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PETROLEUM
ENGINEERING
PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
Graham & Trotman
First published in 1986 by Graham and Trotman Ltd. Graham and Trotman Inc. Sterling House, 13 Park Avenue, 66 Wilton Road, Gaithersburg, London SWlV 1DE MD 20877, UK USA
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Archer, . I S . Petroleum engineering : principles and practice I . Petroleum enginecring 1. Title 11. Wall. C.G. 622'. 3382 TN870 ISBN 0X6OlO6659 ISBN 086910b7159 Pbk
0J S Archer and C G Wall, 1986
This publication is protected by intcrnational copyright law. All rights reservcd. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mcchauical, photocopyi~~g, recording or otherwise, without the permission of the publishers.
Typeset in Great Britain by Bookworril Studio Services, Salford Printed and bound in Great Britain by The Alden Press, Oxforci
Contents
Preface Foreword CHAPTER 1 Introduction
1.1
CHAPTER 2 Reservoirs
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6
Petroleum Engineering: A creative technology
Conditions for occurrence Reservoir pressures Fluid pressures in a hydrocarbon zone Reservoir temperatures , Nature of reservoir fluids Reservoir data  sources
CHAPTER 3 Oilwell Drilling
Operations Costs Well completions and oilwell casing Completion Drilling fluid control Rheology of well fluids (drilling muds and cements) Formation breakdown pressures and leak off tests Data acquisition during drilling Mud fluids for core recovery Drilling optimization
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE
3.11 3.12 3.13
Turbine versus conventional rotary Special problc~ns drilling in Completion for production
I
CHAPTER 4
Properties of Reservoir Fluids
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Volumetric and phasc behaviour of hydrocarbon systems Applications to field ryrtems Compressibility Measurement and prediction of reservoir fluid properties Formation volume factors, B Gasoil ratios Direct measurements PVT analysis Generalized correlations for liquid systems
I
CHAPTER 5 Characteristics of Reservoir Rocks
Data sources and application Coring decisions Conventional and oriented coring Coring mud systems Core preservation Well site controls Core for special core analysis Corederived data Geological studies Routine core analysis Porosity Permeability Relationships bctween porosity and permeability
CHAPTER 6
Fluid Saturation: influence of wettability and capillary pressure
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Equilibrium conditions Laboratory measurements and relationship with reservoiv systems Pore size distribution Capillary pressure hysteresis Saturation dirtributions in reservoir intervals Correlation of capillary pressure data from a given rock type 92 93 96 97 98 99
1
CHAPTER 7 Relative permeability and multiphase flow in porous media
7.1 7.2 7.3 Definitions Fractional flow Effects of permeability variation
CONTENTS
vii 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 Wettability effects Laboratory determination of relative permeability data Residual saturations In situ wettability control Relative permeability from correlations Validation of relative permeability data for use in displacement calculations Pseudorelative permeability in dynamic systems Static pseudorelative permeability funttions 108 109 111 112 112 113 115 115
CHAPTER 8 Representation of volumetric estimates and recoverable reserves
Inplace volume Areal extent of reservoirs Thickness maps Lithofacies representation Isoporosity maps Isocapacity maps Hydrocarbon pore volume maps Probabilistic estimation Recovery factors and reserves Distribution of equity in petroleum reservoirs
CHAPTER 9 Radial Flow Analysis of Well Performance
Radial flow in a simple system Development of the line source solution Radial equations in practical units Application of analytical solutions in well test methods Pressure buildup analysis Skin effect Pressure drawdown and reservoir limit testing Gas well testing Well test procedures Well testing and pressure analysis
CHAPTER 10 Reservoir Performance Analysis
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Recovery from gas reservoirs Primary recovery in oil reservoirs Gravity segregation and recovery efficiencies Material balance for reservoirs with water encroachment or water injection Accuracy of the gross material balance equation 157 159 164 165 168
CHAPTER 11 Secondary Recovery and Pressure Maintenance
11.1 Displacement principles
viii 11.2 11.3
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
Factors influencing secondary recovery and pressure maintenance schemes Quality of injection fluids and disposal of brines
175 183
CHAPTER 12 Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery
Targets The influence of recovcry mechanism on residual oil Permeability improvement Miscible displacement mechanisms Miscible flood applications Chemical flood processes Heavy oil recovery Thermal energy Gas condensate reservoirs Volatile oil reservoirs 191 191 193 194 195 196 200 204 207 211
CHAPTER 13 Factors Influencing Production Operations
The production system Reservoir bchaviour in production engineering Wcllbore flow Field process facilities Natural gas processing Crude oil processing Heavy oil processing Produced water treatment Injection water treatment Crude oil metering
CHAPTER 14 Concepts in Reservoir Modelling and Application to Development Planning
14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 Models Equations of inultiphase flow Simulator classifications Sirnulator application Reservoir description in modelling Application of reservoir models in field dcvelopment 257
APPENDIX 1 SPE Nomenclature and Units
Units SPE Symbols Standard Symbols alphabetized by physical quantity Subscripts alphabetized by physical quantity
APPENDIX 2 Solutions to Examples in Text INDEX
310 357
It is. Wall 1986 . Archer and Colin G. hoped that the material will also be of more general use to practising petroleum engineers and those wishing for aa introduction into the specialist literature. Jill and Jane1 for typing seemingly endless manuscripts. The material is largely based on the authors' experience as teachers and consultants and is supplemented by worked problems where they are believed to enhance understanding. and Lesley and Joan for believing that one day things would return to normality.PREFACE The need for this book has arisen from demand for a current text from our students in Petroleum Engineering at Imperial College and from postexperience Short Course students. however. In particular we would like to thank our present colleagues and students at Imperial College and at E R C Energy Resource Consultants Ltd. The book is arranged to provide both background and overview into many facets of petroleum engineering. Dan Smith at Graham and Trotman Ltd. John S. The authors would like to express their sincere thanks and appreciation to all the people who have helped in the preparation of this book by technical comment and discussion and by giving permission to reproduce material. for their stimulating company. for his perseverence and optimism. particularly as practised in the offshore environments of NorthWest Europe.
is welcomed. The petroleum engineer's responsibilities are o f necessity very wide. Indeed. The petroleum engineer is a resource manager. Imperial College. The knowledge of the reservebase is always insufficientas natural reservoirs are heterogeneous in their geometry and character. In all these activities safety and economy are mandatory. The breadth o f the interdisciplinary knowledge needed by today's petroleum engineer is ever increasing. The prediction o f fluid behaviour in hcterogeneous reservoirs is aided by sophisticated mathematical modelling using powerful computers. Petroleum engineers play a leading role in the design o f recovery systems which require flexibility in well placement and the sizing o f surface facilities for export processing to ensure that the products mcct the specifications required for transportation by pipeline or tanker. mathcmatics and computer science. It now provides the technical basis for the exploitation o f petroleum fluids in subsurface sedimentary rock reservoirs. Petroleum fluids are complex mixtures o f many hydrocarbons and currently prediction o f their behaviour at reservoir pressures o f up to 14 500 psia (1000 bar) and 450°F (230°C) is based on attempts to understand their thermodynamics. These studies and operations require the disciplines o f physics. That the oil and gas industry is profitable is largely duc to the emergence o f petroleum engineering and the techniques which have been developed for its application. This may well lead to decisions on variations in the original production scheme. geology. and a study o f the current literature shows the vast amount o f effort now being applied to further the understanding and improve predictions o f the behaviour o f reservoir fluids and to increase their recovery. wells and plant. The lnethodology in petrolcum rescrvoir development requires the testing and evaluation o f exploration and appraisal wells to discover the volume in place and productivity of compressible hydrocarbon fluids. describing the basics o f petroleum engineering. classical engineering. some o f the most powerful computers available today are dedicated to the modelling o f reservoir behaviour and a modern petrolcum engineer must be capable o f making full use o f them. Londcn and .Foreword Petroleum engineering has developed as an area o f study only over the present century. and skills are required to design for data acquisition which will allow updating of rescrvoir models in the light of production experience. With such a spread o f disciplines the availability o f a text. The authors are the present and past Heads o f Petroleum Engineering in the Department o f Mineral Resources Engineering o f the Royal School o f Mines. and has an obligation to analyse all the data available and to interpret it effectively in order to forecast the future performance o f the reservoir.
H. Sweatman (exChief Production Engineer?British Petroleum Company and Visiting Professor Petroleum Engineering Imperial College.FOREWORD xi both have had field experience with major oil companies before joining Imperial College. This book will both give students a good grounding in petroleum engineering and be valuable to the practising engineer as a comprehensive reference work. The Petroleum Engineering Section moved to its present location in the Mineral Resources Engineering Department at the Royal School of Mines in 1973 and currently runs undergraduate and Master of Sciences courses and has active postgraduate and postdoctoral research groups. Through its e3tensive bibliography the reader will also be guided to more specialised branches of the petroleum engineering literature. A. The College has been a centre for the study of petroleum recovery since the early years of this century with courses in Oil Technology commencing in 1913. UK) . London.
.
economics and geostatistics. The economics of hydrocarbon recovery processes is inextricably linked with the practice of petroleum engineering. With the passage of time and cumulative production. On a project basis. geology. It is of necessity a broadly based technology drawing upon the foundations of engineering.1). The further recovery of hydrocarbons from reservoirs approaching the end of conventional development processes requires the costeffective application of enhanced (EOR) or improved (IHR) hydrocarbon recovery processes.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. a petroleum engineer has a responsibility to present analyses of schemes that are both technically and financially attractive. In Chapter 8 ['j1. Developments in the recovery of hydro . For example. A route to problem solution in petroleum engineering shown as Table 1. As an engineering subject it is a little anomalous. a ratio of 1:10 might be expected. Unlike many branches of engineering. in that design is based on observation of production performance and on a representation of the reservoir inferred from very limited sampling. 1.nature of the reservoir can be accumulated and the production methods can be modified. In the current climate of deeper reservoir exploration and increased exploitation ofoffshore reservoirs in the world's sedimentary basins (Fig. chemistry. in terms of pretax cost of oil production from a 2000 mSS onshore well compared with a 3000 mSS offshore well.5" API) requires special petroleum engineering effort. The exploitation of heavy oil (API) gravity less than 20" API) and of gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs (API gravity greater than 4.costs of production are significant. mathematics. physics. reservoirs cannot be designed to fulfill a particular task. Petroleum engineering can thus represent an exercise in the application of uncertainty to design.1 has been adapted from Timmerman The terminology of the subject contains varying degrees of confidence in the representation of the inplace and recoverable resource base. but rather an illdefined naturally occurring reservoir is induced to produce some fraction of its contents for as long as is considered commercially attractive. Current exploration in maturing hydrocarbon provinces is centred on more subtle trapping mechanisms than structural highs and on smaller accumulations. we discuss the representation of 'proven' quantities of hydrocarbon in terms of the availability of information and the existence of the technology to exploit recovery on commercially attractive terms. more information on the .I PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: A CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY The function of petroleum engineering is to provide a basis for the design and implementation of techniques to recover commercial quantities of natural petroleums. particularly in highpressure or offshore reservoirs.
.
. Present results of study to win a l l necessary approvals to proceed. ~ m p l e m e n and monitor result .1 Problem solving in petroleum engineering carbon from oil sands and oil shales requires that petroleum engineering methods are combined with the technologies of mining engineers and chemical engineers. particularly in NW Europe. If appropriate. The current fiscal environment..reliabil~ty and accuracy of data base.. Is simple approach required 7 order of magnitude o r d e t a ~ l e d :..2 shows the fluctuation in the average official Middle East crude oil price. Fig. The costs of reservoir development generally require an operating company to raise a substantial quantity of money from loans the repayment terms of which are linked to a representation of reservoir production uncertainties. and maybe develop more theory. 1. 1. The development of offshore oil fields on the UKCS with recoverable reserves less than 100 million barrels should provide a greater challenge to petroleum engineers than those under development at the end of 1983. has led to an increased economic and political awareness amongst petroleum engineers.project analogy. Apply professional judgement and interpret result in manner that provides best f i t o f facts. Break down problem into stages 2 .. or at mid1985 exchange rates it was over US$600 million.1 INTRODUCTION Define objective of study (nature of the problem 0 6 26 =6 c?z Identify economic value of answer in terms o f costs and time i n study. /I ! ' 1 I Define study flow p a t h s a n d c r i t ~ c a paths l c a p t a l .. Multidiscipl~nary may be needed to express interrelated phenomena..  A c t . . The investment was over £500 million in 1985 currency. Pound Organise data and applicableapproaches in solution.p e r f o r m intensive analysis of data and results.. I 7 8 '79'80'81 '82'83'64'85' Year I I Upgrade base for study by literature search. The prices of oil in world markets is partly controlled by agreement amongst producing nations. This fact alone leads to a petroleum engineering design criterion of high initial production rates to shorten payout times.be prepared to m o d ~ f y t Learn from the experience TABLE 1.2 Variation in price of average Middle East crude oil. express result probabilistically.. reliable and u n b ~ a s e dc o n c l u s ~ o n Write summary o f f a c t s leading toconclusion and supporting the proposed action.ty Budget t i m e . It is also very clear from this figure that much of the investment is exposed at least five years prior to any production revenue.in more detail to the problem. I Define theoretical bas's required for each s o l u t ~ o n and apply .. . .: Dollar Select preferred approaches to solving t h e problem models. The effect of the exchange rate fluctuation between the pound sterling and the US dollar is also clearly seen.. which averaged some 400 million barrels of recoverable reserves for each reservoir. Conduct study . compiled from figures in Petroleum Intelligence Weekly. Evaluate. I Make a techn~callysound.. ~nvolvement statistical correlation etc.r a t l o n a I l z e w l t h real. Prepare outline study plan and evaluate availability. Figure 1. The cost profile for the development of an offshore oil field on the Continental Shelf (UKCS) with some 75 million barrels of recoverable oil is indicated in Fig. think and compare data with expectation and physical behaviour. . The variations have an effect on exploitation policies of operating companies..3. Revise ideas.
) .4 Offshore exploration using the semisubmersible rig Sea Conquest (Photo courtesy of BP. Fig. 1. 1.3 Capital expenditure profile for hypothetical 1985 UKCS offshore oil discovery with 75 million stock tank barrels of recoverable oil.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 0 5 T~rne (years) since discovery 1 0 Fig.
Proc.En. ElfAquitaine. Proc.S. C. S. Proc.ocarbon (Gas. J. 11th World Pet. Pub. Co.E. Reservoir definition and characterisation for analysis and simulation. R. Dynamics of oil and gas accumulations.M. Technical Paper (Sept. Paper PD6(1). L 2 . References [I] International Petroleum Engineering Encyclopedia Pennwell Publish.D. Q. Distribution and quantitive assessment of world petroleum reserves and resources. 1983 and annually.water. Pau 1983.S. 11th World Pet. Tulsa (1983). gas separation and handling Remote and frontier areas facility design C h e m l c a l processes surfadnts poiymers \ ~ika~is Non hyd. [4] Esso UK plc Opportunities for British Industry (1984). 1984). 265.Pad or wells platform Updip/downdip lines and volatile Pressure Maint. D. SPE Paper 13008. [5] UK Offshore Operators Association Potential Oil and Gas Production from the UK Offshore to the Year 2000.5 Petroleum recovery methods. Europec (1984). 1101 Perrodon. (1983).J. [ l l ] Master. and Marsden. [8] Underdown.ocarbon (C02. A. Mem 5. Bias in engineering estimation. Cong. Cong. [6] Brush. SPE Paper 12988.1 INTRODUCTION '+ Petroleum recovery pressure maintenance (supplelnented drive energy) Water injection natural reservoir energy) Solutiongas drlve '1: Natural water influx High rate '1' / Low rate \ Gas injection I] 4J Nuclear technology applications Stimulation l m m i ~ ~ b l eMkcible] Intermediate Combinatlon Compoctlon drlve Gas cop expansion  1 1.L~quid) Mlsclbie Hydro carbons ' Oil. 1 7 Thermal for Heavy oi!s \ c O ~ ~ i O n Soak Drive Wet Dry 1 Mining technology applications New chemicals Insltu heating Cycling Gravlty drainage  / Combinat~on drive 1 i Other f u l d InjectionJ C02.. V. 407. [2] British Petroleum Company plc BP Statistical Review of World Energy (June 1984). JPT (1982) 433. London (1983).N2 / \ ~~d. P a n wells . 1. . [3] Department of Energy Development of the oil and gas resources of the United Kingdom (the Brown Book). Europec (1984). [7] Marks. Further small offshore oilfield developments. N 2 ) s 1 dscble (water biocklng) MISCI~I~ and Woter~ontrol low I F T Fig. Proc. [9] Archer. The role of taxation in optimising the exploitation of the UK continental shelf. Paper ~ ~ f l ( 1 ) .
