.
Cumulative frequency level greater than given value Variable
Area (acres) Net thickness (ft) Porosity (fraction) Porosityoil saturation product (fraction) Initial oil formation volume factor (RBISTB) Recovery factor (fraction)
1780 225 0.125 0.099 1.214 0.17
2115 250 0.133 0.1 13 1.240 0.31
2450 275 0.140 0.127 1.260 0.52
8 VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATES AND RECOVERABLE RESERVES
133
References
[I] Archer, J.S. Reservoir volumetrics and recovery factors, In Developments in Petroleum Engineering, (Dawe, R . A . and Wilson, D.C. ,eds), Elsevier Applied Science Publishers (1985). [2] Walstrom, J.E., Mueller, T.D. and McFarlene, R.C. Evaluating uncertainty in engineering calculations, JPT (Dec. 1967), 1595. [3] Van Rijswijk, J.J. et al. The Dunlin field, a review of field development and reservoir performance to date, Paper E U R 168, Proc. Europec (19801,217. I. [4] A ~ ~ S ( J . J . A statistical study of recovery efficiency, API Bull D l 4 (Oct. 1967), Am. Pet. Inst. [5] Bankhead, C.C. Processing of geological and engineering data in multi pay fields for evaluation, Pet. Trans. Reprint Series No 3, SPE o f A I M E (1970). 8. , , 161 . . ~ r a v s d nC.J. ~ayksian analysis  a new approach to statistical decision making, Pet. Trans. Reprint Series No 3, SPE of A I M E (1970), 215. [7] Ryan, J.M. Limitations of statistical methods for predicting petroleum and natural gas reserves and availability, Pet. Trans. R e ~ r i nSeries No 3. SPE o f A I M E (1970). 227. t [8] H&baugh, J. W., ~ o v e t o n : ~ and. ~ a & J.C. .~ , Probability methods in Oil E.xploration, J Wiley, New York (1977). [9] Pritchard, K.C. Use of uncertainty analysis in evaluating hydrocarbon pore volume in the RainbowZama area, JPT (Nov. 1970), 1357. [lo] Stoian, E . Fundamentals and applications of the Monte Carlo method, J. Can. Pet. Tech. 4 (1965), 120. 1111 Archer, J.S.  Reservoir definition and characterisation for analysis and simulation, Proc. 11th World Pet. Cong., London (1983), Paper PD6 (1). 1121 SPE Standards pertaining to the estimating and auditing of oil and gas reserve information, JPT (July 1979), 852. [13] Martinez, A.R. and Ion, D.C. Classification and nomenclature systems for petroleum and petroleum reserves, Proc. 11th World Pet. Cong. (1983), Study Group Report. [14] Van der Laan, G. Physical properties of the reservoir and volume of gas initially in place, In Proc. Symp. on the Groningen gas field, Verhandel Konikl. Ned Geol. Mijnbouwt Genoot Geol. Ser. 25 (1968), 25. [15] Hollis, A.P. Some petroleum engineering considerations in the change over of the Rough gas field to the storage mode, Paper E U R 295, Proc. Europec (1982), 175. [16] Hallett, D. Refinement of the geological model of the Thistle field, In Petroleum Geology of the Continental Shelf of North West Europe (Illing, L.V. and Hobson, G.D. ,eds), Inst. Pet., London (1981), 315. [17] Davis, J.C. Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology, Wiley Int. : NY (1973). [18] Krige, D.G. Two dimensional weighted moving average trend surfaces for ore valuation, Proc. Symp. Math. Stat. and Computer Appl. in Ore Valuation, Johannesburg SA (1966), 13. [19] Matheron, G. Principles of geostatistics, Econ. Geol. 58 (1963), 1246. [20] Garb, F.A. Oil and gas reserves classification: estimation and evaluation, JPT (March 1985) 373.
A
L
A
Chapter 9
Radial Flow Analvsis of Well
This chapter will serve as an introduction to the subject of pressure analysis in reservoir engineering. The theoretical basis of radial flow analysis and the rudiments of data analysis for buildup and drawdown in oil and gas wells are presented. Well test procedures are briefly discussed for exploration and development wells.
For a radial coordinate system (Fig. 9.1), with angular and vertical symmetry and isotropy, the resultingequation is
9.1 RADIAL FLOW IN A SIMPLE SYSTEM
Considerations of conservation of mass, of Darcy's equation for flow, and of an equation of state for a slightly compressible liquid lead to a linearized partial differential equation of flow for a fluid flowing in a porous medium. This equation is linear for the assumed conditions of constant @, p, k and small and constant compressibility. Solution is possible by Laplace transform methods (Hurst and van Everdingen .)I"[ and for more limited boundary conditions by applying the Boltzmann transformation:
Between the limits t = 0 and t (when s = x) then:
One solution applicable to well test analysis is the exponential integral, or line source solution [''I:
Fig. 9.1 Radial flow towards a well.
where, since the exponential integral of a negative argument is negative, an alternative nomenclature may be used:
9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE
CO
135
ei(x) = Ei(x)
=
9.2 DEVELOPMENT OF THE LINE SOURCE SOLUTION
This exponential integral is calculable from the series
where @PC? x =4kt The boundary conditions necessary for this solution to apply are as follows: (a) external boundary is at infinity, re = a; (b) the rate is zero at the inner boundary r,, and is instantaneously changed to q at time zero and maintained constant
then: for small values of x (large values of ktl@yc?) Ei(x) = logex 0.5772 or ei(x) =  0.5772  logex =  EL(x)
+
(The terminology ei(x) =  Ei(x) is commonly used and values are shown in Fig. 9.2.) (c) the inner boundary r = r, is vanishingly small, r, + 0; (d) porosity, permeability, thickness and viscosity are constant; (e) compressibility is small and constant; (f) pressure gradients are small; (g) Darcy's law is valid. In spite of these apparently severe restrictions on the use of this equation, it has wide applications and will be valid for real systems (i.e. re # cc, r, # 0) provided that: (a) Dimensionless time for the radius at the inner boundary is greater than 510. The dimensionless time parameter is defined as follows:
Fig. 9.2 The functioneik).
This means that:
Since the wellbore radius is this radius in well testing, this condition is met within a few seconds or minutes of production in most cases. (b) There is no significant pressure drop at any outer boundary. This condition will be met if the dimensionless time for the outer boundary is small, e.g.
kt log,  0.809
+
Since all solutions of the diffusivity equation involve a coefficient qplkh, a generalization of solutions is possible in the form Since the dimensionless times are large for radii and times of practical interest, the simplified equation is valid in many situations.
I
136
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
where qpi2nkh is the coefficient for steady state radial flow, and PD(tD) is a dimensionless pressure function for the boundary conditions specified. The dimensionless pressure function will be a function of dimensionless time and may be a simple analytical function, or a complex function requiring numerical evaluation, depending upon the complexity of the boundary conditions. Tabulation or plots of PD(tD) for the more common idealizations of boundary conditions are available in the literature [','ll.
where p,,p =psi, q =STBID, p = cp, k h = m D ft, i.t = c,S, c,S, cfi(psi)1 r =ft, B, = RBISTB.
+
+
If t is in days
t,
=
0.006336kt $clGr2
9.4 APPLICATION OF ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS IN WELL TEST METHODS
Considering the equation for a well in an infinite reservoir
r
' 1
9.3 RADIAL EQUATIONS IN PRACTICAL UNITS
The constant rate, radial flow equation in Darcy units is
which in field units becomes
it is apparent that if this well is maintained at a constant rate of production, then a plot of P, against loget will yield a straight line, with a slope of qyi47ckh. If, then, the fluid viscosity is known. an estimate can be made of kh, the permeability thickness product of the formation. This estimate will be an estimate of the average kh in the area drained by the well during the test period, and consequently is representative of a very much greater reservoir volume than can be tested by coring or by wellbore survey methods.
TABLE 9.1
Characteristics of some current downhole pressure gauges (after Schlumberger)
Pressure type/ Temp. type Pressure range (psi) Temperature Pres. range ("C) accuracy % orpsi for10K Pres. resolution %fs orpsi forlOK Temperature Temperature accuracy resolution ("C) ("C)
Manufacturer Designation
Flopetrol Johnson Flopetrol Johnson GRC Geo Services Sperry Sun Lynes Lynes
SSDPISG
Strain gauge Junct, trans HP xtal Plat. Res. Capacitance Plat. Res Strain gauge or Plat. Res Strain gauge Strain gauge Quartz
10 000 15 000 (option) 13 500 10 000 5 000 10 000 15 000 10 000 5 000 10 000 5 000
01 50
i 5 psi
0.02 psi
k0.5"
k0.06"
SSDPICRG EMR 502 EPG 520 Derneter
0150 01 50 0150
i0.035% i 3 . 5 psi
0.02 psi
k0.3" +I0 i0.3"
0.03"
t0.09% FS 0.01 psi i 9 psi i0.04% t4psi k0.05% + 5 psi 0.012% 1.2 psi 0.005% 0.5 psi
fl o
0.02"
MRPG MK Ill DMR 3121200 DMR 31 4/200
0150 0125 0105
0.03" +lo +lo 0.03" 0.14"
+0.25%FS 0.025% +25 psi 2.5 psi +O.O5%FS 0.01 % i 5 psi 1 psi
9
RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE
137
The problem in this case is the practical one of accurate measurement of the small pressure drops normally encountered, at the fairly high absolute pressures involved. The characteristics of some current downhole pressure gauges are reproduced in Table 9.1. Rates of pressure decline may be substantially less than 1 psilday in extensive reservoirs with large permeabilities or thickness. Standard pressure gauges in use have an accuracy of 0.10.2%, but may be sensitive to pressure changes of 0.25  0.5 psi
( a ) Radial flow system
 and since the pressure differences are more
important than the absolute value of the pressure, these can give the data required in many cases. More sensitive gauges are available which are capable of detecting pressure changes of a few hundredths of psi, but the significance of these small changes in a flowing well may be obscure. For prolonged testing, surface recording pressure gauges are available and eliminate the possible failurg of clockwork or battery driven recording mechanisms. The procedure of measuring the pressure decline
1v Radial Log A t
( b ) Spherical flow system
I
I I
Log
t
fi
1 /Kt
r
4~
LO^ n t
/ 1iv /
Spherical flow
Fig. 9.3 Behaviour of pressure against time plots in spherical and radial flow in an infinite homogeneous reservoir (after [391). (a) Radial flow system, (b) spherical flow system.
~
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
( a ) Homogeneous reservoir
Log
At
Linear flow Log At
( b ) Finite capacity fractured reservoir
Log
At
4fi
'a Jl
I
Log
At
Fig. 9.4 Contrast in well test plots for assumed linear flow mechanism in infinite homogeneous and fractured reservoirs (after [391). (a) Homogeneous reservoir, (b) finite capacity fractured reservoir.
in a producing well is known as drawdown testing and is usually undertaken for purposes other than kh measurement, which can normally be done more convenientiy by pressure buildup testing. In many reservoir geometries the pressure changes with time will indicate a number of influences:
(a) For some time following start of flow, the pressure at the wellbore is not influenced by the drainage boundary of the system. and analysis can be conducted as if the system was infinite. The solution is said to be a transient or early time solution. (b) At some later time the influence of the
4 and 9.lnf~nite Infinite m=Seml logs lope No flow representing infinlte acting radial flow . 1 0. Many techniques have been proposed to identify the reason for anomalies [43. The ideal drawdown and buildup plots are only rarely seen.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE Homogeneous reservoir Model Double porosity reservoir interporosity flow 4)Pseudo steady 15) Transient state ..5 PRESSURE BUILDUP ANALYSIS A pressure buildup survey involves measuring the changes in pressure which occur after a flowing well has been shutin. the flowing pressure prior to shutin should also be recorded.0. Transitionstarts1 before end of I W....4411. Closed system 3. Figure 9. Fractured wells ')  (With Xflow) Loglog g piot g _1 I ! Semi log plot (Cartesian) I Derivative plot 8 3 1 J/\ 05 7 : . The change from transient to semisteady state conditions depends particularly on reservoir geometry. This dimensionless approach is often used to match observed well response to properties of a particular reservoir type. especially in the absence of good geological and structural information. and Figs 9. 9.Pressure mantenance boundary Key 1~ conductivity Uniform flux wellbore storage 21... 9.3.. 9.. capacity and permeability.5 0.6 is a typecurve showing combined pressure and pressure derivative curves ["I. 1o2r Approx~matestart of semi log straight line CD~" Fig.S I I I Fig.5 show some responses under different boundary conditions...5 "Trans' . (c) When the rate of change of wellbore pressure becomes constant in time then semisteady state stabilized flow conditions have been established.6 Combined derivative and pressure type curve (after [321). lines develop I . 9. 139 (z:ek$. and interpretation is frequently difficult and ambiguous... If possible.) I)'infinite" systems 2..5 Summary of wellireservoir model responses in different reservoir systems (after [42'). nearest reservoir system boundary is experienced at the wellbore and the solution is said to be a late transient or middle time solution. The uncertainties in interpretation remain linked to assumptions of boundary conditions applied in solution of the original diffusivity equation. .
140 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE I I T o enable the analytical equation to be used for pressure buildup analysis. and the best straight line fitted to obtain a slope of rn psi/loglo cycle. 9...809 .k* F _.k . The net pressure drop at any time t + At (i. 1 The pressure due rate of production is the negative Fig. some ..+ AP2 = 4nkh @C1Er. . as shown in Fig.p*lntiol = Fig.2 1 I I 9 .8)... + log.. and m is the slope in psi/loglo cycle.411in analysis of pressure buildup is increasingly popular. . maintained for a time t + At (At being the time after shutin) is qp AP1 = .) (the pressure measured in the well at time after shutin) against log. At infinitely long shutin time t+At . so that the total rate is zero. slope=m= t 6 2 6 q p .. at Fig. 9. This is known as a Horner plot (Fig. If the well is considered to have flowed at rate q for a time t.. (t+At) 4xkh I .. for the infinite reservoir..9 Pressure buildup analyses at initial time and after significant reservoir production..e.7. At + loge . 9. qC( log. Better agreement is obtained if it is assumed that in the vicinity of the wellbore.pXafter some depleton oftersomedeplet~on The pressure drop at r . Extrapolation of the straight line to infinite shutin time gives an extrapolated pressure Pxwhich. py L / 109 *p nltlol . (Fig.6qpB kh . time after shutin) is given by the sum of these expressions: I r The permeability thickness product of the reservoir is obtained from Consequently a plot of P(A./* /* */* / 10 ! . + 0. due to a positive rate of production q.6 SKIN EFFECT It is frequently found that observed pressures in the very early part of a buildup do not agree with the theoretical relation. has the physical significance P* = P. the data are plotted on semilog paper. 9. 9. then the change to zero rate at time t is effected by continuing the production.8 A Horner plot (field units slope = m 162.7 Constant rate flow followed by constant rate shutin. even when corrections for afterflow production are made.809 @C1cr.0.9). The use of type curves [32. the discontinuity in the flow is removed by the technique of superpositior. 9. prior to shutin. Conventionally.a'* . ( t At)/At should give a straight line of slope qu14nkh.log. 1' 0 tLAt . . and many examples of responses can be found['].unity + At + where units are field units. 9. or for wells tested early in the life of the reservoir. Pressure drops are usually larger (rarely smaller) than theory would indicate. It is important to identify the appropriate reservoir model for type curve matching and the use of pressure derivatives reduces but does not eliminate ambiguity. but from time t superimposing a negative rate 4. 1 I 2 x 4 _dddI I I I I ! 1 lo3 .
I$ = fraction.P W f = . 7 = (psi)' and r. Efficiency = P* . "skin" Fig.87 m. or k.the skin effect . this has limited application. = ft. and a dimensionless skin factor: the pressure at closedin time is: L J and for small At (early shutin times) Pi . The equation for the pressure at the flowing well at the instant of shutin is: Pi .P(sr)= Zh 4nkh [loget . Physical reasons for such an impediment are obvious and include: incomplete. units the resulting equation used with a solution at one hour of shutin time (Plh): I I + .AP.S in field units when rn is in psi/logIo cycle.809+2S $yErwZ 1 where P. and so flow within this damaged zone can justifiably be considered as steady state. to interpret the skin factor as a zone of radius r. The ratio of theoretical pressure drop to the actual pressure drop may be considered an index of the flow efficiency: P* .'. and S makes it difficult to calculate kh from flowing pressure data alone..10 Concept of altered zone around wellbore. The pressurl drop in the skin is given by Note that uncertainty in the values of k/@pc.lErw 1 2s (in Darcy units) 4nkh or 0.. where S = skin factor in a zone of altered kh compared to the bulk formation kh as shown in Fig. but not generally very useful.can then be considered as a rate proportional. It is possible.10.log.809 + 2 S @l. Pwf psi. for values of At such that t + At+(.f loget = 4nkh 2+ + log.0. 9. affecting only a very small volume of the reservoir. given as the product of a flow rate function. The effect of damage . . mudding off of formation or perforations by drilling fluid solids. steady state pressure drop. p = cp.Pwf APsk~n= *. m = slope psi per loglo cycle. All these effects are local to the wellbore. The magnitude of the skin factor can be found from a pressure buildup survey as will be shown. Altered zon. or practical.P. when: The total pressure drop for a flowing well in an infinite reservoir is then the transient solution r 1 but since it is not possible to assign an unambiguous value to either r. k = = mD. within which the permeability is altered to some value k.log. inaccurate or plugged perforations.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE impediment to flow exists. At ir P(A*) qp .0. and in field. 9. . For any other value of At (subject only to the restriction t At + t ) + . . Conventionally and conveniently At is taken as 1 and the equation manipulated to yield S. filtrate invasion and consequent clay swelling or water blocking etc.P.
a plot of Pwfagainst log time will be a straight line of slope qpl4kh.3 for the outer boundary) the reservoir is assumed to reach a pseudo steady state condition when the pressure at all points of the reservoir is falling uniformly with time and the equation for the pressure at a flowing well is obtained as follows: Since qo= NpB. At some later time (again usually taken as tD = 0. dp then 4t p = p. and c. but the theoretical justifications are dubious. defined as the radius of a well in a reservoir of uniform permeability giving the same pressure drop as the real system.e./At. If flowing well pressures are recorded. then the drawdown test (or reservoir limits test) can yield an estimate of hydrocarbon in place in a closed reservoir. a significant pressure change will occur at the boundary. to obtain negative skin factors.6. then  162. (log. With a noflow boundary condition. In this case: since qdt = Vp .2 q At rn . If flow is continued then at some time (usually estimated as tD = 0. and the flow equation will be The pore volume is therefore v. the plot may yield values of kh.1 for the outer boundary of a symmetrical system). It may be noted that the presence of an aquifer can influence interpretation through its volume and compressibility. . reducing the value of the log term of the righthand side. the log approximation to the exponential integral solution will be appropriate. [rJrw] + S . then the physical interpretation of the situation is normally that the effective well radius has been increased.. for an aquifer of volume Vw using nomenclature from Chapter 10 NpBo = N B o 2 C e AP + V w L AP At early times. and results . = (psi)' and q = stblD. If a test can be prolonged sufficiently to reach this semisteady state period. after stimulation treatments. is given by rw (effective) = r. i.7 PRESSURE DRAWDOWN AND RESERVOIR LIMIT TESTING By the time the initial disturbances due to bringing a well on production have died out. therefore. If the kh is apparently unchanged by the stimulation.1 to 0. and efficiencies or completion factors greater than 1. and pressure fluctuation or gauge drift and vibration do not obscure the trend.142 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 9.3). The slope of this line is 1 Ye dV and d V = Zxrhrpdr 4 9.0418qB0 (SF reservoir barrels where (S = psilh (slope).w f 1 nr:h@i. The literature gives equations for the analysis of the intervening period (tDe equal to 0.2) The definition of 7 will determine whether total pore volume or hydrocarbon pore volume is calculated. i. pressure will fall more rapidly than is predicted by the infinite reservoir equation.ves Note that the average reservoir pressure P i s P= rw A plot of pressure against time on linear (Cartesian) coordinate paper should be a straight line. This effective well radius. = 0.1 Negative skin factors It is possible.
If the flow were true Darcy flow of an ideal gas under steady state condition.['] " $la 9. or inertial effect correction.5 (turbulent) and 1. so that observation of pressure in a well offsetting a producing test well can indicate the time when the radius of disturbance reached this point. the exponent n (the slope of the loglog plot) would be unity. n = slope.  and the p u 2 term is a kinetic energy. However.0 (laminar). as P' shown in Fig.11 Correlation of high rate gas test data. The basic equation for these conditions is known as the Forchheimer equation: 1 Q Fig. The loglog slope is defined as ratelAP. C = coefficient. and may not describe accurately the productive potentials of wells. kh ~ z log . between 0. data in this region can be used to determine minimum hydrocarbon in place since the slope of the linear scale pressure:time plot declines monotonically. and any slope taken at a time prior to semisteady state should be larger (and so the pore volume estimate should be smaller) than the value calculated for the steady state condition. 9. P. [rel'w] T . and is invalid if a very wide range of flow rates is studied. Pwf = stabilized flowihg bottomhole pressure.?) on loglog scales.8 GAS WELL TESTING ' High rate gas wells are one common example of departure from the simple Darcy equation. standard volumes per day. test results will generate an approximate straight line when q is plotted against ( .P . Dividing through by Q we can transform the equation into a linear form with slope B and intercept A (Fig. and B is a coefficient of nonDarcy flow. Approximate radial flow analysis indicates that the transient stage can be considered as pseudo steady state flow within a moving boundary (the radius of disturbance).12. B is some function of rock properties. over moderate ranges of flow rate. requiring a quadratic equation for a realistic description of the pressure drop rate relationship. However. . 9.P. A is the coefficient of Darcy flow. . 9. More advanced interpretation of such interference effects is possible. where Q = flow rate. although the empirical equations in use give no insight into reservoir behaviour. This equation is not strictly the result of any particular flow law. . = static reservoir pressure. One advantage of these methods is that testing at more than one rate is required so that inertial effects can be investigated.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE ambiguous and uncertain. The usual form of equation used in field practice where flow to the wellbore is essentially radial is A(P2) = A Q = B Q~ where P* = F2 . The empirical relationship between rate and flowing pressure used to correlate data is known as the back pressure equation: A single constant rate test for a well described by a nonDarcy flow equation will give kh and the extrapolated pressure. gas properties and interval open to flow but is always treated as a grouped term. Empirical test methods were developed for the statutory control and regulation of gas wells and Figure 9. but is not considered in this text.12 shows the loglog plot of back pressure test data. but will not define inertial effects.1']. with the coefficient C given as C = constant . and a pore volume (or BBLs of hydrocarbon per acre ft) can be estimated for this region.11): reservoirs [8.
2%ih) but with short flowing periods the buildup periods are also short. and measuring Pwf The well can then be allowed to buildup to static pressure.5 and 1 are generally taken as indicating the existence of some inertial effect. In this case. The results are then plotted on loglog scales. Between each rate. Consequently. 9. the theoretical flow rate corresponding to this value is termed the absolute open flow potential). and this procedure may further reduce the time necessary for testing in low permeability formations. but will be parallel to it. in which identical flow and shutin periods are adopted.or absolute open flow test.3 Analysis of multirate data The empirical back pressure equation If the flow were fully turbulent the exponent n would be 0. the static pressure in the term (P. and modified standardized test procedures have been .144 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE data will not be coincident with the true back pressure curve. . and this will frequently be the case. but a combination of a Darcy flow equation and a power series expression for z can lead to a value of exponent other than 1.5.pwf2)" is not especially helpful in predicting reservoir characteristics or in analysing the components of pressure drops.. Q = C (P: . Log scale rate  Fig. Unless stabilized conditions are attained ir. the well shoilld return to the fully builtup conditions ((dpiPdt) < 0.1 Isochronal testing The requirement of stabilized flow and full buildup between flow rates may require very prolonged testing periods in low permeability reservoirs. Values of n between 0. The test itself may be termed an AOF test . it is desirable for a test at one flow rate to be prolonged until stabilized conditions are attained.8. When multirate data are available it is more useful to revert to one of the basic flow equations in field units: (semisteady state) 9.e. and a test carried out at a new rate. The standard test procedure involves producing wells at a constant rate.8. the flow periods chosen.I developed to reduce the test duration' ' [ The isochronal test uses the flowing pressures after identical flow durations at each rate. 9.[lo& 1422pzT kh + S] semisteady state .8. this may be repeated for three or four rates. the loglog plot of the + BQ2 il(p2) = A Q where (transient) + BQ2 0. and P : the line extrapolated to the value ( : . although it may be useful in characterizing well performance.pwf2) = P (i.2 Modified isochronal testing A further modification may be used. this point when plotted giving the position of the back pressure curve. the pressures not necessarily being the stabilized pressure. 9.472 re A = .12 Back pressure test analysis. until the flowing bottomhole pressure approaches stabilization. the last value of shutin pressure before flow is used instead of P.Pwf).
When testing in cased holes.9 WELL TEST PROCEDURES Tests of the flowing behaviour of discovery and appraisal wells are necessary. It is perfectly possible for a stimulated well with a true negative skin to exhibit large positive apparent skin factors. T = OR(= 460 O F \ + = It must be remembered that the skin factor calculated from a constant rate test will generally involve a nonDarcy component unless the rate is verv low.809) + S 1 (transient) 1 and B = nonDarcy coefficient. rearranging the equation as D Fkh The analysis of multiple rate for the apparent skin effect S' will result in a set of rate dependent data.r = ft. andthe lack of selectivity in testing. upon which will depend the number of wells needed to obtain a specified rate of production.2 Testing tools and assemblies There are the essential components in an assembly of testing tools.1' It is more appropriate[341 use the real gas to pseudopressure m(P) defined as m(P)=2 9. L + 0. I . kept for this purpose. and tests in cased holes are very much to be preferred.13) (hence the term drill stem test). where 1422T and D Q is known as the rate dependent skin This provides one method of isolating the nonDarcy effect. and care should be exercised in determining'a B correlation. P = psia. it is possible to regard this as a local additional rate dependent skin effect. k mD. Q = MSCFID. intervals can be tested selectively in a series of drill stem tests. Progressive testing of increasingly thick intervals allor~s assessment of productivity and zone contributions. both to help in determining reservoir parameters. without the well being completely equipped for continuing production. and by use of a retrievable bridge plug and the testing tool. for pressure surveys to be made. and in evaluating the productivity of individual wells. the first tests on an exploration or appraisal well may be made by means of drill stem tests. thereby eliminating the need to run a casing string.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE 145 or x T I kh [$(loget. although in some cases the test tool assembly may be run on a tubing string.1 Drill stem testing A drill stem test is a temporary completion of a well.9.9. =  $ +s ]+ FQ' 9. A review of currently used equipment and techniques is referenced in ['']. . conforming to the equation S'=S+DQ where 9. enabling the well to be brought on production without a production flow string and wellhead. the greatly increased possibility of sticking pipe and losing the hole. . y = cp. Because of the localized nature of the nonDarcy effect. . but does not enable the skin effect to be separated from the Darcy effect. severely limit the utility of openhole tests. 9. but the uncertainty in obtaining a good packer seat. The drill string is customarily used as the flow string (Fig. a number of intervals can be perforated for test at one time. Because of cost considerations.m(Pwf) correlated with rate: m ( p > . h. Drill stem tests may be run in open hole. Pb 1 :p  and either A ( ~ ( P ) ) ' or m(F) .m(Pwf)_ 1422TQ loge5 . and the well then killed prior to abandonment or permanent completion.
Packer The interval to be tested must be exposed to a reduced pressure in order to induce flow. which may plug narrow restrictions in valves and chokes. about to pull out Fig. which enables the drill pipe to be run wholly or partially empty of drilling fluid. mud cake. some screening system is necessary at fluid inlets. Valves operated by changes in annulus pressure are increasingly used instead.13 Drill stem testing. They can be operated reasonably reliably under the conditions of a floating drilling vessel. perforating debris etc. 2.. if there were no means of opening the drill pipe bore to the annulus. The reverse circulation sub provides this connection and eliminates the necessity of spilling formation fluids (since these can be circulated out before pulling). When the test packer is set. . Equ~lizlng valve open  Formation fluid About to set packer Test In progress Test term~nated. 3. This serves to throttle the flow of the well and dissipate some of the pressure of the system. The valve is operated by vertical movement of the drill pipe. When pressures are known. against a spring holding the valve normally closed. The mud column in the annulus must then be isolated from the test interval. 4. inducing flow. a bottomhole choke will generally be run. or a selected size run to control pressures and rates. A hydraulic control system delays the opening of the valve when drill pipe weight is applied so that the drill pipe weight can be used for setting the packer without opening the valve. Tester valve This is the main valve in the tool.PETROLEUM ENGINE:ERlNG: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Grili pipe to surface =ormotton fluid in drill pipe Moin valve Maln valve closed . and the valve will not open with a temporary hold up when running in the hole. Choke assembly On a first test of a formation when pressures and potentials are unknown. 1. imposing less restriction to flow than the mechanically operated types. chokes may be omitted completely. fluid would be released only as stands are broken on the derrick floor. opening of the test valve exposes the test interval to the low pressure of the drill pipe bore. . 9. and also enables the pipe to be pulled essentially dry. by means of a packer. Reverse circulating sub Since the tester valve will be closed when the pipe is pulled. relieving the wellhead assembly of excessive pressures. Since the initial flow period will displace drilling fluid (possibly gelled).
Samplers are available which close top and and possible damage to unconsolidated formations. commonly with one gauge in the flow stream. Pressure gauges predetermined pressure. and with one blanked off. leading to plugging of.14 Principle of the Amerada gauge. flow may ple of the rugged Amerada gauge with mechanical be detected by a blow of air at the surface. Cushion These are not essential to the test operation.result. A secondary concern in very deep high pressure (Note that this is a flowing sample and does not wells is that of preventing collapse of the test string necessarily correspond to a true sample of reservoir due to the unbalanced annulus mud column pressure. The safety joint enables the test string to be The main object of the cushion is to ensure that detached at some point above the packer.) As an alternative to a water cushion. data as is possible on flow and pressure can be Table 9. giving a variable cushion Any type of pressure gauge ['jZ4. or damage to. it taneously exposed to a pre5sure effectively atmosmay be desirable to obtain a fluid sample at a pheric. some back pressure is maintained on the formation immediately after the tester valve is opened.9. bottom valves at the end of the final flow period. as clocks. so that as much wellbore. fluid. If a 6. the test string can be pressure charged with nitrogen to any 7. Figure 9. . 9."]can run with a effect as the nitrogen is bled off. the test string is not run completely empty. an explosively violent period of flow could pressure. that is Accurate interpretation of test results requires concontained within a chamber with ports to the tinuous monitoring of all events. ure. in case the within the drill pipe above the tester valve.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE 147 5. (a) Amerada pressure gauge. data analysis known accuracy. Safety joints and jars 8.1 shows some current downhole pressure subsequently reconstructed. but with no flow through the chamber. be test string. formation fluids flow into the well. a pressure  Time (b) + Base line Fig.14 shows the princiImmediately after the valve is opened. but The water cushion is a column of water contained assist in the recovery of the test string. tools. but a test will always use two gauges.y:ureo> 1 depth survey \ Lnt: \ . Samplers moderately high pressure formation were instanParticularly when flow does not reach the surface. The first signifi A movement d i m e 1 :. as close as possible to bottomhole press. so that packer or any other part of the tool becomes stuck. gauge characteristics. which should be carefully calibrated gauges of 9. (b) Amerada chart for a typical pressure buildup survey in a producing well.3 Test procedures.
and a robust mass flow meter would be of help in analysing such flow periods. forcing the tool and two sealing packers against the formation of casing wall.15 Test burners. When the well has cleaned up and formation fluids are flowing. It is.17). and if this fills with formation fluid a pressure buildup is subsequently recorded. Analysis of the flow and Fig. 2. but the flow and pressure data are generally of poor quality. or if the hole is cased. The sample chamber is small (generally taking a 10 litre sample). The end of the water cushion may be more difficult to estimate. debris. but an Amerada gauge is generally connected to the sampling system for a more accurate measurement. attempts are made to stabilize flow . and followup drill stem or production tests are necessary. with frequent changes of chokes (and so of rate) in attempts to stabilize and control flow. The difference between this time and instant of valve opening.) . The tool may be particularly useful in locating hydrocarbonwater contacts. In operation. a shaped charge is fired through a sealing packer giving a flow channel from the formation to sample chamber. in mud pressure ratings up to 20000 psi and mud temperatures to 35O"F. 9. the sample chamber seal valve may be closed and the tool left in place to record a buildup. possible to use choke pressures to estimate the magnitude of flows.4 Wireline testing 1. and the void volume of the test string. but in casedhole it should generally be possible to recover formation fluid. 9. The device is designed to operate in openhole sizes between 6" and 143/4". The formation tester (FT) and formation interval tester (FIT) These are devices run on electric wireline enabling a small sample of formation fluid. Difficulties with burners. and very limited pressure data.16 and 9. Alternatively. recovers formation fluid samples and. (This could lead to an overpressured condition in some circumstances. erode or damage orifices. and the extent of transition zones. (Photo courtesy of BP. If filtrate invasion is severe.9. Pressures are monitored from the surface. to be obtained from a selected interval. however. The repeat formation tester (vertical pressure logging) The earlier tools have now been replaced by an openhole testing tool that measures the vertical pressure distribution in a well.148 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE cant measurement that can be made is the time of arrival of the water cushion at the surface. 9.15 shows test burners. and other surface equipment. A piston device and an associated packer can be actuated to force a probe through mud cake and allow the flow of smdl volumes of fluid (about 10 cc) into each of two pretest chambers (Figs. possible formation solids which may plug. in certain circumstances. because of cutting of the cushion by formation solids. can often result in data going unrecorded for significant periods. One such device which has found frequent application is known by its Schlumberger trade name of the repeat formation tester or RFT. can be used to estimate a flow rate for this period. and choke pressures should be routinely recorded.oil being tested through a separator. materially complicating analysis. a valve is opened and a hydraulic intensifier expands a backup shoe. Figure 9.) Bleeding down the hydraulic pressure releases the tool for pulling. If there is no flow in open hole. this period is not metered. separators. Since there will usually be mud solids. openhole tests may recover only mud filtrate. measures effective permeability. with gas being vented or flared through a meter and oil being stored or burned off.
the probe can be retracted and reset at a different vertical location in the well.18. . This difference will only be significant 'in lower permeability formations but . J ~ r e s s u r e gauge valve (to mud column) Chamber 1 . The builtup pressure response at a number of depth points in a well I3l1 is shown in Fig. The builtup pressure is recorded by a strain gauge and can be backed up with a high precision quartz gauge with accuracy typically around 0. . . In this way any number of pressure data points may be logged in a well. . .19.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE Mud cake 4 / b . and the log is compared with the initial pressure gradient of the reservoir. 9. 30 In many instances the pressure measured by the tool will be the pressure of filtrate which is less than hydrocarbon pressure by the magnitude of capillary threshold pressure. Fig.17 Photograph of the RFT tool. The deviation between current and initial gradients in a producing reservoir can provide a basis for interpretation of reservoir depletion and crossflow by matching in reservoir simulation[26461. .5 psi for temperatures f1°C of true. . 9. . 9. A n example of the pretest pressure response in a well is shown in Fig. Sample chambers between 1 and 12 gallons can be fitted for saving a fluid sample in extended flow. 9. After each pretest pressure buildup. Flow line Chamber 2 probe closed Seal valve chamber Probe open and sampling Fig. buildup curves using spherical and cylindrical flow analysis may lead to an estimate of effective permeability. Formation 1 Seal valve to upper chamber . .16 Schematic of the RFT tool.
a range of flow rates may be utilized to help establish the productivity index and inflow performance of a well.when there is a divided  . but this should always be secondary to establishing a valid. The Christmas tree and surface controls will be installed. With prolonged testing.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Digital pressure record ( psi ) o Analog lo4 interpretat~on First Second Pressure record from RFT test (pretest) at a glven depth in the wall Fig.1 Production testing Production tests are carried out after a well has been completed. Separator and tank samples should be monitored regularly for bottom settlings and water.10 WELL TESTING AND PRESSURE ANALYSIS 9. 9. tank dips. enabling very much more significant pressure data to be obtained. Rolo tester or other portable tester). safety valves etc. and testing is limited only by the restraints of production facilities. and of annulus (when open) and wellhead pressures. 9. The production facilities may be temporary (e. Gas flow rates will generally be measured by orifice meters. Good testing practices involve the monitoring of bottomhole pressures with a subsurface gauge. and the produced hydrocarbon will not generally be flared (although gas associated with produced oil may be burnt off). interference and buildup tests of days' or weeks' duration may be undertaken. positive displacement meter readings. Oil flow rates may be measured by one or more of the following: orifice meter readings. leads to the conclusion that RFT gradient intersection may represent a hydrocarbon water contact rather than a free water level (see Chapter 6). essentially constant rate. with the final casing and liner (if run).18 Pressure record from RFT test (pretest) at a given depth in the well.) installed. and the stabilized flow conditions giving better oil and gas samples than is possible on shorter tests. but since this period will induce pressure transients it is desirable that some monitoring of this period through orifice meter or burning line pressures should be maintained.g. handling capacities and manpower availability. Under these conditions long drawdown. flow string and any necessary downhole production equipment (storm chokes. and continuous monitoring of oil and gas flow rates.10. or permanent. It is frequently a practice to flow a well for clean up before beginning a production test proper. unless it is certain that the reservoir returns to an equilibrium state before the production test. It is particularly important that all events should be properly recorded . flow and buildup survey.
Interpretation may be difficult enough under ideal conditions. bottomhole. annulus. RKB or wellhead tend to be used indiscriminately without being logged). wellhead. recording of datum levels used (SS. Accurate times. it is sometimes possible for essential data to be omitted from reports. accurate recording of rates and GORs are essential to accurate interpretation of test data. with missing or inaccurate data it may become impossible! .9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE 151 responsibility for bottomhole gauges and surface separator readings. flow line and separator pressures. choke changes.
2 Find the exponentia! integrals and pressure drops for the following cases: (a) 4. = 0.01 D r = 100000 cm t = 10000 s k = 0. y. = 0.12 r = 10cm p = 0. 7 ~ ~ 10 x 10~psi' 2400 cm r q t k 500 000 cm 250 000 ccsls 365 days = 0. Oil viscosity Oil formation volume factor 0. p c h = = = = 0. c as above r = 10cm t = 1000 s k = 0.1 Calculate the dimensionless time tD for the following cases: (a) 4.05 D h = 2400 cm q = 10 000 reservoir ccsis (b) (c) as above 4.15 r = 10cm u = 0.0 4935 9.0 4937 6. c as above (c) 4.7cp t = I s c = 10 x atm' k = 0.05 D = = = Example 9.7535 RBISTB If net pay thickness is 60 ft. time (h) pressure (psi) 0 5050 1.3 Plot the following drawdown data and estimate the permeability thickness product.5 cp 1.05 D Example 9.12 0 .152 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE Examples Example 9.1D (b) +.3 cp t =10s c = 15 x 10~atrn' k = 0.5 4943 3.0 4929 12 4927 18 4923 24 4921 48 4916 72 4912 Flowing rate was constant at 500 bopd. 11. what is the estimated permeability to oil? .
0 1. Example 9.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE Example 9.7 cp = 1.0 18.5 A well discovers an undersaturated oil reservoir of thickness 50 ft.0 48 4967 4974 4981 4984 4987 4991 4998 5002 5008 5014 5017 Oil viscosity = 0. and pressure drop across skin.50 1.365 RBISTB Effective compressibility of fluid in place = 15 x (psi)1 The well was tested at a constant rate of 500 bid. during which the following pressure record was obtained: Time (h) Pressure (psia) Time (h) Pressure (psia) 3 1438 84 1396 6 1429 96 1395 12 1420 120 1392 18 1415 144 1389 24 1412 168 1386 36 1407 192 1383 48 1403 216 1380 72 1398 240 1377 Calculate the order of magnitude of the oil in place.0 3.5 2. A fluid sample has the following properties: Oil formation volume factor = 1. Effective well radius Calculate: kh. The static pressure is 1800 psia.6 A test on a gas well gives the following results: Flow rate MSCFId Duration fh) Bottom hole pressure (psial .0 36.454 Oil formation volume factor Estimated net formation thickness = 120 ft Average porosity = 0.0 9. k. Example 9.0 6.135 Effective fluid compressibility = 17 X (psi)' = 6 in.25 0.4 An oil well produces at 500 stbid for 60 days Initial reservoir pressure = 5050 psi Flowing pressure before shutin = 4728 psi Pressure buildup data: Shutin time (h) Pressure (psi) 0. skin factor and completion factor.
(1973). M. (July 1974).91. A. The estimation of permeability and reservoir pressure from bottom hole pressure build up characteristics. Monograph Series 5 SPE of AIME (1977). Eng. A new surface recording down hole pressure gauge.K. [4] Cullender.A.7 3 2512. Advances in Well Test Analysis.. Pet. J .5 5 2513. 75. Fall Mtg. SPE 4529. Sci.T. Trans. W.856.10 = 0. Dyes. Pet. The isochronal testing of oil wells. G. [12] Lee. C. SPEJ (Feb. [ l l ] Energy Resources Conservation Board Theory and Practice of Testing Gas Wells.47rh Ann. and Shira.7 1.A.. A I M E 201 (1954). ERCB 7534 (1975). Fall Mtg. 182.154 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE The following buildup was then recorded: Shutin time (h) Pressure (psia) 1 2509. Textbook Series. M.. viscosity and compressibility factor can be considered constant at y = . 16(1). [5] Edwards. H . Fall Mtg. S. Devel. A. 99. Conducting and Reporting of Subsurface Pressure Tests. SPE 3016: 45th Ann.S. Brons. (1970).3 2. 1974). re = 138°F = 2515 psia = 0. (b) Determine permeability and apparent skin factors. Influence of tidal phenomena on interpretation of pressure build up and pulse tests. y. Trans.W. 1974).0 6 2513. J. Calgary. Calgary: Canada.1 4 2512.48th Ann. A I M E 204 (1955). in Pet. [IS] Miller.J. C. and Hazebroek. (1976). 46. G . and Campbell. [14] Miller.B. L.H. SPE 4125. 0. 137. 1131 Matthews. Elsevier (1978).J.2 Over the pressure range considered. (c) Determine inertial coefficients and inertial pressure drops. ERCB Report 74T (Nov. Well Testing. Determine A O F and slope. Dallas (1982). Calculating the distance to a discontinuity from DST data. Monograph Series 1 SPE of AIME (1967). and Hutchinson. P. 1 References [I] Earlougher. Seeds. A method for determination of average pressure in a bounded reservoir. [9] Hirasake.5 2511.G. [6] Fetkovich.S. The isochronal performance methods of determining the flow characteristics of gas wells.4 ft = 200 ft = 0.H. Aust.C. A I M E 189 (1950).5 2510. F. San Antonio (1972). 8. Society of Petroleum Engineers. C. [8] Energy Resources Conservation Board Guide for the Planning. C.017 cp z = 0. Trans. Fundamentals of reservoir engineering. . R. Reservoir temperature Initial reservoir pressure Well radius Formation thickness Hydrocarbon porosity Gas gravity. and Shryock. D . W. G. [2] Matthews.. R.J. Canada. Pulse tests and other early transient pressure analyses for insitu estimation of vertical permeability. A.7 2 2511. [3] Dake.B. [7] Gibson. L . New generation drillstem testing tools/technology.64 = 5000 ft (a) Plot the back pressure curve. Pressure Build Up and Flow Tests in Wells. Expl.C. A. and Russell.P. 1101 Khurana.
A. Well pressure behaviour of a naturally fractured reservoir. The flow of real gases through porous media. and Schueler. SPE Paper 12777. Fall Mtg. Interpretation of the pressure response of the repeat formation tester. and Ramey. AlHussainy.K. H. SPE 5587. H. H. Use of pressure derivative in well test interpretation. 1965).G. (Apr. 335.44th Ann. J. 196. SPE 2568. Can. [33] Gringarten. . Paper EUR 166. M081022 Schlumberger (1981).P. 33. J. Pet. Calif. and Farris. The unified analysis of well tests.R. [36] Streltsova. Proc.June 1972). Use of a well model to determine permeability layering from selective well tests. and Colpitts. J P T (May 1966). S. SPEJ (Aug. Pressure transient testing.. Ramey. D . M.A.P. Mon.E. T. ~onceining value of producing time in average pressure determinations from pressure build up analysis. Mtg. I. 4 7 . A S .G. J P T (Nov. Proc. SPE 12959. 2023. A.31 [21] van Everdingen. S. [29] Schlumberger. Off. A. Examples of pitfalls in well test analysis. RFT: Essentials of Pressure Test Interpretation. E.M. and van Poollen.. and Hurst. i Practical use of drillstem tests. 1500.P. (May 1967). Pressure derivative approach to transient test analysis: a high permeability North Sea reservoir example. Advances in estimating gas well deliverability.B.a review. H. R. R. R. Pet.J. [30] Dake. London (1984).E. L. Pet. (1984).50th Ann. G.L. G. W ~test analysis: well producing by solution gas drive. 3rd World Pet. An investigation of wellbore storage and skin effect in unsteady liquid floilr. 111. (1975). and McKinley. W. and Woodbury. I421 Clark. 624. Pet. [32] Bourdet. Inflow performance relationships for solution gas drive wells.J.F. 1369. 1983).F. Proc. J P T (July 1982). J. [26] Stewart. (1980). [22] Vogel.. SPEJ (June 1978). Reg. 1972).J. Ayoub.D.H. P. Proc. [38] Baldwin. M. 1968).9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE ' I I I I [16] Odeh.J.R. Permagauge . Proc. 9. Trans. The application of the Laplace transformation to flow problems in reservoirs.C. [31] Bishlawi. 1 Pressure build up in wells. [34] AlHussainy. Characterisation of a gas well from one flow test sequence.J. Europ. I [18] Ramey. and van GolfRacht. G. [23] Vela. r271 Pinson. SPE (1969). SPEJ (June 1970). G. Conf. S. 183. SPE 8362. SPE (1979). Pet. Tech. L 2 L . 1980). [35] Agarwal. D.54th Ann. Fall Mtg. 83. R. How areal heterogeneities affect pulse test results. J P T the (Nov. Europ. and Crawford.E. SPE 5607. SPE ofAIME (1979). [19]Ridley. 1985). 54th Ann. [20] Timmerman. P. Montrose field reservoir management. [37] Horner.T. Prod. 503. 2 5 2 7 . Doc.D. [28] Peaceman. E. Tech. J P T (Jan. (1982). 1970). Conf. AIME 186 (1949) 305. (JulySept. [25] Wkestock: A. 769.V. Cong. Can.a permanent surface recording downhole pressure monitor through a tube. I171 Raghavan. Interpretation of well block pressure in numerical simulation. [39] Erhaghi. 1 (1951).J. J P T (Feb. Off. R. 1976). and Pirard. A comparison between different skin and wellbore storage type curves for early time transient analysis. . 181. A Monte Carlo model for pressure transient analysis. Proc. Moreland. and Moore. Fall Mtg.50th Ann. Conf. [40] Ramey. [24] Weeks. Europ. 205. and Wittmann. D. Application of the line source solution to flow in porous media . (Dec. T. J. H. D. Pet. et al. [41] McGee. J. Tech. Y.G. 279. SPEJ (Oct. Fall Mtg. SPE (1975). Paper EUR 270. J. Fall Mtn. 1975). . SPE 8205. SPEJ (Sept. Application of the repeat formation tester in vertical and horizontal pulse testing in the Middle Jurassic Brent sands. R.
J. 87. London (1983). Proc. A. Barking (1985). SPE 12966. M. M. In: Developments in Petroleum Engineering.R. Some well test analysis results for a North Sea oil well. Cong. 89. [46] Archer. Interpretation of transient well test data. 1 (Ed. Pressure analysis: the hardware. (Ed. Dawe and Wilson). .S. In Developments in Petroleum Eng. Paper PD(l). Proper equipment and techniques ensure better drill stem tests. E. [44] Gringarten.156 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [43] Wilson. [45] Brouse. 1471 Diemer . Elsevier Applied Science (1985). Conf. London (1984). Proc. Pet. World Oil (May 1983). Elsevier Applied Science. Europ. Reservoir definition and characterisation for analysis and simulation. Dawe and Wilson). 11th World Pet. C.
G . %] This equation can be arranged in a linear form as shown in Fig.. 10. greater than that of the reservoir pore volume: and P. B. some of the residual hydrocarbon trapped during conventional recovery processes may be mobilized (tertiary or enhanced oil recovery).L) = (GGpIB.lz.z G .vo1.vol1 stand. from which The compressibility of gas is generally significantly z. therefore = The expansion of gas in the reservoir pore space as pressure declines during production is the most significant mechanism in analysis of gas reservoirs. = gas formation volume factor (res. at Gp = 0 and secondly Gp = G at Plz = 0. Since the gas formation volume factor represents a ratio between reservoir and standard condition volumes then a simple equation of state can be used in its representation: 10.1 RECOVERY FROM GAS RESERVOIRS For an isothermal reservoir Ti T. The application of the Plz against Gp plot in the reservoir analysis of a depletion drive gas reservoir . then G(B. energy may be added to the system in the form of injected fluids (secondary recovery).). firstly Plz = P. in the absence of water influx the volumetric material balance reduces to the following expression or at reservoir conditions: E= 5Ilz zi Initial gas volume at initial pressure = remaining gas volume at lower pressure Using the termhology: G = standard condition volume of gas initially in place.1. i = subscript for initial conditions.. A plot of Plz against the cumulative produced gas volume has two significant intercepts. Gp = standard condition volume of cumulative gas produced.cond.P .Chapter 10 Reservoir Performance Analysis T Recovery of hydrocarbons from a reservoir may make exclusive use of the inherent energy of the system (primary recovery).G.
Through partial maintenance of reservoir pressure by the influxed water the gas expansion process is arrested. but for many sandstones the sparse literature suggests an .B.2 Effect of limited aquifer influx on the P/z plot  Figure 10. . The magnitude of trapped gas saturation is likely to be rate dependent.3 shows that the evaluation of We is a forcing exercise.3 Aquifer performance. The variation of field data from linearity is a fairly frequent observation and thus may be an indication of water influx (increasing pressure support) or aquifer depletion (decreasing pressure support by fluid transport to another reservoir). where We is the cumulative volume of water influx at reservoir conditions.W. GP Fig. When the F = We + GEx value of G indicated by the plot is significantly different from volumetric estimates. the water traps gas at relatively high pressures behind the advancing front. Wp is + Fig. tions of reservoir continuity in the field might be questioned.) = (GG.and the linearized equation is.. as shown in Fig. + We . classification of the aquifer. In addition.3.1 The P/z plot. 10. 10. steady state. Figure 10. the material balance in providing a further estimate of gas in place by equation becomes extrapolation of early production data. i.e.158 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE the surface condition volume of water produced from wells and B. 10. In this case the material balance equation must be written as follows.Bgi) as Ex. 10. is the formation volume factor for water G(B. A linear equation which can be solved by assuming values of We to force linearity can be written as follows: Abandonment value The relationship between the values of We indicated and reservoir pressure at the original gaswater contact can be used to establish the performance Fig.) B. pseudo steady state: unsteady state. If the production terms (Gp Bg Wp B. then assump.) are denoted as F and the volume without water influx is therefore particularly useful expansion term (B. Water influx in a gas reservoir lowers the recovery factor GpIG by two mechanisms in comparison to normal depletion.2 shows the more usual representation of limited aquifer influx indicated by production data.
If a reservoir at its bubblepoint is put on production. 10. a well producing from a closed reservoir will produce at solution GOR. and the three principal categories of reservoir drive are: (1) solution gas drive (or depletion drive) reservoirs.of the order of 1 % to 7 % of the pore volume. When the critical gas saturation is established and if the potential gradients permit. permeability to oil diminishes and this trend accelerates. and pressures may stabilize at constant or declining reservoir offtake rates under favourable circumstances. where a = abandonment pressure conditions.10 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS order of 40% pore volume. Such comparisons often yield water influx: depletion recovery factor ratios of about 0.2. the reservoir may be said to be operating under a particular drive. All replacement processes involve a reduction in pressure in the original oil zone. and gas saturations increase. and aquifers large and permeable. Frequently two or all three mechanisms (together with rock and connate water expansion) may occur simultaneously and result in a combination drive. There are several ways in which oil can be produced from a reservoir. or critical gas. As a result. gas will be mobile and will flow under whatever potential gradients may be established in the reservoir . permeability to gas increases. although pressure drops may be small if gas caps are large.e. Similarly. Segregation will be affected by permeability variations in layers but is known to occur even under apparently unfavourable conditions.is attained. the pressure will fall below the bubblepoint pressure and gas will come out of solution. until some minimum saturation . The analysis of drive mechanisms using a method of material balance follows the general form described by Schilthuis [I3]. (3) water drive reservoirs. the change in gas formation volume factor offsets the increasing gas ratio. The actual order of values of critical saturation are in some doubt. but cannot flow to producing wells. i. As more gas comes out of solution. In addition to the effect of gas on saturation of. Initially then. The compressibility of oil. and there will be a finite permeability to gas so that the producing gasoil ratio will rise. A comparison of ultimate recovery factors for natural depletion and water influx can be made. the ratio standard cubic ftlstock tank barrel may decline. so that pressures in undersaturated oil reservoirs will fall rapidly to the bubblepoint if there is no aquifer to provide water drive. and the gasoil ratio trend is to oil mobilitj~ reversed. gas will flow towards producing wells. (b) the release of gas from solution in the oil at and below the bubblepoint. and these may be termed mechanisms or drives.towards producing wells if the flowing or viscous gradient is dominant . At early times. Initially this gas may be a disperse discontinuous phase. Ultimately.segregating vertically if the gravitational gradient is dominant. Possible sources of replacement for produced fluids are: (a) expansion of undersaturated oil above the bubblepoint. the producing GOR will decline. The permeability to oil will become lower than at initial conditions. not usually considered separately. as reservoir pressure declines towards abandonment pressure.77:l. although the reservoir GOR may continue to increase in terms of standard volumes. essentiaily immobile.2 PRIMARY RECOVERY IN OIL RESERVOIRS 1 Oil can be recovered from the pore spaces of a reservoir rock by expansion or only to the extent that the volume originally occupied by the oil is invaded or occupied in some way. saturation . is the average residual gas saturation in the reservoir. rock and connate water is generally relatively small.1 Solution gas drive: analysis by material balance where Sg.the equilibrium. and where one replacement mechanism is dominant. (2) gas cap expansion drive reservoirs. as pressure declines and gas comes out of solution. (d) invasion of the original oilbearing reservoir by water from an adjacent or underlying aquifer. (c) invasion of the original oilbearing reservoir by gas from a free gas cap. these expansion mechanisms are . Once the critical gas saturation has been established. 10. but there is considerable evidence to support the view that values may be very low .
= cumulative produced gasoil ratio (standard volumes) (= GpINp). = total compressibility = coS. 4P We1 The recovery factor for pressures down to bubblepoint becomes + (Boi)coe 4P We1 +. The pressure reduction between initial and later conditions is accompanied by all or some of the following: expansion of remaining oil.) For oil production of an undersaturated reservoir from Pi down to bubblepoint pressure Pb. oil. production of a cumulative volume of gas.160 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE and permeability to.i)l(Bo)iAP then in terms of the effective oil compressibility c. + cgsg + cf. = stock tank volume of cumulative oil produced. the pore volume compressibility may be small in comparison to gas and oil compressibility and may be ignored below bubble point.(Boi) Wet = net water influx in reservoir condition The middle term represents the expansion of connate water as fluid pressure is reduced and the compaction of pore volume as grain pressure is increased. = solution gasoil ratio (standard volumes) .. As the pressure falls below bubblepoint pressure. = effective oil compressibility = cjlS.B. = reservoir condition volume of oil initially in place. production of a cumulative volume of water: injection or influx of a cumulative volume of water.NB. The nomenclature for describing these processes between initial pressure Pi and some later pressure P is defined as follows: cumulative gas produced at surface (standard volumes). A reservoir condition volumetric balance is thus NpBo = N B. in the reservoir will fall below R. the loss of gas from solution also increases the viscosity of the oil and decreases the formation volume factor of the oil.. . = stock tank volume of oil initially in place. S. For a constant overburden pressure.. injection of a cumulative volume of gas..P). )c. volume units (= WeJQB. production of a cumulative volume of oil. + c. The pore volume compressibility cf is therefore a positive value with respect to fluid pressure reduction. then i )+ i Vp C. The cumulative gas oil ratio Rp will then become greater than R. compaction of rock pore volume. liberation and expansion of dissolved gas. The pore volume is represented by vp. The analysis of performance of a solution gas drive reservoir can be conducted by use of reservoir condition material balance...i can be represented as NBoLIVp. + WinjB. Since initial oil saturation S. A reservoir conditions volumetric balance thus . = AP = pressure change from initiaI conditions (= pi. the decrease in fluid pressure is equal to the increase in grain pressure. down to bubblepoint pressure c. = (B. The solution gas drive performance of unconsolidated sand reservoirs and chalk reservoirs (such as those in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea) require consideration and inclusion of pore volume compressibility as it can be of the same order as oil compressibility [I5 221. or volumetric balance techniques. In well cemented reservoirs.. gas from solution is released and may form free gas saturation in the reservoir oriand be produced. +c fj 4P + Wet The equation thus becomes transformed into Since.. expansion of connate water. and the remaining solution gasoil ratio R. this expression becomes Therefore NpBo = N(B. = reservoir condition volume of cumulative oil produced. the solution gasoil ratio remains constant in the reservoir. At any equilibrium stage a balance is made on the original reservoir content at original pressure and the current reservoir content at current pressure.S. The methods consider a number of static equilibrium stages of reservoir production during which pressure changes have occurred.
) + G. (B.S. Production volumes and PVT properties from field data are required for the analysis. The net influx terms are represented by We' The balance therefore becomes + (Rsi .Rs) Bg + We' . 10. + WpB. 10. the production and expansion terms can be grouped as follows: Fig. The change in hydrocarbon pore volume between pressure P. B. The production of oil and free gas together with any water is A linearization which yields IV as an intercept and has unit slope is given by NpBo RpNpB.10 RESERVOlR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS becomes an equation of the change in reservoir volume.. 10.4 (a). . + Ef.( W e f ) (Bo .B. The material balance equation for a solution gas drive has also been represented in its static form ignoring pore volume compressibility as follows: N= and the balance equation can be represented more easily for calculation purposes as F = N ( E . a plot of F against (E.NR.... In other situations. Following the nomenclature used by Havlena and Odeh [*I.(Boil) + (R$i. . Values of We are chosen to provide the required linearity and will then indicate the aquifer character. equivalent to total production with the volume change associated with remaining and influxed fluids and adjusted pore volume.B.RsNpB. pore volume and connate water compressibility can be small in comparison with gas compressibility and is often ignored in calculations. The expansion of original oil between pressure PI and current pressure is NB.) The expansion of liberated solution gas expressed in reservoir volumes at the current pressure is NR. In the absence of any influx terms. 1 + wef In high pore volume compressibility reservoirs such as chalks and unconsolidated sands. + E.) yields a straight line through the origin with slope N. .) N.N(B. .Rs) Bg + A p (cw S w i + cf) (Boil 1 . . and the current pressure is + and is indicated in Fig.4 (b). the energy contribution of compaction drive cannot be ignored even at quite high gas saturations. as shown in Fig.R.4 Representation of field data using Havlena and Odeh methods. B..
10. where Fo = (B. as a function of the average oil saturation or liquid (= 1 .(lVP). = 1/D Tracy developed the earlier Tarner [I' method using this formulation to predict recovery performance below bubblepoint pressure. . then: production is (NPlj is A' = NpFo + GpF. Relative permeability data is required which gives kg/k.J + Ri(k) R= 2 This is obtained by an iterative process.0o \ \ \ \ \ Y m \ Y 0.5. an analysis in terms of unit stock tank volume of oil in place can be written: . so Ri(k) represents the estimated value of R at time j for k guesses from k = 1 to n. 0 I I I U 0. After (Fo)j + R ( ~ g ) i convergence The average oil saturation in the reservoir at time j is (GpIi= (Gp)jl R AN. R' = (RJj + I \ \ \ \ 10 1.] (Bo).. letting AN.R.8 I 1.NtBoiJ PV = and by calling them D. = Bg/D F. Let initial oil saturation Soi = 1SWiin pore volume NpFo+ G.F.We' F. Therefore Fig.F.R. i.6 SO 0. . it is necessary to estimate the average producing gasoil ratio R during the decrement: . = 1 PV.Xg) in the reservoir. a new estimate 8' of the average producing gasoil ratio can be derived and compared to the original estimate R(k): 1 = N.Boil + (RSi The oil saturation at time j when the cumulative oil . 10. .2 0. at time j is obtained as a function of S.) B. ) ( F ~ ) ~ + A revised estimate of R is obtained from R = ( ~ ( k ) from which + R1)/2and used in a fresh circuit of calculations 1 . + GpFg If we use the subscript j to represent the time level in which we are interested. = 0. For the saturation situation where net influx and water production is zero and where pore volume compressibility is insignificant.4 0. " Between Pi. and Pi the incremental production added to the cumulative production at the time j1 gives the cumulative production at time j.e. . D = (B.e.h e main expansion terms are in the ctenominator .R. Tracy ['I defined the following (1 . or (So + SWi) shown in as Fig. i.001.B.Swi) material balance equation.)/D (So)j = PV F.~+ AN. l 162 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE .01 b\ \ \ \ \ \ \ 0.).5 Relative permeability ratio.. + given by material balance as follows. .1%) for the estimated value of AN..0 (GP)jl R A N . The correct value of Ri will be obtained by comparing R ( k ) with a value V/R1 calculated as follows.((NpljI(Folj) . then for a pressure decrement from Pil to P.v [N . From this. \ F~~unit stock tank oil in place this becomes sL The relative permeability ratio kg/k. . be the cumulative oil production we have (NP)j= (NPljl ANp + and 1 = ((N.((GpljI(Fglj) until a convergence in R is obtained (say within AN.1 \ \ \ \ \ 0.
)) as shown in Fig. . 10. 10.6. The material balance equation must be formulated by taking into consideration the expansion of the initial gas cap as well as liberation of solution gas from the oil as pressure declines.6 HavlenaOdeh plot in absence of influx and injection terms. EL.)) against (E. + We1 t \ LL w + 0 9 00° /* /* y 5 . = 1.7. Fo + G. + mE. The volume of gas at initial reservoir conditions is related to the volume of oil initially in place at reservoir conditions by the ratio term m : Fig. data by plotting (FI(Eo + ( l + m ) EL. In the formulation a new term must be added to the righthand side of the solution gas drive equation to represent the gas cap expansion drive process. 10. letting ET = E.2. . The functions Fo and F. 10. B.. The pressure at the original gasoil contact is by definition the bubblepoint pressure since the oil must be saturated. + + then. i. Gas cap expansion = G B. can usually be ignored since.2 Gas cap expansion drive The presence of a gas cap at initial reservoir conditions serves to retard the decline in reservoir pressure as oil is produced. then a plot of FIE.+ (1+m) EL. E T = Eo ( l + m ) EL.10 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 163 and a check is obtained from N. The efficient recovery of oil will depend on keeping as much gas as possible in the reservoir to act as an expansion energy completion intervals and location of oil wells are therefore particularly important.(Bgi) 1 To solve for net influx and injection terms the value of m must be known and. F. in Havlena and Odeh formulation F = N E. [ + mE. It is also expected that the term E L .7 HavlenaOdeh plot using lnflux and injection terms.+ ( l + m ) %] . + mE. This may not hold true in chalk reservoirs or other highly compressible unconsolidated sand reservoirs. i.e. are usually prepared from the PVT data as functions of pressure.e. against WelIET gives a line of unit slope and intercept N.: In this case We' can include gas injection GI.I(E.. in comparison with gas expansion it is small. In the absence of influx and injection terms the material balance equation can be solved to provide estimates for m and N from production and PVT N t we'/ ET + Fig.. i. 10. as shown in Fig.e.
. permeability to gas lower than for the purely solution gas drive case. The conclusion may however. to minimize gas high positions.IN evaluated at different pressures during the life of a gas cap drive or solution gas drive recovery process is clearly related to the cumulative produced gasoil ratio R. 10. with oil counterflowing downwards.if the economic limit is low. saturation around wellbores and also to consider the This mechanism has two effects. behaviour is that of gravity segregation .3 GRAVITY SEGREGATION volves smaller gross fluid withdrawals than would AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCIES otherwise be the case. i. Firstly. (Saturation gradients existing as a result of contrast dual porosity systems where almost comhorizontal pressure gradients. normal GOR. The producing gasoil ratio is then lower than for solution gas drive alone. Secondly.and may approach or even gas saturations build up uniformly throughout the oil exceed the range 2040% of oil in place. the lower producing gasoil ratio in10..The saturation in the lower parts of the reservoir is expansion energy of gas caps serves oil production maintained at a value higher than the average oil best by having gas retained in the reservoir rather saturation . lead to higher recovery factors at a given reservoir If the vertical permeability to gas is nonzero. B. 10. low viscosity oils.8 Initial conditions rn a reservoir with a gas cap.. and So at abandonment. Gravity drainage of oil from a slowly advancing gas cap is reported to give extremely low residual oil saturaIt is clear from this relationship that low values of RP tions . and up to about 15% or so for high permeability reservoirs. but will rarely exceed this range. only briefly referred to. the pressure drops plete segregation can take place in the secondary w The recovery factor N. as shown in Fig.164 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE near the wellbore. Considering the solution gas drive reservoir.less than 10%. and than by producing it in large quantities with oil. the oil possibility of gas reinjection to increase Wfe.. Gravity drainage plays its greatest role in high zone without any saturation gradients in the vertical direction. pressure than high values of R. The segregated gas may form a secondary gas cap. under the influence of that of gas cap drive reservoirs. the will be higher . Under these conditions the recovery efficiencies the gravitational potential g'Ap.the movement (generally of gas and oil) of phases and the later life of a reservoir may then be similar to countercurrent to each other.so that permeability to oil is higher. will slightly exaggerate this behaviour. there will be a vertical component of gas be translated into practice by completing producing flow under the gravitational potential.e.) Under these conditions the expected recovery efficiency will depend on the economic limit for wells and could be as low as 23% for low permeability reservoirs with high viscosity and low gasoil ratio oils. possibly behaviour described earlier assumed essentially that very much higher . so that the pressure decline at One mechanism. migrating to structurally caps. but which any given oil cumulative will be smaller. with the has an important role in several aspects of reservoir usual effects on k. and gas will wells down flank from primary or secondary gas segregate in the reservoir. Since F = NET+ Wef therefore for no produced water Fig.8.
and water influx under steady state conditions will obey the rule AV.9. may be considered in analytical analyses. . a large body of water saturated porous rock (an aquifer). such as that due to Havlena and Odeh I[' and discussed in the previous sections. In small aquifers.AP. . is the cumulative gas injection both volumes being represented at standard conditions.  The water influx due to each instantaneous pressure drop is calculated as a time function up to the maximum volume indicated by a steady state instantaneous influx. The properties of an aquifer are rarely known with any confidence since there is usually little well control. Timmerman and McMahon [''I. r. or is continuous with. h is the average width of the linear aquifer.4 MATERIAL BALANCE FOR RESERVOIRS WITH WATER ENCROACHMENT OR WATER INJECTION If a reservoir is underlain by.. Typical values are shown in Fig.WpBw) . commenced. is the cumulative water injection and G. which depends on the dimensionless time each has been effective (TD. then reduction in pressure in the oil zone will cause a reduction in pressure in the aquifer.S. Two main aquifer geometries. the unsteady state response of an aquifer may negate its usefulness and external water injection is frequently used instead. When water is required for pressure support in an oil reservoir.. is dimensionless time equal in Darcy units to tD kti(Qp~r. although reservoir simulation can cope with irregular volumes. is the aquifer constant equal in Darcy units U ~ to 2 n f Q h ~ r . and the wells produce throughout at solution gasoil ratio. This is achieved using the method of van Everdingen.V~AP tion of a continuous pressure decline into periods of instantaneous pressure drop. The c ) may total compressibility of an aquifer (c. be relatively large (about 1066x10~~ psilf. TD F (We + W q Bw + G'nj Bg . is the radius of the oil zone. where the equivalent instantaneous pressure drop occurring at time zero and subsequent times represented as AP. The basis for unsteady state aquifer analysis is found in the methods of van Everdingen and Hurst [51. The total influx into the reservoir is calculated at any time T by superposing the influxes from each pressure drop. we can write at some time T where: is the dimensionless time equivalent to time T.AT+ ET ET where W.10 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS porosity system. They are used to provide estimates of cumulative water encroachment We in the total influx term We1. and can be applied in material balance formulations.2)for radial systems and for linear systems. is the linear distance from the original OWC L to the puter limit of the aquifer. AP1. for radial systems and wLh@ for linear systems. reD is the dimensionless radius equal to raqulilerlro. radial and linear.=. The unsteady state aquifer representation of Hurst and van Everdingen requires the discretiza .(t~)!). Water injection allows a more immediate replacement of oil zone energy. (~D)I is the dimensionless time at which the instantaneous drop Ap.. Carter and Tracy [61 and Fetkovitch ['I. Gravity drainage is then the predominant mechanism in draining oil to residual saturation in the secondary gas cap... is the fractional encroachment angle of the f radial aquifer = 8"1360°. The determination of aquifer characteristics is important if water injection is not planned. are as follows: + The response time of an aquifer to a change in pressure at the original oilwater contact is of great practical importance. w WD(tD) is the dimensionless cumulative water influx function for a unit pressure drop at the original reservoir OWC at time t=O and easily read from charts or tables of WD against tD for different values of re^. For each instantaneous pressure drop from time zero to the end of the nth time step. 10. is the net thickness of the aquifer. steady state instantaneous influx may be a good representation but large aquifers tend to behave in an unsteady state manner. 10.
= mN(Bo)i. tin years) If water injection is employed in a reservoir then natural rate. length in feet. The combination drive material balance equation which represents a step change from equilibrium at pressure P. volume (N.) B.IN. = G.ro2) (radial system.119f@ h r.).1781 w L h @cbbllpsi tD = 2.(BoL))+ ((Rs. and Gp = (G. and Gini are cumulative injection volumes at stock tank conditions.). Wi.2 bbllpsi (radial system) c gas. R.to equilibrium at pressure P can be formulated to show all expansion.N.309kt / (@p3~') + (We + WiniBw+ GinjBg .) B.R.). production and injection terms as shown below. (G. tin years) F = N (Eo + mEg + ( l + m ) Efi) t.166 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE In field units where permeability is in mD. = volume N(Boi) expansion 1 Injected volumes ~ (G(Gp)c)(Bg)c .309kt / (@yi. pressure in psi.WpBw) or (linear system. we can write + (linear system) U = 0. In this formulation the subscripts c and s refer in gas terms to conditions in the gas cap and in solution F = NET + We' where: =N . rate in reservoir barrels per day U = 1. influx may siill occur if the pressure at the original water contact decreases from initial pressure. = 2. Setting G(Bg). time in years.G(Bg)i I . (Bo + (RpRs)Bg) EO= (Bo .
0: 0. if offtake rates are low. fingering or coning of water does not occur.0 2 5 10 The aquifer characteristics may be explored and correlated with an appropriate aquifer model by making use of the linearized material balance formulation and validated production and PVT data.4 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 0. A water drive reservoir may then be particularly rate sensitive.  I 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 I I I l 1 1 l 1 l 0.5m) constant terminal pressure solutions (after l5]).02 0. if offtake rates are very large.01 0. Fig. water drive will generally represent the most efficient of the natural producing mechanisms for oil reservoirs.11 Water injection near original OWC. This will depend on the transmissibility at the OWC and the pressure gradients established in the aquiferreservoir system. more than 85% of the injected water is expected to move towards the oil zone rather than repressure the aquifer. . 10.10. HavlenaOdeh plot. the displacement of oil by water is reasonably efficient. as shown in Fig.5 1. and the reservoir may behave almost as a depletion reservoir for a long period.80. as shown in Eig.2 +D Fig.1 0. Because of the similarity in oil and water viscosities (for light oils at normal depths).11. 10. 10. and provided that localized channelling. In general. 1.61  0.10 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 8  6   4 2 Finite linear aquifer + . 10.10 Combination drive. or as an almost complete pressuremaintained water drive reservoir.9 Dimensionless water influx functlon WD (tD) at different dimensionless times (tD) for linear and radial (reD = 1.05 0. It is sometimes noted in matching aquifer performance that not all injected water enters the oil zone. Fig. 10.
it should be possible to determine a reservoir production rate at which the aquifer response will maintain pressure around the saturation pressure for the whole producing life of the field. this is not a major source of error. Obviously. The average Pressure must be calculated from a series of essentially transient well tests. this would be either water injection to augment a natural water drive. but practically never corresponding to a situation where the whole reservoir is shut in at one time. In dealing with past production histories. and under favourable sweep conditions recovery efficiencies of 5060% might be calculated. Nevertheless. All Pressure dependent values refer to this Pressure. Where recovery efficiencies seem likely to be low.5 ACCURACY OF THE GROSS MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION There are several sources of error in material balance calculations. 10. Problems with secondary recovery operations are similar to those of the related primary mechanisms . and has a potentially large aquifer. if at all. and R. if the offtake rate did not generate sufficient income to justify the expenditure on field development it would not be an economic rate. A single reservoir field then presents no difficulty and N. The recovery efficiency of water reservoirs will be governed by an economic limit.2 Pressure data For the simplest calculations. but the term itself may often be relatively small. the whole reservoir is zwmned to be at some average datum Pressure. 10. .5. gas has generally not been measured with any accuracy. However. and a calculated high recovery factor might simply be the result of underestimating oil in place. tank farm and well test data taken intermittently. corresponding to some cumulative production. 10. and the allocation of cumulatives to reservoirs depends on intermittent well testing. a maintained pressure leads to lower viscosities and higher B. and any considerations of maximizing recovery must also involve economic factors. (Ultimately. Normally. This is another aspect of reservoir management in which gravity segregation can play an important (and essentially adverse) part. Reservoirs pressures at datum in given wells may be assigned volumetric or a real regions of influence in the calculation of weighted average reservoirpressures: = ZP I @ I ~ I A J ~ @ I ~ I A . then pressure maintenance or secondary recovery operations may be initiated to improve recovery factors. but the latter being increasingly important because of gas conservation requirements. Water produced is also very uncertain depending upon interpretation of separator. take? at varying times and positions. or gas injection. Regardless of the accuracy of the Pressure data itself. the inter~retation of average Pressure from this data is possibly in error. if a reservoir is very much undersaturated. the limit in this case being dictated by water handling problems. Provided that water can be controlled reasonably.) The first requirement in maximizing recovery is to establish the probable natural mechanisms of a reservoir and the extent to which these are likely to be rate sensitive. of course. Although generalized correlations are fair& reliable: &ere is no certainty that they will match the behaviour of 10. Reservoirs now being developed should involve less uncertainty since gas is increasingly a marketable product.. calculating a recovery efficiency depends on knowing the initial oil in place. reservoir temperature and vressure to B. will be the factor most precisely known.5. will be subject to very great uncertainty. and frequently the cumulative produced gasoil ratio R. values at any given saturation. With wells located in structurally high positions this would give maximum recovery and maximum efficiency.168 PETROLEUMENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE As with the gas cap drive reservoirs.1 Production data Cumulative oil production is generally measured accurately for royalty and transfer payments. efficiencies of 3040% would be expected.particularly control of gas or water and the prevention of excessive fingering or channeling of injected fluids.5.3 Pressure dependent oil properties The values of B and R assigned for any value of reservoir pressure and temperature will depend on either: (a) the use of generalized correlations relating oil gravity GOR. the former tending to be more efficient because of mobility ratio considerations. or where substantially higher offtake rates would be possible if natural mechanisms are augmented. reducing the saturation and minimizing the terms So!Bo for any given economic limit. With multireservoir fields the individual reservoirs are not always (rarely!) metered separately.
= 1000mD R. are less important and the error in the difference may not be too important.2 Find the expression for the flowing gasoil ratio of a well (volume of gas sclvolume of stock tank oil) in a reservoir having a gas saturation in excess of the critical. but provided that a high degree of relative accuracy can be maintained in the values of B. All these sources of error contribute to inaccuracy in material balance calculations. B.437 1.363 rbistb p = 0.2. = 1.B. e. and B.00150 0. Examples I Example 10. . In view of the uncertainty in pressure dependent values of . then systematic errors which affect the absolute values.. and geological interpretation have provided the following estimate: I Thickness (average) Area Porosity Water saturation 500 ft 100 sq miles 12% 35 % What is the recoverable gas for an average reservoir abandonment pressure of 500 psia? Example 10. B. = 96 mD Example 10.363 1. = 500 scflstb k.001162 rbiscf k.00250 1. (i. provided random errors can be reduced). = 1. estimate the value of gas in place assuming seismic..3365 and B. The problem in this case is the question of whether or not the sample obtained (either as a bottomhole sample or recombined sample) is truly representative of the reservoir fluid.5 x lo6 barrels of stock tank oil. is reservoir barrelslSCF R. a small absolute error in either term can lead to a verv large error in the function. this would appear serious. (rbistb) Rp (scfistb)  N (stb) p 0 1715 000 3 430 000 ? 1850* 1600 1300 1000 + 0.333 1. = 1. an error of 5 parts in 1360 (0.e.00190 0. (rblscf) B.018~~ . There has been no water production. Since this is a difference between two quantities of the same order of magnitude.258 B.3600. is SCFibarrel . (rbistb) 1.300 1. if B.00124 0. no gas cap).) term are greater. log. Calculate the gasoil ratio for the following conditions: p = 0.. (scflstb) 690 62 1 535 494 B.363 1.10 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 169 any given crude system with any particular degree of accuracy. or (b) a laboratory analysis of a reservoir fluid sample.748 878 996 1100 bubble point B. Pressure (psia) R.4%) can lead to a 100% error in the difference. material balance calculations at early times of reservoir history are unreliable compared with later calculations when pressure drops are greater and differences in the (B.e.). = 0.B. Even so..8cp ..594 1. and R.g.B.3 A reservoir is estimated by a volumetric method to contain approximAtely 14. The table below gives the properties of the reservoir fluids and production data for the reservoir. . but the factor which most dominates the accuracy is the denominator term (B. originally just saturated at the initial reservoir pressure (i. but not the differences.1 Using the data from Problem 4.
Ol density i (rblstb) (lblb3) 1. (rblscf) 0. Given the following PVT and production data.333 1.363 1. 1. for injected water is 1.715 x lo6 and 3.4 cp.82 GP 12.437 1. is 5000 psi.258 B.5 45. Water injection started at a constant rate of 70 000 BBLld on 1.1 x 10' 5. and a fully shutin pressure of 1919 psi was measured at this depth. what is your estimate of the cumulative production obtainable by the fall in average reservoir pressure to 1000 psi? Pressure (psi) 1850* 1600 1300 1000 R. The PVT properties of the system at reservoir conditions are as follows:  P (psi) Bo (rblstb) R. and the aquifer temperature and pressure is 0.00150 0. What would you expect the cumulative production to be at a reservoir pressure of 1000 psi? Example 10.170 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Calculate the water influx at cumulative oil production of 1.81 and 1.5 A reservoir is believed to contain an initial oil in place of 300 x lo6 STB and has an initial gas cap of 120. The oilwater contact is found at 4260 ft subsea.00190 0. (scfistb) B. The radius to the oilwater contact is 9000 ft and the outer radius of the aquifer is 81 000 ft. The pore volume compressibility is 4 x permeability is 707 mD. Estimated values of porosity and water saturation are 0.1. The cumulative gas and reservoir production pressure has been reported as follows: '.1 NP (stb)  P (scflstb) 1100 1350 1800 (est) 31 x lo6 55 x lo6 63 x lo6 (est) 3. P3) after the start of oil zone production as follows: . which is also a convenient datum.1. The aquifer and oil zone net thickness is 200 ft and the aquifer has psi' and water viscosity at aquifer conditions of a porosity of 18%.9 44. Assume B. (scflstb) 690 62 1 535 494 Bo (rblstb) 1.80 and a constant oil production of 60 000 STBld has been maintained.430 x lo6 stb.045 x lo9 SCF 26.1.748 43.7 x 10' SCF.82 of the surrounding aquifer Example 10. (rbiscf) The uniform initial water saturation is 30% and water and pore volume compressibilities are each 3 x psi Production started on 1.5 x 10'  Example 10.17 and 0. and a base radius of 3 miles at the oilwater contact.P2.6 An oil reservoir is totally surrounded by a radial aquifer.280 x 10'SCF P (psi) 4300 4250 Estimate the cumulative water influx on 1.1.00124 0.00250 B.594 1.24 respectively (bed thicker than the column).81 1. The initial pressure at the gasoil contact.1.4 43.1.363 1.300 1. The pressures at the original oilwater contact have been determined initially (P.00 RBIBBL. The water compressibility is 3 x psi'.) and at subsequent yearly intervals (PI.81. the initial average reservoir pressure at reservoir datum being taken as 1850 psi.4 A reservoir may be considered as a right cone with dimensions 750 ft from apex to oilwater contact.
Lubojacky. W. Method for predicting the behaviour of mutually interfering gas reservoirs adjacent to a common aquifer. 33. Bass. 1107.a composite analysis of the behaviour of a compaction drive .D. and Whiting.F. 51. [4] Merle. A. AIME 118 (1936). Trans. Pet. J. R. C. R. [ZO] Muskat. [12] Wooddy. Proc.L. Trans. Paper EUR 41. [9] coats. and McMahon.M. L. and Tracy.R. AIME 207 (1956). [13] Schilthuis. [8] Tarner. Active oil and reservoir energy.W. Trans. J. [Ill Stone. 129. A.J. M.S. Analysis of gas cap or dissolved gas drive reservoirs. Trans. R. [5] van Everdingen. . D. (1978). Fundamentals of reservoir engineering. [lo] van Everdingen.L. AIME 204 (1955).solution gas drive reservoir. R. 8 Elsevier. 263. A simplified form of the material balance equations.W. T. A. H. and Gardener. Off. [17] Pirson. H. I181 Dake. Sci. Dev.J. Oil Weekly (12 June 1944'. M. 92. and Hurst. 2105. 1983).. D. and Katz. et al. G. JPT (Sept. K. [15] Blanton. The application of the Laplace transformation to flow problems in reservoirs. R. McGraw Hill. London (1950).L. Application of the material balance equation to a partial water drive reservoir. Performance calculations for combination drive reservoirs. [7] Fetkovitch. AIME 219 (196). ~ e kM. McGraw Hill (1960). Prediction of formation compaction from laboratory compressibility data. A simplified approach to water influx calculationsfinite aquifer systems: JPT (July 1971). D. How different size gas caps and pressure maintenance programs affect the amount of recoverable oil. [14] Poston. 896.H. 415. IHRDC (1937). An improved method for calculating water influx: Trans. E. and Moscrip. AIME 198 (1953). J.D.J. 305. G. AIME 216 (1950).W. 1973). Amsterdam (1978).W. L. JPT (Nov. Pt I Trans. L I I i I 1 I I I I : I I I > .L. 243.F. 1976). References [I] Tracy. JPT(Feb. The Bachaquero study .H. [16] Newman. AIME 231 (1964).W. SPEJ (Sept. 32. S. M.. and Odeh. D. Europ. [19] Amyx. AIME 228 (1963). SPEJ (June 1961).A. 1 I . Pet. Maren field . Petroleum Reservoir Engineering. and Aruna. Conf. 327.O.10 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS Time Initial E n d year 1 E n d year 2 E n d year 3 P (psia) 5870 5020 4310 3850 Estimate t h e aquifer performance in reservoir barrels of influx at the end of each year assuming unsteady state behaviour and using the method of Van Everdingen and Hurst. The material balance as an equation of a straight line. Trans.. [3] Teeuw. Flow of Homogeneous Fluids through Porous Media. 815.Trans. [6] Carter. S. Timmerman.J. AIME 186 (1949). 814.an engineering review. 247. Elements of 011 Reservozr Engineering. Pore volume compressibility of consolidated friable and unconsolidated reservoir rocks under hydrostatic loading. 1971).H.P. Pt I1 Trans. [2] Havlena. Deformation of chalk under confining pressure and pore pressure. A. 128.
976. G. . 1985). The effect of water chemistry on the laboratory compression and permeability characteristics of some North Sea chalks. (Sept. JPT (May 1983). [23] Tehrani.172 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 1211 Muskat. An analysis of a volumetric balance equation for calculation of oil in place and water influx. 1664. D. M. IHRDC (1949). Physical Principles of Ol Production. i [22] Newman. JPT.H.H.
Proper design of a secondary recovery scheme is best performed after a period of primary recovery. In order to provide the capability for natural flow to surface under high water cut. the principles of fluid displacement in secondary recovery are reviewed. normally water or gas. DISPLACEMENT PRINCIPLES I The displacement of oil by water or gas under immiscible conditions occurs both microscopically . the selection of pressure maintenance level might be determined as shown in Fig..Chapter 11 Secondary Recovery and Pressure Maintenance Secondary recovery techniques involve supplementing the natural energy of a petroleum reservoir by the injection of fluids. however.*Water .. then the process is known as pressure maintenance.1 Operating pressure for natural flow in originally overpressured undersaturated oil reservoir under pressure maintenance.e.a depth + 4 O r ~ g ~ npressure of al overpressured reservoir Fig. rock characteristics including heterogeneity of permeability. any fraction of voidage could be replaced if it provides an optimum recovery scheme. 11. In offshore field development this is not usually possible and pressure maintenance is implemented early in field life. When the reservoir condition volumetric rate of fluid replacement is equal to the reservoir condition volumetric rate of production. then the choice of pressure maintenance level will also include rate consideration. We will consider the effects of Pwh Pressure gradient 1 '\\ \ ". In practice. fluid properties and saturations. The efficiency of secondary recovery and pressure maintenance schemes can be explored by reference to the physical processes occurring. 11.. Firstly. i... flow rates and well locations. reservoir volumetric rate of production is equal to reservoir volumetric rate of fluid replacement. reservoir geometry and lateral continuity. the technique is known as complete voidage replacement.1. Hydrostatic /\\ gradient Reservoir datum . When this is done such that average reservoir pressure is held constant. The level of pressure maintenance in oil production is usually just above bubblepoint pressure such that injection costs are minimized. in order to observe the dynamic response of the reservoir.*.. 11. reservoir dip angle. Since production rate is also dependent on reservoir pressure gradients.. It is assumed that the injected fluid is immiscible with the displaced hydrocarbon.
174
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
and macroscopically in a reservoir. On the micro (since relative permeabilities are considered saturascale we consider the distribution of trapped oil in tion dependent) as follows: pores swept by displacing fluid. The distribution of residual oil will depend on competing viscous, capillary and gravitational forces and is particularly influenced by pore size, pore geometry, wettability and displacement rate. The laboratory determination of residual oil saturation in core plugs provides an estimate of the microscopic displacement efficiency, through measurement of an ultimare residual oil This expression is given in field ,units where the saturation Sor(ULT)for the pore scale recovery injection rate q, is in RBID, the crosssectional area A is in ft3: the absolute permeability k is in mD, the process: are viscosities of oil and water, po and h., in cp, the 1  Swi densities of oil and water (y) are in terms of specific Recovery factor(uLTj= 1  Swi gravities relative to water at 60°F, 14.7 psia, the dip The value of Sor(ULT) may be less than 10% of angle a is in degrees and by convention is positive pore volume, for low rate gravity drainage of oil for updip flow. The terms dP,/dS, and 2Swi2x are below an injected gas cap, to over 40% in a high rate both negative and are normally considered small linear water injection in which imbibition between enough to neglect. Under semisteady state conditions, the flow of oil advancing fingers is restricted. into a wellbore is given by the radial flow equation On an interwell scale, the driving force for displacement is represented by a potential gradient including mechanical skin as follows: (or datum corrected pressure gradient) between an injection well and a producing well. At some economic limiting condition of production rate or fluid cut, the recovery efficiency is represented in terms of an average oil saturation in the reservoir. In field units, where rate is in RBiD, pressures in We may distinguish between an average saturation psia, length terms in feet, permeability in mD and in the swept region of the well pattern so,(,,,,,^ and viscosity in cP, the equation is as follows: an average residual oil saturation in the whole reservoir including noncontacted or swept regions So,. This latter oil saturation should be the same as the material balance residual oil saturation. The term {q, BoI(P  Pwf)) is known as a productiv1  Swi  Sor (swept) ity index (PI) and has a particular dependence on kh Recovery factor (swept zone) = as well as on saturation and pressure influenced 1  Swi terms. For injection wells an expression known as the 1  swi sor injectivity index (11) can be similarly described using Recovery factor (material balance) = 1  SWi the difference between the flowing bottomhole For a homogeneous reservoir with constant injection pressure Pwfand the average reservoir pressure P, in rate and incompressible fluids, the water cut or gas conjunction with the water injection rate Q, in cut will be controlled by the saturation at a produc RB/D: ing well. Welge's equations allow a representation of the producing well performance in terms of the average material balance saturation S,, the producing well saturation S2, the fractional oil flow fO2 at the producing well, and the gradient of the fractional where k.kr is the same as the effective fluid flow curve at the saturation S2, i.e. permeability k,. Well inflow equations are linked to pressure loss calculations in production strings to evaluate producing rates consistent with wellhead choke and The fractional flow of displacing phase (water or separator conditions. The particular influence of k,h gas) is given as a saturation dependent expression at well locations may influence the total well number
11 SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE
175
requirements for a given voidage replacement scheme. In water saturated regions of many reservoirs, diagenetic damage to pore space may have reduced absolute permeability by several orders of magnitude compared with that in the oil zone. In such instances the injectivity of water into an oil zone may prove more attractive than injection into the water at an oilwater contact, even though the relative permeability to water in the presence of residual oil may be less than 30%.
X
Fig. 11.2 Saturation profile before breakthrough.
11.2 FACTORS INFLUENCING SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE SCHEMES 11.2.1 Mobility ratio
The mobility ratio expresses the ratio of the mobility of the displacing phase to the mobility of the displaced phase. If we consider the case of water displacing oil, then Mobility of water = h,
 effective pesmeabilit!. to \\.ates
M ' = k '. k "
k'o Figure 11.3 shows results of experimental data from 5 spot patterns for wateroil, gasoil and miscible displacements. The effect of the volume of displacing fluid injected on total swept area after breakthrough can also be represented as a function of mobility ratio. Using datall01for a direct line drive, and representing the number of displaceable volumes injected as V d ,Fig. 11.4 has been prepared. In this figure the numerical value of Vdis (volume of injected fluidl(1 S,,S,,)PV).
Clw
k,, Similarly,
viscosity of water
11.2.2 Reservoir dip angle
Reservoir dip has an effect on gravity stabilization during immiscible displacement and, by inspection of the fractional flow equation, it can be seen that dip angle influences oil cut. As shown in Fig. 11.5, the magnitude of the effect of dip angle on fractional flow depends on the wetting preference of the rockfluid system and on the direction of displacement. Compared with the fractional flow curve of a horizontal reservoir with no particular strong wetting preference, a strongly oil wet horizontal reservoir will show a higher water cut at a given saturation, and a strongly water wet one will show a lower water cut at the same saturation. At any given wettability the fractional water flow for updip displacement of oil by water will be lower at a given saturation than for downdip flow. This is a direct result of gravity stabilization of fluids of differing densities. Increasing reservoir dip angle accentuates the stabilization for updip flow and decreases stabilization for downdip water flow. For gas injection. the fractional flow equation indicates that better gravity stabilization will be obtained by updip injection with downdip gas flow at high reservoir dip angles. The density difference between immiscible fluids
It is clear that the effective permeabilities of oil and water are saturation and direction dependent. The mobility ratio could therefore be expressed at any saturation condition during a displacement. In general usage, the water mobility is frequently defined at the average water saturation in the water contacted region of a reservoir. For efficient displacement this is often represented as a piston front condition. As shown in Fig. 11.2, a plot of water saturation distribution versus distance (x) from the injection point in a linear system, the frontal saturation Sfoccurs at position xf The mobility ratio at prior to breakthr~ugh a well (location x = L ) will use
=
ho
]
.
Clw
[r]
ko s ,
s ,
A particular case of mobility ratio representation known as endpoint mobility ratio (M') defines k, as k, at So, and k, as k, at SWi:
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE
0 1
0.5
1.O
Mobility ratio
5
10
Fig. 11.3 Effect of mobility ratio on areal sweep efficiency at breakthrough: 5 spot pattern (afterl31).
1.0
0.90.8 
2 5 .
0.6 0.5 0.4
0.75 \ 0.5 wd
Direct line drive Areal sweep efficiency ( E A ) vs. mobility ratio ( M ) for different displaceable pore volumes of injected fluid ( V d j
"'1
0.2
Mobility ratio, M

Fig. 11.4 Direct line drive areal sweep efficiency against mobility ratio for different displaceable pore volumes (Vd = volume of injected fluid) of injected fluid. (Data
PV(1 sw,  So,)
11 SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE
Horizontal reservoir, strongly oil wet
177
It should be noted that for an endpoint mobility ratio of unity (M' = 1 ) the displacement is unconditionally stable at any rate.
(a) U p d p flow
(b) Downd~p flow
Segregated d~spiocement
Fig. 11.6 Segregated displacement. (a) Updip (positive) flow, (b) downdip (negative) flow.
Fig. 11.5 Effect of dip angle and wettability on fractional flow.
11.2.3 Reservoir heterogeneity
Although reservoir heterogeneity can imply many variations in rock properties at different scales of influence, only permeability variation will be considered for the present. So far the representation of reservoir performance by use of a fractional flow equation has assumed a homqgeneous reservoir with constant vertical and lateral permeability character. The fractional flow curve can, however, be used in the performance analysis of systems with vertical permeability variation. When there is no crossflow between layers, then the methods of Stiles["] and Dykstra and Parsons["] may be appropriate in generating fractional oil flow performance. When there is pressure communication between vertical layers or different rock properties, static or dynamic pseudorelative permeability functions have to be '1. In Fig. 11.7 a vertical section generated LZ4, through a northern North Sea production well has a permeability profile as shown. In reservoir analysis, the connection between vertically adjacent sands is important, as well as the degree of contrast in permeability in a given unit. Where a nonreservoir interval is indicated by core and log in a given well, the geometry of the nonreservoir material becomes significant in assessing whether or not vertical sand connections will occur around the nonreservoir unit at some distance away from the well. The combination of core absolute permeability data, with well test derived effective permeability, and with dynamic RFT response in new wells drilled in producing fields, allows judgement of these possibilities. Figure 11.8 shows RFT data obtained in a Dunlin well in the Brent Sand region of the UKCS North Sea
"3
may lead to segregation. In steeply dipping reservoirs, the gravity segregation forces may dominate capillary forces, and displacement behaviour is controlled by viscous: gravity force ratios. The mechanism of this process has been presented by Dietz and others [13.151 and involves the calculation of a critical displacement rate. For rates less than critical, the displacement is stable and underrun or override of displacing fluid through tongue formation should not occur. If the endpoint mobility ratio is defined as M', displacing fluid subscripted D, and the dip angle a considered positive for updip flow, then, as indicated in Fig. 11.6, we have: in Darcy units
k k : A ( p ~  p 0 ) gsina ~ r 1.0133 x lo6 yo (MI1) in field units 4.9 x k k:D A (yDyo) sina
qcrii = qcrit =
E"D (MI1)
The field units used above are as follows:
qO, = rbiday; k =mD; A = ft2; = res.cond.specific gravity relative to water y at standard conditions; a = degrees; 1.1 = centipoise.
178
core ~ e r r n e a b i l i i y (Dcrcyl
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
Torbert Sonds
Upper Ness Sands
100
n
a
0
+
2
P
"s
E
+
2: 200
E t v e Sands
300
Ronnoch Sonds
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1 0 1 1 1 2
Fig. 11.7 Permeability distribution through a vertical section of a Brent Sand well in the northern North Sea (UKCS).
\5
compared with detailed sedimentological analysis of nearby core [43]. The degree of vertical connection between sand bodies is suggested from the RFT gradients and may be matched by reservoir simulation. The effect of characteristic sand body types on the flow of injected water and on oil displacement may be anticipated [261 with reference to Figs 11.9 and 11.10. In Fig. 11.9 the depositional environment represents channel sands developed as a lateral accretion surface. Without further significant diagenetic alteration the gamma ray profile and core permeability profile may be as shzwn. The unit permeability thickness product (kh) would be obtained from z k j h j by subdivision into n sublayers. Water injection into such a sand body would probably result in the combination of gravity forces and viscous forces giving a profile with poor vertical sweep as shown. The sweep will depend particularly on the permeability contrast and the bed thickness. Figure 11.10 shows the behaviour of a bed with the same (Eh) product as the channsl sand but with the higher permeability sands at the top of the unit. This arrangement frequently results from bar sand deposition. In waterflooding such a unit, the viscous and gravity forces counteract each other and a more efficient sweep may be obtained. Pseudorelative permeability curves are required if such units are to
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b
y
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Upper Juross~cshales
\.
Dunlinwel
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\
\P \"
\ \
.
         1
Extensive morlns sheets~nds
Upper Brent sand ( TARBERT)
A07
\ \
\
92001
T
i
6
4
        L o c a s e d barsands       Loc(111sed b~rsonds   Carrelot~ve mouth badtdol f o l s complex
\
Mlddle Brenf sond (NESS I
\
   
     
\\
\ \
C Extenswe d ~ fiats_ $   ~ Extenswecoastal :i: v ~barrisrsond a r 5 l ~ M
  ~
~
        
(ETIVE)
       ,     7 \\ 9700jI
\ \ \
s \,
\ I 64C0
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I
I
I
I
I
Extens~veshallow morinesheetsond
M~caceour sand IRANNOCHI
~~~~t sand
Extsnslve marne prodelto shole  .    L~ttoroi~~nd body
     
      
oa:iB,dasar
5200
5400
5600
5800
6000
6200
I
Pressure ( p s ~ g )
Fig. 11.8 RFT pressure response in a producing reservoir (after [291).
I f SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE
Depth
( a ) Unfavourable
Fig. 11.9 Effect of unfavourable permeability distribution in waterflooding.
Sea level coarser sediment In shallow turbulent wqter
F~ne sediment in deeper quiet water
GR
profile ( A )
Note: Thevertical sequence ( a t profile B ) ~ s t h e same as the lateral sequence being deposited at one time
,
GR proflie ( B )
Permeabil~tyt
Depth
( b ) Favourable
P I
Fig. 11.10 Effect of favourable permeability distribution in waterflooding.
180
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
be represented as single layers in numerical calculations. Even very thin, low permeability layers sandwiched between higher productivity sands can be significant. A thin 12 ft very micaceous sand near the top of some North Sea Rannoch Sand reservoirs [431 have had, for example, a major effect on waterflooding. The micaceous sand is not a total seal, but under dynamic conditions prevents vertical movement of injected water. This particular situation has been described by Dake 13']. In a particular example, the consequence of ignoring its presence in waterflood calculations is to predict water breakthrough significantly later than reality.
Original oil water contact
.
/
, ,'
, , ,
\/*+;..
0y
Proposed site for ~njector
Poorly characterised faults
I
'
proposed otl producer
Proposed oil producer
11.2.4 Reservoir geometry and continuity
Sandbody continuity is largely determined from integration of detailed sedimentological observations with petrophysical and pressure data. The vertical pressure gradients measured in dynamic and static reservoir environments by RFT tools have probably allowed the greatest advances in prediction of continuity. It is fairly obvious that the continuity and directional aspects of sandbodies have significance in the design of water and gas injection facilities. Effective vertical communication dominates the distribution of gas in gas injection schemes, whilst lateral connections and permeability contrast are significant in design of water injection schemes. The areal geometry of a reservoir will influence well spacing and, if offshore, will influence the location and number of platforms required. The position of production and injection wells with respect to faults and original oil water contacts is important. Figure 11.11 shows the effect of a high rate oil producing well in the distortion of an oilwater contact with
Fig. 11.12 Effect of inreservoir faults on injection! production well locations.
resulting poor sweep efficiency. Figure 11.12 shows how characterization of partly sealing faults may influence design location of water injection wells. Recognition of effective dynamic separation of reservoir beds in complex depositional environments leads to the design of separate injection production facilities for efficient reservoir management. This is illustrated in Fig. 11.13.
11.2.5 Production rate effects
In homogeneous systems there is a lot of evidence to support the contention that rate of oil production. or injection rate, does not affect commercially recoverable oil volume. This assumes that the velocity of oil in a linear geometry is in the order of 0.11 miday and that well spacing ensures high sweep efficiency. In offshore oilfield production, current economic factors require high initial production rates in order to pay off capital investment. A rule of thumb for a reservoir is to base peak plateau rate on about 10% of the recoverable reserve per annum, or else on about 4 % of stock tank oil initially in place (STOIIP) per annum. This is in contrast with traditional onshore operations where peak rates may be around 12% of recoverable reserve per annum. Economic factors set the target rates  reservoir characteristics determine whether they are reasonable and prudent. Reservoir heterogeneity and geometry can lead to lower recoveries than might have been calculated assuming homogeneous properties. The effect of
1 j
4
I
High rate well
k u t
rnntrni
1
Fig. 11.I 1 Effect on oilwater contact.
11.phenomenon of coning may be important["]. Coning .)I"[ OWC lsopotent~al line 1 OWC I Fig. 11. reservoir flow rate must be reviewed in the context munication may require lower rates to promote of competing forces of capillarity.1980 1 0 1.13 Pressure history in the UKCS Dunlin reservoir showing dynamic separation of major reservoir units (after. gravity and crossflow by imbibition from low permeability to viscous flow. interwell scale to differing degrees. Ness e LL 1.11 SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE . Reservoirs with high per.1980 Tarbert/U.producing well shows that the rate dependent meability contrast but having vertical pressure com.4.1979 Stort of water injection L. analysis of the radial mechanisms require low rate and high dip angle to flow behaviour of reservoir fluids moving towards a promote segregation.4.1~80 20 Cumulative production (10' STB) 30 40 Fig.1. Gravity drainage In a homogeneous reservoir.Ness/Etive/Rannoch 1. These operate at both pore scale and higher permeability regions.14 Crosssection of a stable water cone.
.182 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE ( a ) Low rate: stable . (a) shows the potential gradient for a stable water cone and (b) shows the gradient at critical rate. ( b ) Critical rate [."J81. The effect of increasing fluid velocity and energy loss in the vicinity of such a well leads to the local distortion of a gasoil contact or a wateroil contact..@2 h...2. The prediction of coning behaviour is important since it leads to decisions regarding (a) preferred initial completions. It is more difficult to apply in offshore development and development from pad locations. The maximum producing rate at which a stable cone can exist is known as the critical production rate for coning .. Figure 11. A t the critical production rate the elevation of the cone from the bulk fluid contact is known as the critical cone height.15 Water and gas cone formation. Areal sweep efficiency at breakthrough and recovery efficiency calculations are often determined by consideration of wells in particular pattern units. Fig. (c) prediction of fluid production rates after cone arrival and (d) design of preferred well spacing. p in specific gravity and g' = 0. (a) Low rate: stable. The gas and water in the vicinity of the producing wellbore can therefore flow towards the perforations. 11.433 (Ap) To progress any further in analysis the reader is directed to the works listed in the references at the '4 ' 18 19 20 48 551 1 end of this The nomenclature of coning recognizes a stable cone as existing in steady state conditions where gravity and viscous forces are balanced.16. (b) estimation of cone arrival time at a producing well..higher rates will cause an advance towards the perforations.6 Well locations and patterns The development well pattern was established for onshore fields from analysis of areal sweep efficiency.14 shows the potential and stream line contours around a producing well.. The most frequently cited ...15. A n unstable cone is one that is in the process of advancing or receding.... the viscous gravity balance equation for cone height is Fig. x (pwPO)  Oil For field units with @ ' in psi. Referring to Fig. " = 0. (a) Patterns The majority of well patterns defined historically pay no attention to gravity effects in dipping reservoirs or to vertical heterogeneity. and in reservoir simulation mode^':^^^^...16 Cone stability. . The local saturations can be significantly different from the bulk average saturations (at distances such as a few hundred metres from the wellbore) as indicated in Fig..... 11.433 psilftglcc.. Note that at critical rate 11.. The main arrangements of wells are shown in the following figures and paragraphs. and requires average saturation dependent well pseudofunctions to represent well performance in Cartesian grid cell simulators. (b) critical rate. The relative permeability to oil in the pore spaces around the wellbore decreases as gas and water saturation increase.@2 behaviour has been studied analytically [4.. A fairly simplistic representation of the maximum oil potential gradient possible for a stable cone can be written in terms of cone height x and the potential @' (or datum corrected pressure). From the viscous gravity balance A@' = gt Therefore. 11. 11.
A / / .A. Crestal injection is usually reserved for gas injectors. 11. although in shallow dips pressure maintenance with water injectors may provide a pressure support that flank wells alone cannot achieve. Its success depends on low pressure gradients frequently employed.18 Well arrangements for dipping reservoirs.line drives.A .. For analytical purencountered for dipping reservoirs. The conversion of middip producers to injectors after break(b) Well arrangements recognizing structural dip through may be possible in some reservoirs to Figure 11. patterns are shown in Fig.AAAAl I I 0 1 I l l A . direct line drive and staggered line drive. well patterns may be analysed as segments of water injection scheme is probably the most com.. 11. between ~ r o d u c e r sand iniectors so that reservoir energy is restored quickly and pressure maintenance 113QUALITY OF INJECT~ONFLUIDS can be employed. In &me North s e a reservo& diagenetic The design of secondary recovery and pressure damage has reduced water zone permeability by two maintenance schemes requires attention to the orders of magnitude in comparison with oil zone quality of injection fluids and their compatibility permeability. I 7 Well patterns for areal sweep.A AAA Staggered I ~ n drive e A O A I I O A I Nine spot Fig. The peripheral poses. Oil producer / Fig.oLo I I / I 1 I / l I 1 I l l l 1 .!.A + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Dlrect line drive a O A I I O A + I A I oiololo I I I 1 I I I 1 I I 1 I I I 1 1 l I AA9 i II + O A O + I I AAAAA I .11 SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE 00000 I l l 1 1 I I I I I I ! ! I I l l l l l 00000 AAAA / I l I I I I I l l I I l l ! I A 1 l I I I I I I 0 LoLo./ 0 o ? Flank water encroachment and A Injectors o Producers .17 as the five spot. o ' \ . Inverted patterns are those with injector locations and producter locations exchanged. . nine spot. 11. ' j " .18 shows the arrangements frequently minimize interwell gradients.A . although reservoir simulation is more mon. The ratio of producers to injectors AND DISPOSAL OF BRINES d e ~ e n d verv much on the ~ermeabilitv the water s in zoke.
11. Produced fluids entering the inlet separator undergo primary separation into oil. and injectivity calculations are generally made using the higher viscosity. It is beyond the scope here to deal with these matters in any detail. The sea water must be demonstrated to have compatibility with formation water and must not lead to destabilization of clay material in the pore structure. 51. 11. j4]. Sea water must be filtered and deaerated and biocides added to prevent bacterial 343 growths. 11. In the same context we may consider the disposal of nonhydrocarbon produced fluids. 42. together with pipeline transport of produced hydrocarbons. The viscosity of injection water may be significantly higher than formation water as a result of temperature difference.184 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE with reservoir fluids.20 is a simplified flow sheet indicating the principal components of an offshore productioninjection system.19 the schematic plan view of the production facilities designed for the Magnus field (Quadrant 211 of UKCS) is shown. Figure 11. Filtering is designed to a degree which prevents formation plugging with fines.l9Magnus Field . as shown in Fig. and the reader is referred to the reference list for more information 1'. 3'. "Fig. as well as attention to reservoir displacement efficiency.schematic plan view of production facilities . 39. water and gas i i m ~ of platform well t 20" Gasline t o FLAGS line 24" Crude oil pipeline to Ninian and Sullorn Voe .21. I I Oil producer \ I I I I 0 O Water injection Producer/injector Subsea wellhead i / /' \i I I The length of the Magnus f ~ e l d from NE to SW IS about 16km. In Fig. The general arrangement shows the platform and subsea wells for oil production by water injection.
11.11 SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Water lift pump Filters. Turbid~ty \ . 11. .20 Simplified flow sheet for offshore secondary recovery/pressure maintenance.21 Example of offshore UKCS water injection layout. deaerators Water injection pump Oily water treatment Coalescer Storage cell Flash drum Inlet separator Production manifold 13 Metering station Fig. /' ' Measurement point I D E bulk 1 hopper I / Hypochlorite Turb~dity Overboard dump Fig. ' '~..
and oil passes perhaps to temporary storage or direct to a pipelinelpump system..186 . r .5 cp.22 Example of offshore UKCS process layout. h = 100 ft and k = 1325 mD. The gases injected may change PVT properties in the gas cap as they will generally be leaner than the original gas.6. Examples Example 1 1.. as shown in Fig. k.55 cp) and calculations assuming it is the same temperature as formation water (y. Assume the reservoir properties are as follows: re = 1500 ft. 500 cp.  .. s = +4. . .23) before disposal into the sea.5 ft. . scrubbing and compression for gas sales or reinjection. . 11.. injectivity may be impaired over a period of time by precipitation in the formation of greases from compressor lubricants. Example 11.. 5000 cp.22. When the reinjection gas is a mixture from several reservoirs.. = 0. . 11. 13. . and final separator conditions therefore differ. Fue! gas . the change in PVT properties may be even more significant. 11. = 0. . When gas is reinjected into the reservoir. 5 cp. and workover treatments may then be required. .35 cp) in a particular reservoir.2 Estimate the ratio in injectivity indices for calculations assuming injection water is colder than formation water (y. In North Sea operations the tanker loading is often facilitated by use of an articulated loading platform which allows the tankers to take up preferred orientation with respect to winds during loading (Fig.I Show the effect on productivity index of oil viscosity for oils of increasing 'viscosity' in the range 0. All gases separated at decreasing pressures and temperatures in the separator train may undergo liquid knockout.   I I Compressor drum ( n o hydrocarbon flow) ' 1 storage wells storage Crude transfer pumps CD Test separator plus NGL'S t o pipeline or tanker Fig.  PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE . . a lower vapour pressure crude is required than for pipeline transportation. For reinjection at miscible rather than immiscible pressures with oil. = 0. ..3).. For offshore loading of crude oil into tankers. . the gas composition also requires careful control. phases.. There is a facility for fluids from this separator to be flared in the event of emergency. 50 cp. . = 0. This may have an influence on displacement calculations. The products from the final coalescer represent the final separation condition and water passes to the oily water treater (Fig.