D. Risk analysis in capital invcstn~cnt~ Harvt~rdBusiness Review (Jan. Grahanl Sr Trotman 177192. J. Feb. JPT (July 1964).. Reprint Series 3 . Pr~trul~utrz E. The Hague (1981). E. E.~ervoir Engineering. 176.B. JPT (Dec. Proc. [I41 Attanasi. SPE of AIME (1970).x~~lo~rrlion Strrctegics in Devrlopirzg Counfries. andHaynes. . Investment clecisions in pctroleurn exploration and production.6 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [12] Hertz. Tulsa (1982). 2 vols.D. UN Corg. Penrlwell Publishing. F. Practical Re. [15] Tirnmerman. 1984).H. Trans. [I31 Northern. 2171. 1984) and in Pet. [I61 Parrn. Economics and appraisal of conventional oil and gas (in the Wcstcrn Gulf of Mexico).G.R. I. 727. Firia~icialrequirements ancl methods of financing petroleum operations in developing countries.L.
Petroleum formation requires that organic source clays become mature by subjection to pressure and temperature. namely (a) a source for hydrocarbons. may lead progressively to the generation of hydrocarbon mixtures characterized as condensates.2 in terms of intensity of exploration. or shorter exposure to very high temperatures.1 CONDITIONS FOR OCCURRENCE We may define a reservoir as an accumulation of hydrocarbon in porous permeable sedimentary rocks. The average organic content of potential source rocks is about 1%by weight. This needs rapid sedimentation in organic rich waters and leads to the accumulation of organic rich clays in an anaerobic environment. the existence of traps in porous sedimentary rock at the time of migration and in the migration path. is also sometimes known as a pool.7% organic matter) with local rich streaks greater than 40%. If the pore fluids cannot be expelled the pore fluid pressure may increase. The Kimmeridge clay. as shown in Figs 2. A temperature window in the range 140°F to 300"F.4. plankton and algae. From a petroleum engineering perspective it is convenient to think of sedimentary basins as accumulations of water in areas of slow subsidence into which sediments have been transported. the principal source rock for North Sea oil averages about 5% carbon (. including compaction. It is believed that petroleum originates from the anaerobic decomposition of fats. which will have reached a fluid pressure equilibrium throughout its pore volume at the time of discovery. which may be correlatable with burial depth and geological time. Prolonged exposure to high temperatures. can act to modify further the pore structure and geometry. chemical replacement and diagenetic changes. A hydrocarbon field may comprise several reservoirs at different statigraphic horizons or in different pressure regimes.3 and 2. It is a rule of thumb that for each percentage . Secondary processes. i. The hydrogen content of the organic matter should be greater than 7% by weight for potential as an oil source. With compaction. wet gases and gas. solution. The setting for hydrocarbon accumulation is a sedimentary basin that has provided the essential components for petroleum reservoir occurrence. proteins and carbohydrates in marine or estuarine plant and animal matter. The primary depositional processes and the nature of the sediments have a major influence on the porosity and permeability of reservoir rocks. The accumulation. grains of sediment are subject to increasing contact and pore fluids may be expelled from the decreasing pore volume. maturity and exploration effort and volume by discovery.e. migration and entrapment of hydrocarbons is an extensive topic covered in the geological literature['10] and only the essential details are reviewed here. (c) a trapping mechanism.Chapter 2 Reservoirs 2. seems to be optimal for formation of hydrocarbon mixtures classified as oils. The North Sea province is seen as a relatively young exploration area in a high yield basin.1 and 2. (b) the formation and migration of petroleum. The origin of sedimentary basins and the genesis. The discovery of oil by exploration well drilling in some of the world's sedimentary basins is shown in Figs 2.
Gulf Coast (offshore) E /' / / Indonesia / / /aU.Germany / / / / / 0.E.Saharo / *~a?o{ //O / / / / / U S .o ro / */ N./'*Wyoming Oklahoma / / .Texas 10 L 5 E / Gippsland //. 2.France / / / / / / ~.S.5/ / / //* / / / / / .~anada / / / / / W. / / / / *Reconcavo ~ouisiano// Alberta .1 Wildcat well success v. exploration yield and discovery (after [la]). / ~sea ~ t h // / Illinois a . .A /' / / / m ~ a r k t i s // S. Tunisia 0. Exploration success (%) lo6 rn3 oil discovered per successful wildcat Fig.1/ 1 / / / / I I / / I I I 5 1 0 100 Wildcat wells per lo4 krn2 50 500 1000 5000 10 000 Fig.2 Historical relationships between exploration intensity and yield (after [''I).W. 2.100 50 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / // / / / / / / / / / California / / / / / / // / Arabian Gulf / N 1 / /' / / ~ Arctic Slope / / / ~ i g e r Delta osirte / N. / ~ichigan// / / / / 9 1L / //.Texas .
there may well be an initiation of microfractures which provide an escape route into permeable systems such as sedimentary rocks or fault planes. 2. however. The movement of petroleum may have been as a solution in water or as distinct oil or gas phases .[ Fig.)I'[ Oil pool I Oil migration routes . point of organic carbon in mature source rocks. necessarily true that all the oil generated will be expelled or trapped in porous rocks. In the permeable system the transport occurs under condi .4 Variation in the quanhy of hydrocarbons contained in fine grained sediments as a function of temperature (after. Since the generation of petroleum is accompanied by volume changes which can lead to high local pressures. namely through the source rock and then through a permeable system.2 RESERVOIRS Hydrocarbon generated+ 9  fossils" Fig. The migration process involves two main stages. The source rock microfractures are believed to heal as pressures are dissipated.there is no consensus on this topic.5 Migration pattern model for a section of the Congo coastal basin (after [61).3 Hydrocarbon generation for normal geothermal ) I ' gradient (after. Migration of petroleum generated from source rocks is not well understood. 2. some 13005000 cubic metres of oil per km2 m (1040 barrels of oil per acreft) of sediment could be generated. It is not. 2. 0 Gas pool Gas migration routes Surface oil shows rocks soure rock Fig.
with the great majority of known accuinulation being in the former style.10 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE tions of a fluid potential gradient which may take the hydrocarbon to surface or to some place where it becomes trapped. a style of trapping is found which results from the truncation of inclined permeable beds by an impermeable unconformity surface (Fig.   . 2.6 and 2.9). 1 Cross section . i. I cross section Unconform~ty surface A Map I Fig. o r structural after the geological nature of the unconformity.2. Cross sect~on MOP Fig. oilwater and gasoil contacts. 2..c. The seal for the Middle Jurassic is either the clays and shales of the unconformity itself or Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge shale.a regional hydrostat~cgradient. Structural traps may be generally s~~bdivided anticlinal and fault traps which arc into described in terms of the shape of the sedimentary beds and their contacts. as shown in the example of Fig. In our concept of the petroliterous sedimentary basin a5 a region of water into which sediment has accumulated and hydrocarbons have been generated and trapped. Cross section In the North Sea and several other sedimentary areas. Examples of this process occur in thc more distal regions and in discontinuous sands of river channels.10 Brent Sand trap . Fig.10.. Many reservoirs exist as the result of a combination of structural and stratigraphic features. 2. A t equilibrium conditions the density differences between the oil.5. we may have an expectation of. In the Viking Graben area of the northern North Sea.9 Unconformity trap.7. Fig. the malor~ty being in the range 5004000 mSS. RESERVOIR PRESSURES Hydrocarbon reservoirs are found over a wlde lange of present day depths of burial. 2. The character~sticforms of petroleum trap are known as structural and stratigraphic traps. The down faulted mature Kimmeridge shale also provides a source for the oil as shown in Fig.8 Strat~graphicpinch trap. . .6 Anticlinal structure.   '0wc.UKCS. out . 2. 2. 2. It is debatable whether this trap should be called stratigraphic because of the trapping by fine grained sediments. 2. Stratigraphic traps result when a depositional bed changes from permeable rock into finegrain impermeable rock (Fig. in deeper water deltaic sediments and in the enveloping sediments of limestone reefs. the Breiit Sand reservoirs arc characteristically faulted deltaic sands truncated by the Cretaceous unconformity. Impermeable rocks provide seals above and below the permeable reservoir rocks. as shown in Figs 2. gas and water phases can result in boulldary regions between them known as fluid contacts.7 Fault trap.8). Limit of poroS1ty Stratlgraplcsand 'pinchout' trap Fig. 2. 2. It might be assurned that less than 10% of petroleunl generated in source rocks is both expelled and trapped.
possibly related to development in localized basins[12]. o g lloooLO L Heather Lye11 12 000 13 000I I I I I 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 Pore f u ~ d pressure ( P S I )+ Fig. 2.433 psilft) and reservoir water systems are commonly encountered with gradients in the range 10 kpaim (0.11. The pore fluids can be considered to take part of the overburden pressure and relieve that part of the overburden load on the rock grains.). 2.1.). The value of G. TABLE 2. \ \ + G. and is shown in Fig. All show similar salinity gradients but different degrees of overpressure. Fresh water exhibits a gradient of 9.53 psilft). In reservoirs found at depths between 2000 mSS and 4000 mSS we might use a gradient of 11 kpalm to predict pore fluid pressures around 220 bar to 440 bar as shown in Table 2. Under certain depositional conditions. Abnormal pressure regimes are evident in Fig. There is a balance in a reservoir system between the pressure gradients representing rock overburden (G. 2.2 RESERVOIRS That is. 2.17 (0. fluid pressures may depart substantially from the normal range (see for example MagaraI2]). A representation of this is G. bar (psi) Depth m SS (ftSS) Gradient kPa/m (psilft): 9. Any hydrocarbon bearing structure of substantial relief will exhibit abnormally high pressures at the crest when the pressure at the hydrocarbonwater contact is normal. Fig.44 psiift) to 12 kpalm (0. where X i s the depth below a reference datum (such as sea level) and G.79 kpaim (0. which is based on data from a number of Brent Sand reservoirs in the North Sea.12. pore fluids (Gf) and sediment grain pressure (G.1 Pore fluid pressure. in a water column representing vertical pore fluid continuity the pressure at any point is approximated by the relationship 8000 ~totfjord Px= X . One particular mechanism responsible for overpressure in some North Sea reservoirs is the inability to expel water from a system containing rapidly compacted shales.433) 10. simply because of the lower density of the hydrocarbon compared with water.5) .G.79 (0. f Q . or because of movement of closed reservoir structures. Pressure + . depends on the salinity of the waters and on the temperature in the system.45) 11.3 (0. = G. is the pressure exerted by unit height of water.1 1 Pressure regimes in Brent Sand reservoirs (after ['21).12 Equilibrium gradients.
. water level (FWL). is the local oil density.. P.. ) . condition as an ecluilibriuln condition. (goc) = P.Reference to Fig.13 Pressure equrlibr~um a statlc system in calculated P. defines the free P. In Gulf coast and North Sea reservoirs overpressure is most frequently attributed to rapid deposition o f shales from which bound water cannot escape to hydrostatic equilibrium. This leads to overpressured aquiferhydrocarbon ~ystemsl'~].pg Where g' is the ratio o f gravitational acceleration g to the universal constant g. as follows: multiple fluid contacts can be found as shown in Fig. is given by the average tcmperaturesalinity gradient ot wate.(owc) = P. G. As an equation o f a straight line this is W e will define a fluid contact between oil and water as the depth in the reservoir at which the pressure in the oil phase (P. The prcswre in the gas phase at the top o f the reservoir X I will therefore be: 5 a 9 a \. + Cl.) is equal to the pressure in thc where the constant C. This may be the result o f upthrust or downthrown faulting. the rock grains take a proportionally increasing part o f the overburden load. we can therefore write speaking.(owc).. At any depth XU above the wateroil further in Chapter 6.3 FLUID PRESSURES IN A HYDROCARBON ZONE At the wateroil contact.. at the samebetween P. can reprcsent any degree o f water phase ( P . 2.14 Multiple fluid contacts showing tested interval indicationof LKO and HKW..6 kpalm ( 1 psilft). At the gasoil contact P . = X.w p Water Fig.) equation difference at depth XT depth using the and the P. Strictly At somc dcyth. Fig.(X. fro111 the surface datum o f sea level. This difference accounts for gaskicks encountered sometimes during drilling operations as gas sands are penetrated. Pressure + where p. Magaral" has described conditions leading to abnormally high and abnormally low pressures. 2. This effect is dcscrihcd o f the 011. the position Po = P.13 shows this under. 2.(goc). Some explanations lie in reservoirs being found at present depths higher or lower than the depth at which they became filled with hydrocarbon. Overpressure from the burial weight o f glacial ice has also been cited.. The magnitude o f the overburden gradient is approxirnately 22. In layered sand systems which contact. Above thc wateroil contact. as in some reservoirs a zone o f the prcssure In the oil phasc is the pressure that the 100% water saturation can occur above the free oil had at the wateroil contact less the density head water level by capillarity.or overpressure. The placing of tluid contact\ often rcsults horn . The estimat~onand recognition o f flulci contacts are essential in evaluating hydrocarbons in place.14. 2.12 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE As fluid pressure is reduced. X. 2. There can be significant Top reserilolr . Abnormal fluid pressures are those not in initial fluid equilibrium at the discovery depth. the pressure in the oil phase w~ll Pcl(XD) bc do not have equilibrium with a common aquifer.
As shown in Fig. The proving of an oilwater contact from flow tests gives rise to the terminology of LKO (lowest known oil) or ODT (oil down to) depths and HKW (highest known water) or WUT (water up to) depths. can be used to obtain an indication of the undisturbed local temperature (Fig. (g) fluid saturations from recovered core.15 Geostatic bottomhole temperature from Horner analysis. The temperature profile from surface conditions will reflect rock property variations and can be obtained from maximum reading thermometers used with logging tools. using a suite of temperatures at a given depth from successive logging runs. lead to a reasonable assumption that reservoir condition processes tend to be isothermal. a typical geostatic temperature gradient in the reservoir interval of a northern North Sea well might be 0. 2.029"Kim (0.16. (a) equilibrium pressures from RFT or gradient surveys. (e) saturations interpreted from wireline log data.@F/100 ft).5 At t t At 1. and a Horner type analysis['41. ' i Mean predictive gradient Fig. . 2. 2.016"FIft).1 A / during ~ n d u c t ~ o n run log i I 0. A particular difficulty in hydrocarbonwater contact evaluation concerns identification in the presence of increasing shaliness. (b) equilibrium pressures from well tests. i. The mean . together with large surface areas for heat transfer within the reservoir. there may be an implied correction for water depth in offshore operations. The local geothermal gradient can be disturbed around a wellbore by drilling operations and fluids. Some of these difficulties may be resolved by capillary pressure analysis using representative core samples.15). (d) fluid densities from formation samples. 40~ EZ On $5 odan nco l. The overburden and reservoir rock.e) = r e apsea rlme since c rcuot on stopped ar I ng tlrne t me slnce clrcJ at on stopped + Fig. i jt 5060 0.16 Geostatic temperature gradient. In many petroliferous basins this is around 0. The effect of shaliness is manifest in small pore throats and high threshold capillary pressure which give high water saturation.4 RESERVOIR TEMPERATURES Reservoir temperature may be expected to conform to the regional or local geothermal gradient.029 Kim (1.2 RESERVOIRS consideration of information from several sources. (f) capillary pressure data from core samples. temperature of the North Sea has been taken as 43°C. When temperature gradients are represented by a straight line from the surface to the reservoir interval. / z0 ak 10  $ 6a $ $ 200) +G C L 22 2 a E 30  / Indication. + e c 0m Geostatic bottom h oP temperature / . during microA/ log run 0Indication during sonic log run // a 0 . 2. The combination of uncertainties in fluid properties for gradient extrapolation and in well test intervals means that a fluid contact is often represented as a depth range until data from several wells in a reservoir have been correlated.e. (c) flow of particular fluid from particular minimum or maximum depth. which have large thermal capacities.0 ( og sca. 2.