_ &T 011 H C to sectlon of drams tanks Cellar DK 011to H C sectlon of drams tanks . The water formation volume factor for injected water is 1. 'J to sea sect~on dralns tanks SW from SW return HDR r . Example 11. 11. Estimate the areal sweep efficiency of the scheme after 10 years if the average daily water injection rate is 53 000 BBLIday. The average porosity is 25% and the relative permeability to water in the presence of the residual oil saturation of 30% is 0.4 cp and the water viscosity is 0. I Example 11.3 A line drive water injection scheme is being operated in a reservoir of length 1 mile between injection and production wells. Dra~nstanks s~mpllfled(API separator p r ~ n c ~ p l e ) Note. For a stable cone to form just below the lowest perforation what is the maximum potential difference (datum corrected pressure differential) that can be allowed during production? .d l SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE Adjustable wler flow splitterbox 01Iy water surge tank Produced water train F7i 011 H C to sectlon of d r a m tgnks 1 or r.. JT>. 3 1 0 0 MB/D  > 011 to 2 n d stage separator / Ta oil storage t Emergency overflow to sea desalter! 0 f\le : 1 A II .81. The relative permeability to oil at the initial water saturation of 30% is 0.4 cp.005 RBIBBL. At reservoir conditions the specific gravity of the formation water is 1.85. Grav~ty flow imless pump sbo wn Fig. The oil viscosity at reservoir conditions is 3.23 Maureen field oily water treatment (after 13']).t :o : E>I I I I I 01 1 dehydrator  L .4. .4 An oil well is perforated to within 50 ft of a static water table.01 and the specific gravity of the oil is 0. (ZT 01ly water toD dra~ns tanks \ \ \ To sea via 30" calsson 01ly water CPS u n ~ t \ \ seawater  Fro". Seawater train I) I 011 stompe/watersurge tank c A 4  Seawater CPS unlt . and of crosssection dimensions 4 miles wide by 98 ft net thickness.
[6] Warren. AIME 228 (1963).E. 11. [8] Calloway. V56B. Displacement stability of water drives in water wet connate water bearing reservoirs.E. E. F. 1971). McGrawHill Book Co. R . 1131 Dietz. C. G.f Oil Production. and Pizzi. JPT (July 1979). A simplified method for computing oil recovery by gas or water drive. A correlation for predicting water coning time. G. [19] Chappelear. Pet. Evaluation of waterflood prospects. A systematic study of gas and water coning by potentiometric models.P. Trans. JPT (July 1971).K.J. and Berry.A. F. SPE (August 1975). Waterflood performance of heterogeneous systems. 145. and Cosgrove. NY (1950).. 829. [25] Kyte. [26] Archer. J. L L . Soc.H. R.S. J. Caudle. 222. Paper EUR 197.H. Use of permeability distribution in waterflood calculations. 83. 805. Trans.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE References 1 [I1 Hancock.F. [15] Hagoort. SPEJ (Dec. An appreciation of Middle Brent Sand reservoir features by analogy with Yorkshire coast outcrops. R. D . ~aterflodd prediction methods compared to pilot performance in carbonate reservoirs. and Blackwell. (1937). L. J. 8 (1978).F. r31 Crain.E.L. A. Trans. O. R.. 91. Amsterdam (1953). and Morse. 63. H .. A. [I61 Berruin. Sci. [12] Hubbert. Inc. API. B .W.N. SPE Monograph Vol3 (1971). Secondary Recovery of Oil in the United States. Darcy's law and the field equations of the flow of underground fluids. Physical Principles o. Trans. 1141 Richardson. [20] Letkeman. and Ridings. [Ill Kimber.. [22] Koval.. N. A model of oilwater coning for 2Dareal reservoir simulation. J. JPT (May 1965). 923. Fundamentals of reservoir engineering.H. [17] Chierici. JPT (Oct 1959). Pet.B. J. JPT (Sept. M. D. Trans. AIME 261 (1976).J. AIME 201 (1954). Elsevier.G. W. Proc. New pseudo functions to control numerical dispersion. 1145. 269. [23] Dykstra. and Cornelius. JPT (March 1964). and Parsons.M. Dallas. [4] Muskat. Oil production after breakthrough .P. G. B. Proc. J. 81. Pet.J. Conf. 1970). Areal sweepout behaviour in a ninespot injection pattern. H. (1980). [5] welge. McGrawHill Book Co. Caudle. Use of simple mathematical models for predicting reservoir behaviour. i The Prediction of Ol Recovery by Waterflooding. Dev. Texas. G. W. Trans. . AIME 186 (1949).K. J.E. Trans. 594. [21] Stiles.L. 199. 160. Akad. SPEJ (June 1964). [lo] Dyes. > The xeservoir Engineering Aspects of Water Flooding. NY (1950). 1983). [18] Sobocinski. 1974). M. 1963. = .P ~ e v e l o ~ h eof ta reliable gas injection operation for the North Sea's largest capacity production platform. van Wetenschappen. 276. Amsterdam. Prediction of waterflood behaviour in a stratified system. A method for predicting the performance of unstable miscible displacement in heterogeneous media. AIME231 (1964). J.418. JPT (Aug. 65.J.J. H. R. Simulation of stratified waterflooding by pseudo relative permeability curves. D. 171 Abernathy. M.P. A theoretical approach to the problem of encroaching and bypassing edge water. [24] Hearn. and Hancock. Inc. Europ. AIME 195 (1952).L. and Cooper. JPT n (Nov. and Erickson.as influenced by mobility ratio. B. and Hirasaki. 1964). AIME 207 (1956). The Flow of Homogeneous Fluids through Porous Media. [9] Dake.L. N. 149. Ciucci. Eng. [2] Muskat.R. Off. 501. A numerical coning model. J. SPEJ (Feb.
V.. Europ. 33. K. M. The development of the Brent field. P. Prentice Hall Inc. (1978). P.. Proc. NJ (1959). Conf. API Bull 14D (1967)..C. NY (1966). (1980). 325. (1980). Paper EUR 168. Europ. et al. Cobb. Conf. (1982). Magnus subsea wells: design. and Hocott. Off. Conf. Conf. Pet.Sea . Proc.C. Pet. Pet. 205. A. Use of gamma rayemitting tracers and subsequent gamma ray logging in an observation well to determine the preferential flow zones in a reservoir.T. (1980). and Adams. R. J. M. Europ.C.Pet. Europ. AlHussainv. The selection of scale inhibitors for the Forties field.and Moore. Pet.L. Pet.R. Conf. 319 n the r341 Hillier. [45] Deppe. Reservoir development planning for the Forties field. . Effects of rate on oil recovery by waterflooding. and Niko. N. Llandudno. Europ. R. L. 407. C. Proc. the first giant gas field in the northern North Sea.A. Pet. (1980). (1975). and Twyford. Houston. Proc.N. Paper EUR 108. Metzger. R. McCardell.R. Mechanics of Secondary Oil Recovery. and Murray. 1421 . H .review of field development and performance to date. Paper EUR 97. Proc. Paper EUR 165. Wales (1980).P. 1311 Nichols. [44] Jordan. and Laffont. Paper SPE 12960. R. [35] Diehl. A review of the N.E. Dake. Texas (1974).reservoir engineering.E. Applied Petroleum Reservoir Engineering. Frigg.E. [30] Stewart. Proc. B. Oil GJ (13 May 1957). (1984). C. and Hawkins. [32] Kingston. K. Auk Lower Zechstein . [48] Smith. Proc. and Dimmock. Europ. Europ. Conf. Tech. Paper EUR 98. G. Conf.T.drainage mechanism model. Reinhold Pub. Proc. L. 133. Europ. J. Paper EUR 298.R. Conf. (1980). Injection rates the effect of mobility ratio. Off. Viking Graben.. Proc. r411 Steele. 217. 81. J.. B. Europ. J. Paper EUR 270. Off. [43] Robertson Research InternationalIERC Energy Resource Consultants Ltd The Brent Sand in the N. 207. J. [40] Simmons. Conf. Off. Paper EUR 231. [39] Hughes. F. R . Paper EUR 110. (19821. Proc. L. Conf. Development planning of the Brent field. Pet. M. (1978). Pet. 1190 r331 Marcum. P.future needs. J. 1nnovaGve engineering hakes Maureen development a reality. Conf.P. [29] van Rijswijk. (1978). R. 99. Europ. Pet. 1361 Dufond. Off. Europ.. installation and early operational experience. O"f" f . Proc. M.. Conf. (1978). Proc. Europ. [33] Gesink. A statistical study of recovery efficiency. [49] Sandrea. Proc. Paper EUR 166. Off.E . 397. et al.~ a w s b nA. 185.R. [47] Craft. Pet. L 2 > L 2 L 2 L J L 2 . L. T. Con5 (1982). Gulf Publ. 193 r281 Bishlawi. M. Off. Piper field . etal. Proc. ~ontrosk field management. Paper EUR 313.M. SPEJ (June 1961).R. Conf. (1982). Paper SPE 12973. 511. and Neilsen. ~ e v e l o ~ h eof t Beryl 'A' field. [32] Tyler. Pet. Pet. .H.P. [50] Poettmann. Off.F.51.11 SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE [27] Nadir. 9. Europ. Pet. R. Interstate Oil Compact Commission (1974). Proc. et al. 1985) 711. The Dunlin field . area swept and pattern. Pet.North Sea's Beryl field after seven years production. 1371 . Off. Europ. Paper EUR 331. North Sea offshore compression .K.341. Conf.J. JPT (April. Europ.A Sedimentological and Reservoir Engineering Study. and Westbv. Off. F. Alaska. and Whittingham. [46] Arps.M. G. Off. Paper EUR 152. N.F. Application of the repeat formation tester in vertical and horizontal pulse testing in the Middle Jurassic Brent sands. (1984). Thistle field development. JPT (June 1985) 1010. Dynamics of Petroleum Reservoirs under Gas Injection. W. J.A. [38] Tosdevin.H. RRIIERC. C. Secondary and Tertiary Oil Recovery Processes. Pet. Off. Analysis and treatment of formation damage at Prudhoe Bay.
W. I541 Tinker.643. Proc.190 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [51] Patton. Norman. JPT (Oct. Enick. SPEJ 24 (Dec. Con$ (Oct.A. Reservoir Engineering and Conformal Mapping of Oil and Gas Fields. and Panvelker. 1984.C. Pet. 1521 Reznick.E. Design and operating factors that affect waterflood performance in Michigan. B. 1983). Campbell Pet Series. An analytical extension of the DykestraParsons vert~calstratification discrete solution to a continuous realtime basis. 19841. North Sea development: historic costs and future trends. [55] Hurst. A. 227. Okl. C. R. G. SPE 12984. W. Europ. Pennwell.M.A. L 2 . Oilfield Water Systems. [53] Thomas. Tulsa (1979).. (1977). 19841.
capillary redistribution and residual oil saturation. there must be consideration of techniques to dered conventional recovery processes.) is used to represent the ratio 'a8 12. These tech. high pressure gas condensate limited in terms of design of the recovery mechan.Capillary number (N. well com. Any improvement to gas recovery is very less that 20" API). It can be argued 12. 12. Distinctions can be reservoir undergoing displacement.reservoirs. the distribution of residual oil in a reservoir is of particular significance.3. on the other hand. In addition to the potential for further recovery The recovery of light and medium gravity oils by displacement with gas and water. Measurement of residual The pore geometry of the system will particularly oil saturation in the field may be by logging influence capillary trapping of oil. however. appear to offer significant bon recovery and the bibliography and reference list potential for further reducing residual oil saturation at the end of the chapter should be used as an entry into the more detailed literature.p. and efficiency increase mainly involves accel. can be consi. [1. the possible terminology. core recovery with fluid control and by gravitational to capillary forces is represented by NB material balance. more so than the total oil volume.oil.2. The ratio of methods. In practice. The term residual oil implies nothing absolute about oil saturation and it is process and In a fully contacted region of a homogeneous oil reservoir property dependent. These techniques are discussed in the Bond number (= g'k (p.introduction to possibilities in improved hydrocarjects.2 THE INFLUENCE OF RECOVERY that infill drilling is an effective improved recovery MECHANISM IN RESIDUAL OIL process [831 as is increasing produced water handling facilities.reservoirs and volatile oil reservoirs.develop reservoirs which might not be developed by niques lead to gas recovery factors in the range conventional processes. and very low ism.1 TARGETS . For the literature and Fig.4 ll].Chapter 12 Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery mate potentially recoverable oil by improved processes.1 shows some data on has a value around comparative measurements.)/(+o cos 0)) which in normal waterfloods. Oil recovery pro. the competing made about microscale and macroscale definitions of forces of viscous flow.productivity (low permeabilitythickness) oil and gas eration of income through well location. and Table 12.1 shows some of gravity segregation will influence local oil saturation. This chapter is designed solely as an pletion and compression choice. and the recovery from reservoirs containing distributions of residual of relatively dry gases by expansion. Near wellbore residual systems modelled by core flood experiments. In this latter category we 7080% and oil recovery factors in the range may consider higher viscosity heavy oil (API gravity 2050%. gravity oil measurements may be influenced by stripping in forces have in general been neglected and a term the vicinity of an injection well and thus underesti.
. 12.5 standard deviattons from the average. Crossflow possibility. 2D areal system So from material balance.1 Residual oil saturation (So. The saturation of thts plug was more than 2. No indication of sweep. at less than 1 part oil 1000 in flowing effluent in core flood experiments. Saturation of core piug at 12. Could be changed in changed economic climate. Macroscale So from material balance. Usual to provide estimate of So. Approach to So. All systems .hole logs  CCI End point relative permeability ' This is a modified .918ft is omitted. Heterogeneity modification. 3D systems Core flood data only useful in discrete regions. viscosity ratio and core heterogeneity. 2D crosssection Sofrom material balance. Near wellbore So can be different from other regions. Solimits are attained at economically limiting oil rates or oil cut in produced fluids. Areal sweep assumed 100%.a TDTK with T D T . These conditions relate to well and gathering centre design capabilities to handle fluids. Practical. Use of pseudofunctions. from core floods in totally bounded system.1 Residual oil measurements by different techniques in the interval of a single well (after 13']). Need to validate if gravity effects important. Vertical sweep < 100%. So in contacted region contrasts with So in uncontacted regions. Core flood data may require modification in thick sections.flood out conditions Residual oil saturation (12910'12920') * LIL (TDTL)'  * Conventional core analysis" +  * L * Open . Core flood data may be applied in analysis.G electronics sourcedetector spacing of 6 0 c m . 100% sweep contact.and So) System 1D linear system Microscale So. Sofrom material balance generated from integration throughout system. Fig. depends on wettability.192 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 12. Readings are taking while stationary.
is the equilibrium average oil saturation remaining in equilibrium approach and economic factors. k the absolute processes and chemical processes. Improvement can be considered in terms of increased rate of oil production without increase in ultimate volume of recovery (an acceleration project) and in terms of increased total volume of recovery. Miscible displacement processes therefore systems suggests that the form of the relationship N.systems are then considered as heavy oils and high tive permeability. which may VPD approach spontaneous imbibition. and these factors together with effective permeability improvement cannot be changed sufficiently to give much change in So.2 Capillary number correlation. Low the core plug. In the limit. The reservoir heterogeneity and adsorparea of the core plug face. the saturation dependent rela. a number in the years 1935 to 1979. '. the most significant being o. A @ / L can be equivalenced to the group V p D . Their particular interest at present seems more considered equivalent to conventional field scale in the role of diverting agents where they may enter displacement mechanisms and covers several orders a floodedout high permeability region and divert of magnitude of displacement velocity at normal flood water into less permeable higher oil saturation field interfacial tension and wettability conditions. l '\ ' \ \ l l l l l l l l l ' l lo' N=YtLD ccar8 Fig. The flat. A t very lour displacement rates. portion of the figure is flow. cy will be controlled by reservoir heterogeneity. So.. 0 \ 1 o50\\ 025 0 oL '. present and future ['I1 has saturation is concentrated. Well productivity improvement can be most easily understood by reference to the semisteady state . interfacial tension (IFT) systems are another V is the apparent or superficial velocity of the approach to reducing residual oil saturation. The most frequently used form of the capillary number is that of Moore and Slobod (1956) 12. capillary forces N. The stability of surfactants at reservoir 0 is the upstream equilibrium contact angle. For practical purposes there is pressure gas condensates. The mechanisms for oil displacement using laboratory phenomena to field conditions. miscible where AWL is the potential gradient. z .12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 193 only a limited range of field operation for potential gradients and superficial velocity. Nonconventional permeability and k .. a is the interfacial tants) tend to lead to adverse economics in field scale tension between the displacing phase and the oil and applications. In this figure So. The tionable...*on modification of the summarized different formulations of the capillary terms. 12. is the initial uniform oil saturation. Well workover activities may be considered as acceleration projects while massive fracture projects may open up otherwise unrecoverable hydrocarbons..2. This topic focuses attention on the near wellbore region. and displacing phase and is equal to the constant several processes have worked well in laboratory volumetric flow rate divided by the crosssection conditions. appear very attractive. The general becomes zero as all fluids in a system become relationship for core plugs and bounded h e a r flow miscible. between viscous and cap~llary forces and its effect on oil saturation. The improved oil recovery mechanisms may Through Darcy's law for linear systems. The potential for reduction of residual oil enhanced oil recovery: past. = o cos 0 represented by ocose are dominant and may control Taber in a review paper entitled Research on So..3 PERMEABILITY IMPROVEMENT \ \ v. The same comments apply to high viscosity interpretation of these data in terms of conventional polymer fluids which could be added to displacing recovery and enhanced oil recovery potential water to increase the viscosity term in the capillary focuses on an extrapolation and scaling of the number. polymers are complex and involve nonNewtonian essentially constant So. regions. is as shown in Fig.. the group be considered for conventional oils under the generk k . al headings of permeability improvement. pD is the Newtonian tion of chemical agents inducing the IFT (surfacviscosity of the displacing phase. but in practice their efficienagainst So.. 12. Units conditions of temperature and salinity is also quesare generally Darcy units with a in dyneslcm.
then S will be positive. i. residual oil behind the displacement front may be stripped of light and intermediate fractions. The extension of the simple isotropic radial flow system under semisteady state conditions to stratified heterogeneous reservoir performance under transient flow control (particularly in low permeability reservoirs) introduces considerable analytical complexity. acidization and rate dependent sand particle flow. The analysis of permeability improvement in real heterogeneous reservoirs requires recognition of proper models for perforation. lean hydrocarbon gases or high pressure nonhydrocarbon gases such as COz. in this zone to the bulk formation permeability as follows (see Chapter 9): changes causing decrease in permeability. borehole rugosity. yo is the oil viscosity at reservoir conditions. The minimum miscibility pressure can be defined in such a diagram as the pressure at which the oil composition lies just to the right of the limiting tie line passing through the critical point. and if they are equal S will be zero. The phase behaviour for miscibility is indicated in Fig. The effect of hydraulically fracturing wells or acidizing them may be to make k. 12.4. whether on first contact or after multiple contacts. These models are not generally validated and productivity improvement tends to be assessed simplistically on economic criteria. P the volumetric weighted average reservoir pressure. perforating techniques. saturation PWf for S = negative 14 I + PWffor S = positive I well bore Fig. The effect on near wellbore pressure is shown on Fig. drilling fluids. completion fluid interaction with formation and formation fluids. costs of treatment versus incrementally assigned production increase. precipitation and destabilization of natural formation cements. mud cake invasion. Pwf the flowing bottomhole pressure at the sand face.e. 12.e.3 in terms of pressure drops across a skin zone compared with the zero skin case. where an extended vapour liquid tie line from the two phase region must not pass through the oil composition. > k and S then becomes negative. This mechanism is known as vaporizing gas drive. k . the relative permeability to oil at a saturation in the vicinity of the well. These factors are largely obvious and receive considerable attention in the literature. The resultant oil is of lower It is clear that when k > k. k the permeability of the bulk formation. reducing substantially the residual oil saturation.4 MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT MECHANISMS The displacement of oil by nonaqueous injection of hydrocarbon solvents.3 Pressure distribution around producing well. i. temperature and composition that are required for miscibility (i. NZor flue gases are generally described as miscible floods. Hawkins defined the relationship between the radius of the skin zone around a well and the permeability k. In Darcy units q. is influenced by many factors including drilling. The magnitude of AP. h is the average net thickness of the tested interval. re is the radial distance from the well to the external boundary of wellbore the system. injection fluid incompatibility including plugging. It is therefore clear that miscibility between lean gas and oil will occur at pressure P2 but not at pressure P I . The various conditions of pressure. Another mechanism called condensing gas drive involves the transfer of intermediate components from the displacing gas to the residual oil and results in a swollen residual oil. r. An important factor in most improved oil recovery processes is that of mass transfer between the displaced and displacing phases. 12.e. fracturing. In a multicontact system. . the elimination of an interface between residual oil and the displacing fluid). is the reservoir condition volumetric oil flow rate. 12.194 PET'ROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE radial flow equation for oil flow in an isotropic horizontal system. is the radius of the effectiv~ and S is the skin which causes an incremental pressure change in the real system compared with that of a system with bulk formation properties. are dealt with comprehensively in the literature.
These volume effects can be significant even when full miscibility is not attained. and under favourable pressure and temperature conditions there is a rapid approach to miscibility.2 for reservbir conditions of 4000 psia and 200°F. The oil bank formed by mobilization of previously residual oil may in many instances be of low oil saturation in the presence of the previous displacing fluid (i. 12. In an ideal process. The presence of additional compounds increases miscibility pressure. water). viscosity and has an increased oil permeability. so that the characteristics of the scheme can be defined and evaluated. Consequently. Heavy hydrocarbons are volatilized into the gas phase. Stability problems are likely to be the least with C 0 2 which will tend to be gravity stable. 12. with C 0 2 .80 0. Experience in the USA has indicated that LPG and NGL can be used in slygs in excess of 10% PV. Lean hydrocarbon has a relatively high miscibility pressure as measured from slim tube experiments. O2 and SO.4 Miscibility in a vaporizing gas process. Recent North Sea experience suggests that reinjected gas cushions at pressures below expected miscibility undergo significant mass transfer and approach a vaporizing gas drive process. discontinuous residual oil phase leads to the formation of an oil bank which may then itself scavenge residual oil as it moves through the formation. the conclusion is that projects must be started while cash flow from conventional operations exists.95 . In implementation of pilot projects in offshore fields. Rich hydrocarbon gases have found use in relatively low pressure environments in condensing gas drive mechanisms. although viscous instability may TABLE 12. Where the formation is contracted by the miscible solvent it is expected that oil recovery is complete. but the risk and expense in using them may not be enough to balance their immediate sale value. the swelling and mobilization of the disperse.50 0.2 Properties of miscible fluids Fluid or solvent Reservoir condition densitv 646 450 300 190 650 240 (40) (2530) (19) (12) (41 (14. or at least a very large capillary number.66 0.e. Heterogeneity and nonequilibria therefore lead to less than ideal recovery. Nitrogen has a higher miscibility pressure than C 0 2 or hydrocarbon fluids but is less effective. The more usual ones together with fluid vroverties are summarized in ~cble 12. the fractional flow of oil may be very low in early time.. Carbon dioxide has been shown experimentally to be superior to dry hydrocarbon gas in miscible displacements.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 195 c 7+ c26 Fig.771. Flue gas has been considered in miscible processes as it is predominantly nitrogen.6) Formation volume factor 267 Viscosity (cp) Light reservoir oil Liquefied petroleum gas Rich hydrocarbon gas Lean hydrocarbon gas Carbon dioxide Nitrogen  0.5 MISCIBLE FLOOD APPLICATIONS Displacement stability and the potential for gravity override must be considered in the evaluation of miscible schemes l9 j 27 31 32 34 36. Several fluids are potentially capable of attaining miscibility with residual oil. Trapping behind the oil bank is prevented by the existence there of miscible conditions.
.7. PSlA Fig. a degree of miscibility has been achieved with temporary gas reinjection in the Beryl field and into the Statfjord formations of the Brent and Statfjord fields. Wettability change alters both shape and endpoints of relative permeability curves and thus leads to improved fractional flow and reduced residual oil saturation in favourable conditions. Ideal reservoir candidates in a gravity stable miscible process should have steeply dipping beds of good permeability or else be high relief reservoirs with high vertical permeability.221 C . The fluid choice for miscible displacement projects in North Sea reservoirs is firstly with hydrocarbon gas and secondly consideration of the relative merits of C 0 2 and N2. Classic examples of field miscible schemes are the Weeks Island gravity stable C 0 2 displacement and the Golden Spike LPG flood.6 CHEMICAL FLOOD PROCESSES Chemical processes for oil displacement are dependent on changes in p. C 0 2 is soluble in formation water. 12. 12. although it appears that results are unpredictable. a. Nearly twice as much C 0 2 would be needed as N2 to occupy one reservoir barrel of pore space. cause concern and will accentuate effects of slug breakdown caused by heterogeneity. In addition. In the North Sea.5.15 17. is more corrosive than N2 and is more expensive to produce than N2. 0 and on the capillary number [12. as shown in Fig.5 Solubility of C 0 2 in water at 1OO"F (after [641).196 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Fresh water 100 000 ppm salt water 200 000 ppm salt water I iobo 2doo 30'00 40'00 50b0 6000 70'00 Pressure. Offshore generation of C 0 2 or N2 will require additional platform facilities which may render projects uneconomic. 12.8. austic solutions have been reported to change reservoir rockfluid wettability and generate in situ surfactants.
Biopolymers such as xanthan gums exhibit decreased viscosities at high flow rates and are known as shear thinning fluids.6 Thermal stability of polymer solutions (after ['21) Fig. . whereas targets of at least five years might be set. 100% brine to the left and 100% oil to the right. The thermal degradation of both polyacrylamide and xanthan solutions was essentially complete in a few hundred days. For application in high temperature. 12.6 shows the results of a test at 205°F on 0. an equilibP TY~e I1 100% Surfactont Point Aequilibrotes to oil and microemulsion 100% Brine 100% Type IT + looO/o Surfactant A Point A equilibrates to microemulsion and brine 100% Brine c a looO/o oi\ Type 100% Surfactant PointAequiIibrates to oil and microemulsion and brine 2 phase 0. The basic ingredients in a surfactant system are oil. in the swept zone.15% polymer solutions in 33 000 ppm TDS brine with dissolved oxygen less than 0. The particular interest in polymer solutions in stratified reservoir systems is in blocking high permeability depleted layers and allowing displacement in the lower permeability thickness layers.7 Surfactantbrine4 ternary diagrams.7) is in the form of equilibrium ternary diagrams with 100% surfactant concentration at the top. The usual representation (Fig. Depending on the overall composition. Surfactant processes concentrate on reduction of interfacial tension to increase capillary number and reduce So. particularly shaly sites. which decrease their effectiveness. The polymer solutions are in general nonNewtonian in behaviour. the thermal stability of polymer systems must be demonstrated. high salinity environments.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY Polymer applications are centred on thickening of injection water with water soluble polymers and either use as diverting agents or in the consequent improvement in mobility ratio and increased sweep efficiency [2022j. brine and surfactant (plus consurfactants such as alcohols). Although many real systems will be significantly more complex.1 1 1 0 100 1000 Days stored at 205' F + Fig. a pseudo threecomponent system can be used to represent phase behaviour at varying compositions. Most polymer systems considered for oil displacement are prone to adsorption on reservoir rock surfaces. Figure 12.02 ppm. The process becomes unattractive when significant crossflow between layers exists as the polymer solution may become ineffective some distance from the wellbore. 12. 12. Polyacrylamides tend to have increased viscosity at higher rates and are viscoelastic.
when B is salinity the balance point is known as optimal salinity. introduced into a reservoir in a saline aqueous phase.7 equilibrates with a middle microemulsion phase. Pope and Nelson [241 have demonstrated that. There are a number of parameters that. It is. Nelson and Pope rZ31 and Reed and Healy and is approximately equivalenced in Table 12. 12. the balance Oil I Brine I Fig. for a given surfactantoil system. the optimal point B. 12.8. two o r three phases are present. Salinity can sometimes be modified from high to low by preflush. The main options in surfactant flooding with preselected optimal surfactants are either (i) lower volume. The current North Sea interest is in low surfactant concentrations.3 Equivalent terminologies Winsor Type 1 Type II Type Ill Nelson and Pope Type IIType II+ Type Ill Reed and Healy Lower phase (microemulsion) Upper phase (microemulsion) Middle phase (microemulsion) rium can exist in which one.9 Shinoda diagram (after [''I). When B is temperature."] have demonstrated that the Type I11 condition corresponds to a hydrophiliclipophilic balance in the middle phase which will lead to maximum oil mobilization. The Type IIt system shown in Fig.7. Shinoda and others [12. balance var~able+ Fig. but this introduces the possibility of formation damage in clay sensitive sands. will alter the position of hydrophiliclipophilic balance.a threephase system at some location in the reservoir at some time. 1 Q p .9 shows a plot known as a Shinoda diagram in which the balance variable B is plotted against the fraction of total fluid (oil + brine + microemulsion) that is microemulsion. I1 indicates a twophase system and I11 a threephase system. The terminology of surfactant systemphase diagrams has developed through Winsor c8]. chased by a mobility control polymer. 12. As shown in Fig. 12.8 Equilibrium representation of phase distribution in a cell . for practical purposes. an upper excess oil phase and a lower excess brine phase. the Type 11. higher concentration surfactant slug. Figure 12. brine and surfactant.system equilibrates with a lower microemulsion phase and an upper excess oil phase and is characterized with the lines of negative slope in the twophase region. however. and known as a microemulsion. as illustrated in Fig. I I V . In multiphase environments a homogeneous phase containing oil. Under such conditions a singlephase system is unlikely with any practical surfactant. can form.198 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 12. 12.I'[ PIT.7 equilibrates with an upper microemulsion phase and a lower excess brine phase and has tie lines with a positive slope in the twophase region. or (ii) lower concentration surfactant in flood water without polymer chase. A Type I11 condition during chemical flood displacement may therefore be an important target in flood design. flood performance can be calculated as a number of equilibrium steps. Hydrophiliclipophilic balance microemulsion "C j 1 microemulsion 1 ! I fl ! Excess brine . The Type I11 system in Fig. point is called the phase inversion temperature . The onshore North American experience. Surfactants must therefore be formulated for performance at a PIT equivalent to the reservoir temperature.3 Following the Nelson and Pope nomenclature. The microemulsion can be considered in thermodynamic equilibrium with any other phase present in the system. 12. inevitable that during the passage of any chemical mixture between an injection location and a production location there will be changes in mixture composition and a continuous change in phase equilibrium. .
micellar polymer mainly using petroleum sulphonate surfactants and their derivatives.C3S03Na where (EO) represents an ethylene oxide group (CH2CH20). For low surfactant concentration in continuous seawater floods. ['I and has a formulation C. 12. With increasing salinity the phase system moves from Type I11 towards Type II+ and is analogous to the shift from Type 11. If adsorption is too great to give an economic flood then that surfactantlreservoir system should be rejected. A concentration target for the seawater additive system appears to be around 12%.0(EO).11 and reported for petroleum sulphonate systems. A potentially interesting group of oxyalkylated suplhanates with high temperature and high salinity tolerance has been identified by Mattax et al. [I5] and centre on the difficulties of offshore handling bulk chemical in volumes needed for higher concentration slugs. The circumstances leading to this route have recently been discussed by Grist et al. 12.through Type I11 to Type IIt shown in Fig. The adsorption of surfactant on the particular reservoir rock is considered sacrificial in these circumstances and although it can be quantified it probably cannot be changed much. It has been shown that minimum.10 Iz21.For offshore North Sea reservoirs the interest has focused on the low concentration synthetic surfactant additive to a seawater high volume flood. The philosophy adopted in the design of a low concentration surfactant flood involves development of a surfactant which exhibits Type IIIIII+ behaviour and stability at reservoir temperature and salinities and which has an acceptable adsorption character in the specific reservoir. can be manufactured with relatively narrow molecular weight distributions. as shown in Fig. low salinity might be around 6000 ppm TDS and high salinity around 120 000 TDS. Although there is no particular consensus in the .10 Chemical flooding. tends to be of the higher concentration slug type.I Fig. In core floods a comparison is made between recovery after waterflooding at reservoir temperature and recovery after surfactant flooding at reservoir temperature and at preferred concentration. although costly. the majority of effort at present is concentrated on surfactant chemical formulation to meet optimal condition. In this context. even though perhaps significant adsorption occurs around the hydrophiliclipophilic balance condition. 12. Preliminary surfactant interest can be assessed from ability to mobilize oil from a static residual column and is a precursor to laboratory core floods. Synthetic surfactants. These synthetic surfactant systems are designed to equilibrate in the Type 111 to Type II+ phase systems.
(d) dark colour. 12. Find surfactants having optimal salin~ty above and below resident brine salinity and check phase representations.1 Characterization of heavy oil crude A generalized 'lassification of considers an association of the following properties: (a) low API gravity less than 20". (c) poor reservoir mobility (k./y. Check adsorption characteristics in flow loop using surfactant compositron. heat change and adsorption Isotherm techniques.12 is based on vacuum distillation of the crude oil which results in a volatile component. Table 12.1 i 1 literature. A genera' tant reservoir system potential is shown in Table 12.7 HEAVY OIL RECOVERY 12. In the USA some 127 x . The 'Ombination l~ of phase equilibrium experiments and core flood experiments will allow calibration of a linear surfactant core flood simulator. This incidentally indicates that some preplanning is necessary if preserved core of in situ wettability is to be available. The crude oil composition as plotted on the ternary diagram can be used to distinguish thermally mature oils from weathered and biodegraded heavy oils. The core experiments to recovery potential will show an upper since residual oil saturations will be those of a c o m ~ l e t e swept 'One. The presentation shown in Fig.5 illustrates some characteristics of heavy crudes in the UK sector.4 The screening of potential surfactants for use in field operations Define reservoir sallnity and surfactant concentration range. Run pllot flood and retune s~mulator.1 Initiate short and long core flood tests at reservoir conditions and model results using compositional simulator. Y i i Blend surfactants at reservoir temperature using equal volumes of reservoir brine and crude oil.200 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 12. The residue is mixed with cold apentane which separates asphaltene from polar compounds. . (f) metal content (Ni.4. The majority of these oils are not heavy in a world wide characterization. (b) high viscosity at normal reservoir conditions (PO> 20 CP). of which several versions have been to assessing surfacdescribed. it is suggested that tests should eventually be conducted on reservoir zone core lengths up to 2 m. .).6 contrasts some selecteci examples of heavy oils from other parts of the world It is clear that some recognition of the characteristics of heavy oil crudes from around the world might be used to guide expected properties from heavy oils to be found in the UKCS. A method proposed by Yen has been used 1611 to distinguish the pseudoternary composition and origin of heavy oils. Select formulation so that oil solubility is largest at a given blend and concentration. Table 12. (e) sulphur content (> 3% weight).7. V. but are in offshore reservoirs difficult to develop for many reasons. Any particular heavy oil may have some of these properties and there is nothing absolute in any classification. Tune simulator parameters and pred~ct core flood outcome. =500 ppm). Design freld flood or next pilot. North Sea heavy crude oils are not very well documented. mainly hydrocarbons and a potresidue. Define phase equilibria for salin~ty scan. (g) asphaltene content (up to +50% weight). 12. key Run experiment for valldatlon. Use simulator to design pilot flood. 1 L .
lnvasiant point moves continuously from 100% brine point to 100% oil point as salinity increases.5 Characterist~cs UKCS heavy crude oils of Reservoir condition UKCS quadrant 2 3 9 14 16 206 Gravity ("A PI) 20. Texas USA.5 12 8 101 8 101 2 121 5 14 14 Estimated viscosity CPJ(rc) 80220 25 (25) 650 3700 6200 3000 100 000 801 00 4200 1600 . increases Hydrocarbons (volotiles) Fig. Texas USA.12 Yen classification. Yen classification based on vacuum distillation and npentane solubility of pot residue Invariant point moves continuously from 100°/o brine ~ o i nto 100% t oil point as solinit.6 Examples of heavy oil reservoirs Field Gela Ragusa Dur~ Darius Harbur Karatchok Bat1 Raman Tia Juana Jobo Lloydminster Cold Lake San Miguel Kern River Midway Sunset Country Italy Italy Sumatra Iran Oman Syria Turkey Venezuela Venezuela Canada Canada USA.5 TABLE 12.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY lOO0/0 Asphaltene . 12. TABLE 12.11 Effect of balance variables on phase distribution. 12. Californ~a 01 1gfavlty 81 3 19 20 1220 1823 1923 12. Fig. a.524 1115 1526 25 23 23 Temperature pF/ 120 115 120 175 130 135 Viscosity (CP) Reservoir Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone 81 4 1502750 (30) 4 5 3.
7. geometry.2 Properties of heavy oil reservoirs Many of the North Sea examples of heavy oil reservoirs are found in relatively young. the recovered core may be quick frozen and packed with Temperature. typically providing 7 m core lengths. Recovery factors from heavy oil reservoirs are not a good guide to their potential since they are production process dependent. Figure 12. These data from a mature exploration area show that heavy oil is widespread geographically and that volumes in place approach that of conventional oil. deg F Fig.202 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 12. Table 12. reservoirs and depths might also serve as some kind of guide to expectations. Friable and unconsolidated sands can exhibit high pore volume compressibilities in comparison with the often used literature values of Hall around 2 x lo6 psi1. The interpretation of porosity from . water depth and subsea depth. and the figures are given in Table 12.13 Relationship between kinematic viscosity and temperature solid C 0 2 for transportation to a laboratory.7 Heavy oil resource distribution in USA Heavy oil as percentage of all crude (STOIIP) Heavy oil production as percentage of all crude (annual) . 50% 8% 48% 52% 20% 35 % 45 % Heavy oil gravity: 2025"API less than 20" API Heavy oil reservoir depths less than 500 m between 5001 000 m more than 1000 m Heavy oil reservoir lithology limestone reservoirs sandstone reservoirs more than 3 m thick and shallower than 1000 metres lo9 STB of heavy crude oil in place has been identified [611. 12.8 illustrates some pore volume compressibilities in reservoir rocks having porosities greater than 20%. Reservoir rock and fluid properties are often difficult to obtain as coring can be unsuccessful and the fluids may not flow to surface. In the North Sea the heavy oil reservoir potential is linked through economic considerations to reservoir size.13 shows the form of relationship between oil viscosity at surface and reservoir temperature conditions for different gravity oils. Cores may be more successfully obtained from friable sands using rubber sleeved or fibre glassed core barrels. The reconstituted samples may not reflect in situ reservoir stresses when used in conventional processes for measuring porosity and saturation. as well as reservoir rock and fluid properties. At surface. The pore volume compressibility is important in correlating core and log data at the same in situ stress condition. This figure excludes tar sands and is similar to the volume of medium and light oil historically identified. The US experience in distribution of heavy oil in terms of gravity. Oil viscosity at reservoir conditions may be roughly estimated from dead oil viscosity where the oil is relatively gas free. 12OAPI crude oil 12. The tables show us nothing of the reservoir sizes and only suggest that production from heavy oil reservoirs is disproportionately small.7. friable sandstones of Palaeocene and Eocene age. '.
the relative permeability to oil and po the oil viscosity.p. however. Oil viscosity (cp) Fig.14 shows a density log response in an Eocene heavy oil reservoir from the North Sea [jq. which at some 7) given reservoir pressure (P).30 0.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 203 TABLE 12.14 Porosity interpretation from FDC log in North Sea heavy oil well. . In the relationship for PI the particular effect of variation in viscosity is shown in Fig. Eocene Fig. Using a mud filtrate density rather than an oil density in the porosity calculation leads to an overestimation by 3 porosity percentage units. and the density of fluid in the interpreted zone is best represented by that of the heavy oil. 12. c = porosity and Boi = initial oil formation volume $ factor.21 0.4 x lo6 6. be recognized that mud filtrate invasion and oil displacement is likely to be very low.8 x 14. However.T semisteady state radial flow productivity index is dramatic. It should.3 Production characteristics of heavy oil reservoirs Porosity distribution and oil saturation are required for determination of hydrocarbon in place for a heavy oil reservoir.15.A ~ N STOIIP = =(So cp) DOL Formation density RHOB (g/cc) where A = area. = saturation..345 0. it is flow properties that determine performance.e.T where k is the formation permeability. k.7. Gamma ray API units 12.P.30 0.. EN = net thickness. Figure 12.75 x 3. 3. temperature ( 'and saturation (S) may be written as [kkro/po]s. 12.25 0. 12.15 Effect of oil viscosity on PI.39 Pore volume compressibility (psi') 1.33 0.0 x 10. on The effect of the term [kkrol~o]S.8 Reservoir rock Pore volume compressibility of reservoir rocks Surface porosity (Frac) 0. i.5 x lo4 3. The key parameter in the flow of heavy oil in a reservoir is the mobility.8 x low6 5.5 x lo4 > 20 x lo6 Oilfield sands (Hall) Frio sand Berea sand Weakly cemented sand Athabasca sand Ottawa sand (c109) North Sea Chalk formation density logs and their derivatives has been reasonably successful in openhole conditions.
17. . These changes are observed empirically with particular reservoir rocks and may be partly controlled by pore filling minerals. Uncertainties are attached to the description of induced fractures and acidized permeability and the proper representation of dual porositylpermeability .o not well 0. From a design standpoint. 12.kr.8 THERMAL ENERGY The introduction of thermal energy into a heavy oil reservoir should result in improvement in productivity.8 Water saturation (frac PV) / / Noteffect solely always n . In fracturing and acidization of reservoir rock. drive and a variety of combustion processes from Productivity = Po forward to reverse and from air to oxygen with and Increase in permeability may be achievable through without water injection (see Figs. Relative permeability improvement relates to wettability change as well as to changes in irreducible saturations. The economics of a particular process can be Improvement in the productivity of heavy oil assessed in terms of an energy balance as cost of reservoirs can be considered through modification of total energy as compared with value of the product after operating costs and taxes. proppants and rock strength.the volume of the heated zone and the mechanisms Fig. Thermal injection the terms in the following relationship: processes include steam soak. 12. 12. steam drive.17 Effect of temperature on relative permeability. 12.16 Effect of heavy oil viscosity on fractional flow of water. 1 . Temperature change. particular consideration must be paid to rock debris flow.204 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE This illustrates one of the reasons why thermal expansion of oil and reduction in viscosity by the addition of thermal energy is attractive for heavy oil systems.' of temperature Fig. 12. 12.16. Introduction of carbon dioxide in a heavy oil reservoir can also lead to viscosity reduction of the oil in some circumstances.20). consideration must be given to reservoir lithology and heterogeneity obviously in. The effect of the ratio between oil viscosity and water viscosity on fractional flow of water in horizontal homogenous reservoirs can also be illustrated as in Fig. hot water k .1812. may shift relative permeability curves as shown in Fig. as well as introduction of chemicals such as caustic solutions. The time changing magnitude of improvement as saturation and pressures change is important in the economic assessment of improvement. The all these processes. m m + Oil Relative permeability relationship fluences the nature of any improvement in permeability. The mechanisms of relative permeability change are not well understood and are not capable of being incorporated directly in productivity design.
18 Cyclic steam simulation. 12.19 Steam flooding.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 205 SOAK (shutin phase) fi days HUFF (injection phase) days to weeks PUFF (production phase) weeks to months Fig. Stack gas scrubber  Fig. . 12.
In order to solve equations for heated zone volume. In processes typically considered for thermal stimulation of heavy oil reservoirs. heterogeneity and geometry will influence well spacing and heat transfer.206 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE ~ Fig. combustion gases. For deep reservoirs steam may not condense.20 Insitu combustion.9. oil.21 as 3206. For details of the various processes and explanation of mechanisms there is a wealth of current literature [2. particularly steam. 12. capillary pressure and PVT properties. The critical point for steam is shown in Fig. Typical data required in calculations of thermal processes are shown in Table 12. Steam properties indicate that superheat at elevated reservoir pressures and temperatures is not proportionately beneficial.e.2 psia and 705. Steam override mechanisms have been the subject of laboratory investigations and results support the current interest in application of horizontal well technology. Appreciable latent heat release is not achieved at pressures greater than 2200 psi. 12. of heat transfer which result in productivity improvement. It is clear also that reservoir structure. .42613621. pressure and saturation dependent empirical relationships for relative permeability. equivalent to a depth of some 5000 ft SS in a normally pressured reservoir. Some of these data can be obtained quite satisfactorily from correlations and others require specific determination for a given reservoir fluidrock system.3. will be important. Data requirements include thermal properties of rocks and reservoir fluids together with temperature. water) play an important role in displacement efficiency. The volume of a heated zone in a reservoir. thermal conductivity (A) and thermal diffusivity (D = hlCp) are applied to the reservoir and the rocks overlying and underlying the reservoir.4"F. The characterization of reservoir transmissibility and continuity is probably a greater uncertainty than any error in fluid and rock properties introduced by use of literature correlations. can be represented for consideration of thermal properties in the following form: Vrh= Complex function ' Recoverable [latent heat conductivity ] Thermal [diffusivity ] [%city] [Time] ' I Temperature gradient injector . gravity override of hot gases. steam. designated V r . Steam properties will also be important. consideration of full threedimensional geometry is important as fluid density differences (i.producer The heat capacity (C) is applied to reservoir rocks and fluids.
1 6 Btulftday°F mD psi' fraction 21 Btu!ft3"F 15.4OF) I Temperature Fig.A0 ' ' 0 / point ( 3206.4 M J / K ~ 96. 12.00073 Pa' 0. Thermal conductivity Permeability Pore volume compressibility Porosity Source Measured Calculated Measured Measured Measured (fn 7) \ Sl units 912.n 12.  .00029"F' 0.963 kJikgK 5 mPa at 373 K kgim3 Pa' kJikgK kJikg 1. Heat capacity Viscosity Density Compressibility Heat capacity Latent heat Heat capacity .3 kJ/mdayK Field units 23.469 Btu/lb°F 5 cp at 212°F Ib!ft3 psi' Btu/lb°F Btuilb 25. It can be seen that if the reservoir temperature of the gas phase mixture is above critical and below the Liqud Gas 0 400 300 : 40 80 120 160 l I I I I I I I I I 200 I I Critical Pressure ( b a r ) // / / .2 psia and 705.22 for a constant composition system.) Correlation (Lit.5 Btulftday"F psi 6 Water and steam Reservoir rock Steam tables Correlation (Lit.) Measured Measured Measured Correlation (Lit. 12.00052 K' 1.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 207 TABLE 12.) Correlation (Lit. thermal expan. Fig.7 kg/m3 0.5" API 5x psi' 0.) Measured Measured Measured Measured Measured Overburden Heat capacity and underburden Thermal conductivity Oilwater Gasliquid Relative permeability Capillary pressure Relative permeability Capillary pressure Solubility Pa Pa m3/m3 psi SCFISTB  (P.9 GAS CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS A pressuretemperature phase envelope of a hydrocarbon mixture known as a gas condensate is shown in Fig.3 Btu/ft3"F 38.21 Properties of steam.7 MJ/m3 K 238 kJ/mdayK pm2 Pa' fraction ~ 1.22 Gas condensate phase diagram.9 Example data requirementsfor steamdrive analysis Typical value or units System Oil Propefly Density (21"C) Compressibility Coef. 12.
84 7.84573 The K. Relative permeability behaviour of condensate systems are also the subject of considerable uncertainty.2 psig 226. S content C7+0.56 4. 12. The magnitude and location in the reservoir of liquid drop out from a condensate reservoir undergoing pressure depletion i~ vital to the design of a produotion scheme.04 0.1 40 lblft 705 580 Iblday Mole % 0.7802 Avg. the liquid content of the mixture may increase and then decrease in a phenomenon known as retrograde condensation. Sampling gas condensate reservoirs is notoriously difficult because of proximity to critical conditions and retrograde behaviour..55 3. The nonequilibrium conditions occurring around a wellbore might invalidate such a calculation. It might be predicted from radial flow pressure drop and constant volume depletion data where liquid drop out might occur [66j.16 2.49 0. fraction is significantly different from black oils.95 0. and recombined surface separator samples in these particular conditions are often preferred. In addition the API gravity of resultant stock tank oil is likely to be greater than 45" and producing gasoil ratios are often in excess of 3000 SCFISTB.23. Liquid drop out character during isothermal constant volume expansion is shown for three samples with different single stage separator gasoil ratios in Fig.37 4.90 for a black oil using the relationship between liquid specific gravity (y) and molecular weight (M) as follows: K W = 4.208 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE cricondentherm then.6 IbiBBL 232440 Iblday Mole % 0.52 0. mol.5579 ~0 '5178 4 8 4 5 7 3 B + . The mechanisms of liquid drop out and its effect on hydrocarbon recovery and well productivity are not yet fully understood.36 10.09 83. 4. Relative permeability and oil trapping phenomena will play a large part in well productivity.63 3.30 54. and validation depends as much as anything on representation of the well stream fluid in sampling. wt.49 4. Figure 12.59 2.97 Specific gravity C7+ 0. The stock tank liquid is often very pale yellow in colour and the Watson characterization factor (K.10 shows an example of a separator gas and liquid composition from a condensate reservoir.12 Gas gravity = 0.7 psi 2.) of the C. The numerical modelling of gas condensate reservoir systems is limited by proper representation of flow physics and thermodynamic behaviour in addition to normal reservoir description.40 0. Bottomhole sampling may frequently fail to represent total reservoir fluid. Condensate PVT properties require matching with equations of state.01 0.57 1.5579 M (0 15178) Y 0. factor can be used to check if liquid samples are indeed characteristic of the condensate.6" F 707.4 Avg.1 0 Condensate analysis (after Oil flow rate 525 BOPD Gas flow rate 13475MSCFD Natural gas analysis 146°F 664. is around 12 for a condensate system and 11. during isothermal pressure reduction.03% wt K C7+from: .6942 H2S 10 ppm Oil analysis Separator temperature Separator pressure Flowing density Mass flow Nitrogen Carbon dioxide Methane Ethane Propane Isobutane nbutane Isopentane npentane Hexanes Heptanes 157.24 shows schematically a liquid saturation and pressure profile in radial flow towards a wellbore of radius r. A typical K.36 0. C7+ 143. Table 12.63 13. TABLE 12. For more detail the reader is referred to the current literature. This behaviour is characteristic of a gas condensate..
.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY GOR = 5 0 0 0 SCF/STB (s~ngle stage) 30a & a C GOR = 7 0 0 0 SCF/STB 20 2 + e C 0 g . pressure P\'! ... 1 I i The water drive mechanism may be appropriate for high pressure reservoirs where dry gas compression and reinjection could be costly ..... (b) pressure depletion with dry gas recycling.a +/. . .23 Liquid content during isothermal constant volume expansion of some condensates..*" \\ ..' \ \ ..._I 1 0  0 G O R = 3 0 0 0 0 SCF/STB 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Pressure (psia) Fig. (c) partial or full pressure maintenance by water drive.".. *' Wellbore influence On Compositional transport rw r Fig.24 Pressure and saturation profiles... 12.this would be particularly true in offshore development of deep reservoirs.' ' . n f kevaporisation mechanisms~. I / Production methods for gas condensate reservoirs include [37]: (a) pressure depletion.." .. Nonequilibrium &liquid drop out '\end kr effects ..... Partial pressure maintenance in gas condensate @/..... ___ Liquid saturation ccC Max saturation according to Constant volume depletion t J 0) .a"\\ ' ... 12... ... *A /' ............
7) can be used to derive a value for Z at datum.02829 z (T+460) B gz.7 psia. and gravity override may occur at quite low rates. where A is the effective hydrocarbon reservoir area in ft3. one of the significant uncertainties is trapped gas saturation at high pressure and the effects of pore geometry.). The determination of the dry gas and oil in place equivalent to the wet condensate volume can be estimated as follows. consid . and ultimate recovery can be judged from laboratory simulation of a constant volume depletion using a valid fluid sample.4 1 Similarly. the weight of oil and gas produced at stock tank conditions for each 1 STB liquid is W as follows: (Ry.12 indicates that liquid recovery is quite poor. A design drawback to the recovery process is viscous instability which is accentuated by reservoir heterogeneity. h. =molecular weight of liquid (estimate from Mo = 44. i. gas gravity (relative to air = 1). the displacement will then tend to be unstable in terms of Dietz criteria (Chapter 7).615 x 62. From PVT laboratory data the following information is available: For each 1 STB of liquid produced the number of moles (n) produced is therefore The molecular weight of the reservoir condition fluid (MW). at initial datum conditions. if reliability is placed in the compositional data. Recovery calculations must. At low rates it is possible that some trapped gas could be recovered during blowdown. In consideration of processes involving water drive in gas condensate systems. 4. is the effective hydrocarbon net thickness. and that water has a density of 62. however.7) or by use of Kay's rule. is therefore The critical properties of the gas condensate can then be obtained from the pseudocritical property chart (see Fig..) (28. the oil content at stock tank conditions is given by + Table 12. At the pseudoreduced temperature and pressure in the reservoir the Standing and Katz chart (Fig. The gas condensate formation volume factor B.SCF Dry gas volume = V.. $ is the volume weighted average porosity and S. although the mechanism would be a complicated threephase process.4 ft3 at 60°F and 14.4 x p) 379.03p]. . It is this result that focuses interest in dry gas recycling and pressure maintenancelwaterdrive projects.11 shows the type of information available from a laboratory constant volume depletion and Table 12. the average saturation of gas condensate in the hydrocarbon region. 4. = RCFISCF P The reservoir hydrocarbon pore volume estimated volumetrically is related to the standard condition volume Vsc as   R p yg Mo = = = total gasoil ratio of the system (scflstb).97) W = (5. as well as a greater density.. Pressure depletion alone would result in unacceptable recovery factors in most instances. can therefore be estimated from The reservoir condition gas condensate gravity (y. capillary number and Bond number on its magnitude.3p1[1. is thus 0.e. Gas recycling is a miscible recovery process with mass transfer between advancing dry gas and wet gas in the pore space. After contact of all wet gas and recovery of liquids at surface conditions. The performance prediction of a gas condensate using the laboratory PVT data assumes that liquid saturation remains below some critical value and is thus immobile. P (psia) and T ( O F ) . the reservoir should contain a singlephase leaner gas which is itself recoverable by pressure depletion or blowdown as if it were a dry gas reservoir. liquid density (g/cm3). ["13:9'4 Assuming that one pound mole of gas occupies a volume of 379. At separator conditions the dry gas is that fraction of the total moles of reservoir fluid that are gas.210 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE reservoirs is conducted with the aim of keeping pressure above dewpoint. Since wet gas might have a significantly greater viscosity at reservoir conditions than dry gas.4 1blft3 at the same condition.
7568 C5+ plant recovery (gall/gall) 0 0.10 VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIRS Above bubblepoint pressure a volatile oil reservoir can be treated as a black oil system.0727 0.1074 0.1288 Primary separator gas recovery (SCFISCF) 0 0.0445 0. C4 564 gallons1MMSCF original fluid C5+ 5416 gallonsiMMSCF original fiuid Reservoir fluid initially at 5750 psig TABLE 12.1610 0.12 Recovery of fluids by depletion Pressure (psi) Original fluid recovery (SCF/SCF) 0 0.1289 Second stage liquid recovery (SSBBL/SSBBL) 0 0.1 195 0.1079 0.47 MSCFIMMSCF original fluid Total plant products in wellstream fluid C 878 gallonsIMMSCF original fluid .2450 .26 MSCFIMMSCF original fluid C3: 10.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 21 1 er the effects of reservoir heterogeneities and constraints imposed by wellbore conditions and processing equipment.2157 0. Compositional I' approaches to reservoir calculations are used ' [ and equilibrium constants (kvalues) are required to predict molar relationships between phases.0847 0.0851 0.5434 0.5821 0.2052 0.0746 0. Equations of state may be used to calculate the behaviour of the original fluid composition during production.3 gallonsIMMSCF original fluid Stock tank fluid Liquid Gas 0 psig and 60°F 102.1 gallonsIMMSCF original fluid C5+:6.7040 Stock tank liquid recovery (STB/STB) 0 0. Below bubblepoint. TABLE 12.64 STBIMMSCF original fluid 5.0446 0.3720 0.14 BBLIMMSCF original fluid 8. These equations of state often require tuning of coefficients using PVT data.1203 0. Economic considerations are particularly important in evaluation of gas condensate potential. oil and gas mobility and reservoir heterogeneity control performance.6 gallonsIMMSCF original fluid C4:5.87 MSCFIMMSCF original fluid C3: 814 galionsiMMSCF original fluid C 489 gallonslMMSCF original fluid .2051 0. 12.1 093 0.11 Constant volume depletion data: example system Distribution of original fluid between separation stages Primary separation at 500 psig and 220°F Gas Gas products 912.0502 0. : C5+:997 gallonsIMMSCF original fluid Second stage separation at 100 psig and 120°F Liquid Gas Gas products 109.3958 0.