The volumetric equivalence of one standard barrel of fluid (1 BBL) is as Follows: and is discussed further in Chapter 4. I11 communication of data it is inevitable that recourse to unit conversions will occur.159 cubic metres (m3) A barrel at stock tank conditions of temperature and pressure is denoted STB. In the petroleum industry. although to different degrees. reservoir appraisal and delineation stage needs careful planning and coordination in order to extract the maximum information. phases present within the reservoir during its producing life (oil. As with gases. The volume unit of measurement in the industry is the stock tank unit. water). and frcqucntly three. or cvcn to CZO. Petroleum hydrocarbons consist predominantly of a series of paraffin hydrocarbons (CrrHZrrf2) together with some cyclic hydrocarbons (naphthenes C. If we define a phase as being a physically distinct and physically separable part of a system. or which may exist only within the hydrocarbon bearing interval as connate or intcrstitial water. gas. The normal condition is sometimes used. Many North Sea oils are in the region of 37" API with GORs around 600 SCFISTB . The economic justification of data acquisition is sometimes a difficult case to argue. The cubic foot at standard conditions of 60°F and 1 atmosphere has found considerable industry usage in gas'volume measurement and is represented as SCF.2.5 NATURE OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS Hydrocarbon accumuIations are invariably associated with formation waters which may constitute extensive aquifers underlying o r contiguous to the hydrocarbons. and pressures change in the essentially isothermal system. but although compositional analysis is frequently taken to C1. Although the range is continuous. and aromatics C. Exprcssed as a gasail ratio or GOR. then there will always be two. for most purposes all hydrocarbons heavier than C6 or C7 arc frequently lumped as a composite fraction characterized by molecular weight and boiling point range.5) 1 BBL = 5. stock tank conditions used in the industry are 60°F and 1 atmosphere pressure. in some cases. The usual range starts with water density at 10" and rises to volatile oils and straw coloured condensate liquids around 60"70".14 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 2. oil density has long been described using an expanded inverse scale authorized by the American Petroleum Institute the API gravity. The relationship forms a term known as a forrri~ltion volilrne factor In addition to oil gravity or density. By convention. The compositions of the arbitrary classifications might typically be as those shown in Table 2. The analysis of reservoir performance depends upon the prediction of the physical properties of the coexisting phases at any time and. The degree of understanding of reservoir continuity and properties should improve with each well drilled but will always be a subjcct of uncertainty. may require complete compositional analysis. as O NCM or nm3. but since production facility design and peak .H._6). The relationship between APT gravity and the specific gravity of the liquid (relative to water) at 60°F (SGbO)is as follows: SG6. the volume resulting from unit volume of feed depends on the conditions of processing.3. the compositions and the physical properties of the phases present may change as production proceeds. It is most frequently necessary to relate the volume of a fluid phase existing at reservoir conditions of temperature and pressure to its equivalent volume at standard conditions. = 141. The cubic metre at stundurd conditions of 15°C and 1 bar is represented as SCM or sm3. Hydrocarbon reservoir fluids may be roughly classified as shown in Table 2. The proportions...615 cubic ft (ft3) 1BBL = 0. the volume of gas associated with unit volume of stock tank oil is a characterization property. the units at a reference condition of 60°F and 1 atmosphere pressure are commonly SCFISTB and SCMISCM. All the phases are considered compressible. the divisions are arbitrary. 2.5 ("API + 131. The data collected in thc prcdevelopment. conventionally the barrel but frequently nowadays the cubic metre. at O C and 1 bar. a volume is meaningless unless accompanied by a definition of the conditions of mcasuremcnt. Since stock tank oil is the result of a processing operation (gas separation)..H2.6 RESERVOIR DATA  SOURCES The determiAation of hydrocarbon in place and technically recoverable reserves requires the implementation of a data acquisition scheme.
9 0. The source rock has an average carbon content of 5% and an expected convertibility of 4500 m3 oil per km2m of source rock for each percentage point of carbon.17 shows the types of interac tions using petroleum engineering and geological information during hydrocarbon exploitation. Estimate the oil in place and the technically recoverable oil in the UKCS.200. which will be amplified in later chapters. high otl density and negl~glblegasoil ratio.1 The volume of Upper Jurassic source rock buried to maturation depth in the United Kingdom Continental Shelf has been estimated at 12 million km2m. Exists in a twophase region.43 2545 2000 plateau production rates are calculated from reserve estimates. Crit~caltemperatures are greater than reservoir tempsrature.01 Liquid API gravity GOR After processing: Tank oil 0. .04 0. stating the assumptions made. Black oil 3045 Volatile oil 4570 Gas condensate Dry gas TABLE 2.05 0.03 0.05 0.04 0. At surface may form tar sands etc.1 5 4060 30006000 Separator gas 0.75 0.08 0.02 0. the narrowing of estimates in a probabilistic sense leads to greater confidence in capital commitment.65 0.600.03 0. Figure 2.2 RESERVOIRS 15 TABLE 2. A gas phase at reservoir conditions but can undergo retrograde behaviour to yield low denslty oils In the reservoir. Examples Example 2. May be recently sourced or degraded black oil.04 0.44 0. Mole fraction compositions of hydrocarbon reservoir fluids Condensate Volatile oil Light black oil CI CP c3 c4 c 5 c.2 Classification of hydrocarbon reservoir fluids Fluid A PI gravity Note Heavy oil <20 High viscosity.08 5075 10000 + Tank gas 0. Also known as a dissolved gas oil system and constitutes majority of oil reservoirs. Very low oil specific gravities.4.08 0. The main sources of reservoir data. The liquid phase has very high ratios of dissolved gas to oil and the gas phase can yield a substantial part of the stock tank liquid.03 0.+ 0.3 Dry gas Essentially light hydrocarbon mixture existing entirely in gas phase at reservoir conditions. No anomalies in phase behaviour.02 0. are shown in Table 2.03 0. Better representation with viscosity higher than say 10 cp.04 0.01 0.
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under favourable condrtions. May give gross and net section thicknesses.18 Sidewall core operation. Well tests and flurd sampling Fig. 2. Borehole surveys: logs.18). Logs may be open hole or cased hole production logs. (Photo courtesy of BP.2 RESERVOIRS 17 TABLE 2. and can help in determining intervals for coring. and velocity data for seismic interpretation is obtained. Initial reservoir pressure. and possibly the type of hydrocarbon. and may help to determine depositional environments. permeability. water contacts. wireline tests etc.20).4 Source Sources of data  Drilling time logs Drill cuttings Mud logging and MWD (measurements while drilling) Sidewall cores Core samples I These represent the earliest information available.19). 2. Hydrocarbon type and fluid samples are obtained (Fig. permeability .thickness estimates. and well productivitres. porosity. The RFT tool can give valuable information on pressures and zonation.) . Small wellwall samples for lithology control (Fig. Generally conducted in cased hole (Fig. the lithology of the section. Permeable intervals and movable hydrocarbon may be detected. 2. fluid saturations and hydrocarbon type. hydrocarbon bearing layers. dips and. pressure gradients. thicknesses of porous. Special core analysis techniques will indicate recovery potential. porosities and fluid saturations.* Yield data on lithology pore structure. 2.
2.) Fig. (Photo courtesy of BP. (Photo courtesy of BP.19 Riser system on an offshore well allows fluids to reach surface. 2.20 Well testing on an offshore exploration rig.) .PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Fig.
London (1984). Petrole 32 (1977).L. accumulation and retention of petroleum in the earth. 6 . 1980.M. 11th World Pet. R. andFertl. Proc. and Rouchet.H. W. 1121 kobertson Research InternationaliERC Energy Resource Consultants Ltd. Proc. [19] Kassler. 95. et al. 191 .J. S. Proc. Distribution and continuity of sandstone reservoirs. D. B. (Moscow) 2 (1971). [4] Hubbert. 1954. J. K. John. Review of the petroleum geology of offshore NW Europe. and Smith. Paper PD12 (3). [7] Le Blanc.J. and Twombley. Distribution and continuity of carbonate reservoirs. Proc. AAPG (1980). [6] Chiarelli.H. (1983). A. H. Problems of petroleum migration. [13] Jenkins. Inst. Bull. Petroleum Geology. Morris. 100.J. Pau 1983. Natural gas in major basins world wide attributed to source rock type. Amsterdam (1973).2 RESERVOIRS 19 References 1 1 Hunt. AAPG 61 (1977). JPT (1977). Leiden (1951) 11. [lo] St. P. a Concise Study. 1972).R. Amsterdam (1978). HMSO. 189. Bull.A. D. [15] Grunau. Bull. H. Migration. ElfAquitaine. [2] Magara. [17] Simson. [18] Perrodon.E. l8l Jardine.. Roberts. map. [16] Timko. Petroleum Exploration Strategies in Developing Countries.E. Dynamics of oil and gas accumulations. [14] Horner. D. techniques and costs. Else\ier. Cong. Development of the ocl and gas resources of the United Kingdom. UKCS : A Sedimentological and Reservoir Engineering Study (7 vols). Seismic stratigraphy moves towards interactive analysis. Fr. AAPG Studces in Geolog)!10 (1980). R.P. Elsevier.R. thermal history and bacterial origin. Energy Brown Book . [3] Erdman. IMM TransactionsSpecial Issue (1980). JPT (1977). D.1Distribution of carbon as hydrocarbon and asphaltic compounds in sedimentary rocks. (1981) Graham & Trotman. [I 11 UK Dept. and Corvel.Q.503.Annual Report. du The importance of vertical migration mechanisms of hydrocarbons. 8th World Pet.F. B. K.N. . Entrapment of petroleum under hydrodynamic conditions. 3rd World Pet. Cong. Petroleum exploration methods. How down hole temperatures and pressures affect drilling. Viking Graben. World Oil (Oct. Compaction and Fluid Migration. Cong.A. Mem 5. 873. The Hague. Pressure buildup in wells. Sedimentary basins of the world and giant hydrocarbon accumulations. World Oil (March 1985). J. 73. 776. The Brent Sand in the N . UN Conf. W.a [5] Chapman. D . Rev. 103118. 13. J. J. A. R. L A . and Nelson. AAPG 37 (1953).
EOR) NOT TO SCALE Fig. 3. . .Chapter 3 Oilwell Drilling 3. 1  Crown block TABLE 3. Whether a well is drilled onshore or offshore is immaterial to the fundamentals of the process. water.1 Well classification Onshore . 3.1 Main componetits of a well drilling operation. 185'8 ca~lng cemented at 1000' Cement    casing cemented at 7 0 0 0 / 1 0 0 0 0 Development I Casing 9'8  Production (oil.Offshore Exploration ~ I ~ S C O joint DIC M z a 3 ? L v . . jacket.2) which may float (a drill ship or semisubmersible rig). n'nchor . Ball  or flex8ble~olnt B I O W . A classification of wells can be made as in Table 3. In an offshore system the drilling rig is mounted on a structure (Fig. or may be permanently or temporarily fixed to the sea bed (platform. (Photo courtesy of BP. .) .Hydraulic control hose for well head I ' ~tser connector  .1. The main components of a well drilling operation are described with reference to Fig. gas) I I Observation lniection (gas. 3.1.1 OPERATIONS The operation of drilling a well into a potential reservoir interval is the only way to prove the presence of hydrocarbon. ~p .o u t preventers and well head body .
3.3 OILWELL DRILLING 21 Flare tower.ncoa. h . (Photo courtesy of BP.:e. incorporating radic p.) .ior .2 Offshore system. Fig.
The mud may bc waterbased or oilbased and have components that provide particular properties needed to control is the drilling. From the mud tank the mud is \ Fig. (b) that rock cuttings are carried away from the drill bit to the surface.4 Bit types used. 3.) jackup rig). (Photo courtesy of BP.22 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Fig.5. The drill hole is built using drill bits and steel casing for lining the drilled sections (Figs 3.Drill~ng hose Fig.4). 3. (Photo courtesy of BP. including diamond coring bit.3 and 3. which has a composition engineered to providc (a) a density such that a pressure greater than the formation fluicl pressure is maintained in the drill hole.3 Large diameter and hole opening bits.) . 3. Thc mud syste~n a closed loop as can be secn in Fig. (c) that the drill bit is cooled.5 Closed loop mud system. The drill bits are lubricated during drilling with a fluid known as drilling mud. (Note that the mud loop i shown in black. 3.) s .
3. The effluent passes onto vibrating screens which separate the larger solids from the liquid slurry. The hose is connected at a swivel joint to a hollow heavyduty hexagonal pipe called a kelly.3. namely power for the hoist. and an expensive element in the development expenditure of a field. to protect the drilled hole from caving and pore fluid 3. power for the rotary table and power for the mud system. 3. Such a document (Table 3. 3. The weight acting on the drill bit is controlled by use of particularly heavy drill pipes called drill collars and by the tension in the upper part of the whole assembly or drill string.6. The kelly and its attached pipe are held in tension by a hoist system controlled by the driller. A neutral point in the drill string is defined by the upper part in tension from the hoist and the lower part in compression on the bit. and fast drilling and minimum cost are subordinate (within reasonable limits). In the case of development wells. which passes to cyclone separators. wells.3 OILWELL DRILLING 5 " drillpipe ( 6 4 Ib/rn) Tension I 8" drlll collars ( 5 0 5 Ib/rn) ingress. The drill pipe is connected below the kelly to provide a hollow pipe route to the drill bit. As the most expensive phase of exploration data acquisition.2) lists in great detail all the tangible and intangible components of well costs.2 COSTS The cost of drilling operations is to a large extent dependent on well location and depth and whether the well is an exploration or a development well. safety and data acquisition are the preeminent considerations. drilling operations together with well testing and well completions justify careful planning and close supervision. In . Data acquisition is required within a reasonably predictable reservoir zone and so can be planned economically. The mud circulation system ensures that fluid emerging at the bit is brought to the surface carrying the cuttings. In order to get to such a depth it is necessary to start with a larger hole near surface and progressively set and cement in casing. The table speed of rotation is controlled by the driller. Typical drilling into sandstones at a depth of 3000 m would be achieved with a weight of some 45 000 lb on the bit and rotation at 100 rpm. The main power requirements on a drilling rig are designed to satisfy three major functions.6 Design basis for drilling to 3000 mSS. pumped by a slush pump up the stand pipe and into the flexible hose. a summary comparison in pounds sterling (1984) is as shown in Table 3. but operations can be planned with more certainty than for wildcats. Rotation of the drill assembly is achieved by clamping the kelly in a bushing in a rotary table. WELL COMPLETIONS AND OILWELL CASING When drilling in relatively unknown areas. When drilling exploration and appraisal wells. and of the acceleration of production.4). In some drilling operations some rotation can be achieved by use of a turbine located below the swivel. 3. safety is still a dominant consideration. The emergent cleaned mud passes into the mud tank where and properties are peri~dically~checked chemicals added as required. Fast drilling is important both from the point of view of timerelated costs. At 3000 m some 1000 tons of cuttings will have been removed from a typical hole. as shown in Fig. 4 I l l Resul+:45000ib on bit 12 $ " stabil~ser 12f" bit Fig. it is desirable to maintain sufficient of the hole cased and securely cemented so that a blowout from below the casing shoe is unlikely to occur (Table 3. The budget for a well is generally presented in a document known as an AFE (authorization for expenditure). and guidance on its preparation For current UKCS can be found in the literature[12].
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 3.2 AFE document R/g Water depth Total depth targef Function Rotary table elevation Site prep / Move on Days Drtll to TD Test Abandon/ Suspend Workover Tofaf Rig rate S~te survey TowIAnchor Markers Mobll~zat~on Riser tension analysis Slte preparatlon Anchors Gu~de bases Wellhead bod~es Wellhead equrpment Conductor lntermed~ate caslng Deeper caslng Caslng h e r Caslng accessorles Rock b ~ t s D~amondlPCD ~ t s b Core head Drlll~ng consumables Mud chem~cals Cement and add~tlves Fuel 011 Lubricants Cater~ng Accommodat~on Drllllng flu~d equlp hlre Dr~ll strlng tool rental tublng Complet~on Complet~on tub~ng accessories I Complet~on valves and packers Complet~on perforat~ng and flu~d Complet~on operations Complet~on Chr~stmas trees Abandonment and demob~l~zat~on Transportat~on Standby vessels Waste d~sposal Insurance Contractpayments (see detalls below) Mud englneerlng Caslng runnlng Cement servlces Mud and drllllng logs Turblne drllllng Dlrect~onal drllllngiSurvey Flshlng Dlvlng and u/w television Wlrellne logglng Veloc~ty ~allbratlon DST/Product~on testlng Core barrelloperator rental Sampl~nglFlu~d analys~s Ac~d~zat~oniFractunng lnspect~on servlces Rig te~ecommun~cat~ons SUBTOTALS !  .