It has only a single.25 q. 77% oil? (c) What weight of surfactant must be added to 100 g of 20% oil in brine mixture to make it just single phase? What is the composition of this final mixture? (d) What is the composition of the mixture when 150 g of a solution containing 10% oil.. Example 12. Estimate the composition of the plait (critical) point.. For five spot patterns assume the Darcy flow veIocity can be approximated by 1. with oilbrinesurfactant being the components. and can be represented as 130 mD.64 g/cm3 and 0. The oil density and viscosity at reservoir conditions are 0.75. The sand is 60 ft thick and has a permeability to oil at reservoir temperature of 1000 mD. The viscosity of the injected gas is 0.. The reservoir condition densities of gas and oil are 0. Surfactant Ol i Surfactant Ol i (a) Plot the data and construct the phase envelope.1 (see Appendix 1 ) estimate the breakthrough 1 sweepout efficiency and the dominant flow regime in the following displacements. Assume that the permeability of the reservoir is isotropic.5 ft..5 cp.(T.v(T. The reservoirs have not been waterflooded previously..4 and 0.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Examples Example 12..)) = 355 Btullb m Latent heat of vaporization at Ts. carbon dioxide is being injected at 1000 RBld. Other thermal data may be assumed as follows: Enthalpy of liquid water at T.Ihl in field units and the viscous gravity force ratio is given by 2050yUL/(khAp).. (b) On a five spot pattern with L = 2000 ft and thickness 50 ft.2 A simple surfactant system has been discovered. The following phase equilibrium data have been obtained for the twophase part of the system.. (h. (a) On a five spot pattern with L = 1500 ft and thickness h = 70 ft 9 gas is being injected at 4000 RBld.and a twophase region and can be represented on a ternary diagram. 40% surfactant? (e) What is the composition of the resulting phases when 100 g of a solution composed of 12% surfactant 5% oil is added to 100 g solution composed of 20% surfactant. 717% oil? Example 12. 40% surfactant is added to 150 g of a solution 50% oil.)) = 69 Btullb m Enthalpy of liquid water at TS.75 g/cm3 and 0. Assume that the horizontal permeability is represented as 3 mD and the vertical permeability by 1mD. The density and viscosity of C 0 2 at reservoir conditions are taken as 0.02 cp and the oil viscosity is 0.055 cp. The wellbore radius is 0. (b) What is the composition and weight fraction for the equilibrium separated phases for 200 g mixture of total composition 4% surfactant.36 cp.8 glcm".3 Contrast development by steam stimulationlinjection and conventional water injection on a 9 acre fivespot pattern of a reservoir sand containing 150 cp oil at the reservoir temperature of 100°F. Assume the steam is injected at a bottom hole temperature at 380°F with a quality ratio (fsdh) of 0. A is in equilibrium with B. (Lvdh) 845 Btuilb rn = . The compositions are in weight percent.1 Using the Stalkup relationships shown in Figure A12. (h.
L': is related to the well spacing in acresipattern. H. Steam injection should be planned until the steam zone occupies 50% of the pattern volume. M. is the reservoir condition oil viscosity (cp) h is the reservoir thickness (ft) FG is the pattern geometric factor. Graham and Trotman. Dallas (1983).) . London (1980). IFP Publications.) Secondary and Tertzary Oil Recovery Processes. [4] van Poollen.C. Engr.O t~ F Thermal diffusivity of surrounding rocks (a. Fundamentals of Enhanced Oil Recovery. (1984).O. qinjis the injection (or production) rate in rbld p. Interstate Oil Compact Commission (1978). (Ed. Pet. Penwell Books. The minimum flowing bottom hole pressure permitted in the shallow reservoir is 200 psi and the maximum bottom hole injection pressure is 900 psi. F. Miscible Displacement. . steady state flow resistance for injectivity and productivity is considered The equal and can be represented by where AP is the pressure difference at bottom hole flowing conditions between injectors and producers (psi). [6] Stalkup.2" API Separator gas gravity (re1 air) = 0. (Ed. Academic Press (1977).) Surface Phenomena zn Enhanced 011 Recovery. by the relationship L ' = 208.)= 0. F. Carbon Dioxide Flooding. Oil recovery by miscible displacement.) = 45 ~ t u i f. [2] Poettman.75 f t 2 i ~ a y In the five spot pattern the side distance.I.96401 For a steam heated injector and a cyclic steam stimulated producer assume that the flow resistance compared to nonsteam injection reduces by a factor of 5.O. [8] Shah. Cong.4 Determine the dry gas volume and liquid volume at standard conditions for a gas condensate reservoir with the following characteristics: Net thickness = 300 ft Effective radius = 3 miles Average porosity = 18% Average connate water saturation = 25% Reservoir temperature at datum = 210°F Reservoir pressure at datum = 4500 psi Separator liquid gravity = 57. SPE Monograph No 8. [3] Latil. A . Enhanced Oil Recovery.71 ( A ) ' . R.I. D.H. 1 Example 12. [5] Klins. Tulsa (1980).0. for times between 1and 2.58 Total gasoil ratio = 5000 scflstb References [I] Bond. Boston. Proc. Oklahoma. London (1983).A. N Y (1981).12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY Heat capacity of reservoir (MR) = 35 ~ t u i f.) i Determination o f Residual Oil Saturation. which for the five spot is 2 [ln(L'/r. ~ . and Schechter. D. Interstate Oil Compact Commission (1974). (Eds) Improved Ozl Recovery by Surfactant and Polymer Flooding. D. Soc. M.K. (Ed. IHRDC. R. [7] Shah. 11th World Pet. RTD 2 (1).L.. Oklahoma.S. and Stalkup. M. [9] Katz."F t~ Heat capacity of surrounding rocks (M.5 years from the start of injection. Plenum Press.
Con. Modelling of a miscellarlpolymer process.. van der Burgh. T. and Ypma.A. JPT (Feb. SPEJ (1984). Determining swept zone residual oil saturation in a slightly consolidated Gulf Coast sandstone reservoir. F. [30] Thomas. J. W. S. and Bolland. and Ausburn. l l t h World Pet. 2nd Europ. Design concepts of a heavyoil recovery process by an immiscible C 0 2 application. SPEJ 24 (1984). 1261 Coulter. 2 phase mathematical model of oil recovery with surfactant systems. In Developments in Petroleum EngineeringI. [18] Macadam. [23] Nelson. J.214 2 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 1101 Thomas. SREA. G.H. J. past.D.J. Proc. RTD 2 (4). Soc. 16th Ann. Symp.. [31] Chase. [24] Pope. H. Plenum Pub. R. R. Proc. 1131 Putz. C.J.. JPT (Feb. Pet. G. 1984). Effective diversion during matrix acidisation of water injection wells. The efficiency of enhanced oil recovery techniques: a review of significant field tests.O. R. London (1983). [21] Taber. M. Thermal properties of resen70ir rocks and fluids. and Archer? J. l l t h World Pet. 1. Hill. .J. IP 84008 reprinted from Petroleum Review (July 1984). J. Off. B. SPEJ (1984). Robets.. and Stahl. 1985).M. D. and Pope. 606.. Proc.on Improved Oil Recovery.A. and Foulser.C.M. V. C.H. (Ed. 13. London (1983). 1171 Archer. Effect of C7+properties on equation of state predictions. 1985). R.R.A.E.. 18 (5). Proc. SPEJ24 (1984). Proc. Proc. 325. 593. Proc. P.P. Aberdeeil (Nov. B. Cong. Cong. London (1983). Polymer flooding calculations for highly stratified Brent sands in the North Sea.O.C.R.D.G. and ElArabi The displacement of crude oil by C 0 2 and N2 in gravity stabilised systems. 275. Pet. W. OTC. [14] Kuuskraa.S. Enhanced oil recovery in the North Sea. SPE 12999.A. G. 1161 Passmore. L. l l t h World Pet. Numerical simulation of COPflood performance. NY (1981). R. Proc. Washington. T.D. 867. Effect of capillary number and its constituents on two phase relative permeability curves. Soc. 339. Surfactants and polymers .G. and Simandoux: P. North Sea stimulation logistics and requirements. 513. SPEJ 18 (1979). Fleming. R. Research on EOR. Summary of recent French work on surfactant injection.C.W. K. London (1983). and Winter.E. J.J.C.S. D. R. R. V. 685. and Wells. Offshore Enhanced Oil Recovery. J. 1281 Whitsoh. 40. [34] Reitzel. A ternary. EOR. [19] Cooper. Shah). et al. J. C. Blackwell.f. Lambrid. on Enhanced Oil Recovery.G.. A . andNelson. RP13..S. JPT (April 1979).. JPT (July 1977). E. Recent advances in surfactant flooding. NPC Report (June 1984). In Surface Phenomena in EOR (Ed. Eng. P. Bournemouth (1981).state of the art. [22] Shah. G. Cong. JPT (June 1972). [32] Kantar. C. Pet. The advantage of high proppant concentration in fracture simulation. London 1984. (1978). E. 1st Europ.H. Houston (1984). Fundamental aspects of surfactant polymer flooding processes. G. 1201 Sorbie. and Tomich. 597. Engr. Conf. and Kirkwood. K. Symp. and Todd: M. A chemical flooding compositional simulator.P. [I51 Grist. Oyekan. 617. and Caudle. and Stosor. RTD (3). . J.M.W. Hammershaimb. 249. and Callow. Bosio. [33] Fulscher. 643. Paris (1982). [ l l ] Bath. present and future. 1291 Bang. Europ.A. SPEJ24 (1984). ATD 2 (2). C. J.A. Dawe and Wilson): Elsevier: Amsterdam (1985). OTC 4795. 1121 Mattax. 1271 Doscher.C. Ertekin. Cong. [25] National Petroleum Council Enhanced Oil Recovery. Pool description and performance analysis leads to understanding Golden Spike's miscible flood. J.F. Proc. Phase relationships in chemical flooding. 11th World Pet.
and Dawe. R.J. Three dimensional numerical simulation of steam injection. A caustic waterflooding process for heavy oils. Control of numerical dispersion in compositional simulation. 81. EOR Bournemouth (1981). and McCafferty. Dalen. 219. EOR (1982). A. Soc. C. J.C. C. Symp. 1st Europ. and Fishman: D. [36] Perry. C. T. Eng. Mobilisation of residual oil under equilibrium and non equilibrium conditions. 1st Europ. Weeks Island 'S' sand reservoir B gravity stable miscible C 0 2 displacement. Effects of impurities on minimum miscibility pressures and minimum enrichment levels for C 0 2 and rich gas displacements. P. E.M. [41] Schechter. JPT (Nov. Proc. D. D O E Symp. JPT (Dec. Lam.C. Proc.R. and Firoozabadi. 56th Ann. E. 179. Con$ London (19821. and Langley.K. Symp. EOR.S. and Casinader. Soc. [42] Mahers. (1981). I E A Workshop on EOR. Wheat. SPEJ (April 1982). 1974). Vienna (Aug. SPE 10198. Pet. Braun.L. > L A . [48] Koval. JPT (Feb. Laboratory C 0 2 floods and their computer simulation. R.. J. JPT (Dec.G. Pet. (Oct. 3 (1979). EOR.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 215 i I I I 1 I1 1 I I [35] Kidwell. 5th Ann. EUR 329. Proc. B. Symp. T. Tech. Symp.J. 10th World Pet. 1973). Johnson. A recipe for residual oil saturation determination.C. H. 175. 367. [54] Risnes. [57] Brown. Complete modelling of EOR processes. EOR Bournemouth (1981). 1982): 2746. flooding strategy in a communicating layered reservoir.. Fall Mtg. CO. E . de The use of slim tube displacement experiments in the assessment of miscible gas projects. Proc. 243. D.H. Europ. [38] Sigmund.G. Europ. Eng. and Perkins. C.. Europ. R. [53] Lemonnier.F. F. G. P. R.M. 1983). The adverse effects of heterogeneities on chemical slugs in EOR. Downhole steam generation using a pulsed burner. Symp.. Role of capillary forces in determining microscopic displacement efficiency for oil recovery by waterflooding. [55] Sayegh. Proc.L..Can. Pet.E.C. 467. C. [47] Claridge. 145. Proc. r391 Katz. Europ. A. and Brandner. SPEJ (June 1963). and Pusch. and McAuliffe. P.M. E. and Kidwell. P. J. [37] ~ i l s d nD . Symp. Phase equilibriom calculations in the near critical region. Proc. S. C.J. EOR Bournemouth (1981).O. An analysis of recovery techniques in large offshore gas condensate fields. 1st Europ. Tan. K. R.H..C. C. symp. 1344. W.A. R. EOR Bournemouth (1981).M.A. Proc. Laboratory testing procedures for miscible floods. 1974). 54. F. Predicting phase behaviour of condensatelcrude oil systems using methane interaction coefficients. G.E. and Guillory. r451 Bristow. Proc. M. A method for predicting the performance of unstable miscible displacement in heterogeneous media. Proc. [40] Rathmell.. Some aspects of the injectivity of non Newtonian fluids in porous media. Proc. Wright. Proc. 329.J.S. D. and Wade. Symp.D. EOR 11979). [56] Vogel.G. 1999. P. The role of diffusion and mass transfer phenomena in the mobilisation of oil during miscible displacement.S. G. 379. Symp.Y. Bournemouth (1981). Bournemouth (1981). Proc. Clark. [43] Wall. 1st Europ. Symp. 1649.. Bournemouth (1981): 425. The provision of laboratory data for EOR simulation.E. 1st Europ. and Riddiford. [44] Aziz. 1978). [46] Wilson.S. . et al. Proc. [51] Melrose. V and Jensen. Reservoir waterflood residual oil saturation from laboratory tests. Europ.. E O R Bournemouth (1981). J. and Dawe. Cong.A. E O R 7Bournemouth (1981).I. C. Pet. Proc.G. J. [SO] Jennings. 285.A. EOR. [52] Chesters. 563. C. [49] Metcalfe. JPT (Nov. 1980). 1st Europ. Prior.
Proc. W. Symp. F. Modification of a black oil model for simulation of volatile oil reservoirs. EOR. SPEIDOE 12661.H. and Krause. Trans. . and Phillips. (April 1974). and Wade. [64] Okandan.T. (June 1979). NY). SPE 4271. Tech. SPE (Sept. P. and Hinds. EOR (April 1982).. Martinus Nijhoff Pub. SPEiDOE Fourth Symp. J. . R. 19. R. A. [79] Greaves. and Eilerts. Paris (Nov..N. Numerical Simulation (1973). 2nd Europ. [65] Spivak. Parameters for computing pressure gradients and the equilibrium saturation of gas condensate fluids flowing in sandstones. Merrick. ~ e s e a r c 5 improved hydrocarbon recovery from chalk deposits. Weeks Island 'S' sand reservoir B gravity stable miscible C 0 2 displacement. 852. [75] Holst. 99. Oyez Scientific and Technical Services (March 1985). Proc. JPT (March 1982). SPE 11217.. 1973). Johnstone. H. [74] Sprinkle. E. Bowers.M. and Weijdema.L. B. Temperature dependent relative permeability and its effect on oil displacement by thermal methods. Proc. Fall Mtn. 315. Mtg. 1st Europ. T. JPT (July 1965). J. Duns. A model for forecasting the economic potential for enhanced oil recovery in Canada. calculated pressure build up for a low permeability gas condensate well. Simulation of gas condensate reservoirs. Can. C. 1982). B. JPT (NOV. E O R (April 1984). R . Adverse influence of stratification on a gas cycling project. 1661 Dvstra. [73] Katz.H. 610. 860. Symp. EOR Bournemouth (Sept.3rd Symp. and Bossie Codreanu. 1978). R.K. 143. Problems Associated with the Production of Heavy Oil.E. Conf.H. 1961). 1131. [77] Perry. J.D. 175.F. 57th Ann. ~ A L A A . SPEIDOE 10695.P. [60] Bing.D. M. Symp. D. 3rd Jt. 1982). Thermal properties of heavy oil rock and fluid systems. K. 1957). and Zadick. H. L. and Jacoby. A compositional material balance method for prediction of recovery from volatile oil depletion drive reservoirs. R. 75. A . [69] us sell. Keynote paper: thermal recovery methods. Y. 1981). K. 527.H. SPE 4891. JPT (Feb. 1984). A I M E 195 (1952). Reservoir depletion calculations for gas condensates using extended analyses in the PengRobinson equation of state. 1982). [61] Meyer. and Handv. (June 1974).. 2nd Europ. A. [78] Elias. Pet. A. and Katz. Paris (Nov. Possibility of cycling deep depleted oil reservoirs after compression to a single phase. 1711 . and Patel. Graham and Trotman. [59] White. 1681 Saeidi. Compositional simulation for effective reservoir management. 191. The future of heavy crude oils and tar sands. J. Can.L.F. [63] Nakorthap. Sabathier. J. Relative permeabilities of surfactant. 56 (Oct. UNITAR (McGraw Hill Inc.C.D. [70] Eaton.) Heavy Crude Oil Recovery.W. Tulsa (April 1980)..D. Houston. Hekim. [62] Offeringa. . Surfactant dispersion in porous media. (Ed. [81] Monslave. J. D . water systems.S. J. EOR.Dec.216 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [58] Archer. [67] Ham. and van der Vlis. Single well performance prediction for gas condensate reservoirs.. Luxembourg (1979). R.C.M. SPE 8819. B. A new depletion performance correlation for gas condensate reservoir fluid. [76] Fernandes Luque. R. and Caudle. 44. Ruedelhuber. 359. R. Conf. California Reg. Proc. Proc. Los Angeles. and Lomas. (1984). and Dixon.C. R. Flow of condensate Bnd highly volatile oils through porous media.L. Steam generation with high TDS feedwater. J. 203. J.O. Use of polymers to control water production in oil wells. J. Chern. and Evans. J. New Technologies for Exploration on and Exploitation of Oil and Gas Resources. G. C. SPEiDOE Syrnp. P. T. J. Proc. [72] Firoozabadi. 635. Proc.L. Symp. Schechter. Brill. 1st Jt. Barthel. SPE J. R. JPT (July 1973). A. and Steele. Goddard. (Nov. H. Proc. Proc. Eng.A. Proc. T. JPT (Feb 1971).L. D.R. D.S.E. 1st Int. steam. [80] Rovere. The Hague. Syrnp. Nato AS1 Series. J. Proc. 309. JPT(Jan. A . EOR.
(May 1983).H. 1097. North Sea Condensate Reservoirs and their Development. et. SPEJ 25 (1985).J.. Dallas. and Howell. D. Pet. 330. P. Proc.G. Tech. A novel pressure maintenance operation in a large stratigraphic trap. and Davis. L.E.W. Thermal Recovery.H.E. London. V. Trans. [89] Schirmer. [93] Clancy. Planning and implementing a largescale polymer flood.from design to field test JPT (Oct 1985). Conf. and Sayre. . Eng (1982).R. Thermodynamic modelling of quaternary systems: oillbrinelsurfactantlalcohol.K. JPT (June 1985). et aL Mechanism of water flooding in the presence of free gas. 720. 49th Ann.R. [84] Kyte. [88] Coats. SPE Monograph Vol7. J. A. JPT (Aug. C. Comparison of hydraulic fracture design methods to observed field results JPT (Oct. Fall Mtg. [83] Driscoll. [85] Weyler. and Baldwin. 5lstAnn. 1985). Scriven. [87] Prats. 915. W. L. Simulation of gas condensate reservoir performance. A I M E 207 (1956). JPT (April 1985). R. 1870. Soc.T. Serv. R. (1976). SPE 4977. Proc. J. A directfired down hole steam generator . and Shallenberger. 1903 [90] Nierode. SPE 6047. Practical aspects of characterising petroleum fluids. (1974).R.L. 1911 Weiss. Recovery optimization through infill drilling concepts. 1985). 1959). 13. 1831. [92] Kilpatrick. R. J.K. R. al. J. Oyez Sci.M. Insitu determination of residual gas saturation by injection and production of brine. H. M. Analysis of nitrogen injection projects to develop screening guides and offshore design criteria. Proc. [86] Whitson.P.T. JPT (Oct. K. Fall Mtg.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 217 [82] Bragg. and Eson.
prediction: (d) Stigulation and remedial operations Acidization. recompletions redrilling. The total field of production engineering is very much wider than the subject matter of this chapter and can comprise: (a) Reservoir performance Completion intervals. (b) Well equipment Stress analysis for tubulars and packers. system of producing wells.1 shows a jackup rig used for a workover at a remote jacket. dehydration. possibly multireservoir. completion practices. 13. wellhead selections. packer selection. performance analysis. Fig. (Photo courtesy of BP. sweetening. 13.Chapter 13 Factors Influencing Production Operations This chapter is concerned with providing a brief introduction to the principal elements of production systems. (c) Wellperformance analysis Natural flow performance.1 Jackup rig being used to work over a well on a remote jacket platform. corrosionlerosion considerations. 218 Fig. tubular selection.) . remedial acceleration. wireline services1 facilities. multiwell. (e) Oil and gas processing Separation. fracturing. (f) Produced water and injection water treatment. artificial lift requirements.1 THE PRODUCTION SYSTEM The total production system is a complex. perforations performance. completion equipment. 13. safety valves.
The further considerations of changes in deliverability and prediction of artificial lift or compression requirements belong in a more advanced treatment. 13. At this stage.especially reservoir and well characteristics .4). 13. optimum or design rates of production can be maintained at minimum costs. capital investment and market requirements. 13. flowlines.and of economic factors . The principal objectives are to determine the initial deliverability of a well under specified conditions.3 Offshore loading of oil by tanker from a spar.is the system to be considered (Fig. the principal concern is the design of one representative element of a production system one producing well: This comprises the associated reservoir volume. Interaction with other elements of a complex system is assumed to be defined by constraints on flowline pressure and/or well flow rate.the reservoir. the flow string and the choke system . Figure 13.2). pipelines and stations in a gas field development. a common alternative to pipeline transportation.13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTION OPERATIONS / Field A / / Field B Fig. 13. 13. Flow from the reservoir to the flowline through the three elements concerned .) . (Photo courtesy of BP. The use of subsea wellheads is more appropriate in deeper water fields. the wellbore and flow string. Debottlenecking is an important aspect of production engineering.14.3 shows offshore loading of oil to a tanker. surface control chokes and delivery to the flowline.contract quantities. or where wells are required beyond deviation angles of platforms. primary process facilities and delivery lines (Fig. The rates of production required will be checked by a combination of technical factors . The analysis of an existing system to identify bottlenecks or constraints and to modify such a system for improved performance. One of the primary purposes of production engineering is the evaluation of producing system characteristics and their interactions so that maximum. 1 Fig. ~ffshbre alternatives t o fixed platfGrm developments are shown in Fig.2 Complex system of reservoirs.
2 Dimensionless IPRs for oil wells It has been found that the curvature of the inflow performance relationship is reasonably well fitted by a quadratic equation for a very wide range of reservoir conditions. = hypothetical rate at zero bottomhole flowing pressure. pwf = flowing bottomhole Pressure at the rate 4.0.B. and k . In practice.2. is 1 at zero water saturation. 13.2 RESERVOIR BEHAVIOUR IN PRODUCTION ENGINEERING It is evident that no more oil or gas can be produced from a well than will flow into that well from the reservoir. kh 9= I 1 0 B. The a was found by VOgel be 0. is approximately constant and k. will vary with pressure if gas evolves. productivity index will vary with flow rate if the range is large and inertial effects arise.2 .and at any one instant of time the relationship would be linear with Pwf The flow rate of a well is then determined uniquely by a specified flowing bottomhole pressure. rather than advanced reservoir engineering. which is by no means true.2. and any study of well performance must start with an assessment of reservoirlwell interactions. or if inertial effects become significant at high rates. are functions of pressure. Particular care is needed in planning if test rates are artifically restricted to values very much lower than anticipated development well rates. is a . and when straight line extrapolation may be overoptimistic. The use of this index implies that it is a constant characteristic of a well. and idealized radial flow equations are modified for this purpose. but it has long been used as a basis for representing well productivity. For an oil well with no inertial effects an equation can be written constant. where p B. static pressure. and with time as oil.q PI=J= drawdown P. with effective oil permeability. and as a basis for analysis.4 The flow system. 13. gas and water saturations and viscosities change.. defined by rate of production . so that the PI is approximately constant for these conditions if inertial effects are absent. A general dimensionless quadratic equation can be defined as 13. then the PI is not constant. and the "gel IPR is Qmax 4 = 1 . function of saturation.1 Productivity index and well y inflow performance A simple index of well performance is the productivity index (PI) of the well. and the IPR becomes curvilinear.. P = flowing * bottomhole pressure at the rate q.Pwf). dp 13.u. the product . For production engineering purposes a fairly simplified criterion of reservoir behaviour is needed.  between flow rate q and drawdown ( P . where q = rate of production m 3 / ~ b/D. P = or reservoir average or static pressure.2.220 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Fig. If the pressure near the wellbore drops below the bubblepoint. The complete relationship between flow rate and drawdown (or flowing bottomhole pressure) is defined as the inflow performance relationship (IPR) . For a constant PI a linear relationship would exist \ I \ I where P = reservoir average. q. Above the bubblepoint.P. 1 k.
3 IPRs for gas wells It has been conventional for many years to test gas wells at a series of flow rates and to express the results in the form of a back pressure equation: Q = constant (P2 . = d = .P. then the constant is 0. densities of oil and gas vary only 13.2 Flow of oil The flow of crude oil in a wellbore can be very complex. Obviously simulation studies could generate IPRs for complex conditions but this is not an objective of production engineering.7 illustrates a typical set of pressure traverses where pressure: relative depth relations for one single flow rate and a series of gasliquid ratios are illustrated. and the calculation of local density and friction loss can be difficult. the local ratios of gas to oil will change substantially due to gas expansion and to continued increasing evolutior.1) y. With a very large pressure drop from reservoir to wellhead. Figure 13. but as a first approximation to the curvilinear IPR the Vogel relationship will be considered adequate at this stage. unless such traverses have been specifically established for a field.the determination of the flow rate that can be sustained from the reservoir depth to the wellhead.? . L insfeet..P.es p:)d5 S (es . =AQ +B Q ~ In each case it is possible to fit observed data and to generate a complete IPR plot of Pwfagainst rate Having considered the reservoir performance the deliverability from reservoir to wellbore .1. Such an equation is Qb = constant (P.5 and 1.. data may be expressed in the form When f is a Fanning friction factor.HIZT H = vertical depth to tubing shoe T z = = = = 13.3.13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTION OPERATIONS Theoretically this relationship should be used below the bubblepoint pressure and a linear relationship above the bubblepoint. of gas. Tubing flow characteristics can be established for a range of diameters and specified wellhead pressures. = volume rate of flow of gas at base conditions flowing well pressure wellhead pressure pipe internal diameter gas specific gravity relative to air I 0. since under most conditions pressures will fall below the bubblepoint and gas will be evolved from solution.6. 13.2. mean temperature (absolute) gas deviation factor f friction factor (see Fig. and a simple approach usually involves the use of generalized pressure traverses or lift curves.3. Alternatively..)~ where n is expected normally to have a value between 0.. P in psi and T in degrees Rankine.5) L tubing length S = dummy variable = constant y. When field data is available for matching it may be possible to derive a locally valid equation: P2. d in inches. it is important to use accurate volumetric data on the gas and oil concerned. Under these conditions the patterns or regimes of flow possible in twophase flow may change continuously. which can be used for different flow string diameters and drilled depths of wells. as shown in Fig.1 Flow of gases Although the flow of gas in a wellbore is not strictly singlephase (since gas must be saturated with water at reservoir temperature). 13. against This equation enables a further plot of Pwf rate to be established. and an approximate analytical equation used to describe the pressure drop:flow rate relation in the wellbore. Since the majority of the head loss in wellbores is the hydrostatic head. but even complex iterative calculation is subject to substantial error in calculating overall pressure drops. Alternative cases will be considered thereafter.0. The use of these can be justified [2135] because the principal element in the head loss is the hydrostatic term.TfzL where Qb = Pwf= P..5 ./. 13. and the intersections with the IPR for the well establishes the well deliverability for those conditions. There can be no simple single equation for flow under these conditions.3 WELLBORE FLOW The general assumption will first be made that a specified wellhead pressure should be maintained.? 4. and Q is in MCSFld.the next element of the system is the wellbore itself . 13. it can frequently be approximated as such.
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE .
referring to Fig. i.. 13.13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTION OPERATIONS 223 ?? V) a ? ?  Max rate for the spec~fieddiameter and wellhead pressure Rote q l o w Performance ) Fig. viscosity is not a factor in the highly turbulent flow involved. at a relative depth of 7550 ft (point B). For example. other factors are of minor importance. Reference to further pressure traverses gives plots of additional data points. This gives a relative depth of 2550 ft. .6 Gas well performance. The reservoir depth is assumed to be 5000 ft below this.only the intervals existing between points of different pressure are represented. Pressure n over small ranges. The pressure at this point is found to be 1520 psi at point C.7 Example flowing pressure gradient.e.7 at a rate of 1500 bid in a flow string of diameter 4 in. It must be remembered that the depth scale is in no sense an absolute one . 13. a wellhead pressure of 200 psi is specified for a well with a gasoil ratio of 200 SCFlb. to generate an operating relationship as shown in Fig. 13. 13.8. 100 psig Fig. not their positions in space. This constitutes one point on the flowing bottomhole pressure: rate relation.
flowlines and pipelines are not to be subject to the hazard of hydrate blocking. The (wet) gas is then heated and passed to a drying column. so that a stable.particularly where delivery is to a tanker. Water and hydrocarbons can combine together to form crystalline materials known as hydrates. 13. which also must be lower than any temperature likely to occur. associated gas streams are processed for liquid recovery before gas is flared. heat and momentum transfer processes that are necessary to: (a) meet sales or delivery specifications of hydrocarbons (whether to pipeline or tanker). a delivery pressure. In the case of offshore fields. The well stream is passed to a simple separator (knock out drum) in which free liquid is separated. severely restricted maximum values of acid gas content . (b) optimize the economic value of hydrocarbons produced. nearly all natural gases contain small proportions of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons which will condense on reduction of temperature. 13.carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide .which are corrosive and. low vapour pressure product must be delivered.the temperature at which liquid hydrocarbons will condense from the gas stream.the temperature at which water will condense from the gas stream. The expansion of gas through valves and fittings can cause such locally low temperatures.2 Natural gas dehydration 13. and methanol and glycol may be used as inhibitors. heated or inhibited very' near to the wellhead. In some cases the objectives are easily met by very simple processing. Hydrates are inhibited by the presence of alcohols. or duplicated. but in other cases moderately sophisticated processing will be necessary . will precipitate a few parts per million (on a volume basis) of liquid hydrocarbons.9. also. (c) meet any statutory requirements for the disposal of any part of the production. Drying may be effected by: .4 FIELD PROCESS FACILITIES Field processing involves all the mass. toxic. as in the case of the UK east coast gas process plants for gas. All natural gases are produced saturated with water vapour.5 NATURAL GAS PROCESSING A sales specification for a natural gas will usually involve: (a) a water dewpoint . by onshore processing. since they coexist in the reservoir at reservoir temperature with interstitial water in the reservoir.5. even when ambient temperatures are above hydrate formation temperatures. gases must generally be dried. in the latter case.1 Processing of dry natural gas The first requirement. a calorific value (possibly associated with the gas density in an index of burner performance or suitability).8 Oil + water (+ gas) well performance. and the Sullom Voe terminal for crude oil handling. if wellheads. Also.5. but are in general formed only at low temperatures (generally below 70°F). Increasingly.224 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (b) characteristic (multiphase flow) (c) (d) (e) Performance Reiat~onsh~p which must be lower than any temperature likely to occur. Even the driest gases. 13. Consequently. at the wellhead. is to take steps to remove water and water vapour before delivery to a pipeline. A typical process flow stream for the offshore processing of natural gas is shown in Fig. Rate Fig. and such liquid recovery will usually be necessary to meet sales gas specifications. 13. These icelike materials are dependent upon both pressure and temperature. 13. offshore processing may be supplemCnted. Very rich condensate streams may produce more than 1000 m3 liquid condensate per million m3 of gas produced. a hydrocarbon dewpoint . of carbonaceous origin. (d) meet any specification necessary for fluids for reinjection into the reservoir.
.9 Offshore dehydration (S. some sour).3 Natural gas sweetening Sweetening is the process of removing acid gases from natural gas. and the dry glycol is recirculated to the column. the normal procedure would be to transport the sour gas to shore after dehydration (inhibiting if necessary) and to sweeten the gas on shore. Sweetening is accomplished in a manner similar to that of dehydration. The gas passes in counterflow cap through a equipped with a few trays..ethanolamine or diethanolamine.. liquid counterflow process (e. potassium carbonate wash.Sulfinal and Vetrocoke.. ?his is recovered by simpie separation.. The of Fig' 13" shows a liquid 'Ounterflow process... In production from offshore natural gas reservoirs. Other processes are also available. The drying Drocesses also knock out hvdrocarbon condensate. Only if i L  t Sales Fig. glycol being Stream I..g. If an offshore field has a significant content of acid gases and a dedicated pipeline to shore.e. Figure 13. I I I Heat el pr?Gel exchanger Separator ... sieve trays or valve trays.. 1 ! 1 I coaiescer Condensate . 13. ...10 Onshore processing. For C 0 2 removal only.g.5. was to be commingled in a single pipeline system would offshore sweetening normally be conducted. suitable wash agents are: amine wash. or fields (some sweet.13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTION OPERATIONS 225 dry desiccant process (e.. gas from one or more reservoirs.. 13.4 Onshore processing The processing necessary to meet dewpoint specifications is normally a moderately cheap refrigeration process. the offshore processing of a small part of the total gas stream might be more attractive than the onshore processing of a very large gas flow. there is rarely sufficient condensate produced to justify a separate pipeline. 13. Wet condensate . counterflow with a wash agent in a bubble cap tower. silica gel).... the light hydrocarbons involved separating very easily from water. 13. In this case.North Sea).5. i. and the condensate is usually spiked back in to the dry natural gas line for recovery in onshore processing... For hydrogen sulphides removal: amine ..Gas to shore Fig.. The intake gas is first chilled by heat exchange with the cool processed gas. and is stripped of water by the glycol. patent processes .. The dry gas passes to a pipeline. The wet glycol is passed to a regenerator where water is boiled off.10 shows a typical process flow diagram. ethylene glycol)..
and then by a fired heater before measurement and transfer. In this case optimization of the separation process is highly desirable. the accurate metering of mass is desirable for equity considerations. together with maximum recovery of intermediate hyd. a stringent vapour pressure specification is necessary . gasoil separation is the major objective. the liquids will be spiked back into the crude oil stream and recovered in this way. the produced water can flash to the vapour phase. 13. the cool gas being heated first by heat exchange with incoming gas. the separation of gas to meet vapour pressure specification. This latter is ideal for fuel. Simple freshwater washing is the only necessary process. enrichment may be necessary if the gas is to be put into a national grid. the associated gas will be processed to recover intermediate hydrocarbons and obtain a sales gas specification. this can be reduced by dilution with nitrogen.ocarbons. The liquids are boiled off to separate water. In this case. and dewpoint specifications are met. the removal of salt to meet a refinery specification. near the 'Ihisreduces power rewhere Pressure losses between quirements. Liquids from slug catchers and knockouts are blended in.6. When gas is to be disposed of by a sales outlet. together with maximum retention of intermediate hydrocarbons is desirable. (b) (c) (d) 13.from the crude oil prior to delivery. C3H8) gives an excessively high calorific value. and possibly the processing of the gas to meet a sales specification. Under these conditions. This is done by adding propane (or liquefied petroleum gas) in small quantities. and field and finM Process plant are ion be installed at the process plant. In the rare cases where the high paraffin content of gas (C2H6. but this then involves further water separation.crude stabilized at 1 atmosphere and ambient temperature if necessary. condensate and glycol. with common carrier . The gas then passes to a refrigeration unit (either using freon as a refrigerant. a dry natural gas will meet the usual calorific valueldensity specifications. as liquids will not be recovered to any significant extent from the gas stream. 13. 13. Where gas surplus to fuel requirements is simply to be flared. optimization of a separator process can yield a few extra percentage points of stabilized liquid and can make a difference of one or two degrees in the API gravity of the product. The resulting gasliquid mixture is separated. This can be a problem when crude oil is produced with small proportions of water and first stage separation occurs at high temperatures.6 Compression When is needed to meet a specification !as be the case with a with water drive gas depletion gas field.especially hydrogen sulphide .5. In the case of pipeline transport to an onshore process plant. the separation of produced water. and the resulting stream stabilized to give a stable condensate fraction and a nonspecification gas stream. leaving salt as a residue. If there is a significant content of nitrogen. the vapour pressure specification will not be stringent. Alternatively. For tanker transport. and a process involving several (34) stages of separation with carefully designed separator pressure will be necessary.6 CRUDE OIL PROCESSING The processing of crude oil will have as its objectives: (a) production of a liquid stream which meets a transport specification. gas stream processing will not be justified. With a large crude oil flow this can be highly significant in cash flow terms.5. the removal of any noxious or toxic materials . a large industrial user may take a nonspecification gas using burners designed for the appropriate calorific value. the necessary is preferably installed as far upstream as is possible (i.e. and fields). However.1 Light oil processing In this case. The process adoptkd will depend primarily on the subsequent use of gas. or less efficiently propane from the condensate stream) where it is cooled to 18°C.5 Calorific value If no inert gas is present.226 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE added to inhibit hydrate formation. (e) lines. and the breaking of any produced emulsions to meet a refinery specification.
level warnings and shutdown svstems will k e e ~ the separator w&king within its design limits. a separation problem can occur if foams form with flow through the restric woterouileig Fig.6.11 Threephase separator. 13. After the coalescer. Wells Gas treatment h G a s to p ~ p e l ~ n e or reservoir . .Manifold 1 . the liquid being decelerated and deflected to the lower part of the vessel. about 0. . p p are fluid densities.).$I b~kers outlet 13. the pressures and temperatures of each stage of separation are important to the efficiency of separation (Fig. A weir retains a high liquid level and. depending upon the difficulty of processing. Woter control Level  vortex :. and separators are usually designed to give a residence time of three to five minutes. F~rst t a g e s e p a r a t o r s YNGL Meter +P~pe I~ne Meter prover t I Oily w a t e r W a t e r dump Fig. Figure 13. and gas bubbles can rise and separate upstream and downstream of the weir. or by computation. and a rule of thumb expression for maximum gas velocity i s 1 1 Cooescer ootes Dernlsler G050utlet where Vis the critical entrainment velocity (ftls. C is the separator coefficient (empirical. The well stream impinges upon a deflector which effects a crude separation of liquid and gas. water separates and a level controller maintains an oilwater level within limits. 13. With multiple stages of separation.350. or may contain several separation elements. . 13.12). behind this weir.50 ftis.3 Foaming problems With light gassy crude oils.6.13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTION OPERATIONS 227 13.11 shows a separator of moderate complexity. Inlet The gas phase may pass through a coalescer in which liquid droplets impinge.2 Separator design considerations Separator vessels may be very simple. The important factor in this phase of separation is the residence time. In the gas region of a separator. further to entrap and coalesce entrained liquid droplets. Level controls. Oil spills over the weir.). the gas passes through a demister section (a pad of wire mesh).12 Mult~stage separator. Optimum values can be found by laboratory experiment on field samples. coalesce and drip back into the liquid phase. gas velocity is the critical design factor.
After first gas and water separation. chemical inhibitors apparently acting to prevent growth and crystal development of the wax. Sand tosea Q To seq via caisson Fig. electrostatic precipitation may be necessary as a final last resort.13 Produced water treatment on offshore platform. Oily water to slops Oily water to slops 13. done in a heater (direct or indirect fired) upstream of the first stage separator. the residence times necessary for foams to drain effectively and break can be prohibitive and separation highly inefficient. This requires that water from all stages of separation and any oily slops or washings should be cleaned before disposal. Additionally.6.8 PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT There are stringent specifications for the disposal of water within oilfields . oily skimmings from a series of settling tanks being recirculated and the final water being treated in a plate or a foam coalescer before disposal. Most systems installed are capable of reducing the hydrocarbon content to less than 30 ppm. 13.4 Wax problems Light oils are generally paraffins. The first procedure adopted in difficult cases is to heat the well stream to reduce viscosity.disposal into the North Sea currently requiring a hydrocarbon content of less than 50 ppm. The essential procedures are mainly gravity settling. e s O D a r * 1 Sand wash . gasoil ratios are usually low. Figure 13. and it is the separation of produced water that is the greater difficulty .7 HEAVY OIL PROCESSING With heavy oils.possibly by injection at a downhole pump intake or at least below the wellhead. but in a few cases of very obstinate emulsions. heavy crude oils have a greater propensity to emulsion formation than have lighter crudes. or in a combined heatertreater. Chemical treatment followed by heat treatment will deal with most problems. chemical demulsifiers may be used.. When used they should be applied as far upstream as is possible . and wax buildup in well tubing strings. trace heating or periodic heat treatment and scraping can be used to remove wax after it has built up. In this case.the high viscosity of produced crude greatly retarding gravity settling of water.. flowlines and pipelines may occur.C e D Bubble coeleser Oily water to slops 1 . Alternatively.13 shows a typical schematic. j.. Again chemical treatment is effective.~ 228 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE tions of a typical separation system. 13. 13. The most effective remedy is chemical foam breaking. These waxes may precipitate if the temperature falls below some critical value. the oil may pass to a heated storage tank where very long residence times may give the necessary separation. . and the heaviest components may be paraffin waxes. the addition of a silicone liquid upstream of the separators being highly effective in promoting foam drainage and breakdown. When stable emulsions are formed and are a problem which cannot be remedied by heat and settling time. This may be .
Metering of crude oil into a common carrier system requires particular care since volumes of mixing of crude oil of different crudes is not the sum of the volumes of the component crude oils.14 Deeper water development alternatives. the water supply will usually be taken from a level where suspended solids and dissolved oxygen are low which will be an intermediate depth. although other types of meter are under study. The final treatment is likely to be a bactericide addition. depending on the degree of filtration needed. may be by means of: (a) sand andlor anthracite graded beds. .10 CRUDE OIL METERING Metering of crude oil and gas streams is necessary for transfer and sales purposes.9 INJECTION WATER TREATMENT Water for injection may need to be highly purified before injection into a reservoir. Tension leg platform Semisubmersible Tanker base system Fig. with density being recorded simultaneously. (c) polypropylene filter cartridges. A biocide will be used at the pump intake sometimes by insitu electrolysis of sea water followed by a coarse filtration at the surface. This requires that each contributor with a common pipeline system should maintain a record both of volume delivered. This itself is recalibrated by means of calibrated tanks. Gas flow rates are usually metered by orifice meter. and of the density of the material delivered. and in the North Sea both very fine filtration and virtually no filtration have both been adopted with success. and oxygen may promote bacterial growth and cause corrosion. Crude oil streams are metered by turbine meters for the most part. and for fiscal L purposes. either by counterflow in a column or by vacuum deaeration. and keep records of the overall compositions. The turbine meters themselves are calibrated regularly by means of meter provers . (b) diatomaceous earthiasbestos filter cakes. organic material or bacteria may generate slimes. This filtration. will be followed by the addition of any oxygen scavenger (sodium sulphite) and further filtration. Offshore. Only then can the production from a common carrier system be allocated equitably back to the contributors. Deaeration. Fine solid materials may plug formations.a positive displacement device which delivers a measured quantity through the meter.13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTlON OPERATIONS 229 13. The diatomaceous earth filters are capable of removing practically all solids down to one micron should this be necessary. The degree of solids removal necessary is a matter for experiment and experience. 13. 13.
(Oct.250 r waterdepth). seam to seam should be between 3 and 4 and the separator must be at least 3 m in length.V. Proc.83. W. The density of air at 0°C and 1bar is 1. JPT (June 1983). SPE 12971.W.S. SPE (1962). What is the estimated wellhead pressure? Example 13. The fundamental issues in future field development concepts (100 . Subsea production control (Beryl field).D. Norman (1977). Conf. 126. [4] Frick. Oilfield Water Systems. M. T.75) at a pressure of 20 bar and a temperature of 40°C. evaluate and comment on the performance of a 4 in. The oil residence time should be 3 min and the oilgas interface should be half way in the separator volume. Flowing and gaslift well performance. McGraw Hill. A field test and analytical study of intermittent gas lift. Proc. 245. 1968). 1984). with a reservoir static pressure of 2600 psig. Overview of phase behaviour in oil and gas production. 1982).V. 1976).D. Europ. (Oct. Pet. A. what is the estimated flowing bhp? (b) A well 5000 ft deep has a flowing bhp of 1200 psi producing 3000 b/d at a GOR of 500 SCFibarrel. 117. and Worley. The Vogel IPR relationship is assumed to apply. TI31 Rvall. SPE 12973. 1 (Mathematics and production equipment). Proc.49. Pet. [3] Gilbert. ~ k v e l o ~ m e oft a new high reliability downhole pumping system for large horsepowers.C. Practice (1954). 107. Inflow performance relationships for solution gas drive wells. Conf. M. [lo] Dawson. (Oct.1 (a) A well 6000 ft deep is flowing 2000 bid at a GOR of 200 SCF/barrel on a 4 in. Pet.C. installation and early operational experience. R. flow string.3 Determine the size of a horizontal separator to separate 1000 m3/day of crude oil from its associated gas (SG = 0. Europ. JPT (Jan. J. [12] Wray.1205. [5] Vogel.230 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Examples Example 13. T. Europ. (ed. If a flowing wellhead pressure of 400 psig is needed on production. Example 13.V. [9] Boles.275 kg/m3.502. 257. flow string for the well.R. 19841. Prod. The design ratio of diameter to length. SPE 12986. 1984). If the wellhead pressure is 400 psi. EUR 276. 1984).2 A drill stem test on a well indicates a flowing bottom hole pressure of 1500 psig at a rate of 3315 bid. Elcrop. and Murray. B. Europ. OGJ (Dec. A new concept in floating production systems. Series. and the GOR is 200 SCFlbarrel. NY (1981).) Petroleum Production Handbook Vol. Proc. Montgomery. C. Magnus subsea wells: design. and Grant. Con6 (Oct. A. M. C. J. [7] Steele. [8] Patton. Campbell Pet. SPE 12987. Proc. n Pet.L. [6] Vogel. API Drill. Conf. The oil has a density of 796 kg/m3 and a solution gasoil ratio of 95 m3/m3oil at 0°C and 1bar.133. Principles of Oil Well Production. The well depth is 5500 ft deep. [I11 Patel. L A .E.L. The maximum gas velocity in the separator is given in mls by References [I] Katz.P. Engineering and economics used to optimize artificial lift methods. D. Conf. M. [2] Nind. n Pet.I.H. SPEJ (Oct.. (Oct. 19741. J.E.A.
The Technology ofArtificia1 Lijt Methods. Simulation: a new tool in production operations.M. 301. Fogarasi. W. M. Prod. EUR 208. Tech.G. Conf. (Oct. Europ. (Oct. Separation of oil from water. Oil and Gas Cons. and Roberts. Pressure drop in wells producing oil and gas. Europ. Met. R. (Oct. Conf. Conf. World 011. 38.E. Conf. Artificial lift by electric submersible pumps in Forties. Pet. (Oct. 17 (Vol. J. W. Pet. J. Pet. Proc. [39] Mukierjee. Proc. Europ. 1. 1984) 73.D. 1980). Conf.C. [17] Thambynayagam. (Oct. 1978). and Fogarasi. ' ~ . EUR 116. Proc. 1980). [37] Arnold. Europ. 345. 276. Monogr. 1). J. 2). K. and Finch. h 1331 McLeod. Pet. r291 . Symp. Europ. K. [I51 Hankinson. Innovative engineering makes Maureen development a reality.Sept. Efficient operations in a mature oil and gas producing area. Min. (July .M. EUR 331. [34] Allen. G. Sp. 1982). 15. W. Prediction and control of natural gas hydrates.A. J.: ~ u y s s eA. Design concepts for offshore produced water treating and disposal systems. 1). EUR 213. 1271 Wachel. A. and Brill. (Oct. 1984) 87.= the North Sea. Proc. Europ. (Oct. Modelling the Brents System production facilities. Eickmeier. 2). R. J.E. 1003. 429 (Vol. M. A study of two phase flow in inclined pipes. (March 1985) 69.W. P. D. 185 b . Proc. (1978). EUR 33. Europ. r221 Nisbet. Can. 1). 45 (Vol. [38] Geertsma. EUR 231. AIChEJ (May 1980). 2)..R. and Macduff. Europ. Conf. L A L A . K. Gregory. 1980).. K.O. Modelling flow pattern transitions for steady upward gasliquid flow in vertical tubes.H. (Oct. K. Proc. 559 (Val. (Oct. (Oct. Europ. Pet. Conf. Gas lift increases high volume production from Claymore field. (Dec. Gas Lift Theory and Practice.E. Europ..M. and Bristow. Pet. 1982). Vol. [30] ~on'es. t 1321 kitEhiil.A. SPE 7797. Phase behaviour and dense phase design concepts for application to the supercritical fluid pipeline system. [18] Beggs. 1980). Pet. 1979).W. Proc. R. EUR 278. and Gradient Curves for Well Analysis and Design. 1). Europ. 1980). Tulsa (Feb. Conf. T. 1980). Conf. 437 (Vol. 43 (Vol. EUR 189. T.M. Inst. Pet. andTiemann. and Schmidt. Conf. (Oct. Conf..E.A. Water cl. EUR 190.E. Bornea. M. 505. Conf. EUR 38. Designing oil and gas producing systems. Pet.C. 2). EUR 228.P. EUR 330. 1). 2). Proc. H.W. 1980). 1983). JPT (May 1983). Y. and Nimitz.W.E. 449 (Vol. (Oct. Int.13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTION OPERATIONS 231 [I41 van Staa.Assuring the reliability of offshore gas compression systems. [19] Aziz. Proc. Govier. 1972).K. 607. [31] Nichols. [35] Aziz. [28] ~ a y l o r . and Stewart. EUR 205. North Sea offshore compression . R. 1982). Can. r241 Wottne. Conf. 73. Spencer. K.P. (Oct. Conf. G. [23] Brown. Proc. R. Pet. Proc. JPT (Feb. [16] Simmons. Petroleum Publishing Corp. Proc. Proc. Design calculations for three phase flow behaviour in wells and flowlines and some problems in their application to . piperYfikld: Surface facilities operating performance and problems experienced. Pet. [20] Taitel. 1982).ality aspects of ~ o r t Sea injection water. Liquid holdup correlations for inclined two phase flow. G .E. E. Europ. 263 (Vol. Penwell Books. (1973). R. [25] DeMoss.M. J. H. (Oct. P. and Stubbs. EUR 358. J.R. Conf. [21] Brown. . The characteristics of shuttle and buffer tankers for offshore fields. 159 (Vol.D. Tulsa (1980). Europ. and Stephen. and Brill. T.. and Dukler. 20 (1983). and Westby. Europ. K. . Production Operations (Vols 1and 2). 711. [36] Arnold. Proc. Porter. (Nov.D. K.W.future needs. T. L A (Vol. 1980). J. Pet. J. Pet. Pet. Europ. Pet. D . Vol. ~ . Pet.. Some rockmechanical aspects of oil and gas well completions. [26] ROSS.. D. 1980). A.. JPT (May 1973). Proc. London (1978). Proc.H. EUR 153.Planeix. J. 511.
J. Production Engineering (1986) IHRDC. S.I.F. [48] Eissler. A. Occurrence and Recovery.232 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [40] Goland. JPT (Oct 1985) 1751. 1983. 1985). 1461 ElHattab. Petroleum Review (Nov. and Hill. ~ a t i r aGas Hydrates: Properties.R. Nodal systems analysis of oil and gas wells. and Lea.C. [47] Beggs. 14. JPT (Sept. 1985). I411 Cox. [43] Baker. M. et al. Multiphase measurement problems and techniques for crude oil production systems. 1985). 1640. V. A. Gas Production Operations. L > L J . R. M. M. JPT (April 1985) 701.D. [49] Giles. Petroleum Review (Nov. and Hayes. Butterworth (Ann Arbor Science Books). [45] Brown.C. 23. K. JPT (April 1985) 583. J.J.J. E. Offshore production operations.L. 1985) 18. Measurement of multiphase flows in crude oil production systems. [44] Jamieson. R. OGCI (1984).E. Multiphase flow measurements at production platforms.W. Arun Field high pressure gas reinjection facilities. T. l 1421 Ashkuri.E. . and McKee. Boston. Petroleum Review (Nov. Scale deposition in surface and subsurface production equipment in the Gulf of Suez.
891. The su>cess of a numerical model depends on two particular conditions. together with empirical parametric relationships. and emphasis is placed on reservoir description and displacement mechanisms. multicomponent) flow models.1) and leads to the formulation of relationships between saturation and pressure as nonlinear differential equations. Revised geological models develop from consideration of reservoir performance data as well as from new geological evidence alone [I7]. the former of which is more likely to be satisfied.gg$&jgg using reservoir simulators are presented. 14. Physical models include sand packs. cores and core plugs. In a predictive sense a geological conceptual model is used to guide the values attributed to reservoir properties away from direct well control. residual saturations and other parameters which may define boundary conditions and perhaps allow scaling to reservoir [ 6 . In this sense it may be physical. 66 67 '. The application of reservoir models in field development and resource management is illustrated in the rest of the chapter. 14. multiphase.1 MODELS In petroleum reservoir development a broad definition of modelling is adopted in which a model is any device by which a predictive understanding of reservoir performance andlor description can be obtained. which can be solved approximately 31 44 46 471 or finite element using finite difference mathematics [8q. conceptual or mathematical. or complex (multidimensional. 7 . The definition of such regions may be cells or nodes (Fig. 9 . The objective in using physical models is to define physical behaviour. linear or radial onedimensional (1D) displacement). Hele Shaw models and micromodels. the choice of approach lies with the petroleum engineer [I5]. 1 0 111 Conceptual models provide a basis for exploration of physical processes and are used to guide quantitative estimation. flow patterns. Mathematical models are designed to describe reservoir volumetrics and flow behaviour using the Darcy relationship and conservation of mass. The numerical solution of these reservoir equations using high speed computers is known as reservoir simulation modelling. Depositional and diagenetic history of sediments are presented to account for present day observations of facies character and petrophysical property distribution. A n interactive analysis of geological models results from testing their predictions against new well data using fluid flow and vertical pressure gradients. The main types of conceptual models involved in reservoir modelling concern geological models [I2 26. Depending on the definition of the problem and the availability of data. L3O5 (1) The ability of the equations to represent . Mathematical models may be simple (tank models. 32 38. 60.Chapter 14 Concepts in Reservoir Modelling and Application to Development Planning In this chapter the principles of . multiphase reservoir analysis requires definition of a reservoir in discrete regions with given properties and rules of flow. Multidimensional.