7.05 0. lb. rpm. In an abnormally high pressured section of hole. Freshwatersand isolation 4.05 0.3. drawn from data on a well in SE Asia.Yt is common to monitor a term known as the dexponent while drilling: in order to obtain an indication of abnormal pressure.2 0. d= log [ R / ~ G N ] log [ 1 2 w / 1 0 6 ~ ] Surface Pressure . In a well drilled area. in addition.2 0. N = rotary speed. When drilling through shale. ftlh. the rate of penetration tends to increase with depth.3 OILWELL DRILLING TABLE 3.4 Reasons for casing in a well 1. ..6 Development N North Sea (3000 mSS) Central North Sea (3000 mSS) Land (2000 mSS) 0.8. caving shales etc.lost circulation zones. Confinement of production to wellbore 6. in. shows the effect on the dexponent as the abnormai pressure zone is entered at 6560 ft[16].9 0.7 0.3 0. and of any local difficult formations .1 0.4 4. where R = rate of penetration. W = weight on bit. Wellbore caving prevention 3.2 0. knowledge of formation breakdown and fracture pressure. will enable local practices to be evaluated and implemented. D = hole diameter. a sudden increase in drilling rate may occur since cuttings removal in the vicinity of the bit is aided by decrease in the mudpore pressure differential and. 3.3 UKCS well costs (costs in millions pounds sterling. shale may be softer. Figure 3. A decrease in the value of d indicates the possibility of abnormally high pressures.7 Selection of mrnimum casing depth for interinediate strrnqs. Control of well pressure 2. 1984) Exploration Semisubmersible (3000 mSS) Rig Transport Contracts Consumables Casing &wellhead Site preparation Overheads TOTAL 1.t  Fig.1 0.8 0. Pore pressure and fracture pressures for a typical well are shown in Fig. Environment for installation of production tubing :j: general. this will require from one third to one half of the remaining distance to the next target depth to be securely cased. overpressured formations.3 0. Pay zone and thief zone isolation 5.7 TABLE 3.
this means that a well with a target depth of 10 000 ft (vertical) should have an intermediate casing set at about 5000 ft (vertical). and eliminates the probleins associated I \\ Unconsol. or to complete a development ~ i e l l .psi 150 0 0 1000 3 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 Fig.9. and obtain the data ncccssary for an exploration well. The knowledge of pore pressure is of significance in drilling and in well completion. the possibility should always be considered that well conditions may require the final planned casing string to be set prematurely. This will allow continued drilling with a normal 4Yz5 in.18~/8"csg 5 0 0 m at I I I Shaley _ innn. 3. A North Sea well arrangement is shown in Fig. thc smallest diameter of casing which will allow either for extended continued drilling. 3.doted surface gravels and clays dolorn~te (~osslble lost fl L~thology Sea bed 150rn 1 36\ole. potentially high productivity wells. Pore pressure \ 10000 Pressure.8 dexponent plot. In practice. 3. lithology and preferred casing seats. or for moderately high levels of production in a smaller liner is 9% in. i.4. in drilling to the casing setting point at 2000 ft. for deep. . 3. a string should be set at 6001000 ft. T o a first approximation.26 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCtPLESAND PRACTICE f abnormally high pore pressure zone ' d ' exponent Fig. a new area. a protective casing should be set at about 2000 ft. In turn.30\sg at 210 r n 1 1 1 24" h0le. Consider norrrzal pore pressure completion as summarized in Fig. In addition. highly deviated wells. diameter. and the reasons for casing a well as shown in Table 3.7. In drilling to the intermediate target of 5000 ft. ovcrpressures or lost circulation problems. in any difficult drilling situation. drill string with bits up to about 8Y2 in.9 Pressure gradients.e. It is then essential to be able to continue drilling to target dcpth with a smaller diameter bit.
(c) tensile forces. 3. . (a) Burst forces. (d) tensile forces.Collapse load 0 psi .3 OILWELL DRILLING ( a ) Burst forces 3500  Surface 13%'' J 5 5 681b/ft has effective burst rating 3 1 0 0 psi 5 0 0 0 ft Net burst at shoe 2 7 5 0 psi 1 2 $ " hole 10000 ft  t 4500psi ( b ) Collapse forces  Surface .10 Casing selection. tensile load 4 7 0 000 Ib 9 " : N 8 0 471b/ft has Tension rating 1 0 8 6 000 Ibs L M~n. (b) collapse forces.Collapse 9+" N 8 0 471b/ft has Collapse rating 4 7 5 0 psi Collapse load 2 2 5 0 psi load 4 5 0 0 psi ( c ) Tensile forces  Surface 6 Max.tensile load 0 lb Neglect buoyance effect of mud In the hole Fig.
collapse and tension data in API ~ u l l e t i l l . 3. casing can be run as a liner. can be handled. casing. Completion string g5/8 7 65/8 Hole size Intermediate string 13% 10% g5/8 Hole size Surface string Hole size 12'/4 9% 8% 17% 14% 12'/4 20 16 133/n 24 20 17% All sizes are in inches with deep drilling with 3% in. The princip:rl purposes of drilling fluids are to effect a primary control of formation fluid pressures. and arc widely used in development drillin[ where the problems of mud salvage and reuse.6 Conditions in a given wcll environment require selection of casing according to burst. casing string to target depth has becomc a common standard for the highly deviated.4. a variety of completion methods are possible. the final casing string w l be run il and cemented if hydrocarbons wort11 testing are encounterecl offshore. In the largest hole possible through 9% in. and drilling into the reservoir. and to remove continuously from the hole the drilled rock material.1 1 and are summarized below. proper density control is important . which assurnc a 0. The completions arc illustratecl in Fig. 3.10. 3.1 psilft gas colulnn.1 . In all wclls. collapse and tension forces. Tcnsion 1. returning through the annulus. are shown ~) for a hypothetical case in Fig. gravel packed linzr. The greater reliability and safety of testing in casing more than offsets the cost of the casing string (unless a zone to be tested lies only just below an intermediate casing string). 6% in. For development wells.3 Cemented liner This may be required when: (a) when the Irlow stril~g size is larger than can be placed in final casing size.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 3 5 . Oilbased fluids have some advantaees.00. casing will provide a fairly adequate conduit in dcvelopnleiit wells. From calculated values the ovcrtlesign safety factors are often as follows: Burst 1.2 Llncemented screen liner This may be adopted for sand control . the principal variations being: barefoot. and trcatlnent and disposal of oil contaminated rock cuttings.) bits. and no fluid control in completion interval. highly productive wells of the North Sea.1 Barefoot completion This involvcs sctting a production string in caprock. (b) when the emergency string has been run because of drilling difficulties. 7 in. The completion with a 9% in.4 COMPLETION The adoption of a particular completion size thcn dictates the selection of other hole and casing sizes and several representative programmes are tabulated in Table 3. 3. cemented casing. cemented liner.5 DRILLING FLUID CONTROL Drilling fluids (muds) are continuously circulated down thc hollow drill pipe. 3. These dispersions are stabilized with peptizing agents. screen liner uncemented. Fluids used in exploration and appraisal wells are almost universally waterbased. The disadvantages are that there is no selectivity ila completion. and meets all requirements of exploration and appraisal wells. 3. The main design criteria in casing selection involve consideration of burst.unconsolidated sand bridging on a slotted or wire wrapped perforated liner. Collapse 1. 3. and density. Thc advantage is that therc is no restriction to flow. viscosity and filtration propeities are modified and controlled by additives. consisting of dispersions of colloidal clays in fresh or sca water.7.5.5 ~ 2 (and.4. and in this or slightly smaller holes. drill pipc and small (less than 6 in.45 psilft pore pressure gradicnt and a 0. Even in exploration and appraisal wclls which arc to be abandoned.4.
v' (shear rate) Fig.overpressures often exceeding 10001200 psi (i. (b) induced fracturing and lost circulation.6 RHEOLOGY OF WELL FLUIDS (DRILLING MUDS AND CEMENTS) fluid is directly The shear stress (t) of a N e ~ t o n i a n proportional to shear rate (v) and gives rise to the . definition of apparent viscosity p. For laminar flow a fluid is sheared into laminar layers. with each layer moving at its specific velocity. parallel to the direction of flow. is constant at constant temperature and pressure. a few hundregs of psi or tens of bars) when pressures are known. 3. The excess pressure should be the minimum consistent with safe control of formation pressures (i. 3. In such a condition veiocitv difference between 0 two adjacent layers Shear rate = v = distance between the two layers Shear stress = t = force per unit area of the laminar layer inducing the shear The apparent viscosity p.12. The determination of the rheological properties of drilling fluids and cements is complicated for a 3. (c) excessive fluid loss and thick mud cake. Excessive pressures can lead to: (a) lost circillation in vugular or very high porosity zones. 3. higher mud weights are often carried than would be normal in development wells . as shown in Fig. (d) high differential pressure and pipe sticking.11 Completion practices.e. (f) severe formation damage and plugged perforation etc.e.3 OILWELL DRILLING Barefoot Completion (obsolescent) Open hole Screen liner Completion Cemented liner (perforated) Cornplet~on Cemented Casing Completion Fig. (e) reduced rates of penetration. Since in exploration and appraisal wells pressures are either not known or not fully established.12 Newtonian fluid viscosity. since some excess of mud pressure over formation pressure is essential for safe control of formation fluids. of the order of one hundred bars).
as shown in Figs 3.13 and 3. an event which must be avoided.14. and prior indication of a porous sand interval can instigate a close examination of appropriate cuttings. Fig. 3.a reverse pressure differential leading almost to spontaneous disintegration of the formation. S 0 /  A ~ Power Law log l i Fig. 3.7 FORMATION BREAKDOWN PRESSURES AND LEAK OFF TESTS An essential factor in planning the control of any possible kick or blowout occurring while drilling involvcs the avoidance of including fractures in higher formations when controlling forrnatiolls at greater depths.2 Mud logging This i~lvolves the continuous analysis of gases extracted from the circulating ~ n u dI' by a chromato[' graph and a sour gas (H2S) detector. mud logs. The important sources of data while drilling is ill progress are: drilling logs. especially the rate of penetration under otherwise constant conditions. Changes in rate of penetration can then frecluently be correlated with sand and shale intervals. In general. A very sudden substantial increase in drilling rate shorild lead to a cessation of drilling while a check test is made for fluid influx and a possible kick. a plot is made of incremental mud volume pumped against pressure. In any subsequent operations. elastic to plastic deformation and to be at its yield point. shales are harder to drill than thc moderately high porosity sands and loosely consolidated sandstoiles that constitute good reservoir rocks. (c) the fluids arc nonNewtorlia~~ and have in general a behaviour intermediate between a Ringham plastic fluid and a pseudoplastic power law fluid.it can nevcr be certaln that circumstances will not arise which will lead to abandonment of the well before it can be logged comprehensively by wireline. including (a) the variable geometry of the well circulating system.8 DATA ACQUISITION DURING DRILLING In exploration drilling it is imperative that no source of data should be neglected while drilling is in progress . Additionally.8. such as weight on bit.log :well fluid behaviour. In a leak off test. When this volumepressure relationship ceases to be linear. and particularly increase? in ethane and heavier hydrocarbons. this value of pressure at the casing shoe should not be exceeded. a change in methane concentration. While background methane is Away\ present. (b) flow distortion resulting from rotation and displacement of drill string and casing. 3. will frequently indicate thc: presence of hydrocarbon beanng intcr . rotary speed and mud density. 3. so high formation pressures relative to the ruud pressures can accelerate drilling . It should be emphasized that it is not the object of a test actually to break down the formation. 3.well fluid behaviour The sophisticated MWD methods are under active development and are entering more common usage?' 3.8.1 Drilling log ____I . the formation is assumetl to bc in a transition from The driller's log is the most immediate information available.13 T.30 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE number of rea~ons. when higher formations are fully protected.14 Log T . just as high mud weights and pressures retard drilling by a chip hold (down effect. It is standard practice now to conduct a leak off test on formations after drilling out a casing shoe. MWD. MWD (measurement while drilling) logs.
Figure 3. Obviously. Also.58 glcc and 78 000 ppm salinity.8. some operate a policy of never coring the first exploration well. the sharp increase in drilling rate and the total disappearance of gas indication are correlatable phenomena which should have led to the suspicion of saliferous beds. When an (objective is the evaluation of the interstitial water saturation. and a mud programme designed to give minimum alteration of core properties can be adopted. a brine formulation similar to the connate formation water is desirable. To avoid clay alteration. and shaly samples examined for stratigraphic and palaeontologic evidence of age. permeability and hydrocarbon content. scale 1=0 to 50 minlft FSD. When one objective of core recovery is the evaluation of residual oil saturation. 3. (e) gas detector (units % equivalent methane) showing amount of gas in the analysed gasair mixture coming from the degasser in the return flow line. An unchanged reservoir brine or reservoir crude would be the ideal fluid for securing unaltered specimens of reservoir rock. cuttings will have been washed thoroughly by the drilling fluid stream and only residual oil traces will remain. however. . an oilbased fluid is desirable. is desired. it is desirable that the drilling fluid should be as neutral as possible with respect to the reservoir rock minerals. (d) mud salinity in ppm. and an oxidized crude would be severely altered. or a high pH environment or a very high salt environment. The drilling mud was a salt waterbased mud in the upper section with a density of 1. surfactants should be avoided as should high pH muds. It was noted in reviewing the well history that the upper saliferous beds were drilled with nonsaturated mud and that salt did not show in the cuttings brought to surface (i. e.e. Viscosity and filter cake control requires the presence of thinners (peptizing agents). many of which require moderately high pH. These may. Amongst the most common are tannin derivatives. Muds containing additives which severely affect the surface properties of minerals should be avoided. The drill string became stuck in a salt section at 8774 ft and after freeing. which is unlikely to change significantly either the wettability of reservoir rock minerals or the physical state of clay minerals within the reservoir rock.15 is reproduced from["] to indicate a well description log for a well drilling with an 8% in. The production.3 OILWELL DRILLING vals. with good sandstone cuttings. drilling break. particularly on wettability and capillary properties of the reservoir rocks. cuttings not representative of formation which exaggerated sandstone). a decision may be made to take a complete formation core. logging and possibly testing an exploration well. Adationally.g. a precise identification can be made of the zones which are of the greatest interest for coring. A bland or unreactive mud system. or starch which requires a preservative. The log data shown includes from left to right the following data: (a) cutting percentage. If good indications of reservoir rock can be detected very early. good mud log indications and hydrocarbon indications in the cuttings. an aqueous coring fluid is necessary. It should be obvious that the problems of formulating a good bland coring fluid for exploration and 3. Additives used specifically for filter loss are CMC (a cellulose derivative).The constant increase in salinity. complex phosphates and chromelignosulphonatellignin formulations. It is almost inevitable that a core will be heavily invaded and thoroughly flushed by mud and mud filtrate. and reservoir crude with minimum active additives is a preferred base. The observation of substantial salt was made while circulating with the drill string stuck at 8774 ft.9 MUD FLUIDS FOR CORE RECOVERY Some companies operate a policy of coring any good indication.3 Cutting logs Provided that the travel time log between bottom hole and surface can be established. drilling was continued with oilbased mud. brine or crude would normally not give adequate pressure control in undepleted reservoirs. (c) rate of penetration in minlft. bit through a shaly sand series with interbedded salt layers. The rationale of the latter policy is that after drilling. storage and pumping of reservoir fluids will itself normally expose the fluid to some contaminants. (b) depth. (f) cutting description by the wellsite geologist. be detectable by examination of the solvent extract or cut for fluorescence under ultraviolet light. Given such indications. the mud itself will be tested directly for hydrocarbon content (ultraviolet lightlfluorescence or total analysis by distillation for hydrocarbons). For maximum useful reservoir information. which is broadly neutral. the formation pressures will be better known. To avoid changes in wettability. cuttings at the surface can be collected and examined for apparent porosity.