14.2).. For a conservation term in stock tank units (broadly equivalent to mass..@ I .. The values of cell porosity and directional permeability are defined at the cell centre (Fig.mass rate out = mass rate of accumulation 4 Fig.3 Unit cell. and identical if the API gravity is constant). So. For the oil phase we have which in the limit becomes FWL \L For the water phase we have a similar equation: Fig. A n extension to three dimensions simply The equations presented here show that at any point in space there are at least six unknowns. Mass rate in .2 Individual cell or grid block properties.2 EQUATIONS OF MULTIPHASE FLOW These will be illustrated in a linear system for simplicity.C. P . D. 1. namely Po.1 Methodology.I1 I I I i J I /. 14.I/.C' l~. D..L. 14. For the gas phase the equation must include both free gas and gas from solution in the oil (we could at this stage ignore gas dissolved in water). P. (2) the ability of cell or node properties to represent the true threedimensional (3D) reservoir description. The limit equation thus becomes 14. S.. S. and midpoint depth E from a reference datum.T Reservoir split into blocks Write equations for flow in and out of each block Mass rate in Fig.I. In order to provide a .of flow and equilibrium in the reservoirlwell system.J. 14.3 I '\ I '.234 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE consists of adding terms in 2l2y and 3/22 and in accounting for gravity effects. 14.. we can write for the cell illustrated in Fig. within a particular cell of dimensions D. physics.
the selection process for a particular task falls to the reservoir engineer. 14. For models involving large numbers of cells. 14. This should provide an indication of required cell sizes and time steps. Tubing flow is usually considered explicitly in a time step. as shown in Table 14. Examples of such sensitivity parameters may well be transmissibility [kAIL]. Explicit in Saturation. For complex geometry systems there can be no analytical check on results . + s.Po PC. The main program directs the calculation and reporting procedures. + (qo)i+N. meaning IMplicit in Pressure. 14. Simulations are frequently conducted to provide information on the sensitivity of illdefined parameters in reservoir performance prediction.4 Flow into celli from neighbours in different geometries. The effects of cell size and solution time step size are interlinked in the efficiency of solution algorithms. Part of the smearing may result from the definition of an appropriate effective permeability solely at the boundary between two cells undergoing fluid exchange. Finite element methods which should be superior in frontal saturation tracking are not common in a 3Dl3phase mode.P. phases or composition components. Just about all the combinations suggested exist for finite difference simulators.5. The connection of well and operating constraints further serves to delineate different models. The solution of these equations may be approached by direct solution (Gaussian or matrix decomposition) or by a number of iterative algorithms.A ~ + (:q o ) z .+N. Algorithms for several iterative solutions have been published and treat pressure and saturation in all combinations from fully explicit (data knswn at start time level for the time step) to fully implicit (data known at end time level for the time step). itNxtNy Fig. 14.3 SIMULATOR CLASSIFICATIONS General classification of reservoir simulators is by dimensionality. and the substance of the simulator is contained in subroutines. One of the most important tests of reservoir simulation accuracy that can be made concerns numerical dispersion or the smearing of a saturation front across several cells. 14.4 SIMULATOR APPLICATION As is clear from the number of simulator combinations available. = 1 Pcg= Pg . The use of the effective permeability in the upstream cell only during a time step is widespread. = Po . irreducible saturations and .14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING solution we therefore require three further linking equations defining saturation and capillary pressures of the oilwater and gasoil systems. as at present any implicit treatment is excessive in computing time. 2phase (2P) simulation. so+ s. the direct solution method may involve excessive computer time. 14. grid arrangement and solution approach. The problem is usually assessed by comparing the results of an analytical Buckley Leverett I[' frontal movement with that predicted by 1D. availability and the economic value of the resultI''[ Analytical analyses of a simplified representation of the reservoir and its contents can provide an insight into proper selection of simulator tools and gives a basis for comparison of results.only comparison with gross simplified analytical estimates and reasonableness. Selection is based on the nature and definitions of the task. the data .1 and in Fig. Iteration procedures terminate when convergence criteria are satisfied. The arrangement of a simulator tends to be as shown in Fig. phases or components. relative permeability.6.~+ (q0)iI + (qo)i+~ A x + (qO)i+N. A particularly utilized method of arranging the differential equations in finite difference form results in a solution known as IMPES.4 the rate of accumulation at cell is given by ( ~ o ) ~ . For the threedimensional system shown in Fig. For discussion of these techniques the reader is directed to specialist texts The treatment of error in finite difference and finite element formulations is important in several applications.
implicit .236 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 14. . 14..volatile oil .5 Simulator types.6 Arrangement of simulator routines. ~ coarse or mesh R a d ~ a lg e o m e t r y . gas cuts etc from ~nd~viduol weilsor gathering dI ~ / ~ e l l Tublng flow ond pressure drop methods 3D: full 3dkmens~ong e o m e t r M a ~ programme n Solut~on o u t ~ n e r 0 1 motrlx doto for solvlnq 1 molerlal bolonceond flow eq~atlons incorporated lnto the non llnear dlfferentlol form Selects solver subroutine fromcha~ceselected . .. .llme on/offond bosls for ~ t coiculollon of rate Any s constra~nts terms of lhmltlng rates.miscible process . 14. I away ond l w ~ c oh s l s i for slmuiator lterot~ve~lut~ons cho~ce1 2etc I Can b Logarithmic c e l l r a d ~ i from w e l l b o r e Output processor Organlsatlon of output record data from solut~on ~nterms well and of gathering centres Tmnsfer tosdlt fils for furthur analysis of eoch tome defined output recwd Edlt flle recad I Fleld data compar~son for hlstory mdch 360' Fig. single cell m 1 Input processor/HCIIP Cefln~tlon dlmenslons and of spat~al positions of cells or with nodes and ossoc~at~on petrophysicol propertles and across bedding planes (vertical) 1 II along bedding planes (horizontal) of fluid d\strtbut~on hydro and carbon and water ~nplace 11 1 propert~es L H I ~ areal ~ . Fig. In pressures.section f~ne l cross ~ ~ ~ ~ the reservotr~ I" ~ ~ ~ termsof locatlon.inert gas process .gas condensate Zero: Material balance. . water cuts.explicit Conformal mapping 0D (material balance) 1D linear 1D vertical 2D crosssection 2D areal 3D sector 3D full field 3P bowg N component N pseudocomponents N compchemicalflood thermal process .direct soln .IMPES Semi implicit . .1 Classification of simulators Dimensions Phases/ composition 1P IP 2P 2P gas water black oilw black oilg Grid/node arrangement Cartesian (regular) Cartesian (irregular) Radial (vertical wells) Radial (horizontal wells) Nodal Options for solution Finite element Finite difference .
The RFT pressure response of a new well in a producing field provides useful history match data. 14. applied to faulted (but not sealing) reservoir intervals. Thermal processes and chemical flood matches require even more history match to provide confidence in performance predictions. a number of steps in analysis and data requirements are common. and to vertical restrictions to flow and which result from lithology and facies change in stratified units. In black oil modelling of North Sea reservoirs. None of these things necessarily provide a true answer.length. 14. + 14.7 Steps needed to build a reservoir model.Saturat~on distribution Non. and are illustrated in Fig. or condensatelvolatile oil reservoirs are modelled. Petrophysical Bulk Relative volume(rn3) volume 5 HETEROGENEOUS W e test 14x106 1014 Reservoir model g r i d 0 .14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING aquifer character. The basis of a history match should include well rates for all fluids. The reasons why reservoir simulation is so attractive are fairly obvious: since a real reservoir can be produced only once. a series of case studies using a simulator can e x ~ l o r euncertainties in data and resource management options. 2 x106 1012 5m 7m g I Wireline log interval Core plug Geologicalthinsection 3 5x10~ 1 XIO~ lo8 200 1 Fig.7. . At such time a history match between reservoir model predicted performance and field observations can lead to improved confidence in future performance predictions.8 Relative scale of representation. then compositional matches with produced fluids are also needed. as well as static and dynamic distributions of vertical and lateral pressure gradients. width t thickness distribution JGROSS ROCK VOLUME^ *Fluids and contacts .5 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION IN MODELLING Whether a complex or a simple reservoir model is being applied.reservoir zones/ poros~ty *Permeability dlstribution *Capillary pressure character~st~cs *Relative permeability characteristics [FLOW CHARACTERISTICS~ *Fluid properties *Rock compressibility Aqulfer size *Pressure dlstribution + IRESERVOIR ENERGY] Well locat~ons Production / lnjection constraints t 1 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE^ Fig. only a comparison with some base case set of assumptions. 14. The validation of a particular simulation in a reservoir cannot be approached until the reservoir has produced for some time (usually several years). preferred well locations and completion intervals can be studied. =Shape of reservoir . In addition. When miscible or partly miscible processes are being modelled. the single most important history match parameter is transmissibility. The validity of the initialization reservoir model is largely dependent on the geological model and the flow performance is linked to reservoir and production engineering description.
(a)Rotliegendes/Zechstein (North Sea. and shale bodies (after il2'). .238 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Top Zechstein N (b) Shales GR log Well location Sands I Isolated shale plug / Continuous shale I 1 Shale tongue Continuous shale Local shale lens Basal marker shale (b) lateral extent of sand Fig.9 Examples of sandbody continuity. 14. (c) conceptual arrangement of sands and shale in Cormorant reservoir (Ness unit) North Sea.
Deltaic models provide a good example of the influence of conceptual models in reservoir simulation. ( = x .10). active systems leads to an expectation of particular geometries in particular sedimentary forms. is of paramount importance in the development of conceptual geological models and in using them effectively in reservoir simulation. through analysis. 14. such reconstructions may be made . The association by analogy of sedimentary processes in ancient systems with observations in modern.10 Transmissibility in cell models.this adopts the principles defined in Walther's law of facies [83. Increasingly. This involves recognition of lithology and facies types. rock type and saturation representation (Fig. a palaeogeographical reconstruction of the reservoir may be obtained. and some detailed petrophysical interpretation. The identification of faults may be apparent from geophysical surveys.841. The particular information available for generating such models tends to be cuttings. Continuity is usually represented between cells by modification of transmissibility in any dimension or direction (Fig. The aim is to define vertical and lateral distribution of reservoir and nonreservoir rock in the field (and perhaps in any associated aquifer). 14. 14. cores and log data.14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING analysis falls between the two since zonation and grid size scale effects must be rationalized and proper attention paid to porefilling minerals. Recognition of appropriate continuity models will allow significant control over recovery of hydrocarbons from reservoirs and influences the type of development scheme employed.k r A T. which can also show characteristic facies Flow f'\ I I 2 k H . 14. from geological hypotheses required to make correlations and from analysis of the pressure versus time behaviour of well tests.1 Integration of geological and engineering data The development of a valid geological model is of necessity an interactive process. Since the vertical record of sediments in a well is related to the lateral processes of sediarentation occurring over a wide area at one time. Both these specialities are directed towards an understanding of the sedimentary processes by which a reservoir has formed and the subsequent diagenetic modification of pore space. and will be used here. The particular specialities needed by geologists working with engineers on the generation of the geological framework for reservoir simulation studies are in the fields of sedimentology and palynofacies. Core data provides the single most important data base and. Higher delta plain distributary channels Lower delta plain ~nterdistributary lakes marshes and swamps Continuous shoreline sand 1 14. using core data particularly.5.8). correlation between well control and matching with seismic profiles. and delta front. development geologists are finding improvements in their geological models result by incorporating pressure analysis data.5. which can place reservoir and nonreservoir units against each other. 14. The extrapolation and correlation of reservoir sands can be severely interrupted by localized faulting subsequent to deposition. The recognition of sandbody type. The geological model(s) provide the main basis for predicting reservoir description away from direct well control and some discussion of their development and uncertainty is appropriate. 14. continuity can vary drama Fig. In deltaic reservoir models.direction transmissibility) = ( L 1+ L 2 ) Fig.11. The simplest subdivision of gross deltaic environments is into delta top or delta plain.9.11 Subdivision of the gross deltaic environment (after 1 . 14. These may then be subdivided as shown in Fig.2 Reservoir geometry and continuity The typical continuity of reservoir sands and shales is shown in Fig. tically according to the depositional environment of individual sandbodies.
INCREASING CURRENT DECREASING CURRENT Fig. There are complete gradations between the different divisions. . Thickness from few inches to tens of feet.12 Crevasse splay. miles. (e) Antidunes Max~mum . levees. . May be several square miles (time markers).2. The sedimentary structures can be used to deduce the current as follows: (a) Plane bed without movement (b) Small ripples (c) Megaripples or dunes (d) Plane bed with sediment movement . and at the upstream end the delta plain passes into a river valley flood plain. Linear extent along channel for tens of miles. Few feet thick. . 14. Disturbed bedding. In fluvial reservoir environments there is a characteristic sequence of sedimentary structures related to increasing current strength. . Zero thickness Fig. clay. coal. Multiple point bars extend many miles. f4. medium to fine grained sand coarsens downward with increased scale cross bedding..PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 14. few feet to tens of feet thick.2 Delta top characteristics  Character Crevasse splay Sandsilty sand interbeds. wood. . Most extensive fluvial deposits occupy large areas in lower reaches of rivers and gradually grade into the upper deltaic plain. Hundreds of feet to tens of miles along length. Very poor Marshiswamp Silt. ~eservz potential Poor Natural levee Sand. plant remains. 14. Slumps and contorted bedding. . Few feet to hundreds of feet thick.3 and 14. May be a mile or more wide. None Channel fill Fair to excellent depending on size Point bar Well sorted. crevasses splays) include much silt and clay. Tables 14. Dimensions Small areal extent: individual sands rarely more than few sq. Depends on size of the distributary. silt. Overbank sediments (top of point bars. . clay plant debris. Excellent associations for each subdivision. . laminated.13 Delta top crosssection. Sand is deposited in the lower partsof river channels.4 illustrate reservoir geometry and quality expectations from conceptual models. current rippled. may show fining upward sequence. Trough cross bedding. using deltaic systems as an example. several tens of feet thick.
.. ..3 Fluvial environments of flood plain and delta top Single channels Appearance Dimensions Reservoir potential Braided channel ~ bar h a d e3ry26" n n e e A  & _ + " Typically upstream part of flood plain...14 Delta progradation. Reservoir quality depends on size and stacking pattern.1 4 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING Sea level Fig......... . . TABLE 14.. 1060' thick. 3100' thick.. length may be hundreds of miles.....width mile to 8 miles...... Vertical stacking (Map: belt) (Map: continuous sheet) Isolated stacking (Map: discontinuous sheet) . 14. Fair to excellent depending on size Coalesced channels . Meandering channel Point Typically downstream part of flood plain. multiple sands of meander belt may extend for many miles. thickness up to 501... .... 1002000' wide.. . Excellent Sediment bar Straight channel += A Typically deltaic distributaries. Excellent .. up to 10 miles long.
Thickness from few inches to tens of feet.15 depicts graphically various bedforms and their relationship to grain size and stream power. sediment movement starts in a noncohesive bed. Possibly cut by tidal channels and forming associated ebbtide deltas. In this exercise the proposed geological zonation must be compared with petrophysical zonation based largely on porosity and permeability (poroperm). Interaction with the geological observations based on Xray analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies often helps explain a basis for diagenetic change in pore character.821).4 Delta front characteristics Character Dimensions Typically up to 80' thick and 2 miles wide. In Fig. Tens of feet thick. 14. tidal range and current directions. Plane bed L " 3 Lower regime (tranquil flow) 0 0. Few miles wide. Observation and correlation from wells can then lead to an expected. Reservoir potential Good Distributary mouth bar Well sorted sand grading downwards and outwards into finer grained sediment. consistent model to explain reservoir distribution at a given time or horizon.0. may prograde and so greatly increase width. 14. 14. often burrowed. which are then related to quantitative estimates of porosity. permeability and saturation. Miles in length and width. Figure 14. Well sorted sand Very poor Excellent Shore face Smooth seaward and irregular landward margins. Sheetlike cover of area of delta lobe. Length up to 15 miles in cases of progradational growth. Fair to good Basal marine sand Continuous marker shale association I None > " 4.0 mm Fig. Such a model is shown in Fig. tens to hundreds of miles long.0 Antidunes Upper regime (rapid flow) > 1.6 Grain size 0. May be smaller in shallower water. The validity of poroperm data from core analysis and porosity from log analysis depends very much on recognition of the effects of clay minerals in the pore space and lithological variations from the bulk reservoir properties. The resultant models often contain an expectation of vertical and lateral zonation of reservoir properties.16 for a deltaic system["]. parallel laminations and local lowangle cross beds.8 1.4 0. Under the influence of flowing water. Clean well sorted sand at top grading into silty sand at base.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 14.17 the reservoir character of channel and bar sands are contrasted. The detailed shapes are based on energy for sorting sediments and result from consideration of depositional flow regimes. Interdistributary bay Barrier beach Silt and shale with sand lenses and laminae. Tens of feet thick.2 0.15 Bedforms in relation to grain size and stream power (after [8'. which can be applied as a function of . Tens to hundreds of feet thick. a few grains start rolling and may produce horizontal laminations if sufficient sediment is available and the process continues for a certain length of time. At low energy conditions. May be hundreds of square miles. Possible direction in tidal channel permeability.
14.16 Palaeogeographic representation of complex environments (after .I DELTA P L A I N Fig.
The upper diagram represents a sandy sequence containing a laterally discontinuous shale and a continuous thin micaceous stratum. The boundary between sands 3 and 4 has been removed because permeability thickness contrast was less than a few times. A reservoir simulation model must recognize the role of vertical communication between the sands in controlling saturation distribution and frontal movement under dynamic displacement conditions. Lowest Highest Gamma ray Permeability 0.244 TYPE Top TEXTURE Grain size Sorting Finest Best I I CHANNELS Bottom Coarsest Poorest Top 1 Coarsest Best .Figure 14. primarily dependent on net effective permeability thickness (k. 14.a factor of zero indicates that the shale is sealing and unity indicates that crossflow is controlled by sandsand contact. but the boundary between sands 2 and 3 is retained.18 (b)). Pseudorelative permeability and capillary pressure functions of pore volume weighted . It should be expected that zones exhibiting diagenetic damage will have different irreducible saturations or relative permeabilities from other zones. PORE SPACE Porosity Pore size Lowest Very fine Highest Large PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Deltaic channel CONTINUITY Feet Deteriorates U '".18 indicates a progression in reservoir description within a region of a crosssection model . position or saturation in a reservoir model. .8). A coarse grid model of this region (Fig.17 Reservoir characteristics of channel and bar sands (after 1 9 7. For reasons of cost and computing time. the minimization of the number of grid cells used to define a reservoir is often required. This model has the same fluid content and pore volume as the geological model and is used to study the sensitivity to reservoir description of dynamic saturation distributions.hN). 14.any extension to include areal geometry leads to greater complexity in effective transmissibility representation.18 (c)) can be developed to reduce computer time in field performance prediction studies.1 10 50 * . Reservoir zones should represent regions of differing flow properties. 14. The micaceous zone is removed from the pore volume of the model but its effect retained as a multiplication factor on the harmonic average vertical permeability calculated between sands 34 and 5..a Grain size depth. A similar vertical transmissibility multiplyer approach is used between sands 1 and 2 to account for the shale wedge . The sands are distinguishable from each other by sedimentary facies description but do not have dramatically different permeability contrast in the bedding plane direction. One of the most difficult stages in constructing a reservoir model is compromising scales of observation of geological and petrophysical properties with the scale of model grid cells (Fig. . The model again contains the same total fluid and pore volume as the geological model. A fine grid model recognizes the boundaries between sand units which might control crossflow (Fig. Fig. 14. P CAPILLARITY Permeability S .1 10 7000 ' Lowest Lowest Best Highest Highest I Highest Large I 1 Best Deltaic sit 1 Feet bar d e ~ o1000s 0. The averaging of poroperm saturation data in volumetric calculation is of less significance thansthe representation of flow properties by pseudofunctions in stratified reservoir intervals for dynamic reservoir performance calculations.
Subsequent work has shown that porosity. 14.AX~)O.e'. of a Middle Jurassic. A equidimensional (D. (b) fine grid model. petrophysicists and development geologists. about 1%. are used in the coarse grid model to historical field measurement. h The conceptual model of the field provides the basis for inferring the properties of the other 99%. k . al models there is no concept of saturation pressure together with geophysicists as necessary. Potential gradients exist shows a crosssection and areal grid representation as step changes between cells and serve to move in the Statfjord field. 14.) grid cells can be represented threedimensional model on this grid base would as follows: contain some 11400 cells. (a) Geological representation. The characterization of a grounds. In an individual stratum. The process is not. (c) coarse grid model. Modificaadopted for this purpose. As has been shown by Archer [I7].3 Uncertainty in reservoir model description .~ Fig. the validity of a range of values can be obtained from Ax = which emerge during reservoir production.20 gradient within a grid cell. the mapping of reservoir characteristics. such as areal extent.5. The history matching demonstrate the same displacement behaviour. together with application of directional relative permeabilities and the representation of the flow of fluids across faults and partially displaced layers. Well functions may also be tions are required that are reasonable and can be used to represent partial penetration and local radial defended on both geological and engineering flow coning character [331. however. In the areal model. unique since several varimethod of Kyte and Berry [341 is most frequently ables could be modified to obtain a match.18 Zonation in crosssection modelling.14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING (1) Geological representation I 245 75 Sand (2) Fine grid model I sand 4  I I . generated from results of the simulation performance prediction is confirmed by fine grid model. net:gross variation and permeability. where r. 14. The minimization of uncertainty in reservoir simulation is time dependent and occurs as more reservoir average saturation. = r. well control exists in 7 cells of the total 760. constant. reservoir mapping and (AX~.Cell boundary Fig. Figure 4. thickness. Peaceman [351 has reservoir used in early development planning and shown that a semisteady state productivity index in controlled with data from seven exploration wells. has been discussed in the context of reservoir simulation by Smith [j6'.gineers. Increasingly the history match procedure well productivity index in reservoir models requires involves multidisciplinary teams of reservoir enmodification from analytical forms since in numeric. (3) Coarse g r ~ d model saturation dlstr~but~on t ~ m e In The problems of crossflow and inflow to wellbores from stratified systems.19 Contrast in pressure representation in analytical and simulator calculations. infor cells of different sizes a good approximation over volves use of conceptual models. Brent fluids across intercell boundaries.
21 and 14. These uncertainties can be explored in terms of their impact on proposed development by sensitivity studies. The greatest uncertainties in black oil reservoir modelling tend to be in appropriate zonation. Development planning calls for flexibility in design so that early key wells can be used to help differentiate between model possibilities. (c) permeability map 2.246 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 24'002500  f 2600 .21 Alternative petrophysical mapping. (b) permeability map 1. Fig.22). 14. the results of which may point to the need for key well .2584.20 Early simulation cells for the Statfjord field study (Brent Sand) (after [I6]). (a) Well location. interzone transmissibility and in saturation dependent relative permeability terms. (d) permeability map 3. 14. crosssection interpretation can be varied even with a given control data set (Figs 14.lrn 0 Oil /water n LO 5 27002800  5 10 I 0 I 1 225krn ibd Fig.
(Could vary: vertical permeability. relative permeabilities. Schemes for enhanced oil recovery which involve miscible processes and chemical processes often have great uncertainty attached to the modelling of physical mechanisms for displacement. 14. In many of these processes there is significant numerical dispersion which makes displacement front tracking difficult and which may cause uncertainty in performance predictions. which are not unique. Sampling in these reservoirs at bottomhole conditions is generally unreliable and in these particular circumstances recombined surface samples may be preferred.23 and 14. In gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs the greatest uncertainties in addition to those mentioned for black oils are in valid fluid properties as functions of pressure and temperature.14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING (a) Extens~vemarine sand Coarsening upwards ( b ) Channel sand at r ~ g h tangles to fault Fin~ngupwards (c) Channel sands parallel to fault Fig.) . net pay volume. 00* A A A Field measurements Model predictions A ! \ Pressure + Fig. are shown in Figs 14. Examples. 14. History matching measured periormance (pressure distribution and producing fluid ratios) with reservoir simulation is the only way to validate a model. data. horizontal permeability. This is particularly true when multicontact or partial miscible processes are considered and for adsorption and microemulsion formation in surfactant processes.24. (b) channel sand at right angles to fault.22 Alternative sand models giving different performance predictions. (a) Extensive marine sand.23 Results from preliminary history match at given well. In heavy oil reservoirs fluid sampling is also difficult and the reservoir fluid may not flow composition may sometimes then be obtained from extracting core. The interpretation of viscosity at proposed reservoir development conditions becomes a particular uncertainty. (c) channel sands parallel to fault.
Define basis for net pay and rationalize geological and petrophysical definitions in zonation. Assessment of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. Petrophysical data used to define porosity and saturation vertical and lateral distribution.OIMD) PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE (KV=O. Develop transmissibility modification factor maps for all interlayers. Preliminary estimation of recovery factors for potential recovery processes. Represent stratified reservoir character in permeability contrast distributions. mature source rocks. (5) 14. i. Develop more detail in geological model and consider mapping and correlation options. Define hydrocarbon in place level for simulation models. Reservoir engineering data added for volumetric and dynamic analyses.05 X recoverable reserve per year until 60% of the recoverable reserve has been produced. for instance. assume peak rate ACQ (annual contract quantity) is 0. Complete petrophysical analysis on standardized basis. Select crosssections of the reservoir (along dip . trap and migration path. tested and indication of commercial productivity index PI.6. Fluid samples for PVT properties.248 (KV=O.24 History match of water cut development in EtiveIRannoch sand system by assumption of vertical permeability between sands (after 14.7. (2) Appraisal wells to delineate structure and establish fluid contacts. Analytical methods used to define stability of displacement. saturation and field area (limits) in probability distributions for each zone. Assume a peak production rate for oil of. Pressure regime and aquifer contribution assessed. Core to define sedimentology and provide basis for reservoir (7) (8) (9) recovery mechanisms. 14. Represent PVT data regionally if appropriate.6 APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR MODELS IN FIELD DEVELOPMENT The decision base for reservoir development is both technical and economic[1201. Develop relative permeability data for zones and regions in the field.discovery. Define uncertainties and represent net thickness.e. Development of preliminary geological model. Check zonation using capillary pressure character and irreducible saturations. Estimate well requirements based on semisteady state completion PI. Onshore development should proceed stepwise and is often unconstrained by development well locations. I_n this part of the chapter we shall concentrate on offshore field development as uncertainty in reservoir characteristics is more significant. For gas wells consider plateau rate as fraction of reserve per annum according to typical contracts. reservoir rocks.I MD) CS 0. 10% of recoverable reserve per annum and a plateau duration such that at least 3 0 4 0 % of the recoverable reserve are recovered at peak rate. for notional 20year life of reservoirs containing more than 1 TCF. Well drilled . and decline is based on 1020% per annum (depends strongly on heterogeneity). Well testsicore log data rationalization. It should in general be cheaper than any offshore project of comparable reserves. Facility requirements should be designed for day rate offtakes where SDC is the seller's delivery capacity . porosity.a seasonal factor having a maximum value about 1.1 Application Sequence Perhaps the sequence of field development considerations follows these steps: (6) (1) Exploration drilling location chosen on basis of potential structure. Preliminary economic analysis based on notional cost estimates and value of products.4 (3) (4) Observed Simulated t Days Fig. Run Monte Carlo type volumetric analyses.
14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING
249
axes) to ensure gravity effects on flow represented properly. Represent layer nature transmissibility and reservoir permeabilitji as sensitivity parameters. Examine vertical sweep efficiency in analytical and reservoir simulation calculations for different recovery mechanisms and well locations/completion intervals. Determine character of pseudofunctions for use in coarser grid models. Check in 1D mode. (10) Run radial simulation models to evaluate coning potential or to calculate well functions in terms of saturation in some defined region. (11) Run threedimensional sector models to study both areal and vertical sweep efficiency and sensitivity of options to reservoir description uncertainties. (12) Extend to coarser grid full reservoir model in three dimensions for the recovery mechanism selected. Study effect of u7ell locations, rates, completion and recompletion intervals and productionloperation constraints. Production profiles and facility implications used in economic analyses are evaluated.
FC26
Dec 1976
(13) Refine field plan and consider effects of tubing flow constraints, pumps and separators and pass results to project management with recommendations. Define preferred well development sequence and design early data collection program. Plan for model updates and history matching. Represent recoverable reserves as probabilistic distribution. The use of a number of early 4evelopment wells and a decline in field pressure may allow development of refined correlations, such as shown in Fig. 14.25.
14.6.2 Recent Field Studies
The petroleum engineering literature contains many examples of field studies using reservoir models (see reference list). A particularly constructive example I' is the Stiles and Bobeck ' [ account of the Fulmer predevelopment simulation study in Blocks 30116 and 30111b in the UKCS North Sea. The Fulmer
FC63
Sept 1979
FC22
July 1979
FC44
May 1976
1
Nov 1977
Dec 1976
Fig. 14.25 Reservoir zonation in the Forties reservoir showing use of geological and petrophysical correlation enhanced with RFT and production logging data. (After r1221.)
250
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
field is a stratified Upper Jurassic shallow marine sandstone in a faulted anticlinal structure, and contains 41" API undersaturated oil. The datum depth and pressure is 10 000 ft SS and 5700 psi. The reported value of oil in place is 824 X lo6 STB. The field is situated in the central sector of the North Sea about 170 miles from Aberdeen and water depths are some 275 ft. The development plan preferred for the reservoir employs flank water injection and temporary gas storage in the crestal region. Reservoir studies were therefore directed at both gas and water displacement of oil and coning potential.
Crosssection and single well studies were used in addition to full field studies. An early production system was evaluated and installed. This employed four production wells drilled through a subsea template prior to installation of the main platform. The template well provided early information on which to improve the geological and reservoir engineering models. Figure 14.26 shows the structure map with west and north crosssections indicated, and Fig. 14.27 shows the general geological crosssection. Figure 14.28 shows the grid pattern for a gas coning model. Fig. 14.29 shows the north flank crosssection model and Fig. 14.30 the west flank
N
'IIItR
C
Wellhead jackel
1
2
3
8
5
6
1
~
9
~
Fig. 14.26 Fulmar structure map showing crosssection locations. (After [551.)
SW
WATER INdECTlON 1N RINGS I 0 b l i
Fig. 14.28 Fulmar gas coning radial model description.
NE
301167
7
FT4
a
12000L
Fig. 14.27 Fulmar geological crosssection. (After r551.)
14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING
Gas
injector
OWC
1000
2000
Distancefeet
3000
4000
Fig. 14.29 Fulmar north flank reservoir crosssection model. (After [551.)
GAS 6ACK.W GAS
INJECTOR INJECTOR
12,000
I
I
I
1000
2000
DISTANCE
3000
4000
I 5000

FEET
Fig. 14.30 Gas migration path predicted in west flank crosssection model. (After[551.)
The simulation and reservoir engineering study recognised that gravity forces would play an important role at planned reservoir withdrawal rates and that gas override and water underrun might be reduced. The apparent lack of restriction to vertical flow however gave concern about coning and resulted in recommendations about completion locations for wells. It also showed that long term gas
storage in the reservoir crest was not a good plan but that gas could be injected temporarily into the oil column where it should rapidly migrate upwards. The Petroleum Engineering literature contains numerous examples of reservoir simulation studies at all stages of field exploitation and the reader is referred to the reference list for further case studies.
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
References
[I] Craig, F.F. Reservoir Engineering Aspects of Waterflooding, SPE Monograph, Vol. 3 (1971). [2] Buckley, S.E. and Leverett, M.C. Mechanism of fluid displacements in sand, Trans. A I M E 146 (1942), 107. [3] Rapoport, L.A. and Leas, W.J. Properties of linear waterfloods, Trans. A I M E 189 (1953), 139. 141 Terwilliger, P.L. et al. An experimental and theoretical investigation of gravity drainage, Trans. A I M E 192 (1951). 285. 151 Levine, J.S. .. Displacement experiments in a consolidated porous system, Trans. A I M E 201 (1954), 55. [6] Johnson, E.F.,Bossler, D.P. and Naumann, V. 0 . Calculation of relative permeability from displacement experiments, Trans. A l M E 216 (1959), 370. [7] Croes, G.A. and Schwarz, N. Dimensionally scaled experiments and theories on the water drive process, Trans. A I M E 204 (1955), 35. [8] Engelberts, W.L. and Klinkenberg, L.J. Laboratory experiments on displacement of oil by water from rocks of granular materials, Proc. 3rd World Pet. Cong. I1 (1951), 544. [9] van Meurs, P. The use of transport three dimensional models for studying the mechanisms of flow processes in oil reservoirs, Trans. A I M E 210 (1957), 295. [lo] Egbogah, E.O. and Dawe, R.A. Microvisual studies of size distribution of oil droplets in porous media, Bull. Can. Pet. Geol. 28 (June 1980), 200. [ l l ] Bonnet, J. and Lenormand, R. Constructing micromodels for the study of multiphase flow in porous media, Rev. d. IFP 42 (1977), 477. [12] Archer, J.S. and Hancock, N. J. An appreciation of Middle Jurassic Brent sand reservoir features by analogy with Yorkshire coast outcrops, EUR 197, Proc. Europ. Pet. Conf. (1980), 501, Vol. 1. [13] Archer, J.S. and Wilson, D.C. Reservoir simulation in the development of North Sea oil fields, The Chemical Engineer (July 1978), 565. 1141 Archer, J.S. and Hurst. A.H.  The role of clay mineralogy on reservoir description in petroleum engineering, Proc. Clay Mineralogy Conf., Cambridge (1985). [15] Archer, J.S., Keith, D.R. and Letkeman, J.P. Application of reservoir simulation models in the development of North Sea reservoirs, SPE 5285, Proc. Europ. Svmu. SPE (1975). [16] Archer, J.S. and Wong, S.W. Interpretation of laboratory waterflood data by use of a reservoir simulator, SPEJ (Dec. 1973), 343. [17] Archer, J.S. Reservoir definition and characterisation for analysis and simulation, Proc. 11th World Pet. Cong., London (1983), PD 6 (1). [18] Ha"vena, D . Interpretation, averaging and use of the basic geological engineering data, J. Can. Pet. Tech. 6 (1967), 236. [I91 Bishop, K.A., Breit, V.S., Oreen, D. W. and McElhiney, J.C. The application of sensitivity analysis to reservoir simulation, SPE 6102, Proc. 51stAnn. Fall Mtg. (1976). [20] Killough, J.E. Reservoir simulation with history dependent saturation functions, Trans. A I M E 261 (1976). 37. [21] Slater, G.E. and Durrer, E.J. Adjustment of reservoir simulation models to match field performance, Trans. A I M E 251 (1971), 295. [22] Thomas, L.K., Lumpkin, W.B. and Reheis, G.M. Reservoir simulation of variable bubble point problems, SPEJ (1976), 10. [23] Toronyi, R.M. and Ali, S.M.F. Determining interblock transmissibility in reservoir simulators, JPT (1974), 77. [24] Wilson, D.C., Tan, T.C. and Casinader, P.C. Control of numerical dispersion in compositional simulation, Proc. 1st Europ. Symp. EOR, Bournemouth (1981), 425. [25] Mrosovsky, I., Wong, J.Y. and Lampe, H .W. Construction of a large field simulator on a vector computer, JPT (Dec. 1980), 2253.
2
14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING
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14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING
255
,
!
I
:
I
1
1
I
i
[78] Pryor, W.A. and Fulton, K. Geometry of reservoir type sand bodies and comparison with ancient reservoir analogs, SPE 7045, Proc. Symp. on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa (April 1978), 81. [79] Ruzyla, K. and Friedman, G.M. Geological heterogeneities important to future enhanced recovery in carbonate reservoirs; SPEDOE 9802, Proc. 2nd Jt. Symp. EOR, Tulsa (April 1981), 403. [80] Fisher, W.L., Brown, L.F., Scott, A.J. and McGowen, J.H. Delta systems in the exploration for oil and gas, Bur. Econ. Geol. (1969), Univ. Tex. Austin. [81] Simons, D.B., Richardson, E.V. and Nordin, C.F. Sedimentary structures generated by flow in alluvial channels, In Primary Sedimeaary Structures and their Hydrodynamic Interpretation (Middleton, G.V., ed.), Soc. Econ. Pet. Min. Spr. Pub. 12 (1965), 34. [82] Allen, J.R.L. Current Ripples, their Relations to Patterns of Water and Sediment Motion, North Holland Pub. Co., Amsterdam (1968). [83] Reading, H.G. (ed.) Sedimentary Environments and Facies, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford (1978). [84] Reineck, H.E. and Singh, I.B. Depositional Sedimentary Environment, Springer Verlag, Berlin (1973). 1851 Chauvin, A.L. etal. Development planning for the Statfjord field using 3D and areal reservoir simulation, SPE 8384, Proc. Ann. Fall Mtg. (1979). [86] Utseth, R.H. and Macdonald, R.C. Numerical simulation of gas injection in oil reservoirs, SPE 10118, Proc. Ann. Fall Mtg. (1981). [87] Addington, D .V. An approach to gas coning correlations for a large grid cell reservoir simulation, JPT (Nov. 1981), 2267. [88] Darlow, B.L., Ewing, R.E. and Wheeler, M.F. Mixed finite element method for miscible displacement problems in porous media, SPEJ (Aug. 1984), 391. [89] Haldorsen, H.H. and Lake, L.W. A new approach to shale management in fieldscale models, SPEJ (Aug. 1984), 447. [90] Craig, F.F., Willcox, P.J., Ballard, J.R. and Nation, W.R. Optimised recovery through continuing interdisciplinary cooperation, JPT (July 1977), 755. [91] Le Blanc, R.J. Distribution and continuity of sandstone reservoirs, JPT (July 1977), Pt 1,776, Pt 2,793. [92] Jardine, D., Andrews, D.P., Wishart, J.W. and Young, J.W. Distribution and continuity of carbonate reservoirs, JPT (July 1977), 873. [93] Harris, D.G. The role of geology in reservoir simulation studies, JPT (May 1975), 625. [94] Groult, J., Reiss, L.H. and Montadort, L. Reservoir inhomogeneities deduced from outcrop observations and production logging, JPT (July 1966), 883. [95] Campbell, C.V. Reservoir geometry of a fluvial sheet sandstone, Bull. AAPG (1976), 1009. [96] Davies, D.K., Ethridge, F.G. and Berg, R.R. Recognition of barrier environments, Bull. AAPG (1971), 550. [97] Barwis, J.H. and Makurath, J.H. Recognition of ancient tidal inlet sequences, Sedimentology 25 (1978), 61. [98] Budding, M.C. and Inglin, H.F. A reservoir geological model of the Brent sands in Southern Cormorant, In Petroleum Geology of the Continental ShelfN. W . Europe (eds Illing and Hobson), Inst. Pet. (1981). 326. [99] Craig, F.F. Effect of reservoir description on performance predictions, JPT (Oct. 1970), 1239. [loo] Yusun, J., Dingzeng, L. and Changyan, L. Development of Daqing oil field by waterflooding, JPT (Feb. 1985), 269. [loll Simlote, V.N., Ebanks, W.J., Eslinger, E.V. and Harpole, K.J. Synergistic evaluation of a complex conglomerate reservoir for EOR, Barrancas Formation, Argentina, JPT (Feb. 1985), 269. [I021 Hutchinson, C.A., Dodge, C.F. and Polasek, T.L. Identification, classification and prediction of reservoir inhomogeneities affecting production operations, JPT (March 1961), 223. [I031 Treiber, L.E., Archer, D.L. and Owens, W.W. Laboratory evaluation of the wettability of fifty oil producing reservoirs, SPEJ (Dec. 1972), 531.
3D seismic applications in the interpretation of Dunlin field.A. W. Proc. Use of reservoir simulation models in the development planning of the Statfjord field. [I141 ~ a l l e t t : ~ . Pet.E. Proc. M. Pet. Refinement of the geological model of the Thistle field. Archer.. H. Pet. M. N. Nordberg. SPE 10209.S. L J L . Elsevior Applied Science. J. Slater.. Seminar. Well performance analysis: a synergetic approach to dynamic reservoir description. and Stephens. AAPG Pub.Sea.P. Can. In Petroleum Geology of the Continental Shelf of N. Sedimentology 21 (1974). Pet.Feb. [118] Dake. 11. 1982).T. Norway (May 1980). Nor. Pet. I. and Sanders. [I121 Bain. . Wittmann. L.S.. Geilo..M. ' ~ e o ~ h ~ sengineering: a case for synergism. Europ. and Dimmock.E.O.. London (1978).F. Diagenetic modelling in the Middle Jurassic Brent sand of the N. Conf. JPT (Dec. Palynological identification of facies in a deltaic environment. [ I l l ] Denison. 55th Ann. Butler. Europe. Conf. Computer reservoir continuity study at Judy Creek. J. Proc.L. 39. In Petroleum and the Continental Shelf of N. Cobb. R. Conf. 315. 11. Proc. and Stone. Woodward).A. [I051 Friend. Illing and Hobson). A. SPE L . London (1978). R. Fall Mtg. EUR 89. 11091 Gretener. Fall Mtg. (MayJune 1984). Finding and Exploring Ancient Deltas in the Subsurface. \ . J. 325. Rocks. a n d ~ s a nP. \ . and Fowler. Eds. G. [I161 McMichael. M. Fall Mtg.J. and Lefevre. [I081 Raymer. SPE (1981). J. 55th Ann. and Hamilton.. London (1981) 371. 1371. Tech. Proc. JPT (Oct. Can. London (1982). Interpretation of log response in deltaic sediments.. 55. Graham & Trotman. L.C. Reservoir geology of the Forties oilfield. W. Europ. Pet. (1980). K. Vol. 1870.. London 1986. Geol. SPE 9310. Reservoir development planning for the Forties field. Inlet sequence: a vertical succession of sedimentary structures and textures created by the lateral migration of tidal inlets. SPE 9342. of N. Viking gas field.P. Europe (eds Illing and Hobson). Proc. 491.J.J. J. P. Pet. T. London (1975) 241. A quarter century of progress in the application of reservoir engineering. N.W. In Petroleum Geology of the Continental Shelf of N.A. J. Inti. Europe (Ed.L. [I171 Hillier. R. G. (Jan. 11.H. Application of the RFT in vertical and horizontal pulse testing in the Middle Jurassic Brent sands. Europ. London (1978). In North Sea Oil and Gas Reservoirs. R.M. D.L. [I151 Hancock. P. Proc. and Young. Proc. and Williams. Vol. ~ e o l o ~ y . London 136 (1979). on Sedim. London (1981). [I061 Gilreath. and i c s 11101 Richardson. C.R. R. Vol. 243. Trondheim (December 1985). 11191 Coats. [I211 Gray. Conf. ~. Europ. P. C. and Burgess. Vertical and lateral building of river sandstone bodies. The role of well logs in reservoir modelling. Inst. W. Tech. [I221 Carman. Proc. [I131 Stewart. (1975).M. Soc.B. Sea Res. 275. 38.. (1985)... EUR 98. 11981)). J.. R. J. Simulation of gas condensate reservoir performance. EUR 270. 1973). Pet. Some aspects of reservoir description for reservoir modelling. 56th Ann. UK N. 9. G. (Eds. J. and Kleppe. North Sea. Heyden. K.S. EUR 92.G.256 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [I041 Kumar. [I071 Delaney. Conf.
1984. kilometres barrel well depths . 1415) and October bar p.615 cubic ft Viscosity cubic metre = (35.) Density lb mass per cubic foot * Reprinted from Journal of Petroleum Technology.Appendix I A SPE ~omenclature and Units* Standard letter symbols for reservoir engineering Gas volume and electric logging have been defined by the AIME cubic foot) measured at 1 atmosphere (Society of Petroleum Engineers). Some non. kg mass per cubic metre pp.31) ft3 centipoise (Unless otherwise specified. subscripts and nomenclature are still MCF = thousands of cubic feet MMCF = millions of cubic feet in use and may be encountered. and the industry uses the trillion is the American trillion = 1012. feet. units has yet occurred. SPEAIME. an oil volume will be tank oil measured at 1 atmosphere and 60°F.cubic metre) and 60°F standard terms. No effective standardization or metrication of (The billion is the American billion = lo9.1801.) American mixed units to a large extent.miles. Temperature degrees Fahrenheit "F degrees Rankine O R = 460 "F UNITS degrees Kelvin K Volume Length acrefoot for large volumes pipelines . g per cubic centimetre + . although some metric units mixed with American still may be Pressure encountered.feet or metres cubic ft cubic metre Diameters tubular diameters generally inches or centimetres Liquid volume feetimetres barrel = 5. A n application of the SI metric system pounds force per square in (psi) is found in the Journal of Petroleum Engineerinng atmosphere (1985) in the issues for August (p. 22782323 by permission. 1984.
609344 1.262059 x 10' 1.601846 x lo' 1.4516 x 1o2 1.s m2 Conversion factor .imin cP Darcy rnilliDarcy SPEpreferred unit km m m mm km2 km2 m2 mm2 m3 m3 r13 m3 m3 m3/m m3/m m3/m kg Mg Kim kPa kPa kPa kPa Pa kPa/m kg/m3 kgim3 m3/d m3/hr Pa.046873 x 1o3 0. mile acre sq.785412 x 1 5./ft Ibm/ft3 Ibm/US gall. (industry .O 0.0765 1b/ft3) AYI scale for tank oil Oil densities API gravity Gasuil ratio standard cubic feet of gas per stock t a l k barrel of oil cubic metrcs of gas (s.233482 x 1o3 1.~ . ~ 4.02903404 x 1o . ~ 3.c. MCFid and MSCFDld.831685 x 1 0 .~ .' 9.O 9.3048 25. cm Ibfisq. in. dynelsq.0 Recornnlendatiorl for rnetricatiorl and appropriate conver~ion Cactnrs for units are glven: Recommended units: conversions Quantity S I unit Industry unit mile metre foot inch sq.0920304 6.241933 x 1 0 .) per cubic metre tank oil Flow rate liquids .198264~ 10' 1. MMSCFD cubic lnctres per clay (mild) MSCFDid SG = specific gravity of water = 1. inch m3 acre foot barrel ft3 US gallon barrelslit it3/ft US gall.2271247 I 1o . in. cm lbfisq.822689 1.589873 x 10.' 9.4 2.~ 1.preferred) 1.2161 19 x 10.589988 4.894757 1 x 10" 2.O 1. 0 l~ 2 o 9.869233 x 1o .barrel per day (bid) cubic metre? per day (m'id) gases . s pm2 ~ m * Length m Area m2 Volume m3 Capacityilength Mass Temperature gradient Pressure m3/m kg Kim Pa Pressure gradient Density Volume rate Viscosity Permeability Palm kgim3 m3is Pa.013250 x 1o2 1 . ft sq.qtandard cubic I t per day SCFid.589873 x 10' 2.535924 x lo' 0.9071847 1.258 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Specific gravity liquids relative to water (62.ift Ib mass short ton O~ / f t atmosphere bar kgfisq.869233 x 10.' 0.806650 x 10' 6. bld US gall.4 Ibift') gases relative to air (0.
Symbols alphabetized by physical quantity. dimensions of each quantity in terms of mass. the pAnciples employed in the selection of additional symbols have been as follows: A . F. etc. B. minimize conflicts with m. For the Symbols Standards to have singleletter kernels. This is the universal practice of the Structure of lists American National Standards Institute (ANSI). traditional mathematical symbols such as log. tion of additional standard symbols. standardized by such authorities as ANSI. Limit the list principally to basic quantities. (1) Use single letters only for the main letter symbols. Where pertinent. which. Principles of symbols selection Once the original reservoir Symbols Standard was established in 1956. variables of any dimensions can be related). Additions resulted from requests from members and from editorial reviews of the numerous papers submitted to SPE for publication.E . The complete symbols list is given symbols employed in mathematical equations. rules and guides for the writers of technical papers. This terminology perples C and D below. dimensionless or other). q). have tions. reciprocals. This flexibility in dimen. present. original standards were published in 1956 following five years of intensive development. typed. Adopt letter symbols consistent or parallel with require different dimensions in different problems. Choose symbols that can be readily handwritten. these Standards. Use initial letters of materials. as being The extraordinary growth in all phases of petroleum suggestive and easily remembered. since the . the existing SPE Standard. ~ S P~ S S P . dimensionless or other). the International Organization for StandardizaThe 1984 Symbol Standards are a consolidation of tion (ISO) and the International Union of Pure the 1956 Standard and all later supplements. Thus quantities that are sometimes identification only and are not intended as definirepresented by abbreviations in textual matetions. tions. Subscripts alphabetized by symbols. the specification of units and conditions of Examples are: gasoil ratio (GOR). temperature and electrical charge (m. B. Defining equations are given in a few cases rial. Symbols alphabetized by symbols. minimizing conflicts Examples are symbols: (1) m for slope of a line (two with that Standard.. respectively. phase. Some and Applied Physics (IUPAP) in more than 20 of the crossgrouping and obsolete quantities have formal Standards adopted by them for letter been eliminated. in four different forms as follows: (2) Make available single and multiple subA . adopt the symbols already for concentration (dimensions might be mi^^. length. Subscripts alphabetized by physical quantity. and (2) to codify symbols lists. T. and computer technology has necessitated the adop. (3) F (factor) when it or IUPAP (see A). and printed. . where not in conflict with princicolumn for several symbols. mits maximum flexibility for quantities that may C. hole pressure (BHP).SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS SPE SYMBOLS STANDARD Preface Objectives The primary objectives of the 1984 Symbols Standards are to combine prior standards and supplements into one publication so as to provide (1) consistency of usage and maximum ease of understanding of mathematical equations for the readers of technical papers. represents ratio (dimensions might be ~ ~ l m . special conditions. sions permits desirable shortening of the symbols avoiding symbols and subscripts for combinalist.pbh. scripts to the main letter symbols to the extent necessary for clarity. processes. tables or graphs are required in the SPE where further identifications may be needed. ISO. for symbols and subscripts. The term various also appears in this author usage. Multiple letters such as abbreviations are C. static SP (SSP). A few exceptions are some D . In The names or labels for the quantities are for and lim. a column has been included giving the the following SPE Standard symbols: R. . spontaneous potential For convenience in dimensional checking of equa(SP).G . time. (2) C D. bottommeasurement is left to the user. Adopt the letter symbols of original or prior L. t. Additional standard symbols etc. prohibited for use as the main symbol (kernel) for a quantity.
A symbol with a superscript such as plime (') or second ("). To make such usage less confusing. Abbreviations. Often a listed alternative symbol or a modifying subscript is available and should he adopted. or abbreviation. many lettcrs in the Greek alphabet (lower case and capital) are practically indistinguishable from English letters. 4.. Except in brief reports. Each published letter syrnbol should be: 1. may appear among subscripts. Econonzicul in publicatiorz. K. shoi~ldbe e11closed in parentheses. rnay be attached to in words and abbreviations. braces or brackets before an exponent is attached. the author should not introduce new syrnbols or depart from currently accepted notation. (3) the constancy of one independent physical quantity among others on which a given quantity depends for its value. (4) a variable with respect to which the givcn quantity is a derivative. The intended sense must be clear i n each case. one may introduce locally. Conflicts must be avoided. or a tensor index.. the following guidcs were employed for the order of appearance o f the indiviclual letters in multiple subscripts in the syrnlx)ls list. (4) Often :I complicated expressioll appears as a cornpo nelit part of a complex mathematical f o r n ~ ~ ~ l a for example. So far as logical clarity permits. (2) a designated state. Clear in reference. the zero is easily mistaken for a capital 0. 2. authors of technical works (including textbooks) are urged to adopt the symbols in this and other current standard lists and to conform to the principles stated here. indicating the adopted unit rnay be attached to a letter syrnbol. such as n~lnlbers distinctive type. Except in this situation. Secondary symbols. it should appear first in subscdpt order. a writer should be careful in calling for separate symbols that in published form might be confuscd by the reader. For example.. in copy largely typewritten and to be reproduced in facsimile. Use of the same rules is reconirnendcd when it becomes necessary t o establish a multiple subscript notation that has not ~ C C I Iincluded in this list. (3) a unit. or else refer to a standard list as a source for symbols used but not explained. One should try to keep at a minimum the cost of publishing symbols. For exalnplc. (2) a distinguishing label. a single nonconflicting letter to stand for such a complicated component. I11 particular: (1) Notations which call for handsetting of movable type should be rejected in favour o f forms adapted to inodcrn mechanical methods of composition. When the subscript r for 'relative' is used. In the use of pirblishcd symbols. point. The units should be indicated whenever necessary. Easily ident@~d. The wide variety ancl complexity of suhject matter covered in the petroleum literature nlakc it impossible to avoid use of multiple subscripts with many syrnbols. themselves standarclized. hut not to letter symbols. (3) Handwriting of inserted symbols. Several subscripts or superscripts sometimes separated by colllnias may be attached to a single lettcr. where possible. B. For work in a specialized or developing field. a subscript may indicate: (I ) the place of a term in a sequence or matrix. or (4) a tensor index. An explanatory definition should then appear in the immediate context. A conventional sign. as an exponent of a given basc. a superscript may indicate: ( I ) the exponent for a power. Reference marks. 3.  C. Stundard. An author should give a table of the symbols used ancl their respective interpretations.260 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Principles of letter symbol standardization A. 01tirnc.. an author may need synibols in addition to those already contained in standard lists. letters and signs that are similar in appearance. Because of the many numerals.. When the sulxcript i for 'injection' or . one should avoid attaching subscripts and superscripts to subscripts and superscripts. or corres~mndingnu~ncral. Like~/isc. One should not assign to a given symbol different meanings in such a manner as to make its interpretation in a given context anlbiguous. part. Instead. any symbol not familiar to the reading public should have its meaning defined in the tcxt. 2. (2) No one work should use a great variety o f types and special characters. Multiple subscriptposition order. or systern of units. should not be excessive. In such a case the author should be careful to select simple suggestive sylnbols that avoid conflict in the given field and in other closely related special fields.for example. Examples: K. 1. Subscripts and superscripts are widely used and for a variety of convcntional purposcs. Requirements for Pl~blished Quantity.
Only type faces with serifs are recommended. q = electrical charge. For a discussion of methods . and other subscripts and superscripts. Quantity symbols may be used in mathematical expressions in any way consistent with good mathematic51 usage.). whether upper case. 4. P s ~ . formation volume factor of injected gas. the mobility ratio will be defined as the ratio of the displacing phase mobility to the displaced phase mobility. Except for Case 4 above. lower case. swept.. The symbol a is to be used in all other cases and is that preferred by ASA. 5. initial or original oxygen concentration. 4. separation. when applied to a symbol already subscripted. system subscripts should generally appear first in subscript order. B. Remarks. tion rate during time period 3. 6. . . differentiaI. the folloking subscripts should usually appear last in subscript order: regions such as bank. from copy largely typewritten. It is important to select a type face that has italic forms. They are derived by one of three procedures used in methods of similarity: integral. unburned (b. The letter R is retained for electrical resistivity in well logging usage.or albc. N2 for nitrogen. Complete chemical formulas are used as subscripts for other materials: C 0 2 for carbon dioxide. Examples: B. perimental pack. 2. b.G. i) enclosed in parentheses. (Shr)mln. E x c e ~ tfor Cases 4. fl. also F a . 7. c. GLp. Typography. Cg for propane . initial or original gas formation volume factor. differential and flash (d. initial or original oil formation volume factor. maximum air injection rate during time period 1. etc. Arabic numerals. The product of two quantities is indicated by writing ab. t = time. ~ q . Examples: (. Abbreviated chemical formulas are used as subscripts for paraffin hydrocarbons: C1 for methane. if carefully made. are printed in italic (sloping) type. f. When a special alphabet is required. 'lim'. should be selfexplanatory.s. initial or original total system formation volume factor. Examples: EDb. when appearing as lightface letters of the English alphabet. or in small capitals. parentheses must be inserted to remove any ambiguity. (qoD3)max 7.). should appear last in subscript order and require that the basic symbol and its initial subscript(s) be first F.. ~ . Examples of dimensionless numbers are Reynolds number (NRe) and Prandtl number (Np. kinematic and dynamic similarity between two systems. letters that would be boldface in print may be indicated to be such by special underscoring. lower case and small capitals. and clearly distinguished upper case. Examples: Big. The quotient may be indicated by writing a . or dimensional.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 'injected' or 'irreducible' is used. it should appear first in subscript order (but after r for 'relative'). phase. 5 and 6 above. 5.Rsf..... subscript D for 'dimensionless' should usually appear last in subscript order. compressibility of injected gas. or script type. p ~ 2reservoir pressure at time 2. B. u). (iUl). boldface type is to be preferred to German. Dimensions: L = length. When the mobilities involved are on opposite sides of an interface. dimensionless oil produc.. individual component identification (i orQl other).. are normally printed in vertical type. density of solid particles making up exGFI. Special notes. Thus: one may write (a/b)lc. Cn for CnH2n+2.. while the few distinct letters used from other alphabets. and letters or other alphabets used in mathematical expressions. Co2. and T = temperature.. d. 3. 6.. composition and E. Observe the following: 1. Except for Cases 4 and 5 above.. alb or abI If more than one solidus is used in any algebraic term. The letter C is retained for conductivity in well logging usage.. The symbol p is to be used in all other cases and is that preferred by ASA. Examples: p . burned. 'min'). or the ratio of the upstream mobility to the downstream mobility. depleted.npf D. Except for Cases 1 and 2 above (and symbols Kh and L. but not alblc. In material to be reproduced in facsimile. front. C O for carbon monoxide. Abbreviation subscripts (such as 'ext . C2 for ethane. m = mass. Letter symbols for physical quantities. 'max'. numerical subscripts should appear last in subscript order. 3. Examples: qoD3. Dimensionless numbers are criteria for geometric. Gothic. . O2 for oxygen.
Example tencharacter notations are: XDELPRSTQQ. by R. extrapolated or limiting valucs of a quantity are denoted respectively by AV. 1964) 877. No binding rule is made for the notation of space and time subscripts. indcxcs and exponents are being assigned computer symbols. XDELC'MPPRD When any of the four parts are not uscd. minimum. For example. In practice. 1.262 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE of similarity and dinlensionless numbcrs. MX. The computer symbols are structured tiom four possible parts rcprcscllting rcspectivcly arith~nctic mode. The following sketch indicates the coordinate system used to denote special posi . the remaining characters are to be right. and the computer language being used will not allow more than six. This part of the computer notation is thus of the naturc of ~un character abbreviation. Thc three letter notation rn~lcn~onically denotes the quantity name as closely as possible. It is suggested that X be uscd for floating point variables and I for integers. x. J. This notation position should be used only if absolutely necessary. maximum. the preferred approach being the use of a declaration within the program. 4. dilncnsionless average Ieservoir pressure would be denoted by PRSAVQ. 2. The computer subscript designation is placed irn~ncdiately to the right of the quantity symbol ficld with no intervening space.as exc~nplifiedby thermal conductivity HCN. is uscd to represent the basic inathematical quantity (letter) symbol. MN. 5. sce "Methods of Similarity". Indexes such as resistivity index are denoted by X in the third character position. the combined notatiolis will not usually cxceed six characters. Though usually not rccluired. basic cluantitics and subscripts. The second part of the notation (operator field) consists of three characters and is ~ ~ s e d for mathematical operators. Dimensionless numbers alc denoted by Q in thc last required subscript position. When a heat quantity is dcnotetl. sincc the method of subscripting is oftcn dictated by the characteristics of a particular computer. Tech. Fixed characters are utilized in this part of the notation when hcat quantities. 8.Position Order'. The first part of tllc notation consists of one position to define the arithmetic inode of the complete computer symbol. the vital importance of these subscripts makes it necessary to establish a standard and require an author to define any deviations. In those cases where the complete colnpuier symhol does cxceecl six characters. The system outlined below should be used when the subscripts are not implied by an array location or an index specified by the program logic. (August. mathematical operators. All three character positions must be employeci. Exponents are characterized by XP in the second and thild positions. when ail are used in a single symbol. The fourth part of the notation (subscript field) is sect to represent the subscripts of the inatheinatical letter symbol and normally consists of one of the three character positions. Symbol Structure. The quantity x can be modified to indicate an average or mean value by an overbar. However.or leftjustified to form a string of characters without blank positions. a shortened notation must be employed. Shortened symbols are no longer standard. and therefore must be defined in the text or appendix as is appropriate. XT.B. the total length may he ten characters. 3. such as porosity exponent MXP. exclusive of time and space designations. The notation should suggest the operation. Other than in these cases. Principles of computer symbol standardization A. of LM in the first two subscript positions. Average. Computer symbol subscripts are nornlally designated by using thc mathematical letter subscripts of the SPE Syrnbols Standard. The third part of thc notation (clu~tntity symbol ficld) consisting of threc charactcrs. additional subscripting occurs immediately to the right of thcsc defined notations. Each of these parts has a dcfincd number of characters and. Pet. more characters may be used when necessary for designation of multiple mathematical lcttcr subscripts. The part of the notation representing the Insic mathcmatical quantity (letter) symbol should be retained and the other parts of the notation shortcncd. the order of subscripting should follow the rules given in the 'Multiple Subscripts . H appears in the first character positio~i. Schilson.
.. EliminaM2 present location minus 2 tion of a duplication may lead to a computer symbol that is at variance with the standard. Similarly. The choice of units (Trans.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS measure. in most P2 present location plus 2 P3H present location plus 312 instances.e. be given a notation that is compatible P1 present location plus 1 with it. the permeability When employed in programs. they should be clearly defined If an array contains information correspondin the text or appendix. I. Machine E. Neither the complete computer symbol nor the mathematical letter symbol implies any specific units of . K. indexed points. No computer symbols have been defined here for numerical quantities. indexed. Units. 1. . The mathematical letter symbol in turn designates a physical quantity. Special notes. page position of printed output obtained in a normal I. . The computer symbol for dimensionless numbers in general (unnamed dimensionless numbers) is NUMQ. K sequences would correspond to not a numeral. Each complete computer symbol represents a mathematical letter symbol and its associated subscripts. or logical operators. AIME 263 (1977) 1685) and their designation is. Nonstandard symbols. The computer symbols are always represented The space and time subscripts are conby vertical type in printed text. Such additional computer symbols are. K sequence would correspond D.2. then the convention is to shift the plusdirection elements to the node being F. computer symbol must begin with a letter and K or J . functions. English capital structed by placing a letter code (I. NX) B. T) letters and Arabic numerals are used in hand or before the following symbols: typewritten material. and in ing to points halfway between the normally the program.I). I (I = 1. P1H present location plus 112 by definition. Some of these special cases are noted would be referenced as PRMIPlH(1). as is appropriate. Rather. . Restriction to computer programs. As a consequence. Character set. and that for subscript t2 would be When nonstandard computer symbols occur in TM2. relational. No computer symbols to designate common or natural logarithms have been established. Authors are urged to familiarize themselves with the SI System of units and use them as much as practical.3. The notation used should be defined in the paper. would be T . In the following example. The computer symbols must be constructed from the 26 English letters and 10 to position as viewed on maps as normally Arabic numerical characters. crosssections as normally used. See below: sketch below. and arithmetic. left to the author. Each complete used in petroleum engineering. Named dimen tion in multidimensional arrays. the computer symbols must not be used in works of portions of papers where programming is not discussed or as abbreviations in text or This convention was adopted so that the graphical material. J. Use of the computer symbols is restricted to the description of programming for computers. these functions should be designated by the notations compatible with the computer system being employed. a technical work. nonstandard. Hence. and that for the i+l/2 point text. their usage should at the il/2 point would be referenced as be fully explained by comments in the program PRMIPlH(1 . 2. M1H present location minus 112 Duplication of computer symbols for quantiMI present location minus 1 ties that can occur simultaneously in an equation present location minus 312 M3H or computer program must be avoided. C. however. i. The rules for establishing Symbol Definition the computer symbols contained in this standard are such that quantities not covered can. the subscript for the present time t a notation that is nonstandard. J.
No mathematical letter subscripts correspond to these computer subscripts. well logging and formation evaluation. or natural gas engineering letter symbols as contained elsewhere in this SPE Standard are authorized. Basic symbolic subscripts of SPE Lettcr Symbols Standard represented by different SPE letter Computer subscript s. No computer subscript notations corresponding to these mathematical letter subscripts are established. designation in Computer Symbols Subscript List. They do not imply that changes in the form of the economics. 4. Graetz number as GRTQ. (Only changes in the basic subscripts are shown.264 PETROLEUMENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE sionless numbers have the mnemonic title designation in the field representing the quantity and a Q in the last subscript position employed. 3. SPE letter symbol Quantity title total inital gas in place in reservoir moles of licli~id phase climensionless number in gcocral initial oil in place in reservoir volumetric vclocity (flow rate or flux. Symbolsubscript combinations of SPE Letter Symbols Standard represented by Computer SymbolSubscript Notation wherein subscript notations are not the same. Similarly. See section G. Permissible format changes. Grashof number as GRSQ.) 2. Prandtl number could be designated as PRDQ. per unit area) moles of vapour phase initial water in place in reservoir mole fraction of component in liq uicl phase molc fraction o f component in vapour phase mole fraction of component in mixturc MOLL NUMQ OlLTl VELV MOLV WTRTl MFRL MFRV MFRM 1. See section G . Combination subscripts that contain these items are also changed accordingly .ynibol Subscript title CP Q QM 6 ext F lirn m rnux min  P EX XT FU LM FU MX MN PAV PRD RD TQ capillary dime~~sionless quantity dimensionless quantity at condilion m experiment cxtrapolated fuel limiting value fucl (mass ol) maximunl minimum Incan or average pressure pseudoreduced reduccd din~ensionless timc 3. Quantities represented by symbolsubscript combination in SPE Letter Symbol\ Standard but by a Conlputer Sy~nbol Notation only. Thus. SPE letter symbolsubscript co~nbi~lation kh Computer syn~bol Quantity title HCN thermal conductiv~ty 4. 6. . Any dimensionless ilirmber not contained in this standard should be defined in the paper. Quantities represented by single symbol in SPE Letter Symbols Standard but by symbolsubscript combination in Computer Sy~nbols List. reservoir engineering. subscripts or symbolsubscript combinations. Reynolds number is designated as REYQ. These changes are in accord with the Gencral Principles of Computer Symbol Standardization. Rather these changes are shown as a matter of record to prevent confusion and to prescnt examples of permissible format changes in the computcr symbols that may be followed when it bccomes iecessary to construct a computer notation not included in the list. 111 prcparing the computer symbols it becail~c necessary to modify the format of certain of the basic letter symbols.
letter symbols. modified when appropriate by one or more subscripts or superscripts. These conflicts may result f r o q use of standard SPE symbols or subscript designations that are the same for two different quantities.a reserve symbol is a single letter. Dimensions . dimensions. temperature. all SPE computer symbols employ capital letters and numerals. SPE letter symbol t Computer symbol quantity Title TA C interval transit time Distinctions between. 6. L . and descriptions of. use of reserve symbols. letter symbols. reserve subscripts. commonlv used notations and signs from the fields of maihematics.a computer symbol is a letter or group of letters and numerals used to represent a specific quantity in the writing physical or mathematic~l and execution of computer programs. At the present time." Letter symbols . ATRe) solution in water (usually with gas solubility in water. properly defined. o r other entity. subscripts of SPE Letter Symbols Standard not assigned Computer Subscript Notations as a result of actions noted in 4. Reserve symbols . reserve symbols. The same letter symbol should be used consistently for the same generic quantity. ' In making the choice as to which of two quantities should be given a reserve designation. GLP) Reynolds (used with Reynolds number only. or special values. One computer symbol may be employed to represent a group of quantities. cumulative (usually with condensate. and electrical charge (m.an abbreviation is a letter or group of letters that may be used in place of the full name of a quantity. The Society of Petroleum Engineers has adhered to the following descriptions: A. unit abbreviations and units Confusion often arises as to the proper distinctions between abbreviations. Computer symbols are not acceptable as substitutes for letter symbols in the required mathematical ( e ~ u a t i o n al) developmentsAleadingup to comp. Subscript title liquid produced. Electric current (I). Length (L). properly defined. SPE employs the five basic dimensions of mass. unit. T . SPE provides a list of preferred abbreviations in its 'Style Guide' for authors. or use of SPE symbols that conflict with firmly established. being indicated by subscripts or superscripts.. and oral discussions) . but only in of Jymbols conflict. q). length. To avoid conflicting designations in these cases.) L~ Re sw D. E. which can be used as an alternate when two quantities (occurring in some specialized works) have the same standard letter symbol.(for use in textual matter. time. SPE letter subscript C. t. figures. dimensions. modified when appropriate by one or more subscripts or superscripts.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 265 SPE letter symbolsubscript combination Computer Quantity symbol title GL G~~ N G LT l N G LP REYQ fie RTW GWRS initial condensate liquids in place in reservoir cumulative condensate liquids produced Reynolds number (dimensionless number) gas solubility in water B. Author preference for the reserve svmbols and subscripis does not justify their use. Abbreviations are not acceptable in mathematical equations. I S 0 uses: Mass (M). L. and reserve symbolreserve subscript combinations is permitted. R. computer symbols. A single letter may be employed to represent a group of quantities.te'r programs.(for use in mathematical equations) . used to represent a specific physical or mathematical quantity in a mathematical equation. tables. Computer Symbols . computer symbols. Letter operatorsymbol combination of SPE Letter Symbols Standard represented by Computer Symbol Notation only. Amount of substance (N) and Luminous intensity (J). reserve symbols. abbreviations. Time (T). 5.dimensions identifv the vhvsical nature of or the general components making up a specific physical quantity. Temperature ( 0 ) . . Abbreviations .(for use in computer programs) .a letter symbol is a single letter. * Electrical charge is current times time. unit abbreviations and units used in science and engineering. and chemistry. physics.
Connecticut is gratefully acknowledged. which is a required part of each work. In SPE usage. The International Organization for Standardization Letter symbol for mathematical equations R Rs.). Texas and SchlumbergerDoll Research Ccntcr personnel in Ridgefield. Reserve symbol used only in case of symbols conflict an attempt should be made to retain the standard SPE symbol for the quantity appearing more frequently in the paper. N Y 10017. solution. producing gasoil ratio. 345 East 47th Strcct. Units . that may be used in place of the name of a unit. effort to convert from the English to a metric system of units. units havc 'abbrcviations' but do not have 'letter symbols'. and units * gasoil ratio. to join in a future natiol~al . pressure. cm for centimeter). All authors must include Nomenclatures in any manuscript submitted to SPE for publication. nor of units for irldiviclual quantities. SPE's practices showing the above distinctions are illustrated in the table of example quantities. F. and recommends them to the metnbership and to the industry. the ASA's policy of aliowing several sy~nbols repreto sent the same quantity in any list and the large number of quantities assigned sylnbols by the SPE. Manuscripts submitted to SPE are subjcct to review on these aspects before being accepted for publication.a unit abbreviation is a letter or group of letters (for example. G. the lack of agreement between various ASA standards. such as books.units express the system of measurement used to quantify a specific physical quantity. figures. initial productivity index productivity index. it has signified willingness. for text. Acknowledgement The work done in sorting and combining the various standard lists by Schlumberger Well Scrvices Engineering personnel in Houston. permeability. the standard SPE symbol should be retained for the more basic item (temperature. Up to this time. Use of an unsubscripted reserve symbol for a quantity requires use of the satne reserve symbol designation when subscripting is rccluired. The Society Board of Directors has approved the SPE 1984 Symbols Standards. SPE has not standardized units. New York. Unit Abbreviations . must contain each reserve notation that is used together with its definition. United Engineering Center. tables. The variations in notations result from the application of the SPE guidcs in choosing symbols as detailed herein. Reversion to the standard SPE symbol or subscript is not permitted within a paper. For larger works. The symbol nomenclature. SPE has not standardized a general systc~ii units. specific * GOR initial solution GOR PI SPI none none IS J GOR GORSl PDX PDXS none none L4t/m ~ ~ t / m cu ft/BBL cu ft/BBL bldlpsi b/d/psi/ft J JS Examples only. oral use Quantity Computer symbol for programs Dimensions Unit abbrev. otherwise. American National Standards Institute and International Organization for Standardization symbols lists do not use the same letter synibols to represent identical quantities. These ASA symbol standards are published by the Arncrican Society of Mechanical Engineers. however. Examples Abbrev. or in a few cases a special sign. porosity. Contrasting symbol usage SPE and certain American Standards Association. Authors can materially aid themselves. editors. It is to be emphasized that the symbols contained in the SPE list are standard for use in petroleum engineering. it must be used consistently throughout a paper.266 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (fSO) and many other national and international bodies concerned with standardization emphasize the special character of these designations and rigidly prescribe the manner in which the unit abbreviations shall be developed and treated.       . consistency within a chapter or section must be maintained. but the symbols of other disciplines as sanctioned by the American Standards Association should be used when working outside the area of petroleum production. Once a reselve designation for a quantity is employed. and readers by keeping the distinctions in mind when prcparing papers for SPE review. etc.
ARA area EFFA areal efficiency (used in describing results of model studies only). &a Pa. in laboratory experimental run.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 267 A. YZ Arrhenius reaction rate velocity constant absolute permeability (fluid flow) acceleration of gravity acoustic impedance acoustic velocity activity airlfuel ratio air injection rate air requirement air requirement. contact angular frequency COEANI anisotropy coefficient INCK annual operating cash income. unit. unit. in reservoir. area swept in a model divided by total model reservoir area (see EP) C \ Lit various L3/t various L3/m various various various various . volumes of air per unit bulk volume of reservoir rock VISA air viscosity AMAK amortization (annual writeoff of unamortized investment at end of year k) AMP amplitude AMPC amplitude. relative AMPS amplitude. Symbols alphabetized by physical quantity Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol ARR PRM GRV MPDA VAC ACT FACAFU INJA AIR AIREX Quantity Dimensions Ma. compressional wave AMPR amplitude.annulus geometrical factor (muliplier or fraction) TACA apparent interval transit time ECNA apparent conductivity DENA apparent density RADWA apparent or effective wellbore radius (includes effects of well damage or stimulation) PORA apparent porosity RESA apparent resistivity RESZ apparent resistivity of the conductive fluids in an invaded zone (due to fingering) APPR approximately equal to or is approximated bv (usuallv with functions) . shear wave ANG angle ANG angle ANGD angle of dip ANGC angle. over year k GMFAY '. ta script t c a Pa r wa fa. "a P r . volumes of air per unit mass of pack AIRR air requirement.
. volumc at GORSB bubblepoint solution gasoil ratio DELTIMWS buildup tirne. injection well PRSWS bottornhole pressure at ally time after shutin PRSW bottornhole pressure. relative THK bed thickness. individual PKSWF botto~nholc flowing pressure PRSBH bottomhole pressure PRSWF bottolnhole pressure flowing PRSI WF bottomhole flowing pressure.. shutin time) DENB bulk density BKM bulk modulus VOLB bulk volume VOLBEX bulk volume of pack burned in experimental tube run bulk (total) volumc. coefficient of b ack pl. or (primarily in fracturing) thickness PRSE boundary pressure. fraction of FRCVB VOLRR burned reservoir rock. oil PRSB bubblepoint (saturation) pressure RVFGB bubblepoint reciprocal gas formation volunle factor at bubblepoint conditions VOLBP bubblepoint prcssurc. exponent of ~s c base a. width. external FVFGB bubblepoint formation volulnc factor. volumc of VELB burningzonc advance raie (velocity of) L~ Llt . gas well backpressure curve (gas well). static PRSWW bottomhole (well) pressure in water phase TEMBH bottomholc temperature WTH breadth.. external RADE boundary radius. general PRSWS bottomhole pressure.qerve SPE letter symbol Computer letter sy~nhol ASYM PRSA ANM AWT COEA RTEAV AV PRSAV PRSAVR DAZ RAZ NGW CGW NGW Quantity Dimensions asylnptotically eclual to atnlospheric pressure atomic number atomic weight (atomic mass.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter syn~bol Re. gas FVFOB bubblepoint formation volulnc factor. s m curve (gas well). relative) attenuation coefficient average flow rate or production rate average or nlean (ovcrbar) average prcssure average reservoir pressure azimuth of dip azimuth of reference on sonde backpressure curve exponent. shutin time (time after well is shut in) (prcssurc buildup. i~ljection well PRSIWS bottomholc static pressure. logarithm BRGR bearing.
per unit pore volume capacity. annual operating. base 10 component j. heat transfer. cation exchange. over year k cash income. in vapour phase components. in year k capital investments. total cementation (porosity) exponent (in an empirical relation between FR and +) charge (current times time) coefficient. mole fraction of. convective heat transfer coefficient.SPE NOMENCLATUREAND UNITS  269 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions ECQ CEXV CEXUT PRSCP INVI INVK INVT CFLPV CFL INCK INC INCA INCB PRSCF RSCS CEXV CEXUT MXP CHG COEANI COEA HTCC DFN COEC COER KSP CGW HTCU HTCI HEC COE SATL MOLPJ MOLJ MFRL MFRM MFRV NMBC EMFC EMFK CMP ZED Pcs Qv Q vt capacitance capacity. diffusion coefficient. operating cash income. anisotropy coefficient. moles of component. undiscounted cash income. static cation exchange capacity per unit pore volume cation exchange capacity per unit pore volume. electrochemical component of the SP. before taxes casing pressure. thermal cubic expansion coefficient or multiplier combined total liquid saturation common logarithm. in mixture component. subsequent. number of component of the SP. in liquid phase component. operating. flowing casing pressure. total capillary pressure capital investment. cation exchange. electrochemical coefficient. after taxes cash income. mole fraction of. operating. P per unit pore volume. radiation coefficient. z=PV/nRT) IiL ~3211~4n1~2n m/t3~ m/t3~ IiT various . discounted cash flow. formation resistivity factor (FR@~) coefficient in the equation of the electrochemical component of the SP (spontaneous electromotive force) coefficient of gaswell backpressure curve coefficient heat transfer. summation of all cash flow. cumulative moles produced component j. attenuation coefficient. initial capital investment. mole fraction of. ovefall coefficient. electrokinetic compressibility compressibility factor (gas deviation factor.
oil compressibility.5772 constantincome d~scount factor constant.) indicated similarly. fracture. at mean pressure compressibility. pseudoreduced compressibility. thermal (always with additional phase or system subscripts) constant. gas compressibility. wetgas convective heat transfer cocfficient mL2/t'~ L4t2/m LJt2/m various m/L3 m various various m/t 'T . linear aquifer consumption. dimensionless conductivity. water compressional wave amplitude concentration concentration.. dielectric constant. cun~ulative condensate or natural gas liquids content conductivity (other than logging) conductivity (electrical logging) conductivity. oxygen (concentration of other elements or compounds would be CN2. concentration. condensate or natural gas liquids content. Euler'5 = 0. Arrhenius rcaction rate velocity constant constant. etc. formation or rock compressibility. Cc. universal gas (per mole) constant. waterdrive constant. 2 Lt2/m various various various various various LZ various various tq2/mL3 tq2/rnL' RRR WDC WDCL FCM FCMEX FCMEXG FCMR ANGC CNTL CNTWG HTCC constant.etc.) conccntration. waterdrive. hyperbolic declinc . C Cc I CNCFU NGLP CNTL SIG ECN ECNA CNDFQ HCN ARR LAM DIC DSCC HPC compressibility factor or deviation factor foi gas.2rCC3. methane (concentration of other paraffin hydrocarbons would be indicated similarly. apparent conductivity. dccay ( 1 1 ~ ~ ) constant. unit fuel (see sv~nbol m'l condensate liquids in place in reservoir. CCOZ. fuel consamption of fuel in experirnental tube run consumption of fuel in experimental tube run (mass of fuel per mole of produced gas) consumption of fuel in reservoir contact angle content. initial condensate liquids produced.270 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer Ietfer symbol ZEDPAV CMPF CMPG CMPO CMPPRD CMPW AMPC CNC CNCCl Quantity A.
) decay time. microscopic crosssection of a nucleus. i Rs Fd CUR RADS DMRS ZEL LAM TIMD TIMDN HPC conversion factor in Newton's second law of Motion correction term or correction factor * (either additive or multiplicative) count rate (general) count rate. neutron count rate. gamma ray critical gas saturation critical pressure critical temperature critical water saturation Crosssection (area) crosssection. electric damage or stimulation radius'of well (skin) damage ratio or condition ratio (conditions relative to formation conditions unaffected by well operations) datum. nominal decrement degrees of freedom various . thermal cumulative condensate liquids produced cumulative free gas produced cumulative gas influx (encroachment) cumulative gas injected cumulative gasoil ratio cumulative gas produced cumulative moles of component j produced cumulative oil influx (encroachment) cumulative oil produced cumulative produced fluids (where N.) decay time (mean life) (111. effective decline factor. and W. hyperbolic [from equation lit lit lit IIL L2 IIT L3 L3 L3 L3 DECE DEC DCR DGF decline factor. macroscopic crosssection. are not applicable) cumulative water influx (encroachment) cumulative water injected cumulative wateroil ratio cumulative water produced cumulative wet gas produced curl current.SPE NOMENCLATUREAND UNITS 271 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions GRVC COR NMB NEUN NGR SATGC PRSC TEMC SATWC ARA XSTMAC XSTMIC XNL HEC NGLP GASFP GASE GAS1 GORP GASP MOLPJ OILE OILP FLUP WTRE WTRI FACWOP WTRP GASWGP i script i. neutron (neutron mean life) decline constant. microscopic cubic expansion coefficient. elevation referred to decay constant (llt.
x . N. mean part~cle d~elcctr~c constant DIC DEL d~fference d~fference or oper'itor. flushed zone n ! density (11ldicating 'number pcr unit volume') DF dens~ty. hole (clritt angle) f'd PRSD dewpoiut pressure D DIA d~a~neter d ~ .H DPH depth Y5 SKD depth. hydraulic ( k l r p c ~ hlcpc) or QLrZ.ut~clcsinaklng up experiment'll pack Do DEN0 density. true 1). 1tr IX (iollds. hole dl. I%6 DFN diffus~on coeft~uent DFS diffuslvlty. ~nvndcd zone (clcctr~cally ec~ulvalcnt) DlAAVP diameter. dcns~ty. at mean pre\\uie ANGH deviation. c r z p1 ENCLTQQ dlmenslonles\ f l u ~ d ~ t iriilux function. density oi solid p. apparent I / ) . DENW dens~ty. D. gra~n) n1' density (number) of neutiom I denvty of produced Ilquld. F5 SPG clensity. Cr\lDFQ dimenslonless fracture conductivity Q. D L DIAI d~anieter.111 (always w ~ t h ~dent~fjring subscripts) (Ex.rmplc Reyriolds numbcr. Dlr DIAH d~arncter. or x . water EDE deplctioil NI FUDR d c p o s ~ t ~ o n of fuel rdte EDP de prec~atlon Y.x. RTEGQ d~mensionle\s ploductlon rate gas NUMO dlmenslonlcss uui~ibci general . h e a r aquifer ENCTQQ dimenslonle\s fluld influx function at dimens~onle\s tiinc tL.272 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE  Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter synlbol Zd Co~nputer Quantity letter symbol Dimensions del (gradient operator) delay ti~iie del~verabillty g ~ well) ( s D dcns~ty Du d e m t y . oil 5 .) . dens~ty./t mi^' ml~' mlLi ml~? ml~' l lL7 mlL3 III/L~ ml~' 1JL' mlLi mlLZ mlLZ ml~' ~IL' m/LZt L L rnl~t~ L L L L q2t21m~' L'lt ~ ~ 4 l t ....?. weightweighted ~ v g D+. fluid D dcns~ty. s k ~ n (logging) Z ZED d e v ~ a t factor~(comprcss~b~hty ~o~ factor) for g~i4 = 1 VInR7') (Z ) z? ZEDPAV d e v ~ a t ~ factoi (compress~b~lity on fncto~) for g'ts. fuel DY dens~tygas .) QoL ) RTEOQ d~incniionlc~s product~on 0x1 rate KO DEL TlMDY DLV DEN DENA DENB DFNF DENXO NMB DENFU DENG DENMA NMBN DENAVL DENSEX t ~. bulk Df density. filiitc (Ax = x . relatlve (speclhc grav~ty) DT DENT density.
sinolepayment [1/(1 t i ) k .l)lj] discount rate discounted cash flow dispersion coefficient dispersion modulus (dispersion factor) displacement displacement efficiency from burned portion of in situ combustion pattern displacement efficiency from unburned portion of in situ combustion pattern displacement efficiency: volume of hydrocarbons (oil or gas) displaced from individual pores or small groups of pores divided by the volume of hydrocarbons in the same pores just prior to . azimuth of discount factor.L2 La. f script 1 AR dimensionless pore volume dimensionless pressure dimensionless pressure function c at dimensionless time tD dimensionless production rate dimensionless quantity proportional to x dimensionless radius dimensionless time dimensionless time at condition m dimensionless water production rate dip.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 273 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions VOLPQ PRSQ PRSTQQ RTEQ RADQ TIMQ TIMMQ RTEWQ ANGD ANGDA DAZA DAZ DSCC DSC DSCSP DSCSPC RTED CFLPV DSP DSM DIS EFFDB EFFDU EFFD Fd Fdob F d ~ ~ DPR DPROB DPROU DPRWB DUW DLW LTH DELRAD Fdwb Ld. apparent angle of dip. volume per unit volume of burned reservoir rock displacement ratio. oil from unburned volume. j = In (1+i)] discount factor. oil from burned volume. or length of path distance. radial (increment along radius) L2/t L L L L L . LI s. apparent azimuth of dip. water from burned volume. singlepayment (constant annual rate) [eIk(e' . volume per unit volume of burned reservoir rock distance between adjacent rows of injection and production wells distance between like wells (injection or production) in a row distance. displacement displacement ratio displacement ratio.ore)'. angle of dip. general discount factor. constantincome discount factor. volume per unit volume of unburned reservoir rock displacement ratio. length.
volumetric: product of pattern sweep and invasion efficiencies ELMY elasticity. skin DECE effective decline factor L RADWA effective or apparent wellbore radius (includes effects of well damagc or stirnulation) PRMG cffective permeability to gas L' PRMO effective permeability to oil L~ PRMW effective permeability to water L' PORE effective porosity EFF efficiency EFFA efficiency. contacted) by thc injection fluid or heat front divided by the hydrocarbon pore space enclosed in all laycrs behind the injectedfluid or heat front EFFR efficiency.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING:PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE Ietter s. tlisplacernent: volurne of hydrocarbons (oil or gas) displaced from individual pores or small groups of pores divided by the volumc of hydrocarbon in the same pores just prior to displacclnent EFFl efficiency. displacement. overall reservoir recovery: volume of hydrocarbons recovered divided by volun~e of hydrocarbons in place at start of project (El<= EPEIEL) = E v EL)) EFFP efficiency. from burned portion of in situ combustion pattern EFFDU efficiency. porosity and hydrocarbon saturation): hydrocarbon pore spacc enclosed behind the injectedfluid or heat front divided by total hydrocarbon pore space of the reservoir or project EFFVB efficiency.) EFFDB efficiency. clisplacernent. or discounted cash flow) SKN effcct. in situ combustion pattern EFFV efficiency. hole (deviation) RORI earning power or rate of return (internal. rnodulus of (Young's modulus) m/Lt2 . from unburned portion of it2 situ co~nbustion pattern EFFD cfficicncy. pattern sweep (developed from areal efficiency by proper weighting for variations in net pay thickness. true.yinbol Computer Ietter syinbol Quantity Dimensions divergence RADD drainage radius L DELTIMWFdrawdown time (time after well is opened to t production) (pressure drawdown) ANGH drift angle. for buriled portion ollly. invasion (vertical): hydrocarbon pore space invaded (affected. volunictric. areal (used in describing results of model studies only): area swept in a model divided by total model reservoir area (sec E.
saturation EXP exponential functlon CUR MPDE RHO RES TORE DIAI q't mL2/tq2 m~~tq* mL3tqZ L mL2/t2q mL2/t2q mL2/t2q L L~ L3 L3 L3 L3/t L3/t L3/t L3lt L3 L3 mL21t2+ m ~ ~ l t ~ " mL2/t2 L2/t2 L2/t2~ mL2/t2~ L t mL3tq2 IIT . P i script i. uater. gas. oil ENCW encroachment or influx rate. gas ENCO encroachment or influx rate. during an interval ENG energy HEN enthalpy (always with phase or system subscripts) HENS enthalpy (net) of steam or enthalpy above reservoir temperature HENS enthalpy. ANe? e eg V D. h ge Age fie Ane I Ig 10 e0 ew We Awe E H Hs h s 1. dz. oil. cumulative DELOILE encroachment or influx. total GE equal to or larger than LE equal to or smaller than EQR equilibrium ratio (ylx) DIAI equivalent diameter (electrical) of the invaded zcne TIMP equivalent time well was on pzoduction prior to shutin (pseudotime) RWE equivalent water resistivity ERF error function ERFC error function. Feq dr. electrical tortuosity electrically equivalent diameter of the invaded zone COEC electrochemical coefficient EMFC electrochemical component of the SP EMFK electrokinetic component of the SP EMF electromotive force ZEL elevation referred to datum GASE encroachment or influx. during an Interval ENC encroachment or influx rate ENCG encroachment or influx rate. water WTRE encroachment or influx. Dl . i ZE.5772 HEC expansion coefficient.r R P. water. cumulative DELGASE encroachment or influx.spE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity 275 Dimensions I R 't 2. thermal cubic POREX experimental pack porosity NGW exponent of backpressure curve. specific HERS entropy. complementary Euler number Eulcr's constant = 0. Kec QC Qk dl Kc EC Ek E Z Ge Ace l\i. DI T~ Rwe erf erfc En I @E b n m f ~E E. specific HER entropy. porosity (cementation) (in an empirical relation between FR and +) SXP exponent. n ez expZ electric current electric impedance electrical resistivity (other than logging) electrical resistivity (electrical logging) . < K dl t~ k. gas during an interval OILE encroachment or influx. oil. WE Awe U I IS I o (Jt S >. gas well MXP exponent. cumulative DELWTRE encroachment or influx. Mc.
tubing various . conversion. heat flow rate or flux. mass flow rate. x positive PRSE RADE PRSXT ZED DSC DECE DEC GRVC FACHR FACF GMF GMFAN GMFI GMFP GMFXO GMFM G MFT FAC FACB M RT IIRT VELV RTE KTEPAV RTEAV PRSl WF PRSWF PRSCF PRSTF external boundary prcssure extcrnal boundary radius extrapolated pressure factor. discount factor.IR. casing flowing pressure. average flowing bottomhole pressure.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter syntbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Conlpnter letter sjm?bol Quantity Dimensions cxponcntial integral CG Ei (x) t exponential integral. geometrical (multiplier) pseudo (elcctrical logging) factor. modified s ilt. (a numerical subscript to f indicates the value of K. pcr unit area (volumetric velocity) flow rate or production rate flow rate or production ratc at mean pressure flow rate or production rate. equals R. friction factor. turbulence flow ratc. compressibility (gas deviation factor z = PVlnXT) factor. including ratios (always with identifying subscripts) factor. effective decline factor. geometrical (multiplier) (electrical logging) factor. bottoinhole tlowing prcssure. nominal decline factor. gcomctrical (multiplicr) true (noninvaded zone) (clcctrical logging) factor in general... geometrical (multiplier) invadcd zone (elcctrical logging) factor. geometrical (multiplier) a ~ l n i ~ l (electrical logging) us factor. injection well flowing pressure. geometrical (multiplier) flushed zone (elcctrical logging) factor. in Newton's second law of Motion factor.) factor. geometrical (multiplier) mud (elcctrical logging) factor.. formation resistivity.
water FRC fraction (such as the fraction of a flow stream consisting of a particular phase) FRCG fraction gas various Lit L various Lit . total (twophase) FVF formation volume factor volume at reservoir conditions divided by volume at standard conditions FVFW formation volume factor. linear aquifer. cumulative produced (where N. TEMF formation temperature FVFGB formation volume factor at bubblepoint conditions. (a numerical subscript to Findicates the value R. mechanical EMF force. at dimensionless time tD QLiD script 1 ENCLTQQ fluid influx function. and QltD script 1 FLUP Wpare not applicable) DENXO flushedzone density flushedzone resistivity (that part of the RESXO invaded zone closest to the wall of the hole. true RESZR formation resistivity when 100% saturated with water of resistivity R. dimensionless. electromotive (voltage) PORR formation or reservoir porosity CMPF formation or rock compressibility FACHR formation resistivity factor .equals RoiR. oil FVFT formation volume factor. oil FVFG formation volume factor. dimensionless fluids.) COER formation resistivity factor coefficient (FRGrn) REST formation resistivity. where flushing has been maximum) GMFXO flushedzone geometrical factor (fraction or multiplier) FLX flux VELV flux or flow rate. gas FVFOB formation volume factor at bubblepoint Fob conditions.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 277 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions  tf script t Pxo Rxo Bob DELTIMWF flowing time after well is opened to production (pressure drawdown) FLU fluid (generalized) . gas FVFO formation volume factor. VACF fluid interval velocity ZEL fluid head or height or elevation referred to a datum T ACF fluid interval transit time DENF fluid density ENCTQQ fluid influx function. per unit area (volumetric velocity) FCE force.
i~ F CNDFQ LTHFH FRX GFE i. cumulative frccgas volume. including air) always with identifying subscripts gascap interstitialoil saturation gascap interstitialwatcr saturation gas co~npressibility gas compressibility factor (dcviation Factor) ( z = PVlaRT) gas constant. Computer letter suvnlbol Quantity Dimensions F. initial reservoir (=mNB. rlrn 'n " f FF FIL Fr LX FIX DF N1: N. universal (per mole) gas density gas deviation factor (compressibility factor) at mean pressure gas deviation factor (compressibility factor. z p Z K~ Fg .PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE Letter svmbol Reserve SPE letter syrnbol fvh.iKJog Pwg> 'TI<% kg> Kg Z fraction liquid fraction of bulk (total) volume fraction of intergranular space ('porosity') occupied by ali shales fraction of intelgranular space ('porosity') occupied by water fraction of intermatrix space ('porosity') occupied by ilollstructural dispersed shale fracture conductivity. z = PVlnRT) (deviation factor) gas. producing (freegas volumeloil volume) free gas produced. unit (see synibol rn) fuel consuniption fuel consumption in experimental tube run fucl consumption in experimental tube run (mass of fuel per Inole of produced gas) fuel consumption in rcscrvoir fuel density fuel deposition rate fugacity gamma ray count rate gamma ray [usually with identifying subscript(s)] gas (any gas. dimensionless fracture halflength (specify 'in the direction of' when using xI) fracture index free encrgy (Gibbs function) frec fluid index free gasoil ratio.) free producing gasoil ratio (freegas voluniel oil volume) frequency friction factor front or interface pressure fuel concentration./. FFX F g ~ .T~7 FIGSH @idw FIGW x/ zfiIl..J script 1 FRCL VI]. cc g P. F g o ~ GORF g~*p SFL FRO v GASFP GASFI GORF FQN FACF PRSF CNCFU FCM FCMEX FCMEXG FCMR DENFU FUDR FUG NGR GRY GAS SATOG SATWG CM PG ZED RRR DENG ZEDPAV ZED PRMG FVFG ( I .. effcctivc permeability to gas formation volurnc factor mi~t" various various m / ~ m n1/~? ~ mlL3 ml~'t mlLt2 Ilt various various L. FRCVB @Kj. ...
cumulative DELGASI gas injected during an interval INJG gas injection rate CNTL gas liquids.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 279 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Fgb Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions Bgb 5 eg Ge AG. cumulative DELGASE gas influx (encroachment) during an interval ENCG gas influx (encroachment) rate GAS1 gas injected. exponent of NGW DLV gaswell deliverability GASWGP gas. solution. wet. produced. producing GORSB gasoil ratio. Lg F g g~ Agl CL. free producing (freegas volume1 oil volume) GOR gasoil ratio.~L F g F g CL A. solution (gas solubility in oil) GORSI gaqoil ratio. cumulative gasoil ratio. natural. ultimate PRMRG gas. SATG gas saturation SATGC gas saturation. initial GASP gas produced. critical SATGR gas saturation. relative permeability to . fraction MFRTV PRMGO GORP GORF gas mole fraction gasoil permeability ratio FVFGB L3 L' L' ~ " t L~ L' L3/t various ~ ~ t l m kg1k0 KgIKo gasoil ratio. coefficient of gaswell backpressure curve. cumulative THK general and individual bed thickness NUMQ general dimensionless number (always uith identifying subscripts) L3 L' L3 L31t L3 mILt mILt ~32n~4n/~2n . residual GORS gas solubility in oil (solution gasoil ratio) GWRS gas solubility in water SPGG gas specific gravity VISG gas viscosity VISGA gas viscosity at 1 atm CGW gaswell backpressure curve. G1 AGI I g g ge 48. total initial GASE gas influx (encroachment). solution at bubblepoint conditions GORS gasoil ratio. fg fg gas formation volume factor at bubblepoint conditions FRCG gas fraction GASTI gas in place in reservoir. cumulative DELGASP gas produced during an interval GASPEX gas produced from experimental tube run RTEG gas production rate RTEGQ gas production rate. or condensate content MOBG gas mobility FRCG gas. dimensionless RVFG gas reciprocal formation volume factor RVFGB gas reciprocal formation volume factor at bubblepoint conditions GASPUL gas recovery.
oil gravity. (multiplier). invaded zoned (clcctrical logging) geometrical factor (multiplier). specific (always with phase or system subscripts) heat transfer coefficient. true (electrical logging) gradient gradient. or fluid head or elcvation referred to a datum height (other than elevation) Helmholtz function (work function) holdup (fraction of the pipe volume filled by a given fluid: y . is oil holdup. pseudo (electrical logging) geometrical factor (multiplier). convective heat transfer coefficient. radiation height. specific. specific. temperature grain (matrix. relative density gravity. mud (electrical logging) geometrical factor. latent hcat or thermal diffusivity heat. true (noninvaded zonc) (electrical logging) geometrical factor (multiplier). annulus (electrical logging) geometrical factor (multiplier). is water holdup Cof all holdups at a given level is one) hole deviation. solids) density gravity. acceleration of gravity.280 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer lefter sy~nbol GMF GMFAN GMFXO Quantity GMFM GMFT GMFP GMFT GRD GRDGT GRDT DENMA GRV SPG SPGG SPGO SPGW THKT GRRU GRRT TIM H HRT HLTV HTD HSP HTCC HTCU HTC 1 ZEL ZMT HWF HOL ANGH DIAH DFS geometrical factor (multiplier) (electrical logging) geometrical factor (multiplier). geothermal gradient operator gradient. total half life heat flow ratc heat of vaporization. drift angle hole diameter hydraulic diffusivity (kI@ p or h+c) various T . water gross (total) pay thickness gross revenue ('value') per unit produced gross revenue ('value'). overall hcat transfer coefficient. flushed zone (electrical logging) geometrical factor (multiplier). specific. y . gas gravity. specific.
cumujative. porosity index. dimensionless influx function. water initial condensate liquids in place in reservoir initial capital investment . acoustic impedance. dimensionless (at dimensionless time tD) influx (encroachment) rate influx (encroachment) rate. gas influx (encroachment).SPE NOMENCLATUREAND UNITS 281 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions RH RADHL TORHL PORH RSXH SATHR HYX HPC hydraulic radius hydraulic tortuosity hydrocarbonfilled porosity.iRo hydrocarbon saturation. oil influx (encroachment). injectivity index of refraction index. cumulative. water influx (encroachment) during an interval. fracture index. water influx function. primary porosity index. free fluid index.ity individual bed thickness influx (encroachment). oil influx (encroachment) during an interval. fraction or percent of rock bulk volume occupied by hydrocarbons hydrocarbon resistivity index R. oil influx (encroachment) rate. productivity index. gas influx (encroachment) during an interval. gas influx (encroachment) rate. shaliness gammaray (Ylog various m/L2t mL2/tq2 'script 1 ENCTQQ ENC ENCG ENCO ENCW NGLTI INVI index. fluid.~ c n ) i ( ~ s h' ~ c n )  L3t/m L L3 L~ L~ L3 L3 L3 L3/t Lyt L3it L3it L~ M . linear aquifer. s~ecific iniectivitv index. residual hydrogen index hyperbolic decline constant (from equation) L g ( z ) script I z MPD MPDA MPDE 3 FRX FFX HYX IJX RFX PRX PRXPR PDX RXSH PRXSE SHXGR IJXS PDXS THK GASE OILE WTRE DELGASE DELOILE DELWTRE ENCLTQQ QhD imaginary part of complex number z impedance impedance. hydrogen index. fluid. (hydrocarbon) resistivity RiRo index. cumulative. secondary porosity index. specific p.oducti. electric index (use subscripts as needed) index.
initial WTRTI inplace water in reservoir.V.f Piw. fraction occupied by all shales intergranular space (porosity). exponential. surface tension PORIG intergranular 'porosity' (space) ( v.282 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol  Reserve SPE letter . fraction occupied by water intermatrix space (porosity)..i W Srv. Wi Awj i iu I s 2 M.J Pibc. air INJG injection rate.~~. exponentla1 ? L 0ILTl PRSI GASFI L' m/Lt2 L' ~ / L~ t ~ L" ~3 L3 ~3 pit L3lt L3/t L'lt m/Lt2 rnl~t~ ~ ~ t l m ~%/m L' L' L3 L' various MIL^^ m/t2 Ei (x) x positive t integral.[ i$ r 111 11 (il+ @ dt].v. Rsi P i g~i FgS. per period IRA interest rate. .T L 1. w PwrJS1~. tS II w Y Y i~ j Pf (r pf Y 7Y 4% Ei(x) frg. E.h $ids/i @& iw FIGSH FIGW FIMSHD PORIM INE SATOG f<b~ fil.<.x positive fcil. culnul a t'ive DELWTRl injected water during an interval INJ injection rate INJA injection rate. initial oil i n place in reservoir initial pressure initial reservoir freegas volume (=ITINR. gas INJW injection rate. )/V. specific NGLTl inplace condensate liquids in reservoir. cumulative DELGASI injected gas during an interval WTRl injected water.^ letter sy~nbol Dimensions N n P i GF. E :.. internal energy interstitialoil saturation in gas cap . nominal annual PRSF interface or front pressure SFT interfacial.. x .. initial FACWO instantaneous producing wateroil ratio ICP intercept lRCE interest rate. static IJX injectivity index IJXS injectivity index.. integral. effective.. rs Sr.Z $i. effective compound (usually annual) IRPE interest rate.)(=GBgi) GORSI initial solution gasoil ratio WTRTI initial water in place in reservoir SATWI initial water saturation GAS1 injected gas. initial GASTI inplace gas in reservoir.~hd frmZ3 ELr. flowing PRSIWS injection well bottomhole pressure.s I GL G N W Fbvo b i PLl4.)/V.. modified rlt.5hd $I. OnR' SoR U ~s~~~ intergranular space (porosity). I). total initial OILTI inplace oil in reservoir..V~. fraction o c c u ~ i c d nonstluctural d i s ~ e r s e d bv shale intermatrix 'porosity' (space) (Vb . water PRSIWF injection wcll bottomhole pressure.symbol Cor~~puter qua at it. Gi AGL AW j wi Si AS..
. path length. or distance lifetime. script t tshscript t di G i VI>~I RESI EFFI Ek SATIW VSK ENGK 3 ( y ) script L interstitialwater saturation in gas cap interstitialwater saturation in oil band interval transit time interval transit time. fluid interval transit time. condensate. average (mean life) limit linear aquifer waterdrive constant liquid fraction ) liquid mole fraction LI(L + V liquid phase.$ script 1 FRCL FL. in place in reservoir. contacted) by the injectedfluid or heat front divided by the hydrocarbon pore space enclosed in all layers behind the injectedfluid or heat front irreducible water saturation kinematic viscosity kinetic energy Laplace transform of y 7 0 y ( r ) e''dt S > t V GT HLTV LTH TIMAV LM WDCL FL. apparent a interval transit timedensity slope (absolute value) interval transit time.fi script 1 MFRTL MFRL MOLL SATL NGLTI NGLP L" L lm i XSTMAC XNL PRMM SUSM MAG MAGF Laplace transform variable Laplacian operator larger than latent heat of vaporization length. fraction mlqt . shale invaded zone diameter. electrically equivalent invaded zone geometrical factor (multiplier) (electrical logging) invaded zone resistivity invasion (vertical) efficiency: hydrocarbon pore space invaded (affected. base 10 logarithm. base e macroscopic cross section macroscopic cross section of a nucleus magnetic permeability magnetic susceptibility magnetization magnetization. common. base a logarithm. combined total liquids. matrix interval transit time. mole fraction of component in liquid phase. natural. moles of liquid saturation. initial liquids. condensate. produced cumulative logarithm.SPE NOMENCLATUREAND UNITS 283 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions t script t SATWG SATWO TAC TACA SAD TACF TACMA TACSH DIAI GMFI Pit Ti tf script t t.
.g. u z h A.i(h. C . x.f. gas mobility..c lhrli.... .8. .) mobility. (h. total. etc.\\\CPt] signifies .i.n VOLM F~ MFKTV FL.J. e.) . . general (h.IiLicd) mobility ratio..l~l.$. A MOBT MOBW Kb BKM DSM E.. total. estimated mechanical force methane concentration (concentration of various other paraffin hydrocarbons would be indicated similarly C.. 'swept' and 'unswept' rcfer to invaded and uninvaded regions bellincl and ahead of leading edgc of displacement front mobility..PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter suvmbol Reserve SPE letfer symbol rn Computer letter syn~ bol MAS MRT TACMA DENMA VOLMA TIMAV TlMD PRSAV AV MEN DIAAVP MENES FCE CNCCl XSTMIC M FRM MOB MOBG MOB0 MBR MBKSAV Quantify Dimensions rn MI tmti SCY~P~ AtPrliz Olnn n7.) microscopic cross scctioi mixturc. displac~ng. shear niodul us of elasticity (Young's modulus) ~nolal volume (volume pcr mole) molc fraction gas VI(L V) mole fraction liquid L/(L V) mole f r a c t i o ~ ~a component in liquid phase of mole fraction of a component in mixture + + + + . diffusefront approximation + ?il)\9c. Lo M Mi Fh M I M M.71i(hd).. [(h0. dispersion.r.. I. (dispersion factor) modulus. e +. of all fluids in a particular region of the rcscrvoir. h.. grain) density matrix (framework) volume (volume of all formation solids exccpt clispcrsed clay or shalc) mean life (averagc lifctirnc) mean life (decay tirne) (lit) mean or avcrage pressure mean or average (overbar) mcan value of a random variable mean particlc diameter mean valuc of a random variable. significs displaced. FI. mole fraction of component mobility (kip) mobility. ELMS Y ELMY V. sharpfront approximation (h"kd) mobility ratio.. MBR MBRT FA. mobilities d are evaluated at averagc saturation conditions bchind ancl ahead of front mobility ratio.7 ~'T~ILI Vmo  t t P D.. script 1 MFRTL MFRL MFRM mass mass flow rate nlatrix interval transit tinlc matrix (solids. bulk modulus. water modulus. oil mobility ratio.
rmf f ~ m hm~ Rmf Gni Rm G Gan Gxo GZ Gm f~ Pm. geometrical. number of moles of component j MOLJ MOLPJ moles of component j produced. invaded zone (electrical logging) GMFM multiplier (factor). geometrical. annulus (electrical logging) GMFXO multiplier (factor). cumulative MOLL moles of liquid phase moles of vapor phase MOLV moles.. true (electrical logging) COE multiplier or coefficient CNTL natural gas liquids or condensite content natural logarithm.CK z1v. pseudo (electrical logging) GMFT multiplier (factor. f ~ a n ~ G X O f ~ i f ~ m ~ G P fct G~ Gt K In hn NN n~ t. microscopic ANM number. geometrical. conversion factor in DEC nominal decline factor XNL nucleus cross section. dm. &I ~+.w M CL. r.vD N N gc a o s Z N mole fraction of a component in vapor phase molecular refraction molecular weight (mass. geometrical (electrical logging) GMFAN multiplier (factor)?geometrical..SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 285 Letter symbol Heserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantify Dimensions Y R M ML n ni N N Ni V n r ML %LC 't N~ n~ n. f l ~ CL Nn. total NMBMT MWTAVL moleweighted average molecular weight m of produced liquids mudcake resistivity RESMC mudcake thickness THKMC RESMF mudfiltrate resistivity GMFM mud geometrical factor (multiplier) (electrical logging) mud resistivity RESM GMF multiplier (factor). geometrical. flushed zone (electrical logging) GMFI multiplier (factor). dimensionless. geometrical. em. Nt p. atomic NUMQ number. number of. relative) molecular weight of produced liquids. density (number) of NFL neutron lifetime SND neutron porositydensity slope (absolute value) NEU neutron [usually with identifying subscript(s)J GRVC Newton's Second Law of Motion. mud (electrical logging) GMFP multiplier (factor). base e THKN net pay thickness NEUN neutron count rate NMBN neutrons. pmf. " moleweighted average NMBM moles.. 7 . in general (always with identifying subscripts) MFRV MRF MWT MWTAVL L3 m m various various L I/t lit L3/m various L2 .
286 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE Letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity NMB NMB NMBCP NMBC NMBM REYQ OIL SATWO CMPO DEN0 DPROB DPROU Kc! F. volu~ne per unit volume of burned reservoir rock oil displaced from unburned volurne. befcire taxes operating expensc operating expense per unit pr:)duced operator. ultimate oil.S v. 90 Yon 60 Po. or steps. total number.. NP AN. A Nc.) number (quantity) number of compounding periods (ucually per year) number of components number of moles. so. residual oil specific gravity oil viscosity operating cash income operating cash income. Laplacian overall heat transfer coefficient overall reservoir recovery efficiency: volume of hydrocarbons recovered divided by volume of hydrocarbons in placc at start of project (ER = EVE. interstitial oil saturation. relative permeability to oil saturation oil saturation in gas cap. cumulative oil produced during an interval oil production rate oil production ratc. Foh PRMO FVFO FVFOB GORS N N. after taxes operating cash income. volume per unit volume of unburned reservoir rock oil. initial oil influx (encroachment) cumulative oil influx (encroachment) during an interval oil influx (encroachment) rate oil mobility oil produced. effective permeability to oil formation volume factor oil formation volume factor at buhblc point conditions oil.. etc..E.. = E. S o Pog. number (of variables. OILTI OILE DELOILE ENCO MOB0 OlLP DELOILP RTEO RTEOQ RVFO OILPUL PRMRO SAT0 SATOG SATOR SPGO VISO INC INCA INCB XPO XPOU HTCU EFFR A. Reynolds (dimensionless number) oil (always with identifying subscripts) oil band interstitialwatcr saturation oil compressibility oil density oil displaced from burned volume. Sog POI?S O I . gas solubility in (solution gasoil ratio) oil in place in rcservoir. e. or incremcnts. dirncnsionless oil reciprocal formation volume factor (shrinkage factor) oil recovery. E D ) various mILt M M M various MIL' .F0. or components.
to oil permeability. magnetic permeability ratio. relative. effective. etc. net period permeability.Vs)/Vb porosity. apparent porosity. absolute (fluid flow) permeability. Ea fe. dimensionless pore volumes of injected fluid. secondary porosity. or distance L pattern sweep efficiency (developed from areal efficiency by proper weighting for variations in net pay thickness. THKT THKN PER PRM PRMG PRMO PRMW PRMM PRMGO PRMWO PRMRG PRMRO PRMRW NMBP PSN VOLP VOLPQ FLUIQ f.R 4. cumulative. primary porosity index. gasoil permeability ratio. relative. to water permeability. wateroil permeability. pore volume.f oxygen concentration (concentration of other various elements or c o m ~ o u n dwould be indicated as. hydrocarbonfilled. total ip .1 oxygen utilization particle diameter.Vgr)lVb) 'porosity' (space).rscript 1 % ep D~ Eo. to water phases. ~ 4. relative. noneffective (Vpne/Vb) 'porosity' (space). f a . porosity and hydrocarbon saturation: hydrocarbon pore space enclosed behind the injectedfluid or heat front divided by total hydrocarbon pore space of the reservoir or project pay thickness.Cii~. to gas permeability. effective (Vpe/Vb) porosity exponent (cementation) (in an empirical relation between FR and 4. mean L path length.ig Oim 4 .) porosity. number of Poisson's ratio pore volume Vb . s C~02. dimensionless porosity (Vb . Ee POR PORA PORE MXP PORH PRX PRXPR PRXSE PORNE PORIG PORIM POREX PORR PORT 4. intergranular (Vb . gross (total) pay thickness.V. effective. effective.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 287 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol C ~ 2 Computer letter symbol CNC02 UTL02 DIAAVP LTH EFFP Quantity Dimensions Co2 s. to oil permeability. fraction or percent of rock bulk volume occupied by hydrocarbons porosity index porosity index.VmalVb) porosity of experimental pack porosity of reservoir or formation porosity. length. intermatrix (Vb . to gas permeability.