Optimization requires a careful balance betwccn the instantaneous drilling ratc o r rate of penetration.rllghrly brown. grcy..roft. appraisal wells is difficult.with t coarse quartz gram.suhangular torubrounded. anhydr~ric Siltstone. subangular to rullraunded Siltstone dark grey. Subtantial occurrence of salt Stuck plpe Wlrellne logging. 13 . gradmg to I sandy riltrtnne.Sandnone. medium to coarse. randy.. wlth f ~ n ecarbonated sheets Some quartz grafns rned~urn coarse.10 DRILLING OPTIMIZATION The cost of drilling is such that total costs of a development can bc rcduced sign~ficantlyif drilling costs can be reduccd . High caving percentage.32 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE CORES f I I MUD 1 HYDFiOCAR8ON . t flne to medium. Chanue to "11base mud Fig. hard. Sandstone wli~te. "on calcareous. to grey or white Shale grey. by which time wcar of teeth. s~lty.the UKCS Murchison development progra~nrne managed to reducc drilling times from 5070 days to 3040 days for 10 000 ft TVD wells. % a : "n SHOWS DESCRIPTION OBSERVATIONS . the ~lsefullife of the bit and the time taken in round trips. rubangular to sub rounded and rand coarse tovety coarse Wellsorted. and cffective coring is frequcntly best conducted in development wells (though well deviation can thcn be a problem). hard flne to medluln subangular to sub rountled.. gauge or bearings will generally have . 3. w ~ t h quartz grams.15 Well data during drilling through saliferous beds in a shaly sand series (after [''I).fine. coarse. lam. Conventional tricone rotary bits may last from 15 to 35 hours. 3. l ~ g h grey to brown. subangular to rubrounded I Sandstone whole. white to light grey. subangular to subrounded.w~th quart7 rned~umto coarse grained Traces r i i salt. nated. No v~sual porosity Shale l ~ g hgrey. grey. very fine. . soft. Trdces of anhydrlte.
having very long bit lives under these conditions.minimize delays. but less effective than the best conventional practice in waterbased fluids. where the rotary torque is supplied at the surface. and in normal drilling where conditions are known to be favourable. On land in Holland. The capacity may be limited by: the strength of the pipe itself. diamond coring.1 Stuck pipe and fishing A common cause of stuck pipe is the existence of differential pressure between borehole and formation. the longest tooth (softest formation) bit which will actually cut rock without premature failure is the best overall choice. high quality sealed lubrication bearings are desirable to maximize bit life. Diamond coring with a turbine. and bearing failure is a dominant factor. The remedies may be: avoidance . (Stratapax bits may change this situation. 3. As a rule.suot lubricating andlor deflocculating chemicals around pipe at stuck section.ideally all wearing similarly. Conventional tricone rotary bits cut and perform best at lower rates of revolution (*I00 I 1 .occurred .and the tool operates effectively at very low load and at moderately high speeds. rpm) than are possible with turbines ( i 5 0 0 rpm). In suitable formations .keep pipe rotating while mud cake builds up after circulation has stopped.use stabilizers or fluted drill collars or square section collars.12. abrasive formations.12 SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN DRILLING 3. the bits shear the rock in small cuttings . where a bent sub and turbine are now the standard method.1 1 TURBINE VERSUS CONVENTIONAL ROTARY In spite of the apparent logic of generating rotary torque and power downhole where the power is neededsnd applied.rather as a lathe tool or a shaper cuts . For these bits. is the most effective coring method. (a) (b) (c) In future the combination of Stratapax and turbine may well become standard.reduce pressure differential. and it will not be worthwhile having bits with bearings of very high durability. Turbine reliability has been suspect in the past. and rock bit is restricted to some aspects of controlled directional drilling. or the lower speed mud motor.) 2. . Stratapax bits have outperformed conventional bits in aqueous fluids. the pipe is subject to a substantial lateral thrust. kicking off a directional hole. after sticking . With multiple cutting edges. and the combination of turbine. The effectiveness of cut does appear to have an unusually strong dependence on the nature of the drilling fluid .use lightest possible mud weights. The rotary speeds of turbines is ill suited to the conventional tricone bit. if a thick impermeable mud cake is allowed to build up around a pipe lying stationary on the low side of the hole. tooth and gauge wear will be a dominant factor. is largely irrelevant in relation to the total power requirements of a drilling rig and the power availability.4 shows a variety of bits in general use.in North Sea shales the bit has been especially effective in oilbased muds. The longitudinal pull necessary to move the pipe may exceed the capacity of the rig to pull the pipe free. the strengthof derrick legs. Stratapax core bits are also becoming available and could be equally effective.diamond bits driven by a turbine can be extremely effective. . 3. v I 3. directional correction in deviated wells. . The apparent power wastage. The special operations are particularly: % . using 200300 hp at surface to provide 1020 useful hp at the bit. . There have been several reasons for this: 1. Figure 3. where only 60 ft is cored in a single trip. In soft. Diamond bits which can cut well at these conditions are not suited to all formations.use lighter muds (wash to water or in depleted sands to oil) . Consequently turbines have largely been used in special operations. turbine drilling has been slow to supplant conventional rotary. and turbine usage has been expensive. In particular. the strength of wire rope. The insert type bits used for very hard rock require very high loads for the rock crushing action necessary.moderately hard uniform homogeneous rocks . The recent developments of Stratapax bits consisting of polycrystalline diamond compacts may prove to be the first major advance in bit design since the development of the tricone bit.
Wberc safety permits. the pipe can be cut and an overshot. If fluids continue to enter for any period of time. the fishing string latchcd In. either through inadequate n ~ u d weight. or through lost circulation or by swabbing. and that the hole below the packer will not collapsc completely.16 Blow out preventers (BOP) arrangement on offshore wells: (a) 21 l/4 " BOP on board Sea Conquest (b) detail of BOP (c) diagram of BOP and wellhead body. a drill stern test stling can be run. When thc pipe cannot be backed off for fishing. or n spear. then formation fluids may enter the well bore. the well bore pressure will continue to fall and further fluids may enter. This iniplics that the removal of tlie circulating pressure drop and the swabbing effect of the round trip have brought gas into the holc.2 Pressure control and well kicks If the pressure in the borehole is reduced below the formation pressure. (Photo courtesy of BP. A series of stages can be defined and encountcred: Trip g u ~ : situatio~lwhere after making a round a trip and resuming circulation. 3. there must be confidence that the packer will not stlck. 3. Kick: a small intlux of fluid while drilling.34 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE If thc pipe remains stuck.12. then a fishing job results.) . This is Fig. The inference is that mud pressure ant1 formation pressure arc finely balanced. or possibly while making a connection. and the pressure below the test packer reduced to reverse tlie pressure differential. Obviously. The pipe must be backed off and a recovery string comprising (a) pipe sub (b) safety joint (c) bumper sub or rotary jars (d) drill collars (e) drill pipe run and an attempt made to jar the pipe flce. gas is circulated out of the hole. used to latch on to the plpe for recovel y.
and eccentricity can lead to very . Ideally. The mud weight is increased to a sufficient extent to control the formation pressures.'.3 OILWELL DRILLING Quick Cameron forged steel seals Fig. the integrity of the cement bond is of great importance. Consequently.16(b) controlled by circulating against a back pressure (obtained by closing BOPS (Fig. 3. Eccentricity of casing. 3.. Blowout: a more or less uncontrolled flow of formation fluid either flowing to the surface or to a zone of n?tural or induced lost circulation down hole.. the cement should bond firmly to the casing itself and directly to the wall of the hole. preventing further fluid influx until the influx has been circulated out.I 1: ..12.'.1 6(c) . . Casing clearances in the hole can be smali.3 Cementation problems Casing is run and cemented partly to protect the drilled hole from collapse. 3. 3.16) and circulating through a choke).. A number of factors can prevent the attainment of a good cement bond: Fig. preventing flow of fluid from one horizon to another. partly to isolate formations hydraulically.
itions are n~atle with a large size casing gun in a mudfilled hole. but if mud weights are excessive. 3. this will give an ideal conlpletion. The explosive charges are. however.1 Permanent completion With the larger tubing strings. smaller than for full hole casing guns. arise. 3.17 Productiontree assembly (Photo courtesy of BP). a mud cake will exist. .18). Additionallv. This enables the well to bc fully completed for production with tubing and Christmas tree installed (Fig. Acsoss all porous permeable zones. then the more difficult and expensive operations of remedial squeeze cementing nlay have to be undertaken. Drilling operatlolls on a well are completed with the installation of the Christmas tree (Fig. Presence ofmud cake. This prevents small contractions in the casing causing a rupture between cement and pipc.13.17). with a normal perforation density of four nominal half inch shots per foot. If.13. subsequent gas or water problems.36 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE thereby limiting plugging of perforation by mud cake. This is a use for centsa 1' ~zers. Perforation can then be carried out undcrbalanced.13 COMPLETION FOR PRODUCTION For flow into a cemented liner or cemented casing complction. the BOPS flanged down and the well head and Christmas tree installed. or cominunication problems. 3. If the hole is washed out to excessive diameters. This is effected by the detonation of shaped charges which can be placed or located selectively with a high degree of accuracy by correlation with a gamma ray log and a casing collar locator. i. Intervals can be perforated selectively in one or more batch runs. not to the formation. that is with a reverse preqsure differential. 3. If this mud cake is not removed. Fig. This is a factor to be considered while drilling arid requires careful mud colitrol and clay stabilizing muds in the drilling phase. 'nnd depths of penetration of the shots may sometimes be inadequate. prewash and operation in turbulent flow. 3. it is necessary to perforate the casing to open a flow channel from formation to well bore. The tendency may be reduced by the use of scratchers. flow performance equal to or better than the theoretical uncased borehole. 3.2 Normal completion In this case. after cementing. After perforation. and the well washed to oil before perforating. tubing and packer arc run and set. small clearance areas where gelled mud cannot be displaced by cement. When all perforations remain open. The larger charges give better penetration. the cement bond will be to a mud cake. Washed out hole.e. after cementing. the excess Dressure due to the dkterence in mudYand cement density (cement is at least 50% more dense than the average drilling mud) should be bled off. the perfor. perforations may become plugged. the cement lnay not fill the entire crosssection. perforating guns can be lowered down the tubing.
the fracture pressure can be represented by an average gradient to surface of 0. Example 3.2 In drilling through a formation to 13 000 ft the following information has been obtained: . The specific gravity of the steel is taken as 7. 3. North Sea. . (See Appendix 11).the pressure at 13 000 ft can be represented by an a\7eragepore pressure gradient to surface of 0. The minimum section design Iength is 500 ft.84.a gas gradient to surface of about 0.1 Design a 5Yz" OD API casing string from the following grades: 17 pounds per foot N80 grade or P110 grade LB threads 20 pounds per foot N80 grade or P110 grade LB threads 23 pounds per foot N80 grade or P110 grade LB threads for a well in which 1.312 and Tension = 1.8 psilft .1.1 psilft can be assumed.15 SG fluid is left inside the casing. A 3. Buchan Field.125. Burst = 1.1 and Fig. Use the data of Table A 3. Specify the minimum setting depth for an intermediate string casing shoe.18 Diagram of subsea production equipment. The length of string is 13 000 ft and as abnormal pressures are anticipated. Examples Example 3.92 SG mud is left outside the casing and 1.3 OILWELL DRILLING Spider support + Production risers +umbilicals z from surface Central export riser Riser connectors To loading buoy Control u m b i l i c a l s 4 Satellite well flowlines Fig. Assume the following safety factors: Collapse = 1.455 psilft . assume the maximum surface pressure will be 8000 psi.18.
[21] Rowlands. Trans. Cong. M. Houston. and van Donegen. N.M. AlME225 (1962). 321. 11th World Pet.Key to drilling efficiency. Graham and Trotnian. and Medrano. Planning techniclucs .J. N. Tulsa (1980).R. N. [9] ~ohnsbn. B. [I61 CSRPPGN Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry Rheology Manual. G. F. 11tl~World Pet.P. 27. Risk analysis of wcll completion systems. Proc.38 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE References [I] Craft.D. SPE Paper 13001. Inst. Bottom scavenging. 1984). 1982). [ I l l ENSPM. L984). K. E. N.L. and Oyeneyin. Characterisation and control cf fine particles involved in drilling. JPT (Scpt 1985) 1613. and McEwan. [7] Bailey. London (1982).C. 21 10. 187. Dec. Drilling high angle directional wells. J. and Frederick. Graham and Trotman.C. .IPT (Dec. SPE Pnpcr 13000. Russel. [6] Bruijn. Bern. Paper PD5(3). D. Proc. and Dibona.P. Soc. [26] Rernson. D. (1983). PrenticeHall. B. H. Eurol~e (1984). Downhole rheological behaviour of low toxicity oil muds.A. Paper EUR 339. Downhole rneasure~nents while drilling.E. H. [IS] ENSPM Gc~ological and Mud Logging bl Drilling Control . Proc. H. Dec.M. Pet. du. 120) Adarns. 121 Gray. EUR 244. London (1978). Petrole Drilling Data Handbook. 5 [S] Peden. The usc of MWD lor turbodrill performance optimisation.D. E (TM) 93 (1982) (26) 2. Proc.Cutulogue of Typictrl Cases. [lo] CSRPPGN Blow Out Prevention cmrl Well Control.in. C. Dearing. Pennwell. JPT (Sept 1985) 1671. . 13. 1271Black. L. [12] Adams.G. G. OGJ (Dec. Experience with polycrystalli~lediamond compact b ~ t s thc northcrn North Sea. Paper EIJR 365. Graham ancl T r o t ~ i ~ aLondon (1981). A. bit. and Shute. [4] Composite Catalogue of Oilfieltl Equipment and Scrvices 35th Revision (198283)> vols. (1980) 327. J. R. [I41 Tanguy. Pct. J.. World Oil (Jan. Europ. 1231 Woodyard. 181 Paterson. 353. 575. El~ropr in (1982). [19] Cooke..J. [25] Mohnot. J.R. Llrilling und Production.~ Mar.R. Proc. Gulf Publishing Company.W. [18] Holster.B. The design ancl optimisation of gravcl packing operations in deviated wells. Proc. Well Design.J.J. [22] World Oil 1985 Tubing and casing joint tables. and Kipp. I. Papcr PD5(2). Cony. Europr (1982) 769.. Europe (1984).W. Annular pressurc and temperature measurements diagnose cementing operations.a major factor governing penetration rates at dcpth. J. . P..H. (1983). Graham and Trotni. [L7] van Lingen. Composition and Properties of Oil Well Drilling Fluid. Offshore drilling operations. Europc~ (1984). Kluck. Successful liner completion o n the Muchison platform. Tran. Eng.H..7. JPT (Sept 1985) 1622. and Darley. and Graves. R. A . Kcmp.R. and Booth. D. Houston Tx. London (1982). a r ~ d Burdyulo. Effects of pore pressure and mild filtration on drilling rates in a permeable sandstone. Well Control Problems und Solutions. 21 81. 6. Effect of bit hydraulic horsepower on drilling rate of a PCD coi~lpact JPT (Dcc. [24] Denholni.H. 361. Conf. Franc. A. Gulf Publishing Co.L. . M. Houston. W.M. A. Holden. Proc..IPT(April 1982) 713. M.A.P. T. SPE Paper 12997. S. J. [13] Baldwin. 37. Proc. Drilling costs. Planning for deep high pressured wells in t h c northern North Sea. 1985). [3] American Petroleum Institute APT Bulletin 5C2 (1972).C.. n.