. tubing static PRXPR primary porosity index NGLP produced coildensate liquidst curnulative FLUP produced fluids. and W. flowing bottomhole pressurc. average or mean pressure. are not applicable) produced frcc gas. injection well pressure. dewpoint pressure.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter synlbol POT VLT ENGP PRSBH PRS PRSA PRSAV PRSAVR PRSWS PRSWF PRSIWF PRSW PRSWS PRSWW PRSIWS PRS B PRSCP PRSCF PRSCS PRSC PRSD PRSQ PRSE PRSXT PRS WF PRSCF PRSTF PRSF PRSTQQ Q~~anfify Dimensions potential or potential function various potential difference (clectric) potential encrgy pressure. bottomhole flowing. bottomhole pressure pressure. static tubing PRSTF pressurc. extrapolated pressure. cu~nulative (where NI. bottomhole (well). pseudoreduced PRSRD pressure. critical pressure. bottomhole static. flowing casing pressure. static casing PRSCS PRSTS pressure. at any time after shutin prcssure. average. reduced PRSAVR pressure. bubblepoint (saturation) pressure. dimensionless pressurc. cumulative gas DELGASP prod~~cecl during an interval . bottomhole. tubing flowing PRSTS prcssure. flowing tubing prcssure. at dimensionless time t . bottomhole general prcssure. separator PRSSC pressure. casing static pressure. injection well pressure. bottomholc flowing pressure. initial pressure. external boundary pressure. atmospheric pressure. capillary pressure. reservoir average PRSSP pressure. casing flowing pressure. dimensionless. in water phase pressure. bottomhole static pressure. reservoir prcssure. curnulative GASFP GASP produced gas. static bottomhole pressure. standard conditions PRSWS pressure. PRSI pressurc. pseudocritical PRSPC PRS PRD pressure. front or interface pressure function.
over year k. free (freegas volume/oil volume) FACWO producing wateroil ratio. wet. prior to shutin (pseudotime) PDX productivity index PRAK profit. cumulative producedliquid density. water RTEWQ production rate. dimensionless DELTIMWFproduction time after well is opened to production (presure drawdown) TIMP production time of well. dimensionless RTEG production rate. average RTEW production rate. annual. cumulative produced oil. instantaneous RTEI production rate at beginning of period RTEA production rate at economic abandonment RTEQ production rate. cumulative produced water during an interval produced wet gas. weightweighted average 8 produced moles of component j. cumulative produced oil during an interval produced water. dimensionless RTE production rate or flow rate production rate or flow rate at mean pressure RTEPAV RTEAV production rate or flow rate.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol ~ P E & P Computer letter symbol GASPEX GASWGP DENAVL MOLPJ OILP DELOILP WTRP DELWTRP GASWGP GOR GORF Quantity Dimensions G~~ G . over year k PRAPK profit. specific TEMPC pseudocritical temperature PRSPC pseudocritical pressure GMFP pseudogeometrical factor (multiplier) (electrical logging) CMPPRD pseudoreduced compressibility PRSPRD pseudoreduced pressure EMFP pseudoSP TEMPRD pseudoreduced temperature TIMP pseudotime (equivalent time well was on production prior to shutin) QLTS quality (usually of steam) 1 . annual net.WP PL D produced gas from experimental tube run produced gas. equivalent. dimensionless RTEO production rate. gas. oil. oil RTEOQ production rate. water. gas RTEGQ production rate. total proportional to PDXS productivity index. fraction of unamortized investment PRFT profit. cumulative producing gasoil ratio producing gasoil ratio.
effective con~pound (usually annual) ratc. mass flow rate of flow or flux. production. use symbol i with suitable subscripts rate. shear rate (veloc~ty) burningzone advance of ratc. dimensionless rate. reinvestment. production. oil production. intercst. apparent or effective (includes effects of well damage or stimulation) radius of well damage or stimulation (skin) radius. apparent or effective. dimensionless radius. gas production rate. production or flow rate. water influx (encroachment) rate. segregation ( ~ gravity drainage) n rate. oil production rate per unit area. well rate. ctc. gamma ray count rate. average late. gas production.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter synlbol Reserve SPE letter syn~bol Computer letter symbol Quantity DELRAD HCTJ RAD RADWA RADQ RADE RADHL RADD RADWA RADS RADW INJA RTE RTE NGR ENCG INJG RTEG RTEGQ ENC MENES INJ 1 RCE IRPE IRA M RT VELV HRT RORI ENCO RTEO VELV RTEOQ RTE RTEPAV RTEAV RTEQ RTES SRT VELB ENCW INJW radial distance (increment along radius) radiation heat transfer cocfficient radius radius. nominal annual rate. per period rate. gas influx (encroachment) rate. flow or production rate. water injection it lit it L3/t L3/t m/t Lit ~ " t lit Lit ~ ~ / t L3it . effective profit. injection ratc. interest. flow (volumctric velocity) rate. hydraulic radius of drainage radius of wellbore. of return. extcrnal boundary radius. estimated late. oil influx (encroachment) ratc. intcrest. true. gas injection rate. dimensionless rate. air injection ratc: discount. of wellbore (includes cffects of well damage or stimulation) radius. at mean pressure ratc. effectivc. mean value of x. or discounted cash flow) or earning power rate. production. per unit area (volumetric velocity) rate of heat flow rate of return (internal. dimensionless rate. influx (encroachrncnt) random variable.
D signifies displacing. water production.). .. wateroil ratio. solution gasoil (gas solubility in oil) ratio. dimensionless ratio. damage ('skin' conditions relative to formation conditions unaffected by well operations) ratio. gasoil permeability ratio. wateroil. solution gasoil.. Fgos Fgsi ratio.. displacement. d signifies displaced. general . mobility. equilibrium (yix) ratio. FgoP Fgsi Kg!ko sou Fg. displacement ratio. solution (gas solubility in oil) ratio. oil from burned volume. displacement. Fox F?.%. 1. cumulative ratio. producing gasoil ratio. airfuel various ratio.l(~d)"n.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 291 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions RTEW RTEWQ FACAFU DMRS DPR DPROB DPROU DPRWB EQR GORF Fsp.J(h. diffusefront a ~ ~ r o x i m a t i o n [(hD + 4). sharpfront approximation (LDlhd) ratio. volume per unit volume of unburned reservoir rock ratio. Fgo Fgrb Fgs. waterfuel ratio. . free producing gasoil (freegas volumeloil volume) ratio. initial ratio. volume per unit volume of burned reservoir rock ratio. gasoil. water from burned volume. cumulative L L various . mobility.. 'swept' and 'unswept' refef to invaded and uninvaded regions behind and ahead of leading edge of a displacement front ratio of initial reservoir freegas volume to initial reservoir oil volume ratio or factor in general (always with identifying subscripts) ratio. oil from unburned volume. permeability. gasoil ratio. mobility.l . volume per unit volume of burned reservoir rock ratio. at bubblepoint conditions ratio. solution.we. mobilities are evaluated at average saturation conditions behind and ahead of Gent ratio. initial solution ratio. gasoil. total [(A.Mru GORP GORSI PRMGO GOR GORSB GORS MBR MBRSAV rate. mobilitv. MDd. . permeability. Fgo MGO FAC PRMGO GOR PRMWO GORSB GORS GORSI FACWFU FACWOP Fgs b Fgs. gasoil.) . displacement.. gasoil producing ratio. water production ~ ~ ! t rate. at bubblepoint conditions ratio.. solution gasoil. gasoil. (hdlsplaclnglhdlsplaced) Fi MBR MB~RT Fir F@.
volume of ~ Llt ~ ~ . reduced teniperature reduction ratio or reduction tcrrn reduction. volumes of air per unit bulk volume of reservoir rock reservoir initial freegas volume (=mNB. proton thermal requirement.) reservoir or formation porosity re\ervoir pressure. producing. unit air. wateroil. SP (general) clue to shaliness rcfraction. in reservoir. volume of hydrocarbons recovered divided by volu~nc of hydrocarbons in place at start of project. freeprecession decay relaxation time. molccular refraction index reduction ratio. due to sh. wateroil permeability ratio. instantaneous reactance reaction ratc constant real part of complex number z reciprocal formation volu~ne factor. ED) . volume of hydrocarbon? recovcred divided hy volume of hydrocarbons in placc at start of project ( E . 1' 'I llless relative amplitude relative atomic mass (atomic weight) relative molecular weight (molecular weight) relative bearing relative density (spccific gravity) relative permeability to gas relative permeability to oil relative permeability to water relaxation time. unit air. (ER = E ~ E I E L I E J U ) = recovery. overall. volumes or air per unit mass of pack requireincnt. air requirement. F GASPUL PKSRD TEMRD RED REDSP MRF RFX REDSH AMPR AWT MWT BRGR SPG PRMRG PRMRO PRMKW TlMAV TIMRP AIR AIREX AIRR GASFI PORR PRSAVR EFFR VOLRB ratio. volume at standard conditions divided by volume at reservoir conditions (shrinkage factor) reciprocal gas formation volurnc factor reciprocal gas formation volume factor at bubblepoint conditions reciprocal permeability reciprocal oil formation volume fator (shrinkage factor) rccovery efficiency.. reservoir overall.i PRMWO FACWO XEL RRC RVF RVFG RVFGB RVFO EFFR b .292 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions  k d (z) script R r.f. ult~niate gas reduced pressure .x reservoir rock burned.. averagc resel voir recovery efficiency. = [s] = E . in laboratory experimental run. SP.
s. R . water revenue. S. where flushing has been the maximum) resistivity. oil. gas.rmf P s ~r. residual saturation. in gas cap saturation. formation 100% saturated with water of resistivity R. rt ZR RESZR REST RSXH RESI RESM RESMC RESMF RESSH RESS RESW GRRU GRRT REYQ CMPF CNC SAT SXP SATG SATGC SATGR SATOG SATWG SATH SATHR SAT0 SATOR vu V N ~ e PI. annulus resistivity. Cf C S n sg sgc sgr so. formation (FR(Drn) resistivity factor. "m Pmo rmc pmf.71 Pm. volume of reservoir temperature residual gas saturation residual hydrocarbon saturation L residual oil saturation residual water saturation resistance resistivity (electrical) resistivity.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 293 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol VRU Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions V R ~ TR sgr e~ Shr SO. interstitialoil. ra Pz. YW Ru R. apparent resistivity.s psj Ss P ~ cS. formation. of the conductive fluids in an invaded zone (due to fingering) resistivity factor coefficient. residual hydrocarbon saturation. sgr Phrj Shr Port Sor PwrJSwr R P. gas. in gas cap saturation. a numerical subscript to F indicates the R.Sh Phn Shr POJO PorJSor SO Sor reservoir rock unburned.g s h shr kf. YS Pw. apparent. Rm R ~ c Rmf Rs~ Rs Rw PoJ"' PC. Ph. a P. resistivity. ~ h Ps. gas saturation. true resistivity index (hydrocarbon) equals RilRo resistivity. run Pa. ~ C Pgrd'gr P o p SO^ p. SW. gross ('value'). surrounding formation resistivity. total' Reynolds number (dimensionless number) rock or formation compressibility salinity saturation saturation exponent saturation. residual L3 T ML*/~~' mL3tq mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 m~~tq' mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 MIL3 M Lt2/m various . oil saturation. formation. mudfiltrate resistivity. r Pan. gross ('value'). ~f c. resistivity flushed zone (that part of the invaded zone closest to the wall of the borehole. mud resistivity. rz MR. critical saturation.a. C VOLRU TEMR SATGR SATHR SATOR SATWR RST RES RESAN RESA RESZ COER FACHR PSO. ~ X O RESXO Ro Rt IR R. mudcake resistivity. interstitialwater. invaded zone resistivity. equals RdR. r R Ran RU Rz KR FR RSO Pgr. hydrocarbon saturation. V . per unit produced revenue. shale resistivity.
gas in water GORSB solution gasoil ratio at bubblepoint conditions GORS solution gasoil ratio (gas solubility in oil) GORSl solution gasoil ratio. critical saturation. saturation or bubblepoint pressure saturation. electrokinetic colnponent of EMFSP SP (measured SP) (Self Potential) EMFPSP SP. pseudo EMFSSP SP.Fps Fq. grain) density G O RS solubility. water. total (combined) liquid saturation.. gas rn/~t~ lit various L various L various t~'/m . at any time DELTIMWS shutin timc (time after well is shut in) (pressure buildup) DSCSP single payment tiiscount factor DSCSPC single payment discount factor (constant annual rate) SKD skin depth (logging) SKN skin effect RADS skin radius (radius of well damage or stimulation) SLP slope SAD slope. F. static (SSP) LENS spacing (electrical logging) HERS specific entropy SPG specific gravity (relative density) SPGG specific gravity. ( script 1 . Qpsp @S. ~cn)/(~slr ~ .YCI. water. initial saturation. residual secondary porosity index segregation rate (in gravity drainage) separator pressure shale interval transit time shale resistivity shaliness gammarav index ( Y .) ELMS shear modulus SRT shcar rate AMPS shear wave amplitude RVFO shrinkage factor (reciprocal oil formation volume factor) PRSWS shutin bottomhole pressure. neutron porosity vs density (absolute valuc) LT srnaller than DENSEX solid particles density of cxperimental rock VOLS solid(s) volume (volume of all formation solids) DENMA solids (matrix. interval transit time vs density (absolute value) SND slope. initiai EMFC SP. electrochemical component of EMFK SP. water. J t GI< sr F@f> Fgs. gas in oil (solution gasoil ratio) GWRS solubility.F..PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Comynter letter symbol PRSB SATL SATW SATWC SATWI SATIW SATWR PRXSE RTES PRSSP TACSH RESSH SHXGR Quantity Dimensions 4s J' \P fsh script t RSJ. 3 . 0 s.si @k @sl. watcr irreducible saturation. < .SP s. water saturation.
pseudoreduced temperature. formation temperature gradient temperature. at any time after shutin static pressure. interfacial surrounding formation resistivity susceptibility. Qsc Js v Fwv Essp ts 0 S Piws Pws Pcs ts 7s E P Y 8 Y 0 T C U L'?Y Ps. pseudocritical temperature. critical temperature. casing static pressure. oil specific gravity. 8. bottomhole. rs K 8 ~ B H ec Of gh 8PC 8r . gross pay (total) various mILt2 m/Lt2 L3/t m/t2 mL3ttq2 mL/q T T T T TIL T T T T T m/t2 . shear strain. estimated static bottomhole pressure. surface (interfacial) tensor of x thermal conductivity (always with additional phase or system subscripts) thermal cubic expansion coefficient thermal or heat diffusivity thickness (general and individual bed) thickness. standard conditions tension. volume stream function stress. normal and general stress. injection well static pressure. shear summation (operator) superficial phase velocity (flux rate of a particular fluid phase flowing in pipe. reservoir temperature.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 295 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions SPGO SPGW HSP HSPR IJXS PDXS SPV WGTS EMFSSP TIMS SDV SDVES PRSIWS PRSWS PRSCS PRSTS RADS STN STNS STNV STR STS STSS SUM VELV 40. @R 8sc Y>Y RTESC SFT RESS SUSM TEM TEMBH TEMC TEMF GRDT TEMPC TEMPRD TEMRD TEMR TEMSC SFT HCN HEC HTD THK THKT specific gravity. water specific heat capacity (always with phase 2r system subscripts) specific heat capacity ratio specific injectivity index specific productivity index specific volume specific weight SSP (static SP) stabilization time of a well standard deviation of a random variable standard deviation of a random variable. magnetic temperature ' temperature. reduced temperature. use appropriate phase subscripts) surface production rate surface tension. tubing stimulation or damage radius of well (skin) strain. normal and general strain. bottomhole temperature.
fluid TACMA time. interval transit TACA time. hydraulic SATL total (combined) liquid saturation HER total entropy MOBT total mobility of all fluids in a particular region of the reservoir. . pay. dclay DELTIM time difference (time period or interval.. Laplace of y (J) script L . matrix TACSIl time. payout (payoff. script t Y TIHKMC thickness. apparent. radiation TAC transit timc. dimensioi~less TIMMQ timc. interval transit. heat. interval TACA transit time. heat. illtcrval TACF transit time. shale TIMDN time.) MB R T total mobility ratio [(hc)s. equivalent (pseudotime) TOR tortuosity TORE tortuosity. fixcd length) TIMQ time.~. dimensionless at condition rn TIMS time for stabilization of a well TAC time. (h. 'swept' and 'unswept' refer to invaded and uninvaded regions behind and ahcad of leading edge of a displacement front THKT total (gross) pay thickness GRRT total gross revenue ('value') GASTI total initial gas in placc in reservoir NMBM total moles PORT total porosity FVFT total (twophase) formation volume factor HTCC transfer coefficient. overall HTCI transfer coefficient. net pay TIM time DELTIMWF time after well is opened to production (pressure drawdown) DELTIMWS time after well is shut in (pressure buildup) TIMC time constant TTMD time. + h.z script t 7 j script t script t I. matrix interval TACSH transit tirne.h script t t d ~ h. mudcake THKT thickness. payback) DELTIM time period or interval.. v G n W1 B. interval transit. e. neutron decay (neutron mean life) TIMPO time. h U I r script t /. electric TORHL tortuosity.g. gross (total) THKN thickness.. apparent TACF time. fluid interval TACMA transit timc.c. + h. interval transit. fixed length TIMP time well was on production prior to shutin.. script t qscript t . convectivc heat HTCU transfer coefficient. decay (mean life) (11 h) TIMD time. shale interval transform..PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter sym b01 Quantity Dimensions tt1 lnnr f5 rscript t i./ script t /.7J(hl) 1. . interval transit.
kinematic viscosity. at 1atm viscosity. oil viscosity. transmissibility true density true formation resistivity z true geometrical factor (multiplier) (noninvaded zone) (electrical logging) tubing pressure. volumes of air per bulk volume of reservoir rock unit fuel concentration (see symbol m) universal gas constant (per mole) utilization. matrix acoustic velocity. bulk various m / ~ ~ mL3tq2 various mL2/t2~ Lit Lit Lit Lit Lit Lit Lit miLt m/Lt miLt miLt miLt i it m/Lt miLt . estimated vector of x velocity velocity. contacted) by the injectedfluid or heat front divided by the hydrocarbon pore space enclosed in all layers behind the injectedfluid or heat front viscosity. oxygen valence vapour phase. acoustic apparent (measured) velocity. air viscosity at mean pressure viscosity. latent heat of variance of a random variable variance of a random variable. volume of unit air requirement in laboratory experimental run. mole fraction of component vapour phase. shale acoustic velocity (rate) of burningzone advance vertical (invasion) efficiency: hydrocarbon pore space invaded (affected. moles of vaporization. water volume volume at bubblepoint pressure volume. acoustic velocity. variable transmissivity.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 297 Letter symbol Reserve SPE ktter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions TRM DENT REST GMFT PRSTF PRSTS FACB FVFT GASPUL INVUK VOLRU AIREX AIRR CNCFU RRR UTL02 VAL MFRV MOLV HLTV VAR VARES VEL VAC VACA VACF VACMA VACSH VELB EFFI VISA VISPAV VIS VISG VISGA VSK VISO VISW VOL VOLBP VOLB transform. gas. Laplace. acoustic fluid velocity. flowing tubing pressure. volumes of air per unit mass of pack unit air requirement in reservoir. dynamic viscosity. gas viscosity. static turbulence factor twophase or total formation volume factor ultimate gas recovery unamortized investment over year k undiscounted cash flow unburned reservoir rock.
pore.. dimensionless volume. initial reservoir (=rnNl.V.) volume of reservoir rock burned volume of reservoir rock unburned volume per mole (molal volume) volume. in situ cornbustion pattern volumetric efficiency: product of pattern sweep and invasion efficiencies volumetric flow rate volun~etric flow rate downhole volumetric flow rate. specific volumetric efficiency for burned portion only. "S/L> V.. laminated volume. effective permeability to L3 various ~'lt ~'/t L3lt m/Lt2~ Lit various Lt2/m m/L3 .. note that bulk volume fraction is unity and pore volulne fractions are $1) volume. freegas. ~ntermatrix (consists of fluids and dispersed shale) (V!. shale.'i I run volume.V. per unit area) water (always with identifying subscripts) water compressibility water density water displaced from burned volume.) volume... effective pore volume fraction or ratio (as needed. intergranular (volumc between grains.) volume. pore (VI.V. structural volurne.298 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter sy~ii bol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol VOLBEX VOLG VLF Quantity  GASFI VOLGR VOLIG VOLTM VOLMA VR. .Sh VOLNE VOLRB VOLRU VOLM VOLP VOLPQ VOLSHD VSHLAM VOLSHS VOLSH VOLS SPV EFFVB EFFV RTE RTEDH RTESC HSPV VELV WTR CMPW DENW DPRWB WDC WDCL PRMW volume. linear aquifer water.<u V.D vslrd v . .) volume. ~script l . v. shale.w V P vp n Vh Fd Vshl script 1 Vrhr VAL "P V[. use same subscripted symbols as for 'volumes'. volume per unit volume of burned reservoir rock waterdrive constant waterdrive constant. noneffective pore (V. of pack burned in experiment. dispersed volume. shale. matrix (framework) (volume of all formation solids except dispersed shale) volumc. bulk. shale(s) (volume of all shales: structural and dispersed) volume. consists of fluids and all shales) ( Vb .V g r ) volume.. grain (volume of all formation solids except shales) volume. surface conditions volumetric heat capacity volumetric velocity (flow rate or flux. solid(s) (volume of all formation solids) volume. .
molecular well radius well radius of damage or stimulation (skin) well stabilization time wellbore radius. breadth. cumulative water produced during an interval water production rate water production rate. irreducible water saturation. residual water specific gravity water viscosity wave length (110) wave number (lih) weight (gravitational) weightweighted average density of produced liquid L weight. initial water influx (encroachment). interstitial water saturation. cumulative water injected during an interval water injection rate water mobility wateroil permeability ratio wateroil ratio.SPE NOMENCLATUREAND UNITS 299 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions FVFW FACWFU GWRS WTRTI WTRE DELWTRE ENCW WTRI DELWTRI INJW MOBW PRMWO FACWOP FACWO WTRP DELWTRP RTEW RTEWQ PRMRW RESW SATW SATWC SATWI SATWO SATWG SATIW SATWR SPGW VISW WVL WVN WGT DENAVL AWT MWT RADW RADS TIMS RADWA CNTWG GASWGP WTH W Y D i Pi. relative permeability to water resistivity water saturation water saturation."i WRK ELMY DIAI RESI water formation volume factor waterfuel ratio water. atomic weight. electrically equivalent zone resistivity. or (primarily in fracturing) thickness work Young's modulus (modulus of elasticity) zone diameter. initial water saturation (interstitial) in oil band water saturation in gas cap. gas solubility in c water in place in reservoir. invaded. cumulative water influx (encroachment) during an interval water influx (encroachment) rate water injected. cumulative width. cumulative wateroil ratio. critical water saturation. dimensionless water. invaded various various L3 . producing. instantaneous water produced. effective or apparent (includes effects of well damage or stimulation wetgas content wet gas produced.
. or acting a after taxes a air a airfuel uF altered a amplitude log A angle. or angular coordinate 6' theta anhydrite anh anisotropic ani annulus apparent (from log readings. activity. use tool description subscripts) apparcnt (general) apparent wellbore (usually with wellbore radius) areal atmosphere. p rho B r. neutron NA active.. oil at (usually with formation volume factor. external breakthrough bubble bubblepoint conditions.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE B. VbC) burned or burning burned portion of in situ combustion pattern.) burned in experimental tube run (usually with volume. Evb) burned reservoir rock  s. Vbp) bulk (usually w ~ t h volume V!..) bubble point (saturation) bubblepoint or saturation (usually with volumc.. atmospheric average or mean pressure average or mean saturation band or oil band bank or bank region base before taxes bond log.BH B BEX .) burned portion of in situ combustion pattern. angular. volumetric of (usually with efficiency.) bubblepoint conditions. flowing (usually with pressure or time) bottomhole. Subscripts alphabetized by physical quantity Subscript definitio~~ Letter subscript Reserve SPE subscript Computer letter subscript A A NA A A A AFU A A THE AH AN1 AN A WA A A PAV SAV B B B B CB TV BH WF WS E BT B OB abandonment a acoustic a activation log. solution at (usually with gasoil ratio. static (usually with pressure or time) boundary conditions.. cement borehole tcleviewer log bottom hole bottomhole. ED. R. B. fl beta B cb tv w. displacement from (usually with efficiency.
) core corrected critical cumulative influx (encroachment) cumulative injected cumulative produced cumulative produced free value (usually with gas.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 301 Subscript definition Letter subscript Reserve SPE subscript Computer letter subscript burned volume. oil from (usually with displacement ratio.) contact log. PC) capture carbon dioxide carbon monoxide casing or casinghead casing. microlog. 6. 0. static (usually with pressure) cement bond log chemical chlorine log clay clean coil compaction compensated density log compensated neutron log component(s) component j component j produced (usually with moles.. GLp) damage or damaged (includes 'skin' conditions) decay deep induction log deep laterolog delay cl cla cln C C INF C INF C C z C COY C C e I COR CR E S d ID LLD d id &d script 11 6 delta S D ID LLD D . GFp) cumulative produced liquid (usually with condensate. n. flowing (usually with pressure) casing.) calculated caliper log capillary (usually with capillary pressure. bob) burned volume water from (usually with displacement ratio.. minilog convective conversion (usually with conversion factor in Newton's law of motion.) compressional wave conditions for infinite dimensions conductive liquids in invaded zone constant contact (usually with contact angle. g.
cumulative entry epithcrmal neutron log eqivalent estimated ethane experimental CD D d d d DT rl eta PD D Dnz tD wD d DM DR dy PV d K d Db Du D do1 dh d DI DLL e e e C cd d 6 delta dt RHO CD D D D D DT ETA PQ Q QM TQ WQ D DM DR DY PV D K DD DB DU s./ E k EL EP el E C DN DL DH D D1 DLL E E E C E K EL e NE eq E c 2 script el EM i E r1e EV eSt el' E EX EP E EM E E NE EV ES C2 EX .... compensated density log depleted region.scripf Computer letter subscript density density log.J displacing or displacement (efficiency) dolomite downhole drainage (usually with drainagc radius. rd) dual induction log dual latervlog earth effective (or equivalent) clcctric.) diplog.) din~ensionless quantity dimensionless quantity at condition m dimensionless time dimensionless watcr dip (usually with angle.302 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Subscript definition Letter srrbscript p rho Reserve SPE sub. dipmeter directional survey dirty (clayey. or present value disperscd dispersion displaced displacement frorn burncd portion of in sitr~ combustion pattern (usually with efficiency.) displacement from ilnburned portion of in silu combustion pattern (usually with efficiency. o sigma dm dr dty Pv D d s. clcctrical log. a. depletion dewpoint differential separation differential temperature log diffusivity dimensionless pore value (usually with volume V. shaly) discounted value. present worth. electrical electrochemical electrode electrokinetic electrolog.. Eo. electrical survey electromagnetic pipe inspection log electron empirical encroachment (influx). ES .D DH di d///scriyt11 E E ec e ek el. Enr.
front region. outer boundary conditions extrapolated fast neutron log fillup finger or fingering flash separation flowing bottomhole (usually with pressure or time) flowing casing (usually with pressure) flowing conditions. or interface fuel. plYf) flowing conditions.) gas cap. injection well (usually with pressure. such as pF) gammagamma ray log gamma ray log gas gas at atmospheric conditions gas at bubblepoint conditions gas cap. GFp) free value.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS Subscript definition Letter subscript Reserve SPE subscript Computer letter subscript experimental value per mole of produced gas (usually with fuel consumption. So. solution (usually with gas solubility in water.. gas. S) .) fuel (usually with fuel properties. initial (usually with gas. (usually with gas. conductive flushed zone formation 100% saturated with water (used in Ro only) formation (rock) formation. well (usually with time) flowing tubing (usually with pressure) fluid fluids in an invaded zone. C. mass of (usually with fuel concentration. fractured or fracturing free (usually with gas or gasoil ratio quantities) free fluid free value.) geometrical geothermal grain grain (matrix. water in (usually with saturation. surrounding fraction or fractional fracture. R.) external. oil in (usually with saturation. GFz) front. mE. solids) gravity meter log gross (total) guard log gypsum half Eg e o EXG E XT NF ext NF F f f wf cf 1 ' F F L F F F WF IWF if w CF f Z t f ~f f P WF TF F xo 0 zero z xo 7ZR . dimensionless gasoil. cumulative produced. solution (usually with gasoil ratios) gaswater.
. EI) irreducible jth component jth component. lamination lateral (resistivity) log latcrolog (add further tool configur a t'lon subscripts as needed) laterolog. t iota.. T D T light phase limestone limiting value i. conductivc liquids i11an invasion (usually with invasion efficiency. flowing conditions (usually with pressure.304 Subscript definition PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter subscript 12 Reserve SPE subscript T. dual lifetime log. injected or injecting injection well.. 1 I is iota. Rsi) initial value or conditions injected.s) pi. script i L i im i in t i z iota. ~irt. deep investigation induction log induction log. front region.s lim . 8 theta h~ Cornputer letter subscript HT HP H H HL H HY HR H2S I ID I D1 IM INF E I FI S1 I 1 I IWF IWS heat or thermal heavy phase hole horizontal hydraulic hydrocarbon hydrogen nuclei or atoms hydrocarbon. produced junction larnillar laminated. script i I I I I?/ j /script l ('script L L LL I Z 1 I ir. static coilditions (usnally with pressure.script 1 / j r script 1 1st DLL PNL LP LS LM I I I F I IG IM I I I DLL PNL LP 1.vj) HP 1 1 H h N H h H hr H2S I ID I DI IM cc P H . injection wcll. script i I R J PJ J L LAM L LAM / script 1 L n script 1 1 LL d #'script II n . conditions for influx (encroachment). script i F i. or front interference intergranular intcrmatrix internal intrinsic invaded invaded zone invaded zone. cumulative initial conditions or value initial free value (usually with gas. script i id i di i m i i Fi si I i i iwl iws I inj inncr or interior interface.. GFi) initial solution (usually with gasoil ratio. neutron. dual induction log. rcsidual hydrogen sulphide imbibition induction log. medium investigation infinite diincnsions. cumulative injection.
thermal nitrogen noneffective nonwetting normal normal (resistivity) log (add numerical spacing to subscript to N. cumulative (usually with condensate GLp) location subscripts. grain) matrix [solids. lineal liquid or liquid phase liquids. TDT neutron log. CnJ matrlx (solids. etc. LOG tscript 1 NM m ma ma max P 1% L nm L L NM FU MA MA MX PAV SAV IM C1 MLL ML VD MN M LAM S 7. p rho IM CI MLL ML VD im mflscript 1 1 miscript 1 vd min M 2.3.lambda M M M m m mc mf n N n NA nu PNL . signature log. nuclear mass of fuel (usually with fuel concentration. variable density log minimum mixture mobility molal (usually with volume. period. compensated neutron log neutron log. invaded zone liquid produced. income. minilog. usage is secondary to that for representing times or time periods 1% lower magnetism log. ?.. ngscript 1 CN cn N M NE ne NF nf SN sn NT nt N2 M M M MC MF N N NA PNL CN ne nw n N n n NIV NW n r.2. contact log microseismogram log.g. fast neutron log. except (nonstructural) clay or shale] maximum mean or average pressure mean or average saturation medium investigation induction log methane microlaterolog microlog.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS Subscript definition Letter subscript Reserve SPE subscript t script 1 d script 1 305 linear. conductive. epithermal neutron log. or unit nuclear magnetism log L L z Computer lltter subscript L L Z LP z 1. payment. VAW) Mth period or interval mud mud cake mud filtrate net neutron neutron activation log neutron lifetime log. R N nm N NE NF SN NT N2 NE NW N N N N NM . N16) normalized (fractional or relative) nth year. e. sidewall neutron log.
) payout. FM. etc. or radial distance rate of return '//.) produced wateroil (cumulative) (usually with cumulative wateroil ratio. 1... cumulative (usually with gas. cumulative produced free value..s> OG E 02 P K P PO K P EP P PQ PHI P PAV PR P PJ P FP I \ 1 i I i 1i P 1 one P PI P F ~ j 4 phi 4 phi  f . radial. S. S. available secondarily as location subscripts or for other purposes) observed oil at bubblepoint conditions (usually with formation volume factor.) pore value..) profit .) oil in gas cap (usually with saturation. mean or average primary produccd produced component j (usually with moles. sol. n OQ 0 OB OU o oS e 0 2 4.) P 1c K Po K C P P P P k P EP I' 17n porosity porosity data pressure.. OB oh OB OB o n o ob ou N. purticular period..306 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Subscript defi~litio~l Letter subscript 1.. Bob) oil. E cpsilon 11.) outer (external) oxygc11 particle (usually with diameter... or intervril pattern (usually with pattern efficiency.) oil from unburned volume (usually with displacement ratio. V. payoff.. pri P I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I PE LP IY 01) PEX WOP I I i I P Plc P P I'C P 1) PD Pr pSP r r r P PK P P PC PQ PRD PSP R R R I I I ! i . or payback permeability phase or phases pipe inspection log. E epsilon f . Reserve SPE subscript Co~npnter letter subscript numericnl subscripts (intended primarily lo represent times or time periods.2.unamortized invcstmcnt proximity log pseudo pseudocri tical pseudodimensionless pseudorcduccd pseudoSP radial radius.3. GFp) produced in experimciit produced liquid.) production period (usually will2 time. element. dimensionless oil oil from burned volume (usually with displacement ratio. G.. elcctrornagnetic pore (usually with volume. E. dimensionless (usually with volumc. cumul at' v e ~ (usually with condensate. r~.) produced.
.) solution. p rho R r c r.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 307 Subscript definition Letter subscript Reserve SPE subscript Computer letter subscript recovery (usually with recovery efficiency. o sigma sha a s script 1 1 t tau T tau SJV sn vd slt S o sigma 2.) rock (formation) sand sandstone saturation.. unburned residual residual hydrocarbon resistivity resistivity log Reynolds (used with Reynolds number only. scattering secondary segregation (usually with segregation rate. NR. mean or average saturation or bubble point saturation or bubble point (usually with volume.) separator conditions shale shallow laterolog shear shear wave sidewall sidewall neutron log signature log. microseismogram log. burned reservoir rock. R. p rho fm sa sst 7. ER) reduced reference relative reservoir reservoir rock.m o sigma SP SH LLS SL SP S S M S SEX MA SB . grain) solution at bubblepoint conditions (usually with gasoil ratio. 9. initial (usually with gasoil ratio. variable density log silt single payment skin (stimulation or damage) slip or slippage slurry ('mixture') solid(s) (all formation solids) solids in experiment solids (matrix. tool sonic velocity log b.sec S. R.) solution (usually with gasoil ratios) sonde. Vbp) scattered. rho S F SD SS SAV B BP SC 2 two S s. Rsb) solution in water (usually with gas solubility in water.
3.308 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Subscript definition Letter subscript SF' s s Reserve . T ti t T T t T. dimensionless times or time periods tooldescription subscripts: see individual entries SLICII as 'amplitude log'. borellolc temperature ternperaturc log temperature log. etc. total system transinissibility treatment or treating true (opposed to apparent) tubing flowing (usually with pressure) tubing or tubinghead tubing.2. static (usually with pressure) turbulence (used with F only. 8 theta t. neutron lifetime log televiewer log. etc. o sigma a sigma pn/ script 1 tv h.F st S t. t t T t I tau tr 4 1 & ul U ts B 11 LL u DM Ru T TI T T T T T TF T TS B UL U U DU RU . differential thermal (heat) thermal decay time (TDT) log thermal neutron log time. ED. 'neutron log..h dt T.epsilon e s st s o sigma S.3) ultimate unamortized unburned unburned portion of in situ colllbustion pattern displacement from (usually with efficiency. sonde total initial in place in reservoir total (gross) total.SPE subscript SP Computer letter subscripf SP L S SSP S SC WS CS IWS WS TS WS S S ST S EPS ST S S S S PNL TV T T DT HT PNL NT TQ SP spacing specific (usual1y with J and 4 SSP stabilization (usually with time) standard collditions static bottomhole (usually with pressure or time) static casing (usually with pressure) static conditions. tool. F.s s S S s. 8 theta pnrscript 1 nt s s s PNL TV T T DT h PNL NT tD 1.'. injection well (usually with pressure) static or shutin conditions (usually with time) static tubing (usually with pressure) static well conditions (usually with time) steam or steam zone stimulation (includes 'skin' conditions) stocktank conditions storage or storage capacity strain structural surface surrounding formation swept or swept region system T D T log. a sigma ts ws s .L) unburned reservoir rock SSP s S sc ws cs o sigma iws ws .
.SPE NOMENCLATUREAND UNITS 309 Subscript definition Letfer subscript Reserve SPE subscript Computer letter subscript unburned volume. flowing conditions (usually with time) well. oil from (usually with displacement ratio.> ou OU u u U U U U * v V vd VD v SV U U U V VD V SV V VB V sv v v W V Vb V w WD wb wF Wg V W WQ WB WFU WG WO WOP SW wo WOP sw 0 zero W w wf ws iwf iws ws c zr w f s ZR W W WF WS IWF IWS WS WA wa wh Wg t h WH WG WGP W Y ZR Z XO I wet gas produced wetting Young's modulus. F. R.) wellhead wet gas (usually with composition or content.) wateroil (usually with instantaneous producing wateroil ratio.. static conditions (usually with time) wellbore. r. gwb) waterfuel water in gas cap (usually with saturation.) unit unswept or unswept region upper vaporization. conductive fluids in an invaded zone... static conditions (usually with time) well. flowing conditions (usually with pressurepLWf) well.. S.) watersaturated formation. solution in (usually with gas solubility in water. microseismogram log. injection. dimensionless water from burned volume (usually with displacement ratio. signature log velocity velocity.) well.. invaded WgP w Y 0 zero z W zr xo i I . sonic or acoustic log vertical volumetric of burned portion of in st combustion iu pattern (usually with efficiency.. static conditions (usually with pressure p. Ebb) volume or volumetric water water. flushed zone. 6. or vapour phase variable density log. refers to zero hydrocarbon saturation zone.) wateroil produced (cumulative) . cw. injection. F) water. vapour. (usually with cumulative wateroil ratio. apparent (usually with wellbore radius. 100% weight well conditions well.
l For the external system: and for the internal fluid system: .4 x lo9 sm3 (This is ecluivalcnt to 34 X lo9 STB.1 Casing Design Example (a) The buoyancy factor (BF) is glven by SGsreel. i.35 this yields 21 recoverable reserve of 1.) Chapter 3 Solution 3..) (N. For an assumed overall technical recovery factor of 0.SCJtluld BF = SG.54 x 10"' x 0.1 Although this problem should place probabilistic rangcs on the given data and assu~nptions. We will assume that the combination of oil expellcd from source rocks and trapped in potential structures represents some 8% of the collverted source rocks.B.085 X 4500 x 12 X 10%' = 2.4rm'lsm'. assuming an oil formation volu~lle factor of 1.35 = 5.: 011 co~~verted s o u ~ c rock for c Trapl?ed o ~ ( = OIP) l = 5 x 4500 x 12 x 10"mi = 0.. I6 x 10"' mi Assuming an average formation volu~ne factor of 1.Appendix 2 Solutions to Examples Chapter 2 Solution 2. Thc UK Government's 1983 'Brown Book' indicates a probable rangcof techllically recoverable reserves between 11 and 23 x 10" STB.54 X 10"' sm3..c. will be calculated it dctcr~ninistically.4 rm3/sm3this yields a stock tank oil in place of 1.
we can propose a section length of 11 520 .885 = 30125 lbs. (iii) Joint strength calculation check Since the entire section is below2the neutral point.433 psi!ft = 1.755 BR = .0.755 = 9820 ft This is rounded off to 9800 ft. 20 ppf and can be set below the neutral point (see Table A3.11520) = 1480 ft .831 psilft The collapse limit of the P110 casing of the various weights is given from Table A3.853 (c) In the lower section we can check criteria: (i) Collapse The external mud gradient is SG x 0.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES point (NP) is thus the depth at which the string above is in tension and below in compression.14000 ft for 23 ppf casing 0..885 BF for internal fluid system 0.0.831 11630 .) (ii) Burst check Since a more dense mud is used outside the casing then the greatest interna1:external pressure difference is at the top of each section.498 .1 as  9570 .10072 ft 0.'.8311 = 4647 psi no problem arises. (b) For the design weight of casing (CWT) we have CWT = weight in air x BR where the buoyancy ratio BR is given by BF for outside mud system 0.433 = 0.498 . 8370 (i) Collapse limit = .433) = 1. 23 ppf has the next highest collapse pressure to P110.0.831 Rounding off.1).(external fluid head) Internal pressure gradient = (SG x 0.831 : Use 23 ppf casing from bottom to 11520 ft. The ~p = 13000 X BF = 13000 X 0. 8000 + (internal fluid head) .15 X 0.433 = 0. (d) For the next section N80.11520 ft for 20 ppf casing. (NB no tension problem since neutral point is at 9800 ft.10 070 = 1450 ft (ii) Burst check 8000 10 070 [0.498 psiift + 11520 [0. internal differential is: (max surface pressure) . tension is not a problem so a n h ~ joint with long threads is sufficient. At 11 520 ft.92 X 0. and 0. 1 (iv) Design weight for the section (CWT) CWT = Design length x wt per foot x BR = 1480 x 23 x 0. + .8311 = 4164psi As burst pressure of 23 ppf casing is given as 11780 psi no problem arlses. that is (13000 .
8311 = 5369 psi This is w~thin tolerance ot both 20 and 23 ppf N80 the (iii) Joint strength clicck Section design weight = (2170 x 20 x 885) Total design weight = 38 109 54 920 = 93 329 lb +  38 409 Ih We can see that the joint strengths of 20 and 23 ppf N80 casing are both greater than the design weights (Table A3.956% 6930 0. It is considered more econon~ical design for N80.20 ppf.0. From Table A3. A3.7972 ft accept 7900 tt a\ a 5ultahlc depth. round to 8340 ft 0.1 the value o f FRcorresponding to 0. a depth can bc rcachcd where either collapse or burst may control. giving 2170 feet of caslng requ~red between Wc could converge a little Ilctter hut m~ght 7900 and 10 070 ft (11)B u s t check for ~ntcrnal d~tferentinl 7900 ft at = 8000 + 7900 [0. We calculate the ratio (R) for unit tensile stress to mininiuni yield strength using the ellipsc of biaxial yield stress curve (Fig. (e) In the next section we might consider [he use of P11017 ppf but only a rclatively short section could be used.D) R = 80 000 (5.498 .83 Collapse limit is 0.855 = 24 795 lb Total weight calculated so far = (30 125 + 24 795) = 54 920 Ib. A3..1 the plain end area (A) of 20 ppf N80 is 5.83 1 This is above the neutral point and therefore subject to the weight of casing above. 5240 (i) Collapse check = 6305 ft 0.828) We have to choose D such that the reduction factor (FK) currclated with R to obtain thc cffcctive collapse depth is consistent: This is solved by trial and we might choose D to be 7900 ft Froin Fig.) of 80000 psi we have: weight in air of casing above neutral point R= Y .956 x .For the minimum yield strength (Y. A Assume casing above neutial point is 20 ppf 20 (9800 .1) to obtain the percent of full collapse pressure that is appropriate.0815 is 0.1): 23 ppf : 251 000 Ib 20 ppf : 2 14 000 I h (f) In abnormal pressure wells.8339 ft..312 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (iii) As we are below the neutral point no joint strength problem weight for this section (iv) Des~gn 1450 x 20 x 0. .828 inL.831 . to 6930 = (i) Collapse limit = . A design t r ~ afor the l next section is made using 17 ppf N80.
8000 .831 .7400 Depth = = 1802 ft.885) = 107 616 lb The joint strength for 20 ppf N80 is given in Table A3.Of full collopse pressure We can converge on a reduced setting depth of 5430 feet.202.0.8311) = 6192 psi + The burst strength of 17 ppf N80 is quoted in Table A3. We have so far designed 11 180 ft of the total well depth of 13000 ft.1 as 6180 psi.0. i.0.498 .6180 = 5466 ft Depth = 0. We must check the depth at which burst governs.5430) = 2470 ft (ii) Burst check Internal differential at 5430 ft = 8000 (5430 [0. .e.884 R= 4. We must therefore consider using 20 ppf N80 as we know that this is collapse designed down to 7900 ft. giving FR = 0.17 ppf grade casing. 8000 .962 (80 000) + and a collapse limit of 5573 ft which is in tolerance The possible length of this section is thus (7900 . 20(9800 .498 This means that we could design a section of length (7900 .1 as 214000 lb. the depth equivalent to a burst stiength of 6180 psi.1800) = 6080 ft (iii) Joint strength check Design weight for section is (6080 X 20 Total weight is 107 616 93329 = 200 945 Ib + X 0. The remaining 1820 ft are considered using P110.5430) = 0. round up to 1820 ft 0. The burst strength for this is 7400 psi.498 The depth that 17 ppf N80 will withstand the internal pressure differential is below its allowable collapse depth and this grade cannot be used in this part of the design.831 .7900) 17(7900 .
S. = Pi.831 a proposed setting at 1820 ft is acceptable.455 = 5915 psi and a fractu~e pressure at 13 000 ft of 13 000 X 0 80 = 10 400 pv 'Hie minimum setting depth is givcn by equating.) psi Section ~lreu (in2) Minimurn yield strength (Y. above 13 000 fcct.I10 L = 247 000 Ib design is acceptable. press (incl..885 = 27382 Ih Sectiotz Surface .1 Casing data for example (Grade N80L/P110L 5. (11) We can summarize the design as follows: + Length jfr) 1820 8250 1450 1480 Caring Grude 17 ppfP1 10 L 20 ppt N80 L 23 ppt N80 L 23 ppf P110 L It should he cmphasizcd that this design is one of many combinations which may he acceptable and optimization in terms of cco~~omicspossible.) W(111thickiiess Collapse incl. (iii) Joint strength check Design weight of section added = 1820 x 17 x 0.(0. (ii) Burst check Internal difference at top of string is 8000 psi (max) and Table A3.(0. Wright (Il~lji) TABLE A3.2 The average gradients give a p o x pressure at 13 000 ft of 13 000 X 0.5 in.F.11 520 11 520 13 000  Total string weight = 27 382 200 945 Joint strength of P.strength (in) safety factor irzl. S. therefore design is acceptahle.8 X D ' ) Sctting P. we have Minirnum setting depth is 13 000  6407 = 6593 A.1 X D ' ) Pi. is Solution 3.1820 1820 10 070 10 070 .78) = 6570 ft 0.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (g) (i) Collapse check Setting depth = 7000 (0. F..) = 80 = 000 p s ~ N80 for 110 000 psi for P110 . If the distance abovc 13 000 ft is 1)' tlicn I'. Bu/:c. the gas and fracture gradients to a common pressure. = 10 400 .) ZOOOlh (PS~ (incl. wk. OD. = 5915 .tstrength Joint .1 gives burst rating as 8500 psi.
732 x 520 (d) At 2000 psia and 595"R P.7 35.825 (fig 4.4 1.8) and Ratio . Water SG = 1.825 x 10.= 0.977 Gas gradient = lad psilft = 0.5 1.9 X 5. ul = 0.7 27.5 MW 18.4 18. = 2000 670.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Chapter 4 Solution 4.32 1.38 (b) Specific gravity = .3 (Fig.0.97 .05 0.97 m MP 18.0485 psi ftI = 6.90 0.28.8 x 10.' lbft3 V RT 10.9 15.38 X 2000 (f) Density = = = 6.02 16 30 44 58 (a) 14. 4.615 = 1.38 X 14.38 673 708 617 55 1 605. 4.9) Po Y Therefore y = 0..732 x 595 6.0116 (Fig..2 C1 C2 C3 C4 0. Solution 4.7 Gas density = .977 lbft3 zRT 0.5 19.235 BBLIMSCF I" (h) From graphs.015 cp .= 1.1 NB API gravity is nonlinear.6 343 550 666 765 (c) 308. inverse scale.6 = 2.7) * MP 18.03 0. API = 10.0 (c) 1= 670.= = = 4.3 1= 371.5 11.634 28.98 (e) From graphs z = 0.16 = 18.
44 = 2024 psi Assuming the gas density relnains constant fol. thus thc tlcnsity takes the value calculated in (f).e. = . Let this extra distance be x ft. reduced properties.5 psi Assuming the mud to he incornpressible. by graphical differentiatio:~ ( i ) At 4100 ft SS aqmlcr pressure would be 0. Pressure balance at gaswater contact: Theretore gaswater contact depth = 4600 tt S S (k) From (j).0485 x 1000 = 48.. 1 p ldz zdP from grapll (Fig. and pressure is 4600 x 0. let density of lnud =p lbslcu ft P Prcssure cxcrtcd by mucl at 3600 ft = x 3600 = 2475. C'~.0 Ibslcu tt 1.5 = 1975. specific gravity of mud = 1. + coSu + cWSM. = c.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (i) Compressibility c.5 psi Thcrclorc pressure at crest of structure = 2024 . gaswatcr contact is a1 4600 ft SS.5 psi 144 Therefore p = 99.977 Ib ft" (or gradient 0. it will lie above water..5 + 500 = 2475.1000 ft. = 11 1' = 111923 = 520 x 10"psi' (b) Effective hydrocarbon complessibility (a) Total compressibility c.7) of z VS. pressure due to gas = 0. At gaswater contact.3 c.0485 psi ftI). 6. and that the reservoir tcmperatule is 135"F.58 Solution 4. prcssures are equal.44 x 4100 = 1804 psi Since gas has a srnaller density than water.S~ + .48.5psi Therefore pressurc of mud at this point will be = 1975. 4. Assume too that density of gas is a constant over the distances concerned. From the given data clearly this gaswater contact will bc below 4100 ft.
7 x 28. psial 310 From a constant oil compressibility between 2800 and 4000 psia .7: bubble point pressure = 2800 psia formation volume factor = 1.677 350. Density of reservoir condition oil = lbs1BBL 1.4 RB!STB 141. pressure at top :.97 lbs = 0.lbs..2800 For constant oil gradient.002 Since CR = co.293 :. The bubble point pressure is the pressure of oil saturated with gas in equilibrium at the gasoil contact of oil column = 2800 psi.9 .4 lb/ft3 and 5.433 psilft where 0. PCthen c = .2] + [750 X 0.615 cu ft = 1 barrel}.834 specific gravity of tank oil = 131.002.6 x . condition as c~ = 0.4 cu ft at 60°F and 14.2 lb. oil gradient = 0. GOC = 7000 . weight of one barrel of oil is 350.0534451 .4 pounds (density of fresh water is 62. From specific gravity of tank oil. Avogadro's law states that 1 lbmole of any ideal gas occupies 379. GOR = 750.05345 R.4 (a) From graphs (Fig. A4.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Solution 4.52 and P.7 psia.615 x 62.5 = 0. 8255 . height of oil zone = = 1550 ft 0. BBL [292.'.5 t 38 weight of oil and gas in solution (b) Density of reservoir oil = volume of oil reservoir cond~tions i UOLECVLhR WEIOW Fig.465 = 3255 psi.433 is the fresh water gradient . T = 175°F. Volume of 1STB oil at reservoir conditions = B.: SG = = 0.4) x 0. A4.4. : weight of gas which will dissolve in 1 STB of tank oil is given by the number of moles of gas times its molecular weight . 4. 0.22) or correlation equations for API = 38". 310 Tpr = 1220 . weight of gasiSTB = (RJ379. The molecular weight of gas is the gas gravity x molecular weight of air :.4 = 350. = = 12.1) is given at this T. P. and yg = 0.834 = 292. The reduced compressibility from charts (Fig. : For an oilwater contact of 7000 ft SS the hydrostatic pressure is 7000 X 0.1 Pseudo critical properties of hydrocarbon liquids Weight of one barrel of water = 5.293 psilft.4 x 0.400 density at reservoir conditions .21.1550 = 5450 ft SS For a molecular weight of 180 and 38" API oil the liquid critical temperature is 1220°R and the liquid critical pressure is 310 psia (460 + 175) 4000 = 0.677 X 0.4 The reservoir oil gradient is therefore 0.
( 1 .2800)) From graphs..318 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING:PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE = B. L1 x 5. viscosity of reservoir crudc = 0. =  $gIT P (0 '" (4000 . (R..= 1. the Liquid volun~c standard conditions = 295 ml.].06 vlv = 89.= 1.6 X 1.275 .. B. = .390 RBISTB psia 295 26.AP) 1.= 1. B. B..315 RBISTB . = 293 (10 ) = x 2000 1500 400 420 440 System volume 89.3000 = .5 Fro111graph of systcn~ pressure vs. 295 295 . . = 295 X 10 ' Bg = H .389 RBISTB = = = i (4000 .)   (1 457 1 3 15)(295) . 01 log F : log cp on coordinate scales . viscosity of dead oil a t reservoir conditions 1.40 1.615 = 400 SCFISTB R.1 Plot either on log : log scales..C.0 .06 (5 615) = 500 SCFISTB At 2000 psia 388 430 B. at At 3000 psia liquid compressibility c.= 1.457 RBISTB . R.383 RBISTB psia 410 Bo250(1 = .8 x 10"si' 8.21 0)lO'  Chapter 5 Solution 5.410) 1 ' 408 = 9.R.2500) = 408 295 (404 .6 cP.04 x 10 vl\ =7 (26 275 . system volun~e bubble point is estimated by inflexion at 2500 psi. : Solution 4. = .4 cP .
2 0.53 Fig.8 0.7 ' \ .056 Qm then R.29 Qm and water resistivity is 0.774 Substitute back into laboratory data to calculate check values of F.04 R 0.29 F==..SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Slope le?gih F oxis _ 1795 m=length + ax!s 11.7 0. O Intercept at + =I = 1. @ From plot m = .29 . A5.205 8.056 If{= Sw " where exp n = 2 11.18 1.23.1.80 If the true resistivity is 1.1 Fvs.165 12.8 0.268 5.092 29. 1. Check Calculate @ F 0.53 a = 0.120 19.84 then I = = 9.
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Solution 5 2 .37 2.2 S H ~ .14 0.39 0.00 0. Data values Calculated values ~ o values g Shnlc Zone A B C GR 102 52 72 20 FDC 2.00 0.0 22.1 .25 I Bulk denstt Fig.67 2.22 2.52 2..31 0.26 0.20 SNP 29.5 20.00 0.00 0.215 ~ i Vs~C.91 6.0 C~~~ 1100 150 350 4650 R ~ ~ 0. A5.86 0.5 21.2. ~PD/N V ~ 1 00 1.63 0.
SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Radotlon ~ntens~ry ~ncreases 011bare mud 8 Sha!e 1100 2 0 p . '1 og/cc 2 2 4 0 m . p 24 Fig.2. I S~dewallneutron apparent limestone porosity (%) . A5.3 DensityISNP crossplot.
262 X 0.2514 = 0.5 = 0. More rigorously convert density and neutron values to sandstone matrix SD = 16.082 = Modified Simandoux !=[' R. = FRw = 11a2. = 0. 0 . ~ 5 = . @.yl. (f) Taking the minimum shale i~ldication (from DIN) gives o~ily as shaly.V~SH @LI.3 1.5.215 = 0. Prcs~~mahly are radioactive rninerals in B there shale content.31 aN (g) Saturation calculations Level A all equations rcduce to Archic (V.14. = @NSIIQ.0. Thc graphical construction is complicated by the curve on the sandstone line. = Q.'R. : ~ l ~ ~ ' ~ [5] 1 Solving quadratic + vc root ollly .) (c) Shale values arc listed above.e. . Graphically Vqhfor 3 zone B = XBIXS = 1.= 0) Archie Simandoux \ 1 \ 1 : . Assuming C to be water bearing R.DSH . S..5 . . The porosity is given by point Yon the clean sandstone line where BY is parallel to the matrix shale line.qYn = 32.16.VSH@NSFI.2. i S w : . VAlrCR values calculated are tabulated above (e) See Fig. A5.5. i. ? + ~ . @I). Only level I shows a signiticant displacement from clean line.YH = 7.2 . the sands (such as feldspar) so the GR overesti~llates As above graphically for level B. {R.0145 (takingRILdas R. gN = 24. @ = @ D .327.31. 3 5 2 S .3 for shale point. FRIu] L ~ w 2 + RSII . cP = @N . point plots close to clean sandstone line with @ = 0.2. = 0.. Q.W Solving the equations for unknown VLsH 24.322 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (b) For zone C. Vxh= 0.} R .@D v .25.
S. = 5 110. Solution 5.V R R.38 S.26~ : 0.cm2.' m'l F = 1 1 = ~ ~ = 14.0933S. + = 0.046 x 0. SW fl' .3 mho.~.0138 mho = 100 cm' or ohm'' cmI x 0.676 sW2 0. = Modified Simandoux model .79 R . + : 0.) .0138 = 1.'s which are less than the Archie S. The shale conductance in the basic Simandoux is already near to the measured conductance so the solution gives an unlikely optimistic value for a shaly sand.meqlcc = 0.0933 S. = 0. n = 2 n BQ..meq1. r = 2 . + flSH where 1 1 1 Thus the modified Simandoux and Indonesia equations give similar S.0.~+0.3 Waxman and Thomas equation with a = 1 .38 ohm.0676 (10 SW2 1.2=0 .0.676~. (see Archie solution.544) Comparing with the Waxman Thomas equation .2 = 0.SOLUf IONS TO EXAMPLES  Poupon and Leveaux (Indonesia) 1 1 vSH(1V""/Z) .
. . R. FR.s.127 x 10 x X 1 52 800 q = 2848..5 + + Solution 5. ..? .127 X 1. t .0676 0.& k Assuming Boylc's law: Q.45 psilft (0.5 Thc problem requires correction of pressure so that the lincar Darcy law call be used. * _ . .0 " v L BBL1d Assu~niiig average water gradicnt of 0.433 x 1.e. In ficld units: kA AP q = 1. Rsi r 0.5 BBLld '  . = F 2L Solution 5. /  .14 1 1 Basic Si~nancloux = .4 (a) Prove From Darcy's law: kA DP 4 = . . _A . .1 1.0 rn~les .. A_ *.5ohmm to get the samc result as the Waxman Thomas eauation VSIT 0. / PHWC :. it would take 14% shale with resistivity 1.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE i.038) and referring to a HWC datum of 5250 f t SS.1 1  Pautcrop at HWC datum . q = 1. P. ..5 1450) Hence.45 X 5250 = 2362..2 = sW2 . : 0. kA = w kA P : dP PLY  PL2 or Q.... .5 psi But prccsure = 1450 psi at 5250 750 X 3000 X 65 (2362.. = qP and Po = 1 atm Hence: Q.. static pressurc at the outcrop is: P5250= 0.
+ 0 as 3 mD.log.144 (a) Correct well pressures to 5750 ft = 1750 + 0.0 mD This is because of the Klinkenberg effect.3472 x 750 = 2010..5 Hence k = 1... = 50 lbift3 = psi/ft = 0. for rate 2 = 6.h against t would be best Solution 5..SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Solution 5. 1 X 2 X lo6 log.7 Assume crosssectional area A. gives kL as l/P.. 15. dh q = A where q is flow rate and h is current height measured from bottom of core plug.log. Plotting k against liP.= t h WL log. ho ho pL A [log (ho/h)] = pL sok=pg' Note: pg' has to be in units such that pg' h = atm.0068 D = 6.02 x 981 4500 hTote: a plot of log. dt Flow across core is: kA AP q= I J L But A P = datum correction pressure difference. Solution 5.84 .6 Using the equation: S.8 50 poi. for rate 1 = 0.4 psi (b) Flowing gradient = 94 psi .. so: kA pgh dh dt ho kpg' or loge . ..3472 psiift .8 mD S.02 mD Sc for rate 3 = 5.
P . Sincc flow ratcs. . crosssections and viscosities are equal in all beds + (c) R u d i a l ~ o ~ .)+(P.) EL 111 (r.5 x lo9x @ft3 pvuqulfrr = (2104.) e . . U__] Ll U5ing D a ~ c y ' s law LL E LIP L2P qt. =i I = .. P. then 3000 x 1000 x 150 x 4 = 93.+q2. 4 p s i PV. it is noted thal tlic same terms appear in thc radial flow network as in the linear system. Ak Ak. . .500) 3 x 10 Solution 5.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE S o . = 3000 x 1000 x 150 x q Equating production Vp= V2F.. NOWPIPd=(P.. = q . AP. = 2 0 1 0 .P. Ak.4 . Thcrcforc k' 01 if bccls all same width =.9 Q k dP Darcy's cquation .Irw..internal boundary Q= .external boundary w .P2)+(P2P.= . p n r u l l e l From thc figure. h..P4).for noncornpiessihleflow A y d. C k . CkA.. h r (b) Series yo w Assume equal arcas P.. 2nkh ( P . 4 + 9 4 = 2 1 0 4 .~ (a) Linear beds parullel flow Q = q1 + q 2 + q 3 Assume infinitely thin harriers between layels where k' is the apparent permeability and A the total arca Hcncc k'A = k l A l + k2 A2 + ..
All these terms are the same in each case.parallel. and radius of effective drainage 2000' and bed 1is adjacent to wellbore.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES The only difference in the two systems is the manner of expressing the length over which the pressure drop occurs.) k' = ln (rjlrj.parallel.l) . wellbore = 6 .Ir. Linear flow in parallel 250 x 25 + 250 x 50 k' = Radial flowin parallel + 500 x 100 + 1000 x 200 = 134. and radial flow . (d) Radial flow series By same reasoning as in the linear case In (r.=I kj Bed Depth1 Length of bed Horizontal permeability. h1 Therefore k t = h. C k . Linear flow . mD For radial systems. take data lengths as bed depths and bed lengths and radii to be equal.4 mD 2000 .
7 0.1 Saturation distribution.5 I I I I 0.1 I 0. permeability near wellborc most inlportant Chapter 6 Solution 6.8 0.4 I 0.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Linear $0 w in series 2000 2000 Radialflow irz series i.3 I 0.9 I 1.6 0.0 Sw (fraction) + Fig. A6.e.1 L 0.2 I 0. .
= 0.7 10. = 0.4 110.0 880.72 PC = 0.= .85 .3 78.433 H A p .0.341 0. (PC)~g f ( J ) = PC (Pc)Hp 5 100 0 0 0 0 100 4.) and the reservoir condition PCcurve is therefore calculated as rn@ For the reservoir specific gravity of oil and water given The relationship between capillarypressure and height H above FWL is. At 100 ft above OR7C.2 36.6 112. J (Sw) = 0. in the units required..9 1954.v. = 1.1 32.6 3. against h curve: S .104 Using the threshold value of PC(swi PC.4 4.176 0.7 191.8 2.22) Ji.445 Solution 6.9 1.8 35.104 4.581 J (S.211 How.o 0.+)= a 0.4 5.w.968 0.27 At reservoir conditions Pc(s.3 d$  with a cos 0 = 7 2 dynelcm the Sw J(sw) 1.3 5.862 0.7 90.2 8.4 for 25 m D and 0 = 0.4 65.8 264.363 PC(Sw)lab ' = 26.0 0 1.31 (135 ft relative) IS..S .0 7.4 1847.9 60.5 2651.2 Sw (PC).re9 J(.= 2 ft above the FWL 0.) o COS 0 for o cos 0 = 26 and f @ l = 44..7 2.363 0.0 12209.0 140.. then (= 0.984 0.7 232.6 82.0 518.2 15.)as the observed oil water contact.0 0.5 155.5 ft above the FWL HTTz =  .46.1 5.7 395.3 82. dh Sw = h fro^ area under S .1 1534.0 29.) vs S. not at PC=O. H = P.4 5477.e8 = (.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Kote that the oilwater contact is at S..11 and using J(S.4 3662.901 0.13 For the laboratory data V%@e = (15010. relationship is calculated. = 0.2 43.9 133..37 Solution 6.451 0.5 4.
. = AP. A AP. L 9 1 Ll.. then: K . K. K~IC<..1 ~ Fig.2)' 3600 1 I For K..) (9. = 4. (.. and using Dalcy units of ccls for rate end 4P AP 4..ic!.. = AP.) so AP.1 Steadystate relative permeability.= (5. L 1. Assuniing zcro capillary pressure ( P . = I (4) (9) (1000) JC (3.) Thcsc data are plottcd in F I A 7. KO (s) = and K . = 0 = Po atmospheres for AP. .330 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Chapter 7 Solution 7...0) For oil K.. A7..r) = A AP.. (md) = P.14) AP qw For water K..1 From Darcy's law modified for effective permeability in horizontal linear flow qo Y.. KO =and K.
From BuckleyLeverett tbeory ihe constant rate frontal advance of the 40% saturation front is: (12 765) (5...2 For pressure maintenance. A t this saturation (S. = 0. The average saturation remaining in the reservoir is given by the Welge equation as: foe S.9) = 0.= 0..00 A line tangential to the fractional flow curve from S .778.82 ftlday (5280) (50) (0.44. = 0.9 at Sw. breakthrough therefore occurs in 1095 days (= 3 years) At year 4 the pore volume injected is 4 (365) (12 765) (5.44) = 4.615) (4.708 0.28 = 0.71.'  0.082 0. = S. = 1at S. the oil rate in RBiD is 10 000 x 1.[dfw~dS.295 0.3 PV (5280) (50) (5280) (0.45 dfw (from a plot of vs S..4 (.984 1.615) = 0. PO k7wi Po Since M' = .7 2.505.2765 = 12 765 RB!D The end points of the relative permeability curve are K. dS.ldS. the reservoir condition water cut.25) Xda '   1 The tangent of gradient 3.7 at So. ..+. kro p krw' M' k.25) For a system length of 5280 ft. The gradient of this tangent [df. + ..). = 0. . = 0.778 (0.535) and the intercept f with f.28 The fractional flow curve can now be calculated for the horizontal reservoir: fw 0 0.then=1 1 .' = 0.= 0. f.).' K.931 0.33 to the fractional flow curve at saturations greater than frontal occurs at S.28 gives the tangent at Swf= 0. = 0.]sw~s 4..SOLUTIONSTO EXAMPLES Solution 7.35 The ratio his then calculated from the given end point mobility ratio of 2.lswe The recovery factor is thus:  .
I+.1736 4 9 X 10 (800) (0. k.. B ( M .5 X 10') = 18.125 Solution 7.5 X 1 0 " = 10 MSTBID 12.4335 Ay sina . = 276 mD @ = 0. The density difference in terms of specific gravity is: sin (. = 1. = P.1736) qcr1t = (0..83 cp .1) where B. The oil rate cxpccted prior to breakthiough is theretore: 15 X I O h X 7..127 X 10"  0.5) (8000) (100) (0 4968) (0. The fractional flow curve is calculated as follows: I f. p = 0.y. .4 40 80 120 160 200 240 Fig. = 9434 rbld /I = 100' w = 8000' Ay = 0..) sin a q SCFtD = p.04 Dip = 6" 1. = 1.580 MMSCFID Thc rate of injection proposed (15 MMSCFID) is less than the critical rate and might almost lead to a stable displacement. 1+ 1.332 PETROLEUM ENGfNEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Solution 7..LO") = 0.2 q.51 cp .3 The critical injcction rate for gas is given in field units of SCFID as: 4.215 A = 800 000 ft2 p. A7.9 x k krgfA (yg .71  1) (7.028) (35. is in units of RBISCF and a is negative for updip injection. A 7.2 Saturation distributions X+ From the givcn data the saturation is plotted as shown in Fig.
4Slopes of fractional flow curve.2 15 + 112. A7.79 For S.0 X 10 ft 10 + 23.4.3 Fractional flow curve.5 1.5 = 48.5 1.75 t (yrs) 0 0. A7.5 10 + 47 = 57 10 + 94 = 104 X 12 ft 12 + 36.4 = 127. The slope of the fractional flow curve as a function of saturation is plotted in Fig.0  For S .SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES The results are shown in Fig.0 2.5 1 2 + 7 3 .4 15 225 = 240 + .5 1.7 t (yrs) 0 0. = 0. Since there is no uniform sgturation distribution jnitialJy a material balance solution is used: Sw Fig.3 Sw Therefore: Fig. = 0.0 2. A 7. t (yrs) 0 0.5 = 33. Selecting saturations For S.2 = 71. 0 = 85 12 + 146 = 158 X 15 ft 15 + 56.0 2.0 = 0. A 7.
7n 0.n ) Sw.334 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Interpolation .6 ft from OWC Solution 7.' X = 160 f + 10 56.n vs and tirolz .56 = 161.68 55.. = 50 + 500 + 1500 + 2000 + 500 = 4550 m D    The resultant pseudorelative permeability is plotted as SWn rc.22  59..56 55. bottom to top I" 5 0.5 For the particulal examplc the problem reduces to the tollowing tab~il~rtion. numbering layers n . from n = 0 to n = N = 5.15 ( 5 . = 5 + where: I k .
Take 50 ft intervals from base to crest.40 0.1752 0. A. . A 8.60 0.1 S and q~vs.4108 260.1 shows the plot of water saturation and porosity as a function of depth.0265 20.5211 175 0. Count squares to determine volume for each interval.1 Using the relationship h f 139 = 164/sinh x the saturation vs height relation is calculated as follows: X (frac) sinh x h (£9 0. In the absence of a planimeter to measure area use metric graph paper in a simplified approach. appropriate value of cp and S for each interval (lcm square = 2500 acreft). .2 0.55 Fig.8 1. 8. A8.7586 77 0. Fig. depth.80 0.0 1.33 0. Porosity ( $1 + Water saturation ( S w ) + Fig.70 0.90 1.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Chapter 8 Solution 8.6367 118 0. Assign .3360 349 0.2 shows the plot of isopach value vs area contained within the contour.8881 45 z 0.50 0.
. where N is in STB A is in acres h is in feet $Sois a fraction B.. of square9 Gross rock volume (l@ucrejt) Saturat~on (Sw) Por oszty (Q) Hydrocurbon (volume x lo6 I Hydrocarbon In place = 230 326 250 BBL\ = 170 x 10"BLs rescrvoir oil stock tankloil Solution 8. Deterministically.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Area w ~ t h ~contour (acres) n lntervul No.2 The oil in place at stock tank conditions is evaluated using the relationship 7758 Ah$ So N= R. (RF) where R F is the recovcry factor (fraction). and maximum values are calculated as: minimuln 'most likely' maximum 43 x J O ~ S T B 116 X 10"STB 274 x 1 0 " ~ ~ . is in RBISTB The recoverable rescrve is N. 'most likely'. the minimum.
These data are interrogated randomly using a Monte Carlo approach in the recoverable reserve calculation. A8.4. 50% and 10% levels are as follows: at 90% the recoverable reserve is at least 72 x lo6 STB at 50% the recoverable reserve is at least 120 x lo6 STB at 10% the recoverable reserve is at least 185 x lo6 STB  0 1 22 1 24 1 26 0 0 125 0 135 0 145 Fig. A 8.3 Distribution functions. The resulting cumulative frequency greater than a given value plot is shown in Fig.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES 337 The distribution functions of the reservoir parameters are shown in Fig. . The values associated with the 90%.3. A 8.
2 x lo' E.E.895 Hence A P = 22.62 Hence AT' = 2. Solution 9. (x) = 0.x = 4. (x) = 0.5772 . (x) =  0..72 atmospliercs Fur (b) .55 Hence A P = 64 atmospheres . A8.875 atmospheres For (c) x = 0. as x i s small  Qwl'  4.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE lo6 STBt Fig. = 14815 (c) tn = 7.u = 0. = +PC? with (a) tn = 1181 (b) t.4 Recoverable reserves distribution.log.1 For (a) x = 4K.49 Frorn giaph .4 X lW3 K.4375 From graph  E. Chapter 9 tl.
A 9.corresponding to a Horner time function of 3.fvs loglot rn = 18 psifcycle 162.3 From the plot shown in Fig.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Solution 9.16 is 4961 psi ..454) rbid (= 727 rbid) Then.6qb For h = 120 ft then KO= 32 mD. of P.1 Pdvs loglot.7535) Then Kh = 18 Fig.ft rn 162.3800 mD. Solution 9.7 psilcycle (= rn). kh = . ( log At t+At ) with h e points in the table calculated.1.5) (1.4 From a graph of P v s 21. A9. The value of PJh.6 (500) (0. the slope is determined as For a reservoir rate q of 500 (1.
87 m S = 132 psi 4981 .1 Solution 9. Tzme smce hut m  loglot+At At 0.7404 0.).).'  P.7 = 21.5 2513.. Data points for Horner plot on setnilog paper. +S. For B. n .3274 0. AP and (c.= N..7 We have NB.) p Hence Kh = m Assume t..B.7 2512 1 2512.5119 0. = 15 x 10'10.3 251 1.2788 0.7 2511.3979 0.6201 0.' and N.340 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE = 0. / r .4728 .~ = Kh In 0.4728 AP.132 Efficiency = = 0.606 r . = 0.. prior to build up is 4. then Solution 9..4 x 10.6 (q B.. = 500 bid.5 hours: Now P.5 Examination of the data shows that: APIday = 3 psi Assuming I .5 (approx.4472 0.0 25 13. P vs or At t = 60 x 24 = 1440 hours t+At a plot of p vs log .2430 P 2509.on linear scales are as fo~lows: ' .5 2 2...S.l(c.6 Rate 1 2 3 4 Q (MSCFlD) 7 290 16 737 25 724 35 522 ( A P ) total 42 181 126 120 237 162 391 616 Slope = 7 psilcycle from Horner plot 162.5 3 4 5 6 ~ate S.) 4981 . = B.2 1 1 ..7 2510.
2 and when AP2 is equal to P ( 6 . A9.2 AOF determination.000185 Hence ( A P ~ ) ~ .l 9 851 42 181 126 120 51 928 122 665 237 162 233 906 391 616 Comparison between the numbers shows that at high rates the inertial drop is over half the total drop. = 0. . ~is .SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES This is order of magnitude agreement. as ~ ~ Rate 1 2 3 4 Q (MsCFiD) 7 290 16 737 25 724 35 522 ( ~ ~ ~ ) ~ ~ . is~ ~ follows: . . T z P B= h2 r. ~ t (~P')total . . A 9. .calculated from B as follows: 3.16 ~ l o . ~ ~ The inertial pressure term A P ~ ~ .~ ~ y . 3 2 1 0 ~ ~ s i ~ ) AP~(PSI~) Fig. : ~ then QAoF = 220 x lo6 SCFid The AOF plot is shown in Fig.. and that in this case only the inertial drop is close to the total drop of the previous rate.
Therefore recoverable gas = =0.  2nk. T.2 2nk. . pressure P. . 520  14.6 T.rdlcnt Ir negl~g~blc.1 Volume of reservorr = V = LOO X (5280)' x 500 cu. At 500 p s ~~cduced .. h AP.ft Volume of reservoir available for fluid = ( I . Radial flow of oil q.. = Po B.7 psi and 60°F: 1 v" 2000 v. z. r.342 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE I Chapter 10 Solution 10. log'!  re ". Er.T.* l and if the capillary pressure gr.=I..6 x 1 0 ' ~ SCF (1) Assume no water influx...75 500 679. and .  v.S...) @V= V ..P.7 0.h z=0. 8.94 Solution 10. Radial flow of gas q. Ye log. = 0.825595 15.12 x V Volume of gas at standard conditions of 14.. the pressure drop over the same radii are cons~dered.h AP.1 p i zj p.65 x 0.
594 + 0. BB.= r$h2 h$ \ i Therefore.875 X lo6 (ii) At cumulative 3.34 Ratio gasltotal = = .715 x lo6 BBL ( P = 1600) Wel = (1. = (3.4 Total hydrocarbon in place = $x ?h@ ( 1 .1.198 x lo9 STB 1.17 x 0.5 X 106[1.) 750 x 0.690)]  14.76 9 = 4.S.3631 = 4. this must be pressure at any gasoil contact Elevation of gasoil contact above oilwater contact is: This is less than hydrocarbon column so gasoil contact exists at 4031 ft SS Height of gas zone = 750 .54 X lo9 = 2.66 X 4.5 [1.54 X lo9 B B L = TI 3 ( 5 2 8 0 ) ~ 5.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES To this must be added the gas evolved from solution in the oil..715 = X lo6)[1.Boi c  (i) A t cumulative 1.43 X lo6) [1.0015(878 .112 X lo6 A t P = 1000 estimated water influx = 6.3631 1.229 = 521 ft r h h: ( 2 ) 50' = 0.) B .3 1.615 Since bubblepoint is 1850 psi. oil in place = 0. Bg(Rp . The total measured gasoil ratio will then be: For the figures given: Solution 10. N = A.437 + 0.B .594 .375 X lo6 (from trend) Solution 10.R. W.) + ( W e .437 .1.0019(996 690)l .14.43 x lo6B B L ( P = 1300) W e .363 .
.
28 0.SpE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS From production data the value of R.N ( E T ).Win.P3 5020 .309 (707t) tD = . lo6 RB 30.Bwini lo6 BBL Solution 10.R. to give the following table. Units (a) F = N.5870 .PI 2.309 k t (years) 2.2302 (b) E.41 0.119 x 1 x 0.1.119f(phfrt.0435 0.18 x 200 x (7 x U = 22 841 BBLIpsi x (9000)* From tables or charts for dimensionless influx at reD = 9 we have: t~ 40 80 WD(~D) 21 29 ..0065 (e) ET = mE.18)(7~10~~)(0.(l@ 0 BBL) ~ ~ ( 1 STB) 06 0 R.80 P(psi) 5000 1wi. .= 425 psi 2 Pi P2 .1.1. U = 1.0887 3.+ E f .40t (pzp r"0 (0.0420 0. + Eo + Efh RBISTB 0.+ E.3850 = 585 psi AP2 = 22 APo =  5870 .4310 = 780 psi AP1 = 22 PI .. B.6 The dimensionless radius ratio is: r aquifer 81 000 yeD=9 r oil zone 9000 The dimensionless time tDis related to real time by: 2.06 (f) We = F . 1.2131 62.82 + (R. . = (B.0061 0./N.67 0. Time 1.5020 The aquifer constant is: U = 1.) + (RSZ Rs) Bg  RBISTB RBISTB RBISTB 0.(SCF/STB) 0 R.81 1.(SCEISTB) 500 Using the relationship F = N(ET)+ We + WinjBWinj following is calculated where: the L E T = mE.)B.4)(9000)~ The instantaneous pressure drops which at the start of each year are equivalent to the continuous pressure declines are: Pi.B. is calculated as G.0960 8.
= 22 841 [425 (21)] = 203. = 0.9 x 10' BBL W..005 = 1.4 p V K O 0.25 X 53 000 X 1.3 X 10' BBL Chapter II Solution 11.6 h = 100 ft k = I325 ruD 50 PI= Po Solution 112 The injectivity inclcx is given in field units by: Assuming all other factors cqual then Solution 11.4 which correlates areal sweep efficiency EA as a function of e ~ point mobility ration ~ d ( h l ' ) for different fractional injection volutnes.!5 . aftcr 10 ycars is: 10 X 365.0. = 0. = 1500 ft r .7 x 10hBBL W..4 3. K.4 0.85 The volu~ne olinjccted fluid.' M!=.3 Use is made ol Lhc plot in Fig.5 It S = +4 K.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE W.945 x 10%~ . = 22 841 [425 (20) + 780 (21)] = 655. 11.I For r.. Vn.. = 22 841 (425 (34) + 780 (29) + 585 (21)] = 1127. in reservoir barrcls..
PO) For A@' (in psi).ft3 70 (1500) The viscousgravity force ratio is calculated from 2050 Up.1 (a) In field units 1. .7 Solution 11.25 (4000) U= = 0.4 For stable cone formation A@' = g' ( P .SOLUTIONSTO EXAMPLES The disp1aceabIe pore volume (= PV (1so. . L R". 11.s. and cone height X (in feet) and density difference as specific gravities then x = 4. .~)) given in reservoir barrels as follows: is From Fig.0476 BID .1 Displacement reglmes.Ps) kh (a) Solvent Oil I Regions l and I l * Region I Reglon I1 Region I i 7 I Slngle grav~ty overnde tongue Slngle tongue but sweepout Independent of RVG for given M Solvent Reglonm Translt~on reglon w ~ t h secondary fingers below maln tongue RegionE: Multlple flngers with sweepout ~ndependent RVG for glven M of Region T J J Fig.33 psi Chapter 12 Solution 12. A12.g = (PO .4 the value of EA corresponding to M' = 4 and V D= 1is 0.
f ~ e l d force un~ts. The of compositions are plotted in Figure A12. M represented by y.3 (a) The critical point (CP) is estimated where the limiting tie line becomes tangential to the phase envelope and has the composition. 38 g brine g . VISCOUSgrav~ty ratlo (RVG). 21 % surfactant. Figures A 12. 12% brine. (b) The point with the composition 4% surfactant and 77% oil is given on Figure A12. wt%.2 shows a breakthrough sweep efficiency of about 15% and a flow dominated by gravity tonguing.2 The tic lines for the system join the equilibrium con~positior~s systems A and B in the two phase region.348 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE For a mobility ratio.2 Breakthroughsweep efficiency. 1%) brine For an original 200 g mixture containing X surfactant.kh ' ( c/crn3) (rnd) ( F T ) Fig.73md For a rnobility ratio of M (w&.3 as point A. = 0.055 = 6. 10% oil.0208 BID .2 show a breakthrough sweepout efficiency of around 50% and a flow dominated by viscous fingering. 675%oil./lr. (= 25).55).L (B/DFT~)(cP)(FT) A. (Fig A 12. Figure A 12. ZO~OU~.ft" The viscous gravity force ratio requires an approximation of pcrrneability as: i=: . and A? with weight percents estimated as: A.25 ( I 000) U= 30 (2000) = 0.nit.1) (b) In field units 1. 80% brine AZ 97% oil.1 and A 12.3610. Then k = ((1) (3))" ' = 1. 154 g oil. 2x1 surfact. Solution 12. From the slope of tie lines in this region thc equilibri~~m phasc compositions are A . 10% surfactant. A12.
16% surfactant..825) = 21. 5% surfactant.5% oil.5 g oil .6 g oil 4.3.5% of the mi.3. and 43% brine.ture. A line from B to the 100% surfactant point leaves the two phase region at location R ' . as denoted by position 3. It is shown as location 6. so surfactant needed is 0. location 1 is 10% oil. 5% oil and location 5 is 20% surfactant.tOO Brine Surfactant / 100% 10 Brine Wt % Oil  100% Oil Fig. (e) On Figure A 12. 3.3 Ternary diagram.5%.3 the composition 20% oil and 80% brine is shown at location B. The mixture is in the two phase region and equilibriates to compositions C and D on the equilibrium tie line through location 6.5% surfactant (146 g total) D: 94% oil. (d) On Figure A 12. They are in a single phase region and the resulting mixture contains 30% oil. 40% surfactant and 30% brine. 21.2 g. Composition of Al = 4. 77% oil The mixture weight is 200 g and contains 41% oil. The compositions are: C: 58% brine. The oil + brine weight is 100 g and would constitute 82.5%.8 g brine : Composition of A2 = 149. location 4 is 12% surfactant. 40% surfactant. 20.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES 1 0 0 % Surfactant 0.175 (10010.0 g surfactant 1. 1 % brine (54 g total) . 40% surfactant and location 2 is 50% oil. having a composition oil 16.5 g brine (c) On Figure A 12. The tie line ratios give: wt of Al phase 3113 x 200 = 46 g wt of A2 phase 10113 X 200 = 154 g :.6 g surfactant 36. surfactant 17. A12. brine 66%.
The average spcclfic hcat.. The valucs of l D are givcn from: = 0.3 For co~~ventional production q. is in general givcn by: .8 323 3 409.. T o determine the steady state productioniinjection time at which such rates will lead to 50% of the pattern volurne being occupied by steam we can conduct the following analysis: The cumulative heat injccted into the reservoir..1 474.5 0. [n 1 = 161 rbid For 9 acre spacing and a 200 psi differential For thermal sti1nulatio1r steam injection a 5 fold improvement in flow resistance hetween producers and i~ljectors and would lead to rates nrounrl 800 hid.89 The following tablc nlay now bc constructed usingSi. V.100°F is given by: : Q.>= I+ { A T ) = fxth L v d h { I + 0. Q. q ... 0.75 1.0 2. 3221 18 Btu . using the mass rate of injection W.. tl.j  700  (0...25 547..1 t~) on Fig A 12.52 0. t 233.25 E.5 t (days) 365. .4 El. Ehs.56 0.4 can now be used to cstimate the thermal efticiency of the steam zonc.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE Solution 12.00138i days or 0.964 l o .003541 (1000)(60)) .75 (845) Figure A 12..64 0 59 0. over the temperature range 380 . at different values of dimensionless time..504 t years = 00.5 913.0 1. can be calculated from heat injection rate. C. = t ... The ratio of latent heat to total energy injccted.8 The volulne of a steam zonc..9 730.5 2.0..0 1.is calculated from: j...fl. t (yr) 1..
.4 The wet condensate gas volume is obtained from the volumetric calculation: A hn @ ($) Vsc = '3. The injection rates needed to provide 50% pattern volume of steam at the following times are therefore as shown in the following table. we obtain the relationship 0. Fig. Solution 12.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES 1 . t = Ehs where t is in days That is q.75)] 300 Bgi .] =Ehs t 357817.18) (0.j .[n(3x 5280)~ (0.5 (9) (60) (43560) (35)(280) 322118 qi.l In terms of standard cubic feet this is: 1 V.4 Thermal efficiency For the case of 50% steam volume in the pattern of area A acres then 43560 M R AT Qi 0 .5 . These data may be further evaluated in terms of steam injection equipment capacity and project economics.or Dimensionless t ~ m e t D .= . A12.. 5 A h = Equating values of Q.
.PL) The weight associated with a stock tank barrel of liquid is given by: The number of rnolcs associated with this weight is 5000 (62.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE v. = 3.7 using the reservoit condition molecular weight or gas gravity..4 + 1 19 From Fig 4.019 x 10'' SCF Similarly the oil volume = 3. PI.8962 X 10 ' ~O'~SCF N = 1.3 p .1 937 X 10" = 3.1937 X 10"' Rgz SCF In order to find B.. we need the super compressibility factor z which can be obtained from Fig 4. = G = 7..4) (0. The oil molecular weight is given by 44. frorn Fig 4.925 Thcn: (0.6 15) n= 379. = 8.925) (670) 4500 B.639 x lo9 STB .7...02829) (0.03 .75) (5. = 620 and T.197 x 10 RCFISCF 3. = 465 From reservoir datum conditions 'Thc clry gas volume So.7 z = 0.8962 x '". Mo = (1.
2 The maximum production rate q. the static pressure. withp. A13.5355 bd 3315 0. Since D.65 Average Flowing Temp 140°F 0 6 5b Fig. (b) From Fig. therefore. The well head pressure is read from the graph at 3900 ft as 360 psi. then: D T = Dwhp + Dwell (a) From Fig.. At the GOR of 200 scflstb the pressure at a depth equivalent of6700 ft is read as 2400 psi. A 13.. A 13. A13.619 .SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Chapter 13 Solution 1'3. is 8900 ft. is read as 5000 ft then Dwhp 3900 ft.2 Solution 13. Since Dw.1 Using the relationship that the depth equivalent of the total head is equal to the sum of the depth equivalents of the well head pressure and the well depth.l.D Producing Rate 2 0 0 0 Bbls/day Oil API Grav~ty 35'API Gas Spec~ficGrav~ty 0. i.1 Fig.e.1 at a well head pressure of 400 psi then Dwh = 3700 ft.2 at the bottom hole pressure of 1200 psi and GOR of 500 scffstb the depth equivalent DT. q. ! = .eli = 600Q ft then D T = 9700 ft. can be evaluated using the Vogel relationship.ellis Pressure In 1 0 0 PSIG 12 16 20 24 1 l l l ' ' I l i l Pressure In 1 0 0 PSIG 12 16 20 l ~ ~ ~ " oO h 4 l l 1 8 28 ' oO k 4 ~ l 8 24 ' 28 l ' l ' Vertical flowing pressure gradients (all 011) 4in.
3 Fig. A13. A13.5 .4 Pressure In 100 PSlG 1 23+ Vert~calflow~ng.354 Pressure In 100 PSlG PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Pressure in 100 PSlG Tublng Slze 41r1l D 35OAPI Average Flowing Temp 140°F Fig.pressuregrad~ents(all 0111 Tublhg Slze 4tn I D Producing Rate 5 0 0 0 Bbls/day 011 API Grav~ty 35OAPI Gas Spec~flcGrav~ty 065 140°F Average Flowtng Temp a' 0 0 m 4 0 Fig. A13.
396 m In practice the separator design would be based on a standard size selected to be nearest the size calculated.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES 355 From Fig. .1 to A 13..209 m and L = 3.3 For a residence time of 3 min. tubing and a GOR of 200 SCFJSTB..8544 Total volume of the separator is thus twice the oil volume for an interface half way up the separator : . .06303 m3is /g= t (24) (60) (60) (273. The maximum velocity equation is then used: Since crosssectional area = volume ratelvelocity then for an interface half way up the separator we have: jc D* 0.f the well depth and the depth equivalent to a tubing head pressure of 400 psig. and L = 4.166) (4) 3D=L= 5cD2 : D .5 the different vertical flowing pressure gradient curves at different rates are found for 4 in. % .15) (1) . A 13.06303 (2) (4) 0.166) (4) D3 = 4c 5 : D = 1.166 m3 Design length for LID = 3 gives (4. the volume of oil in the separator will be: At 40°C and 20 bar the volumetric rate of associated gas will be (1000) (95) (313.099 . The flowing bottom hole pressure equlyalent to the total head depth is recorded as a function of flow rate. = 1.0. The total head depth is obtained as the sum 0. V3ep = 2 O V = 4.627 m Design length for LID = 4 gives (4.15) (20) At separator conditions the gas density p is given by . Solution 13. ~t can be seen that the bottom hole pressure is essentially independent of rate at this condition and is 2200 psi.
.
193 capillary pressure 93 and residual fluids 11112 defined 92 capillary pressure data (given rock type.51.53. normal) 36 composite cores 111 compressibility 423.81 presentation of results 70. 11 brine d~sposal 186 bubblepolnt 41.Index Abandonment pressure 159 absolute permeability 102 AFE (authorisation for expenditure) document 23.148 API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity and 011 density 14 aquifer characteristics correlation with model 167 determination of 1656 aquifers and pressure change 165 areal sweep efficiency 176. 55 Compton scattering 76 conceptual models 233. correlation 99 ca~illarv Dressure hvsteresis 978 capillar.196 casing a well. uncertainties In 2467 black 011 systems 42 blowout 35 blowout preventers 3 4 5 blowdown 210 Boltzmann transformation 134 bond number 191 BOPSsee blowout prekenters bottlenecks 219 bottomhole sampling 52 Boyle's law method and grain volume 73 Brent Sand reservoirs 10.25.221 bubblepo~nt pressure 5 2 .54. 5 4 5 . 5 6 7 160.28 caustic solutions 196 cementation problems 356 chemical flood processes 196200 choke assembly 146 Christmas tree 36 coalescer 227 r Coates and ~ u m a n b i equation 86 combination drive material balance equation 166 compaction drive 161 complete voidage replacement 173 completion 28.29 completion for production (permanent. reasons for 25 casing eccentricity 356 casing selection 27 ~nain design criteria 28 casings 23.26.109 Footnote: Numbers in italic indicate figures. critical 182 coning 1812 core analysis and permeability distribution 834 routine 6971.55.163.220.~'suction pressure see imbibition wetting phase threshold pressure carbon dioxide in miscible displacement 195. 1823 Back pressure equatlon 1434.71 . gram size and stream power 242 blocides and Injection water 229 biopolymers 197 black oil reservoir modelling.245 Amerada gauge 147.221 In volatlle oil reservoirs 211 BucklesLeverett theory 105 BuckleqLeverettNVelge technique 107.245 condensate analysis 208 condensate reservoirs and liquid d r o p o u t 208 condensate systems 42 condensing gas drive 1945 cone height.159.221 barrel 14 bedforms. Numbers in bold indicate tables Capillary number 191.
25 drilling fluid see drilling inud drilling logs 30 " drilling rnutl pressure.223 rnctering of 229 processing 22&8 cushiori 147 cuttings logs 31 cyclic steam stimulation 205 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE displacement principles 1735 drawdown testing 138 drill bits 22. effect on injectiori/production well locations 180 field processing 224 filtration. rbeology of 2930 drilling optitnization 323 problems in cementation problems 3 5 4 drilling. validation of relative permeability data for 113ll .ltion69 coring the case for 65 conventional and oriented 66 of development wells 656 of exploration wells 65 coring decisions (146 coring mud systems 6 6 7 corresponding states.aphical recolistructio112378 and recognition of sand body type 238 corederived data 68 core floods acid surfactant testing 200 core for special core analysis 67. turbine versus rotary 33 drilling costs 23.242 deltaic models. distribution of. s Faults. injection water treatment 229 523 flash liberation at rescrvoir tc~nperat~irc flash separation tests 534 flooding efficiency ratio 110 flow equations. laboratory incasurernents and relationship with reservoir systems 936 fluids. concern ovcr laboratoryderivcd data 11314 core plugs 68 analysis on 65 and effective permeability 109 and fluid saturation 934 and oil saturation 193 and permeability 81 and porosity 72 and residwal saturation 174 core porosity. Early (transient) tirne solution 138 rates 180 economic factors and oil productioi~ effective pelmeability 102 and wettability 108 and enhanced oil Iecoverysche~ncs unccrtainty 247 equity. 65. linear and radial 801 flow string 145 fluid contacts 1213 multiplc 12 fluid flow in porous media 789 fluid pairs 93 fluid pressure and overburdcn load 1312 fluid pressures.24. 177 free water level (FWL) 12.358 coledata and palaeogeog~.47 Cricondcnhar 41.) 79 Darcy's equation 79 data acquisition during drilling 3&1 datum correction 7980 deltaic environments. 323 drill coHars 23 drill stem testing 145 testing tools and assetnblics 1457 drilling. excessivc 29 drilling muds 223 control of 289 main constituents 67 drilling muds and cements.240. division of 238. fluids for 31 Coregalnlna surface logger 68 cores 62 colnpositc 111 correlation with wireline logs 63. law of 445.7 divcrsity of inLonnation availahlc 64 and geological studics 689 and heavy oil reservoirs 202 residual fluid saturation deter~nin. spcciz~l pressure control and well kicks 3 4 5 stuck pipe and fishing 3 3 4 drillstriiig 23 drive mechanisrrls 159 dry gas reservoirs 412 dual porosity systems 71.244 demulsificrs and heavy oil processing 228 depositional processes and reservoir rocks 7 tlcwpoint 41 dewpoint locus 42 diamond coring 33 differential liberation at resevvoir temuerature 53 displacement calculations. 68 care length and imbibition processes 11&I 1 core log 64.42 Cricondentherm 41 rate critical displace~~ient 177 critical displacement ratio 112 critical gas (equilibrium) saturation 159 critical production rate (coning) 182 crude oil flow of in wellbore 221. petroleurr~reservoirs 13&1 exploration well drilling 7 .95 Darcy (def . identification of 238 faults (inreservoir).73 and gravity drainage 1645 L.68 core plug experi~ncnts. recovcry of by depletion 211 Forcheimcr equation 143 formation breakdown pressure 30 forination density logs and interpretation of porosity 2023 formation density tool response 756 formation factor see formation resistivityfactor formation interval tester (FIT) 148 formation resistivity factor 74 formation testcr (FT) 148 formation volume factor 14. use of 23843 dcltaic systcin modcl242.12I 3 fluid saturation.55 twophase 556 factors B 4 9 4 1 formation volu~lle folmutionwaters 14 fractional flow 1046 analysis mettlods 1056 effect of dip angle and wettahility 175. compaction corrected 131 core preservation 678 core recovery.75 data obtainable from 6. 241. hydrocarbon zone.
reservoirs with water encroachment or water injection 1658 material balance calculations generation of data 52 sources of error 1689 material balance equation 158 combination drive 166 gas cap expansion drive 1 6 3 4 solution gas drive 1613 material balance residual oil saturation 174 mathematical models 2334 .82 KolmogorovSmirnoff test 84 Lasater correlation (bubblepoint pressure) 55 leak off tests 30 Leverett Jfunction correlation 99 light oil processing 226 foaming problems 2278 separator design sonsiderations 227 wax problems 228 line source solution (fluid flowing in a porous medium) 1345 development of 1356 liquid drop out 208 liquids systems. critical properties of 210 gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs. 9 Klinkenberg correction 81. development of 2378 geothermal gradient and hydrocarbon generation 7. flow of in wellbore 221 geological model.201 heavy oil processing 228 heavy oil recovery 2002 heavy oil reservoirs examples of 201 permeability increase and production improvement 20 production characteristics of 2034 properties of 2023 and thermal energy 2047 and uncertainty 247 heavy oil systems and thermal energy addition 204 HKW (highest known water) 12. generalized correlations 548 lithofacies representation 125 LKO (lowest known oil) 12.512. 47 gas expansion during production 157 gas flow and gradient 159 gas flow and permeability 81 gas flow rate. gas condensate reservoirs 210 gas reinjection 186 gas reservoirs.9 geothermal gradient and reservoir temperature 13 GOR see gasoil ratio grain density 71 grain volume and Boyle's law method 73 gravity drainage and dual porosity systems 1645 gravity segregation and recovery efficiencies 1645 gravity stabilization and reservoir dip 175 Head loss in wellbores 221 heavy crude oil characteristics of UKCS heavy crude oils 201 general classification 200 Yen classification 200.13 low interfacial tension (IFT) systems 193 Material balance. geological characteristics 62 hydrostatic gradient.54. measurement of 150. 159 gasoil systems and relative permeability 1 0 3 4 gas well testing 1435 gases. compatibility with reservoir fluids 1834 injection fluids. 220 dimensionless.229 gas formation volume factor 157 gas formation volume factor B. regional 1011 Ideal gas law (and modification) 43 imbibition processes and core length 11011 C liquid 104 imbibition wetting phase threshold pressure 97 inplace volume if2 inflow performance relationship. improved 191211 hydrocarbon reservoir fluids 15 hydrocarbon systems volumetric and phase behaviour 4C1 applications to field systems 412 hydrocarbon volume in place calculations 1278 hydrocarbons. : Gas cap expansion drive 1 6 3 4 gas compressibilities 489 gas condensate. types of interactions 16 hydrocarbon field 7 hydrocarbon generation and geothermal gradient 7 . 13 homogeneous reservoirs and coning 1812 Horner analysis 13 hydrates 224 hydrocarbon accumulation and sedimentary basins 7 hydrocarbon accumulations and formation waters 14 hydrocarbon exploitation.INDEX . migration of (modelled) 934 hydrocarbons (commercial reservoirs). quality of 1836 injection water.for oil wells 2201 for gas wells 221 injection fluids. uncertainties in 247 gas condensate reservoirs 20711 production methods for 20911 gas deviation factor Z 46. 4950 gas properties 45 gas recycling. recovery from 1579 gas viscosities 478 gaskicks 12 gasoil ratio 14. behaviour of 434 gases. 9 hydrocarbon pore thickness (HPT) 1267 hydrocarbon pore volume maps 1267 hydrocarbon properties 47 hydrocarbon recovery. viscosity of 184 injection water treatment 229 injectivity index 174 insert bits 33 isobaric thermal expansion coefficient 43 isocapacity maps 126 isochores 124 isochronal testing 144 isoliths 124 isopachs 124 isoporosity maps 125 isosaturation lines 99 isosaturation maps 126 isothermal compressibility 43 isothermal retrograde condensation 42  Kay's rule 45 kelly 23 kick 345 Kimmeridge Clay 7 .
reservoirs. 127 polyacrylamidcs I97 polymer tluids 193 polymer systems and adsorption 197 pool see rescrvoir pore fluid pressures 11 pore pressure.246 Thistlc oil reservoir 122.124. significance in drilling and well completion 26. effects of 1068 permeameter 81 petroleurn migration of 910 origin and formation of 7 recovery 5 petroleum engineering function of 1 proble~n solving in 3 phase (def. heavy oil rescrvoils202 North Sea. reservoirs and surfactants 198. equations of 2345 Natural gas calorific value 226 dehydration 2245 onshore processing 22. Iocd. phase behaviour 41 multirnodal porosity 78 niultirate data. 196 nonwetting phase fluid 94 nonwetting phase saturation 102 North Sea. 23 mud composition.125 North Sea. principle components of 184.97 meters 229 microemulsion 198 ~niddle (late transient) time solution 139 miscible displacement mecltanisms 1945 miscible displacement processes 193 miscible floods 194 applications 1956 exan~ples 196 miscibl~lluids.245.185.7<%46 and critical displacement ratio 112 anistropy 823 distributions 834 i~~~provement 1934 laboratory detennination of 812 ratios 1045 variation. abnormal 1112 primary rccovery.360 rnercury injection and porosimetry 73. fluid choicc for miscible displaccrnent 196 North Sea.28 pore size distribution 9 G 7 pore space characteristics and equilibrium saturation distrihrltion 921 pore volurue compressibility 160 of rcservoir rocks 203 poroperm data. 147 (downhole).iracteristics o 136 L pressure gradients and heterogeneity of rescrvoir pore space 129 pressure maintenance 173 pressure regimcs. static system 12 pressure gauges 137.107. 127 Statfjortl field 106.67 niulticon~ponentsystems.) 44 Monte Carlo approach. rccerlt 5 6 8 Nortli Sea.56 salcs specification 224 swcete~lirlg 225 ~ ~ a t u rgab processing 2246 al nitrogen in miscible displacement 195. probabilistic estimation 127 technique and recoverable reserves estimate 130 movable hydrocarbon fortnula (MHV) 130 mud cake 36 mud circulation system 22. oil reservoirs 15964 ODT (oil down to) 13 offshore productioniilljection systcltt.175. rates of 137 pressure depletion 21 0 pressure drawdown and reservoir limit testing 1423 pressure equilibrium. relationship between 846 cutoff 124 distributions 778 logs 757 main logging tools for 75 measurement of 723 potential gradient 174 pressure (abnormal) and (1cxponent256 pressure buildup analysis 13940 pressure buildup (tcsting) 149 pressure control and well kicks 345 pressurc decline. validity of 242 porosity 7. bland (unreactivc) arld core recovery 312. phase inversion tempcraturc (PIT) 198 physical models 233 piston disp!acernent. oil correlations. 126.96. 51 . 178 Forties field 249 Fulmar field 24951 Magnus fieltl 184 Maureen field IN7 Montrose reservoir (RFT data) 151 Murchison field I25 Rough gas field 123.9K9 oilwater systems and relative permeability 1023 openhole tests 145 optimal salinity 198 orifice meters 229 overpressure 11. influences on 191 oil viscosity 56 oilwater contact (OWC) 96.718 and permeability. 199 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE oil saturation. stratified reservoirs 1078 planimeter 124.176 and polymers 197 modelling of reservoirs1301 models 2334 mole (dcf.) 1 1 . hytlrocarhonfields Beryl field 196 Brent field I96 Buchan field 37 Dunlin field 131. general limitations on 67 mud logging 301 mud systems. 123.12 Packcr 146 Pcng and Rohinson equation 44 pcrmeabilities. analysis of 1435 mnltiphase flow. properties of 195 rnobility ratio 1045. ch. measurement of 150 oil formation factor B. averaging of 83 permeability 7.186 offshore system 21 oil bank formation 195 oil density 14 oil tlow rate.
1067 effect of temperature 204 relative permeability data. sources 1415.236 single component systems. analysis by material balance 15963 solution gasoil ratio 53. laboratory determination of 10911 fiom correlations 11213 improvement. heavy oil reservoirs 204 relative spreading concept 93 repeat formation tester (RFT) 14850 reservoir behaviour in production engineering 2201 reservoir condition material balance techniques 160 volumetric balance techniques 1601 reservoir data.55 StandingKatz correlations 46. effect of 181 reservoir fluid properties.245 reservoir temperatures 13 reservoirs 718 areal extent of 1224 residual oil 53.207 steamdrive analysis. and well performance 2201 ~roducrion engineering described 218 hroduction op&ations.23940 sand body type effect on injected water and oil displacement 17880 recognition of 238 saturation distributions in reservoir intervals 989 saturation gradients 164 saturation pressure see bubblepoint pressure scribe shoe 66 sea water as injection water 184 seawater floods (continuous) and low surfactant concentration 199200 secondary recovery and pressure maintenance 17386 secondarv recoverv techniques 173 sedimentary basins and hydrocarbon accumulation 7 origin of 7 worldwide 2 segregated displacement i 77 sensitivity studies 2467 shaliness.193 residual oil saturation 192 i average 174 and material balance 174 measurement of 191.17 reservoir (def.ing.47 Standing's data (bubblepoint correlation) 55 STB (stock tank barrel) 14 steady state permeability tests 110 steam flooding205 steam properties 206.192 residual saturations 111112 resistivity factor see formation resistivity factor resistivity index 74 retrograde condensation 208 reverse circulating sub 146 rotary table 23 Safety joints and jars 147 salinity and water viscosity 56 samplers 147 sand body continuity 180 importance of 238. effect of 13 Shinoda diagrams 198 simulators applications 235 classification of 235.influencing factors 21829 production rate effects 1802 production rates.245 static 11516 pseudorelative permeability relationships and thicker sands 107 PVT analysis 524 PVT relationships.247 reservoir modelling analysis and data requirements 237 application in field development 24851 concepts in 23348 reservoir performance analysis 15768 reservoir pore volume and change in fluid pressure 423 reservoir pressures 1C12 reservoir rocks.probabilistic estimation 1278. characteristics of 6286 pore volume compressibility 203 reservoir simulation modelling 2337 reservoir simulation and vertical communication 243.177 reservoir flow rate.178. 4 reservoir dip angle 175. significance of 1 . measurement and prediction of 439 reservoir fluids and compressibility 423 nature of 14 properties of 4058 reservoir geometry and continuity 180. water reservoirs 168 recovery factors and reserves 12830 recovery string 34 recovery targets 191 RedlichKwong equation 44 relative permeability 1024. 130 produced fluids and offshore processing 1846 produced water treatment 228 producing rates (well inflow equations/pressure loss calculations) 1745 nroduction costs. 3 production enginee.54.) 7 reservoir description in modelling 23745 uncertainty in 2457 reservoir development. example data requirements 207 Stiles technique 1078 stock tank oil 54 and retrograde condensation 208 stock tank oil in place and equity .23845 reservoir heterogeneity 17780 reservoir mapping and crosssection interpretation 2456. single and multicomponent systems 401 Radial equations in practical units 136 radial flow in a simple system 1345.129. phase behaviour 401 skin effect 1402 negative factors 142 skin zone 194 slabbing 68 solution gas drive. 191 influence of recovery mechanism 191. technical and economic factors 219 production system 21819 production testing 1501 productivity index (PI) 245 220 and inflow ~erformance pseudocritical temperatures and pressures 457 pseudorelative oermeabilitv in dvnamic svstems 115 pseud+relative permeability functions 177. costs of 3 .137 recombination sampling 52 recovery efficiency. 243.
166 water influx. 65.362 determination 130 stock tank units 14 stock tank volume 53 Stratapax bits 33 stratified reservoir analysis 306 stripping 191 structure contour maps 122 stuck pipe ancl fishing 3 3 3 summation of fluids and porosity 723. heavy oil resourcc distribution 202 Van der Laan method (volume in place) 128 vaporizinggas drive 194. radial flour an.178 Iescvvoir96 water saturation tlistribution. altered zone 141 well bore flow 22 13 wellbore inflow equations 174 wellsite controls and core recovery 68 wettability 175 change in 67.131.243.242. corrclatio~i with cores 63.245 Forties Iescrvoir 249 and geological core atudq 689 and histogram an2rlysis 84 and permeability distributions 84 .196 degree of 93 ~ wettability control. natural gas 225 Tester valvc 146 thermal enelgy 2047 thernlal injection processes 2 0 4 6 thickness maps 124 threshold capillary prcssurc (reselvoir rocks) 95 threshold pressure 94 traps (structural and stratigraphic) 10 triconc bits 32. 33 trip gas 34 turbinc mcters 229 Ultimate recovery formula see movable hydrocarbon formola uncertainty in rcselvoinrnoclel description 2458 unitization 13C1 universal gas constant.32 well drilling operations 203 well locations and patterns 1823 well performance. 179. i r situ 112 wettability effects 108 wetlability preference 93 wetting phase fluid 93 wetting phase saturation 94 wetting preference 175 wireline logs.alysisof 13451 well productivity improvement 1934 well test methods. 501 water influx 165. applications of analytical solutions 1369 well test procedures 14550 data analysis 1478 well testing and pressure analysis lS(b1 well!reservoir rcsponses. holnoge~~cous water viscosity 56 waterflooding 178. different reservoir systems I39 wellbore.75 wilcline testing 1 4 W 0 WUT (water up to) 13 Xanthan gums 197 Zonation 99. 180 Welge analysis 106 Welge's cquatiol~s 174 well arrangements. gas reservoir 15&Y water injection 166.210 water drive reservoirs 167 recovery efficiency of 168 water forrnation factor B. dipping reservoirs 181 20 well classif~cation well clescription log 31. values of43 unsteady state relative permeability tcsts 10910 USA. 74 superposition technique 140 surfactant concentration (low) and co~itiliuous seawater floods 199200 surfactant flooding 198200 surfactant phase spstenls 1978 surfactant processes 197200 surfactants 193 synthetic 199 sweetening.197 vapour phase 42 vcrtical bed rtisolution 76 vertical permeahility variation and fractiontll flow curvc 177 verlical PIessure logging 14850 Viking GIaben area (N North Sca) 10 Vogel cli~nerisionless1PR 2 2 6 1 volatile oil Icservoirs21 1 volatile oil systems 42 volutnetric balance techniques 160 vugular carboliates and u~hole core analysis 69 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRlNCfPLESAND PRACTICE Walther's law of facics 238 water drive and gas condensate reservoirs 209.