R.. Money.T.C. W. JPT (April 1985) 655. JPT (Aug.R..M. Specific Energy as a criterion for bit selection.B. L. JPT (July 1985) 1239. C.R. H. [30] Bourgoyne. JPT (July 1985) 1231. c Qualifying drillstring components for deep drilling. JPT (Aug. M. G. [33] Joosten. and Holden. 1985) 1523. et al.H. 1985) 1511. M. and Palmer. . JPT (July 1985) 1225.W.R.3 OILWELL DRILLING [28] Rabia. A. [29] Elliott. Bottomhole stress factors affecting drilling rate at depth.C. T. Development of specification for christmas tree and wellhead components. An experimental study of well control procedures for deepwater drilling operations. Recording downhole data while drilling. [31] Warren. [32] Hill. and Robinson. T.. and Smith.
Expansion of the system will result in large decrements in prcssure for relatively small increineilts in volume (specific volume). due to the small compressibility of liquid systems (c). \\ .1 VOLUMETRIC AND PHASE BEHAVIOUR OF HYDROCARBON SYSTEMS Consider the pressurespecific VO~UIIIC relationship for a fluid at a constant temperature below its critical For most liquids over coinnlonly encouiltered pressure ranges. 4.. While the hehirviour of single component systems has no quantitative relevance to oil field systems.1 for propane. Fig. Fig.e. (ideal gas) Gas reglon \ \ a Two pha: je . 4. Dew point ''~rlple I point Temperature Volume cuft/lb. This situation is illustrated in Fig. where 4.. . mol. 4. As expansion is continued. A  .340°F . and terminology is the same.2 Phase diagram for a pure single component system.2. temperature initially held ill the liquid phase at an elevated prcssure. history and present reservoir conditions. i.. a prcssure will be reached at which some small infinitesilnal ga? phase will be found. compressibility is small and constant.  . qualitative bchaviour has some similarities.1 PVT diagram for propane (single component system). 4. reservoir hydrocarbon fluicls are mixtures of hydrocalbons with conlpositions related to source. the compressibility is independent of the pressure. and generalized i n Fig.Chapter 4 Properties of Reservoir Fluids As we have seen in Chapter 2.
the pressure and temperature at which the properties of the two phases become identical . decline in reservoir pressure will not result in the formation of any reservoir liquid phase. .4 (a). A series of isotherms then generates a locus of bubblepoints.the relative proportions of liquid and gas changing. This does not preclude the recovery of natural gas liquids from reservoir fluid as a result of change in temperature in flow lines or process facilities. and even simple two or three component systems may demonstrate all the phenomena associated with very complex systems. the compressibility of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to the pressure. Consequently. The isotherm at the critical point exhibits a point of inflexion so that Expansion in the liquid phase to the bubblepoint at constant temperature is similar to a pure system.1 Dry gas reservoirs In Fig. Dry gas  ~ ~ / ~ ~ Cricondenbar c ~ l ) Temperature t (b) 1 Liquid 1 Gas Reservo~r temperature + Fig. There are few natural gases yielding no gas liquids. position C indicates reservoir fluid found as a dry gas.3. the reservoir temperature is above the cricondentherm (maximum temperature of twophase envelope).B . (c) gas condensate. until only an infinitesimal quantity of liquid is present in equilibrium with the vapour. then the equation P V = n R T is valid. The critical point . 4. but is accompanied by a decrease in pressure (vapour pressure) as the composition of liquid and vapour changes. Expansion to lower pressures and higher specific volumes occurs in a vapour phase.is not necessarily either one of these points. For isothermal production in the reservoir: position A indicates reservoir fluid found as an undersaturatedoil. 4. Temperature t Fig.2 APPLICATIONS TO FIELD SYSTEMS 4. If the substance behaves as an ideal gas. and i.C. at which the properties of liquid and vapour become indistinguishable. 1 Single phase quid 1 Single phase gas .I L~quid 1 Gas C . 4. the pressuretemperature relationship is not now a single line. 4.e.the cricondenbar and a temperature above which two phases cannot coexist . further expansion occurs at constant pressure . but forms a phase envelope. 4.4 Phase diagrams of hydrocarbon mixtures. 4. This point on the phase envelope is termed the dewpoint. (a) Dry gas.2. nor must it be between them.the cricondentherm. and Fig. (d) black oil. (a) Multicomponent systems exhibit slightly different phase behaviour from that of pure materials. (b) wet gas. position B indicates reservoir fluid found as a gas condensate. Expansion through the twophase region does not occur at constant pressure.4 (b) is therefore more realistic. O n this envelope it is possible to establish a pressure above which two phases can no longer coexist .the critical point . Since at any temperature the bubblepoint pressure and dewpoint pressure differ. as shown in Fig.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS 41 This pressure is termed the bubblepoint or saturation pressure for the temperature considered.the vapour pressure at that temperature . and a locus of dewpoints which meet at a point .3 Pressuretemperature phase diagram for multicomponent hydrocarbon reservoir fluid mixture. For a pure substance.
a substantial part of the stock tank liquid is derived from a reservoir vapour phase. resulting in an proportion of stock tank licluid may derive from a increased fraction of overburden being taken by reservoir rock grains.3 COMPRESSIBILITY in prcssurc leads to incrcascd condensation of a liquid phase. . This isothermal compressibility as a positive term c as phenomenon . 4. Gas =densate a a' . the liquid recovery depends only marginally on the separated gas phase.4 (d). Thc composition of gas varies only slightly when changing conditions (cxccpt at tank conditions). a condcrisate system. As shown on Fig. the phase envelope is encountered at the dewpoint locus./. Under these conditions the system exhibits isotherrnal retrograde condensation. we can dciinc an pressures may not be obtainable in practicc. and a monotonic irlcrcase ill \rolume of the gas phase as pressure declines further.2.2.water is c. Another phenomenon .42 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE L i q u ~ d Gas Fig. the system exists as an indeterminate vupour phase.. the gas is relatively lean. (Nevertheless in absolute terms the maximization of liquid recovery from separator gas streams can be a valuable source of income.4 (cont... The subscript whcrc the vapour phase in equilibrium with the tcr~ninologyfor the con~prcssibilities gas. Isothermal expansion from the liquid phase leads to the formation of gas at the bubhlcpoint.the condensation of licluitl upon follows: decrease in pressure . 4. Reservoir pore volume inay able constituents (C3 to Cs+) and a substantial change with change in fluid pressure. c. at liquid phase may reevaporate. but sufficiently low constant reservoir tcmpcraturc. is recovered from a phase Gas conlprcssibility is significantly greater than which is vapour at reservoir conditions. At pressures ~tbovethe cricondenbar. the critical temperature of thcsc systems is vcry much higher than the reservoir temperature encountered (i. the vapour phase corresponding to condensate co~npositions conditions.call also be demonstrated.?.4 Black oil systems Temperature t 4. 4.4 (c). which in turn are This is also partly true of volatile oil systems. oil ancl of reservoir liquid phase is particularly rich in liquefi.2 Condensate systems The critiarl temperature of the system is such that reservoir temperature is hetween critical and cricondentherrn as shown in Fig. and further reduction 4.2. and Consequently. Upon isother~nal expansion. and contributes only marginally to the separator liquid phase. If the pressure can be reduced sufficiently.is termed isothcrmal retrograde condensation. The pore volume compressreservoir vapour phase. The concept of a system being represented by a gas dissolved in a liquid is thcrl invalid.dissolved gas systems .) (c) IOCUS u .) Temperature t 4.isobaric retrograde hehaviour .in which the composition of gas in equilibrium with liquid is comparatively lean (except at tank conditions).3 Volatile oil systems These are within the twophase region under reservoir conditions. I N' Process l ~ n e 1 \ ' ~ e w point locus Contrast. the black oil . FTsurface . c. the Reservoir iluids are considered conipre~sihle and. 4. greater than those of reservoir waters.e. The liquid phase recovered (the condensate) from where V denotes original volurne and P is pressure. those of liquid hydrocarbons. greater than about 373 K). but is not of interest under thc essentially isothcrmal conditions of petroleum reservoirs.
n = no.65E05 1000E05 250E05 3.35E05 24. Ct Ct In the absence of specific information.1. dewpoint processing and sweetening will involve other thermodynamic functions of the gas. b is a factor related to. and correcting for.729 8312.5E06 10E06 Reservoir saline waters Undersaturated black oils Gas at I 0 0 bar (1450 psi) Gas at 400 bar (5800 psi) Consolidated sands at 400 bar Unconsolidated sands at 400 bar ibility may be related to fluid pressure P rather than grain pressure (Pg) and treated as a positive term. will depend in part on the isothermal compressibility: Both of these factors can be found by differentiating an equation of state. and correcting for. the general order of magnitude of compressibilities is as shown in Table 4. This is a twoconstant equation of state.e. or PV = nRT where V = volume. the finite volume and real geometry of amolecule. The simplest equation of state is the ideal gas law: where V .2 for examples. i. particularly the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient where a is a factor related to.1 Behaviour of gases Gas is produced from gas reservoirs by expansion of the fluid from the initial reservoir pressure to some lower abandonment pressure.OE06 17.0 Pound Pound K~loaram Pounds forcelsq. and one early modification was that of van der Waals: c= V  while the primary processing operations of dehydration.ln. 4.63E05 14.1 Typical system compressibilities System Symbol CW CO Cg Cg bar' 4. The possible error in these derived functions is an order of magnitude greater than the possible error in the original data (or equation of state). or can be computed from plots or tabulations of experimental data. See Table 4.g. will depend on the system of units adopted.4.73 0. = molar volume.0E06 689E06 172E06 2. The inadequacy of this relation was quickly recognized. intermolecular forces. so that a very high degree of accuracy is necessary in equations of state (or experimental data) used for the calculation of thermodynamic functions. The recovery from the reservoir can be. and the densities of the material at the two points (and at intermediate points) must be calculable or measured. The flow behaviour. the pressure gradients developed. obtained by a mass balance on the system at the initial and end points. the gas constant.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS TABLE 4. Beattie TABLE 4. of moles.2 Values of the universal gas constant Moles Pressure Volume Temperature R 10. and more and more complex equations (e. cf This is reasonable for a constant overburden load. Atmosphere Newton/m2 Cubic it Cubic ft ni3 "R O R K .4 MEASUREMENT AND PREDICTION OF RESERVOIR FLUID PROPERTIES 4.5E05 psi' 3. The value of R .
e. they are used to describe system composition. v= j=n p.  b ) = RT and yi = 4 7 j= 1 This equation has an acceptable accuracy for l~ydrocarhonsystenis over ti fairly widc range o f conditions. The applicability o f the law o f correspouding states will depend on the phase and temperature o f the substance. In this context.g. j. More rccently.7 psi3 by one pound molccular weight o f any ideal gas. VR = V /V~ For pure substances with simple n~olecules can be it shown theoretically that PIP. It can be shown that therc arc 2. These ratios are termed reduced values and subscripted R as follows: T R = TIT. At 14. pressure. . volume and inole fractions are identical.e. the specific gravity y is defincd as the ratio o f the density o f the gas to the density o f dry air taken at the same temperature and prcssurc then. (V. accuracy is greatest in the vapour . for a gas. Since. BendictWebbRubin eight constants) have been developed in attempts to improve the accuracy. the equation o f Peng and Robin~od"~ received widc acceptance has The apparant molecular weight o f a gas mixture behaving as i f it were a pure gas is defined as the sum o f the product o f individual conlponerlt mole fractions and molecular weights It may be noted at this tinie that Avogadro stated that under the same conditions o f temperature and pressure.2 Law of corresponding states Fluids are said to be in corresponding states when any two o f the variable properties. i f fluids are in corresponding states then any dimensionless reduced property calculable fro111 PVT data will be the same for thosc fluids. i. assuming ideal behaviour '/R = mass gas volume gas volume gas mass air  molecular weight o f ideal gas (mix(i~re ) rnolecdar weight o f air 4. VIV.44 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Bridgemen . . reduced densities. fugacitylpressure ratios. equal volumes o f all ideal gases contain the same number o f molecules.4.) i.five constants. c. and is therefore detined as = f (TIT. Dalton has postulated that each gas exerts a pressurc equal to the pressure it would exert i f it alone occupied the total volume o f the mixture . For each ideal gas in a mixture of ideal gases.73 x 102%olecules in each poundmole o f ideal gas and that a volunle o f 370.that is the same as saying that the total pressure o f thc mixture is the sum o f the partial pressures o f each component. Since moles contain the same number o f molecules (or atoms).. A widely used twoconstant equation o f state is that of RedlichKwong which can he arranged to a form a A similar postulate by Amagat states that the sum o f the partial volumes o f n ideal components in a mixture is equal t o the total volume undcr the sa111c conditions o f temperature and pressure. .7 psia and 32°F one pound lnolc o f gas occupies 359 cubic feet. and the constants ]lave been modified by Soavel"]. one mole is taken as the pounds o f :t comlmnent equal to its molecular weight. temperature and specific volumc have the same ratio to thc critical values. in the a component mixture: . compressibilities. A t low pressurc or for ideal gascs. Pli = PIP. h The mole traction o f the ~ t component is \ymbolized as y.4 cubic feet is occupied at 60°F and 14.
= mol fraction of component j. TABLE 4.3 Densitv (relative t6 air) 1. For mixtures. = critical pressure of component j.5 and 4..96 28. where y.01 34.4.6). Pp. 4.3 Pseudocritical temperatures and pressures The reference state for the law of corresponding states is the critical state.08 2.0738 0.0053  Gas properties Molecular weight 28. the values of the independent variables. pressure and temperature at the critical point. PC. pseudocritical constants can be determined from specific gravity. have been measured and are known.0763 0. However.f"R) 547 493 737 1071 1306 188 3208 238 227 278 548 673 60 1165 Air Nitrogen Oxygen COP H2S H2 H20 .6 Trube diagram for pseudoreduced compressibility of undersaturated reservoir liquids (after me]). It has been found that the use of the true critical values of mixtures in corresponding states correlations gives less accurate results than the use of socalled pseudocritical constants calculated as the molaverage values for the mixture (Kay's rule). which are more accurate than Kay's rule given above. the law of corresponding states has been widely used in smoothing and correlating experimental data on hydrocarbons.1 159 0.O 0.01 6 18.5 Trube diagram for specific gravity as a function of pseudocritical constants for undersaturated reservoir liquids (after ["I).0897 0.9672 1. but there will not normally be a simple procedure for calculating the true critical values from composition and the values of the pure components.g.0696 Density Ib/ft3at 60°F and 1 atmosphere 0. and is used for generalized liquid phase and gas phase correlations for hydrocarbon mixtures with a considerable degree of success. For most pure substances.1764 0.0 944.01 32. molecular weight and boiling point of the mixture without determining the composition (see Figs 4. i. = critical temperature of component j.016 Gas Critical properties Pc(Ps~~) T. and is best for temperatures above the critical. Fig.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS 45  phase. T . 4.e. and will also depend on the complexity and eccentricity of the molecule. For complex hydrocarbon mixtures (e. More complex rules for calculating critical constants have been formed. but this is generally adequ Pseudoreduced pressure.5194 1.0843 0. the C7+ constituent of a system). 4.1047 1. Specific gravity of undersaturated reservoir liquid at 60°F and reservoir pressure Fig. the critical values will depend on composition.
.
76t9. but also by flow rates and potential variations.7t242. the extension and smoothing of accurate laboratory measurements by an equation of state. Gas density. . to the viscosity at atmospheric pressure and real temperatures T are then correlated with reduced pressure and temperature.06125pD.4.4 Hydrocarbon Methane Ethane Propane nButane iButane nPentane iPentane n. The viscosities of hydrocarbon gases at atmospheric pressure are established as functions of molecular weight and temperature.4. The . a NewtonRaphson iterative technique to calculate y. weight ate for engineering accuracy with hydrocarbon systems. and for natural gases and condensate well fluids in Fig. Again.~(l') 2 + 4. will be satisfactory methods.(fi 3/lb) Molecular Gross calorific value Btu/ft at s. and these generalized correlations (the StandingKatz correlations['] as shown in Fig. defined as massiunit volume thus becomes at reservoir conditions: where z = f(P.Hexane nHeptane nOctane nNonane nDecane Benzene Toluene Formula Hydrocarbon properties P.4?) y (2.761'+4. t e ~ . For more accurate work.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS 47 TABLE 4.3 and 4.2t2 42. the reciprocal of the pseudoreduced temperature using (90.82t) . The behaviour of real gases can be expressed by the equation PV. using first 4.58?p2 + [(y +y2+ y 3y4)/(1y3)] = 0.te .1s+2. 0 6 1 2 5 ~ . and in the case of gases these will depend on pressure and temperature. use is made of correlations based on corresponding states.4 Gas deviation factorZ The ideal gas equation would predict the equality RT For real gases at pressures of more than a very few atmospheres this is not true. it has been possible to correlate compressibility factors with reduced values of pressure and temperature.2(1t) Then zY = 0 . 4. if direct measurements of viscosity are not available. = zRT The iterative procedure has been described by l~ake['~].5 Gas viscosities The reservoir engineer is concerned not only with the expansion behaviour of reservoir fluids.c. T ) and z is termed a deviation factor (or supercompressibility factor) expressing the degree of deviation from ideality. Through these two correlations the viscosity at any given reservoir conditions can be estimated. the reduced density from t. Hall and Yarborough['I have used the StarlingCarnahan equation of state to calculate z. 4.(14. Critical constants for some commonly encountered components are reproduced in Tables 4. The magnitude of flow rates and potential drops will depend directly on fluid viscosities.1.4.7) are widely used in approximate calculations of gas reservoir behaviour. or direct calculation through an equation of state using the detailed composition of the gas to generate the necessary constants.7. Because the law of corresponding states applies with satisfactory accuracy to mixtures of light hydrocarbon gases.(psia) Critical Properties Tc V. The ratio of viscosity at a reduced pressure PR and reduced temperature TR.
48 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Gas grav~ty (Air = I 000) Mol % C 0 2  0009 Mol % H. P .~''~ show11 in Figs 4.4. 4. 4.6 Gas compressibilities For a perfect gas: Pseudoreduced pressure. correlations. after Carr et 111. . 4. 4.9.) at one atmosphere for natural gases.8.9 (left) Viscosity ratio for natural gases. Fig. Note: obtain p1from Fig.S 0004/~ 2 0 I 30 I 4 0 I 5 0 I 6 0 I 7 0 I 8 0 I 9 0 I 10 0 I Molecular we~ght Fig.8 are and 4.8 Viscosity (p.
or for real gases when the rate of change of z with p is small. With liquids below the saturation pressure. temperature) (Formation volume factor)..g. = f(composition.85. 14..4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS For a real gas: P V = n z R T a n d z = f(P) V = nRTdV Z P (Formation volume factor). Z = 0. to represent the reciprocal of the formation volume factor?i. so that for any ideal gas. w are used to define the fluid phase. pressure. and i and b are often added to define initial and bubblepoint conditions.5 FORMATION VOLUME FACTORS 6 Formation volume factors have been given the general standard designation of B and are used to define the ratio between a volume of fluid at reservoir conditions of temperature and pressure and its volume at a standard condition.1 Gas formation volume factor 6.il = B.) Regrettably. is an initial reservoir condition gas formation volume factor and Bobis an oil formation volume factor at bubblepoint conditions. = B. and for reference conditions. Po= X 'OoO reservoir barrels!MSCF P To 5. i. and gas volumes are frequently expressed in MSCF so that then so that Tz .. = f(composition. Subscripts o. the definition of simple equations of state is complicated. simplify the problem of calculating the factor. is used as follows: Since 4.. z = 1 It is frequently convenient to work in reservoir units of barrels. gas formation volume factors have the same general numerical range as oil formation volume factors. = f(composition.. In the case of gases. 2000 psia. thisdcan be done through an equation of state. Volume at reference conditions (Bg)' = Volume at operating conditions but this convention will not be adopted here.615 and for the above example B 4. temperature) Defining a simple ratio does not.e. for reservoir conditions. P. and this expression will be given an alternative definition of the gas expansion factor. = B. For a gas B.. some writers also use B.7 psia. compressibility can be represented by reciprocal pressure. The factors are therefore dimensionless but are commonly quoted in terms of reservoir volume per standard volume. pressure.e.5. pressure. In this case the transformation P = Ppc. Thus B. temperature) (Formation volume factor). the evolution of gas with decreases in pressure. of course.. and the possible dependence on composition and volume changes with pressure. In general we can write (In these particular units. For real gases the gradient dzidP is obtained by drawing a tangent to the z against pseudoreduced pressure curve at the reservoir pseudoreduced conditions. . 585"R. = volume at operating conditions volume at standard conditions and For example. and this is also possible for a liquid above the saturation pressure.. 520°R.
a plot of E against P is approximately linear over small pressure ranges. 4. For water.= and  Tz Po T.2 Water formation volume factorB.5. 1 B.10.10 Gas formation volume factor..' but this effect is often ignorcd. 4.13 Volume factor for water. and when pressure changes are large and/or water volumes are large.615 P Fig. Fig. pressure and gas  saturation on water formation volume factor.'s constant P 250 F As shown in Fig. In general. . These data are shown in Figs 4. When pressurc changes and water volumes are small. 4. 4.1 I and 4.. 4.1 1000 5.12 Effect of temperature. B .13. during pressure reductio~i and AVw. during temperature reduction The values of A V terms are shown in Figs 1.. gases and dissolved salts can affect the compressibility and so the formation volu~nc factor. B . . volume changes are calculated through comprcssibility.50 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Gas expansion factor = E =  Volun~e reference conditions at Volume at operating conditions Note that for small changes in z *. 4. rathcr than formation volume factor.1 1 Brine compressibility at different pressures and temperatures.12. and this can be convenient for data smoothing and interpolating. may be expressed in terms of the volume change AV..15. It call be scen that loss in liquid volume due to evolution of gas as the prcssure reduces only partially compcnsates for water expansion. is generally taken t o be unity. (the equation of a hyperbola) and L= 13. The isothermal rcscrvoir volume relationship for water containing some dissolved gas and initially cxisting above its bubblepoint condition is shown in Fig. 0 Pressure + pb Fig. 4.13 a n d 4. 200F 150 F 100 F Pressure Upper line Lower line Pressure +  gas saturated pure water  Fig.
or dissolved gas systems. The effect of pressure on the hydrocarbon liquid and its associated gas is to induce solution of gas in the liquid until an equilibrium condition is attained. R represents an instantions and reservoir (or other operating) conditions. as shown in Black oil.. R.6 GASOIL RATIOS The dissolved or solution gasoil ratio. 4. The volume change is then a function of the partial molar volume of the gas in solution.volumes of gas dissolved in a standard volume of sidering volume changes between reference condi. i Pressure + 0 2 1 0 100 150 200 250 Reservoir temperature ( O F ) 300 Fig.oil plus associated gas .Fig.3 Oil formation volume factor B. is a constant above bubblepoint pressure. . In con. and indicates liquid shrinkage when gas comes out of solution below bubblepoint. Fig.15 Correction term AVw.5.16) reflects oil compressibility while all gas stays in solution at pressures above bubblepoint. taneous total producing gasoil ratio (free gas plus 4. and not simply the stock tank liquid phase.16 Oil formation volume factor. The shape of the B. The oil formation volume factor will be discussed in connection with the behaviour of dissolved gas systems. 4.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS Reservoir temperature ( O F ) Fig. bubble point pressure. 4. it is the total system . The necessary liquid properties are either directly measured or are determined from generalized correlations which can have an acceptable accuracy for the generally homologous family of components of crude oil systems.14 Correction term AV. the thermal expansion of the system with temperature change. may convenient. A unit volume of stock tank oil brought to equilibrium with its associated gas at reservoir pressure and temperature will almost invariably occupy a volume greater* than unity (the only little dissolved gas at exception would be an oil w ~ t h very high pressure).. and the compression of the liquid phase. 4.liquid. below ly be regarded as solutions of gas mixture in a liquid.17. The symbol R is generally the compositional changes in the gas with changing used for gasoil ratios and has the units of standard pressure and temperatures being ignored. and displays similar behaviour to B. .that must be considered. 4. When used alone. 4. No simple thermodynamic equation exists through which these volume changes can be calculated and formation volume factors generated. curve (Fig.
.18. VI.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE wise variable composition (differential) separation. The thermodynamic path fc)llowed by a twophase mixture (i. then tests should be rcprcsentative of samples. Provided then that no leakage occurs from the sample. standard methods are inadequate. the and values generated are system properties valid within the usual range of data uncertainty. = Volume at any arbitrary preswre Volume at bubblepoint pressure . and the separator gasoil ratio stabilizes throughout the test. 4. For operational convenience. 4. and a step Gas 011 sample sample Mercury pump Fig.1 Flash liberation at reservoir temperature The fluid sample is raised to a high pressurc (substantially above bubblcpoint) at reservoir tcmpcraturc. this inconsistency is relatively u~~important. It must be realized that all PVT analysis involves a basic and unavoidable inconsistency. Provided that the pressurc at the bottom of a test well docs not drop below the bubblepoint. In the case of volatile oil and condensate systems. then recombination should be valid. and expasldcd in stages at constant composition. PV celi in thermostat bath 4.19. which is inherently less satisfactory. The symbol R . then a bottomhole sample should be representative. the changes in pressure.c. indicates only the dissolved gas content of the liquid. When samples of separator oil and separator gas are recombined for test purposes. and data is customarily replotted in terms of relative volun~e as shown in V. Consequently this thermodynamic path cannot be followed or duplicated in a PVT analysis. Multiple samples are essential. . and that transfer from the sample vessel to the test vessel is carried out without loss of any components. In the case of black oil (dissolved gas) systems. two processes can be followed . and process simulation by laboratory experiment is necessary to validate thermodynamic relationships.7. both these separations are carried out. temperatiire and composition) in flowing from the reservoir to the stock tank is essc~ltiallyunknown.a constant coinposition (flash) separation. . A plot of the volumes and prcssures will identify the bubblepoint pressure.18 SchematicPVT analysis. and is thus total standard volume of gas produced divided by total standard volume of oil produced. V. If a well flows under stable conditions. while with subscript s the symbol R. indicates a cumulative ratio since start of reservoir production. The alternative to bottomhole sampling is recombination sampling. 4. to Pressure Fig. and will occasionally vary over a range \vhich will make recombination suspect.in taking measurements is that of obtaining a truly representative sample of the formation fluid. Fig.17 Solution gasoil ratio.and difficulty . The experimental layout is usually si~nilar that indicated in Fig. except perhaps for gas condensate systen~s. v. and the results of the two separations are combined (in rather arbitrary fashion) to generate the data needed for material balance calculations. Measured gasoil ratios will frequently be erratic. with a bottomhole pressure above the bubblepoint. In the laboratory.7 DIRECT MEASUREMENTS PVT ANALYSIS  The first requirement . a particular problem is the choice of proportions for recombination.  +Gas samples measurement and analysis solution gas). 4. to give the total volume at a series of pressures. 4.
20 (a). The total gas evolved in this flash operation is the value taken as the total or initial solution gasoil ratio R. the compressibility above bubblepoint of the liquid at reservoir temperature can be determined. The liquid remaining at 1 atmosphere at reservoir temperature is termed residual oil (and its volume the residual oil volume). The liberated gas ratio RL is also plotted against pressure. We define: (Vo)d = Volume of oil obtained by a differential separation at any pressure. When this is done. This ratio will be sufficiently accurate (given the uncertainties in sampling) to be used in this way. and cooling this to 60°F will generate a stock tank volume (VST). flashing the bubblepoint liquid to stock tank conditions through a series of intermediate stages corresponding to possible'field separator conditions.3 Flash separation tests It is customary to carry out a separator test. For many systems.  The initial condition is VRi. 4. In this case. residual liquid volume]60oF Fig.7. u (b) %I Pressure Pb Pi 4. 4. This expansion yields the solution gasoil ratio as a function of pressure. and the results are valid only for dissolved gas systems. the difference between residual oil (60°F) and stock tank oil obtained through a specific separation process can be corrected. and then measured by expanding to standard conditions.19 Relative volume data by the flash process. gas expansion factors as a function of pressure. 4. and volumes of liquid at each pressure.20 Relative volume (a) and gas liberation (b) data by the differential process. the system is expanded in stages. The volumes of stock tank oil generated by a volume of reservoir oil is in fact dependent on the thermodynamic path followed between initial and final states. although the basic inconsistency remains. The relative volume ratio (Vo)d/Vb is generally plotted as a function of pressure. PVT reports frequently tabulate the ratio (VO d I liquid v o l ~ m e ] ~ .7. Consequently the expansion is not at constant composition.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS as a formation volume factor. as shown in Fig.2 Differential liberation at reservoir temperature Again starting above or at the bubblepoint. and reservoir temperature . 4.20 (b). From the plot.. the free gas phase at each stage is removed at constant pressure. as shown in Fig. 4. This will differ from the cumulative gas released in the differential process because of the different thermodynamic path involved in cooling residual oil to sta~dard conditions.. Pressure Fig.
8. but in general the composition for a TABLE 4.54 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE VI = Volume at bubblepoint and reservoir temperature The twophase formation volume factor B. from flash separator tests is used in the calculation of oil compressibility. Again an inconsistency remains. the bubble point can be calculated. in material balancc calculations. This is frequently referred to as initial solution G O R per unit volume of residual oil (60°F). If the incremental gas volurnes accumulated in a differential process are summed. Vb Measures. This volume will not be the same as the total gas obtaincd by flashing bubblepoint oil through a specific separator process to stock tank conditions.5 Equ~l~br~um vapor~zation tests Conducted at reservoir temperature Laboratory test summary Flash separator test Conducted from reservoir temperature to surface conditions Relates oil properties at reservoir conditions to oil at stock tank conditions Measures. the differential separation values bcing used for the solution gasoil ratio. is calculated in consistent units from (VST)F = Volume of stock tank oil obtained by flashing a volume Vb of bubblepoint oil The solution gasoil ratio is thus R S = R A difficulty also arises with the definition of gasoil ratio. Since the produced G O R used in material balance calculations is the separator GOK. Correlations are available for the estimation of bubble point pressure from other system properties. . and indirect approachcs may be necessary. = f (composition.P to saturated oil properties at Pb and T. The bubblepoint oil formation volume factor R. it is customary to use the flash separator G O R as the value for R. Flash vaporization test Gas not removed Composltron constant Differentralliberation test Gas removed as it is released Compos~tion remaining of system varies Measures: vo/vb us.4 Summary of tests The laboratory tests can be summarized as in Table 4. the results will be a total for the gas originally in solution. and a value will nearly always be measured experi~nentally.5. In fields with multiple reservoirs (or where the fact of separation of horizons is not established early on). together with the data generated. and equilibrium ratios are available for the components at thc temperature required.1 Bubblepoint pressure The bubblepoint pressure or saturation pressure is a value of considerable interest to engineers.!.8 GENERALIZED CORRELATIONS FOR LIQUIDS SYSTEMS 4. samples may not be taken for all reservoirs. temperature) If dctailecl co~npositionis known. Relates oil properties at T.7. 4. 4. vtIvb c o RL CO ~. P1.   / .
0009 IT I Fig. and is defined by  ' 4 *+@ . .(Pb PI 4. 0 i..3 Twophase volume factor The total (twophase) formation volume factor is the volume occuvied at reservoir conditions bv the oil and gas assodiated with a unit volume of stdck tank oil. The . volume factors involve difierences in thGe factors.25. .972 F = Rs [. y = gas gravity and Pb is in Psi. . will then involve determining R. over a range of pressures. so that B = 0.8. The parameter is designated B.~ ( P . Since the reservoir eauations usinn formation. . several previous correlations being necessary for the liquid phase. " 4 A I000 800 . 4. Twophase formation volume factors are most readily smoothed by the relation (Pb PI y = .8. the gas density and the oil density. 3000 LUUU PEP" 100 0125(API) I \boo and the oil compressibility within the range P + Pb will be needed for this.21. the formation volume factor will be given by the equation BP = Bb ( 1 + c (Pb. P b = f ( R s . . (RS. at reservoir conditions.pressure.22 Bubblepoint pressure using the Lasater correlat~on (after [I6]). 4. 4...21 Bubblepoint correlation using Standing's data (after ['I).2 Formation volume factor Formation volume factor for a saturated liquid can be estimated[l]fromthe empirical equation . B. P O . The oil density at reservoir conditions can be estimated in appropriate units from the oil and gas densities at standard conditions and from the values at B.p b ) ) 1°4b ' io' i ~dk1&'&k6 ' ' 2bob I 100. relationship is shown in Fig. T) An empirical correlation using a large amount of data. Example GOR = 370scf/stb U Y I = 53 TR=200deg F yt=06 Pb' 2000ps10 Fig. at a series of pressures within the range by the inverse of procedure for bubblepoint pressure. as follows: Po Bo = ( ~ 0 ) s c Rs (pg)sc + 4. when the value of solution GOR is known at one pressure. P .P ) ) Bb (1 . and R. Figure 4.Rs) O This can be evaluated from the separate oil and gas formation volume factors at any . Evaluation of B. the final correlation being of pseudoreduced compressibility with pseudoreduced temperature and pseudoreduced pressure. estimation for the compressibility can involve a number of crosscorrelations. = B + B. and the use of this value in the formation volume factor correlation. Depending upon the data available.22 shows a nomogram for an alternative method due to Lasater[16]. it is frequently desirable to smooth experimental or correlation derived data to improve accuracy. ~ ~ ~ + 1. and developed by StandingI1lis where T = OF.000147 F ~ . and the solution gasoil ratio. Above the bubblepoint.)"I + 0.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS dissolved gas system is represented by the solution gasoil ratio.
Figure 4. At the relationship is used where fp. The viscosity of dead oil at reservoir temperature and atmospheric pressure is the requircd start point. corrected for temperature and the effects of dissolved gas.23 Yfunction smoothing. If no measured viscosity is available. If the system is undersaturated.4 Oil viscosity The viscosity of a reservoir oil can be coilsidered to be the viscosity of a dead oil at some reference pressure condition (e. a correction for the excess pressure is needed. elevated pressures.7psia Fig.7669 1.25 (a) as a function of reservoir tempe~aturel'~.8.25 (b)) at pressures between 2000 and 10 000 psi.8.56 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE and the Y function is a linear function of pressurc (see Fig. This can be a valuable relationship for smoothing. 4. is the specific gravity of the stock oil. 4. correlating and extending data. 4. although correlations are available for this purpose. is desirable..30218 (log P:::. cp at reservoir temperature and 14. The viscosity of saturated oil is directly obtained. 60°F. 4.8.: against T chart (Fig. 4.24 shows the essential correlationsl"]. The reservoir pressure in psia is P.) . and a measured value at this temperature.24 (b) 0 : I 5 I 1 0 I I 50 100 4. an estimate must be made through the oil gravity..6 Recent North Sea oil correlations Using the correlation methods proposed by Standing. . especially near the bubblepoint.01 0 where D S . or a measured value corrcctcd to this tcrnperature. 4. a number of North Sea oils have been recorrclated by G l a ~ d ' ~The units uscd are oil field units ]..7447 (log P*. 4.23). Q 10 20 30 40 50 60 (a) Crude oil gravity (API). ' Fig. The viscosity of various salinity brines at 1 atmosphere pressurc ( ~ 1 : ' ~is given in Fig.5 Water viscosity Water viscosity is dependent on salinity.)" 4 10 000  Temperature reservoir + 3  + 1.g. is obtained from thc f. I? the producing gasoil ratio in SCFISTB. 'r the reservoir temperature in O F . 14. tank oil). r Fig.0. API is the degree API stock tank oil gravity and y .7psia 4.['7] . 7. For saturation pressure the relationship is log PI. = 1. with Pb the bubblepoint pressure in psia. the average specific gravity of the total surface gases. It is preferable for the viscosity at the reference state to be measured.24 Beal correlations for crude oil viscosity. Viscosity of dead oil.
954 x lo'' ( A P I ) " ~ ~T~ ) i (0.1. 4. Fc =  693.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS 20 57 18 C C Figure 4.) 0.fraction Critical press (psia) Critical temp. For H2S. the relationship is log (Bob.26 (d) . The relationship between P*band Pb is shown in Fig.366j (yi2)2 + + + rl For CO2. at any reservoir pressure P. For nitrogen 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Reservoir temperature (deg F ) F.(0. " is shown in Fig.2 The composition and component critical values of a gas are as tabulated below: com~onent Mol. specifically C 0 2 . H2S.25 PVT correlations for North Sea oils (after [13'). For volatile oils an exponent for the temperature of 0.0) = 2.wt Mol. 4.17351 (log B*J2 *  4 2 16 + g o 14 where 6 2 2 + 0 12 pr R 1 . which should be applied to the calculated value. For the twophase flash volume factor B. (e) and (f).130 rather than 0.0 .1 Tabulate values of API gravity for the specific gravity range 0.47257 (log B". = 0. = Fig. and B. 6. For oil flash formation volume factor.0. (p.26 (b) illustrates this relationship.58511 Fc = 1.027 (API) . can affect the calculated values of saturation pressure described above.172 is appropriate. the relationship between B.0 ((2. iyO(2 9 x 10000027R)1 = i3 f pressure correctIan 'actor 10 1 C p 5 0 :0 7 a 08 06 r s 04 02 The pressure of nonhydrocarbons.0015 (API!) (yHZs) + 0.2.9035 + 0.f"RJ .5 x (0.90 in increments of 0.080135 + 0.8 (YC02) T1. N2. can be expressed in terms of the mole fraction y of the nonhydrocarbon component present in total surface gases.70 to 0.27683 (1% B'ob)' where where B*ob= R  1. 4. Bob.02.093 (API) .26 (a). 4. as shown in Fig.553 .0. The magnitude of the correction multiplier Fc.968T Examples Example 4. Example 4.110S9 ) .65 X (API) 5.019 (45 (API)) (yHzs) & + 0.25 (c) and represents: log B.8295)) yN2 + ((1.91329 (log Bhob) .
. YN. Fig.S y co. 4.26 PVT correlations for North Sea oils (after 13). .58 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Two Phase Flash Forrnatlon Volume Factor N2 correct~onto I C 0 2 correction to Pb .
at 3000 psia B. R. Molecular weight = 180.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS 59 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Calculate the molecular weight of the gas. Calculate the density and specific gravity relative to air at 14.3 If a reservoir has a connate water saturation of 0.4 (a) Using correlations find the bubblepoint pressure and formation volume factor at bubblepoint pressure of an oil of gravity 38" API. gas gravity 0. ).7 psia and 60°F.' water: 3 x 1 0 . at 2500 psia.465 psilft. 4000 3000 2500 2000 1500 404 408 410 430 450 Estimate the bubble point pressure.ml. gasoil ratio 750 scflstb.31 and compressibilities are respectively: c. Volume of gas (measured at 1 atm. and the regional hydrostatic gradient is 0. Volume of liquid Volume of gas (expanded to 1 atm.5 The following results are obtained in a PVT analysis at 200°F: Pressure psia System vol.70. expanded to 2000 psia and the free ga? removed at constant pressure. at what elevation would a gasoil contact be anticipated? (c) What would be the formation volume factor of the oil at a pressure 4000 psi? (d) Find the viscosity of the oil at bubblepoint pressure and 175°F. pore compressibility . (b) If a reservoir containing this hydrocarbon has an oilwater contact at 7000 ft s.~ ( ~ s i!gas as calculated in 42(a). Example 4. = 10 x 1 0 . of air = 28. Calculate the gas density at 2000 psia and 135°F. Example 4. Calculate the pseudoreduced pressure and temperature at 2000 psia and 135°F.. 60°F) The pressure is then reduced to 14. Calculate (both in vols/vol and in reservoir barrels/lOOO scf) the gas formation volume factor at 2000 psia and 135°F. at a temperature of 175°F.275 litres c. what density of drilling fluid will be necessary to control formation pressures at the crest (providing an over pressure of 500 psi). 2000 psia B .~ ( ~ s i ) . at what depth would a gas water contact be expected? (k) If the crest of the structure is found to be 1000 ft above gas water contact. Example 4.c f = 5 x l ~ . z at 2000 psia .~ ( ~ s i )What are: l. a as saturation of 0. (j) If the pressure of 2000 psia is the reservoir pressure measurement at 4100 ft SS and the regional aquifer gradient is 0.. Determine the gas deviation factor at 2000 psia and 135°F. (i) Calculate the compressibility of gas at 2000 psia and 135°F. (a) total compressibility (b) effective hydrocarbon compressibility.44 psilft (below mean sea level).7 psia and the temperature to 60°F Volume of residual liquid 295 ml.24. (h) Find the gas viscosity at 2000 psia and 135°F. (Mol wt.s..9) Calculate the pseudocritical pressure and temperature. and is measured by expansion to 1 atmosphere. liquid compressibility at 3000 psia B. B . The system is recompressed. 60°F:21 litres) Estimate the following PVT properties: 388 ml 5..
Pcng. 64. D. D. Volrrmetricand Phcrse Behavio~ir Oilfield Hydrocarbons.L. A new two constant cquation on state. Dallas (1977). D. Cllem. 538. D. The viscosity of air. Eng. 131 Standing. G. Washington D. [14] Pcng. Soc. 1 (1967). and Chielici.. Kobyashi.. [19] Chew. IHRDC (1979). L . Eng. [10] Dodson. 1197. natural gas. Chem. M. D. 379. 1251 Robinson. Z'runs AIME 146 (1942). OGJ (Feb. [41 GPSA Engineering Data Rook. Pressure buildup and flow test in wells . A.B.B. OGJ (Dec.Zfactor calculations.G. 1966). How to solve equation of state for 2factors. 56 (1978). and Mayer. 287. H. 0. Somc applications of thc PengRobinson ecluation of state to fluid property calculations. Trans. Tulsa (1973). 785. M.Y. and Yarborough. C. [17] Beal. Reinhold Publishing (1952). Overview of phase behaviour in oil and gas production. Soc. 59. Proc. T~c. [IS] Matthews. Pet. Truns. 16. E. 11. and Russell.B. Viscosity of hydrocarbon gases under pressure. J. Can. Sci. AIME 201 (1954). D. A IME 216 (1959). [16] Lasater. N.J. Equilibrium constants from a modified RedlichKwong equation of state.. RP 44 (Jan. Handbook of Natl~ral Gas Engineering. Ind. A viscosity correlation for gas satulatcd crude oils. 1974). Elements of petroleu~n reservoirs. 1201 Long. Pet. Tulsa (l974).H.L. G. C. Am. 264. AIME 198 (1953). Hckim. Gas Processors Suppliers Association. (1962).R. No. and Ng. D. C. Cltern. (July 1961). The Properties qf Petrole~~m Fluids. Generaliscd pressurevolumetemperature correlations. crude oil and its associated gases at oil field tenlperatures and prcssures. [22] Firoozabadi. 23. 610.B. Series. J. Eng. L. [7] Hall.R. Ch. m [I31 Glasfl. [24] Yarborough. Dimensionless PVT bchaviour of Gulf Coast rescrvoir oils. 385.L. Application of laboratory PVT data to rescrvoir engineering problems.S. Bubble point pressure correlation. 182 (1979). D.J.A.Chesnut's water viscosity correlatior~.C. N. L. 140.D.B. [12] Burcik. C. of [2] Clark. and Katz. GPA. Trans. Properties o i p e t r o l e ~ ~fluids. 1976). JPT (1983). Engrs. Trans. Eng. D..60 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE References [I] Standing. [8] Takacs. 25. and Katz.Y. McGrawHill Inc. 1205. Clwnl. [23] Katz. SPE Monograph No. JPT 32 (1980). Y. Application of a generalised equation of state to petroleum reservoir fluids. and Robinson. Fund 15 (1976). (1973). 86. AIME 165 (1946).L. [9] American Petroleum Institute Recomlnended practice for sampling petrolcum reservoir fluitls. Adv. R. . Salt content changcs cornprcssibility of reservoir brines. [IS] Soave. C. AIME 213 (1958). 151 McCain. J. et ul. 94. Goodwill. Co~nparisons made for computei. J. K. Trans. [21] Cronquist.G. New York (1959). A PI Pub. D. 27 (1972). W.L. Density of natural gases. [6] Katz. E. [ i l l Carr. water. and Connally. and Burrows.. Pemwell. D. Reservoir depletion calculations for gas condensates using extendcd analyses in the Peng Robinson equation of state.A. Pet. G.ch.
A. J. N.R. and Clark. Trans. li ~ [29] Dake. JPT (Feb. 1171. 1962). L.J.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS [26] Lohrenz.. Elsevier Scientific. AIME 210 (1957). Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering. Trans.G. ~ o m ~ r e s s i b i of tundersaturated hydrocarbon reservoir fluids. 143. AIME 231 (1964).P. 341. Adjusting oil sample data for reservoir studies. Calculating viscosities of reservoir fluids from their compositions. C. B.S. I281 Trube. . [27] Clark. Amsterdam (1978). Bray.
i. fluorescence and staining in solvent be continuity of those void spaces. a careful onsite examination for hydrocarbon tial gradients.). It is frequently found that variation in thoroughly for detailed lithological. traces is desirable (e. In addition. or changes in porosity and samplc with the dimensions of the internal cross.1 prevent 100% recovery of the core.permeability due to washing with incompatible fresh sectional area of the cutting bit and the lcngth of the or sea water. survcys. sedin~entologicdrilling conditions and in formation rock character al and palaeontological examination. any geological formation must exhibit two essential The recovered core represents the record of rock characteristics. core fluorescence on a freshly rock. after lithological examination and logging. and when devclopment wells are drilled it In general. ped tightly in polythene or immersed in fluid and generally obtained by drilling into the formation sealed into containers for transit to the laboratory.cuts ctc. and transmissibility requires that therc should exposed surface. the second permeability. With conventionul equipment. are used. possible and desirable. the shows the kind of data obtained from recovered core may also be recovered in a broken condition. . immediately rock are always essential. In the sccond place.e. Figure 5. Remaining parts hollow section.1 DATA SOURCES AND APPLICATION Friable or unconsolidated rock is frequently recovered only as loose grains. in case an opcn hole drill stem test is teristic is termed porosity.g.Chapter 5 Characteristics of Reservoir Rocks 5. this may then be examined for hydrocarbon traces. gas bubbling or oil seeping Storage capacity requires void spaces within the from the core. fluids. the study of core samples of the rcservoir Some parts of the core should then. it is While some estimates of reservoir rock properties desirable to preserve the core in as unchangcd a can be made from electrical and radioactive log condition as possiblc prior to laboratory evaluation.place. The first charac. unless special core barrels To form a commercial reservoir of hydrocarbons. and some samples washed diameter. In the first through relatively long distances under small poten. with a hollow section drill pipe and drill bit. There is This is done in the hopc that drying out of cores with a facility to retain the drilled rock as a cylindrical changes in wettability. be wrapA core is a sample of rock from the well section. cores. These are a capacity for storage and type in the well scction and is the basic data for transn~issibility to the fluid concerned. will be minimized. results in cores up to 10 m in lcngth and 11 cm in solvc~lt cuts taken. two partially conflicting objectives must be possible for those reservoir fluids to flow must be met when taking core samples. the interpretation of geological and cnginecring propreservoir rock must be able to accumulate and storc erties.
. g .5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 63 Slabbed core Photograph Sedimentology Lithology Samples Porosity Permeability Grain densiiy Asreceived saturations Special coreanalysis Thin sections Detail pore structure Diagenesis Porosity type Environmental evidence Core from Preservedhestored state Capillary pressure Relative permeability Electrical properties Acoustic properties Compressive properties Clay chemistry effects Specific tests Grain size distribution *Mineral analysis Xray and SEM analysis Calibration of wireline logs Fig. 5.g b * 0 5 9  C A stacked serles of moderate reddish brown. I 1 Core 4 Fig.1 Data obtained irom cored wells Sed~rnentology C Graln s ~ z e and (0 Descr~pt~on g% . current ripple larn~natedand crossbedded. graded sandstones.3 Core log. 5.
The incremental cost o f the coring may also he effectivelypresented as a fraction o f oil Cores provide an opportunity to study the nature o f value at peak production rate. In general. together with the reasons for obtaining samples under controlled conditions. The Fig. it rnay be said that coring operations subdivide into two types .4) (diagetlctic studies). They will providc a The coring o f exploration wells tends to be record o f the lithologies encountered and can be minimal on the first well on a prospect.2). The efficiency o f a drilling operation is often measured in terms o f timerelated costs to move on to a location.2 Lithology and log character in zonation of case should be supported by a time and cost analysis Rotliegendes in Leman gas reservoir (UKCS) (afterL361). The case for coring therefore requires a careful presentation in which the need for the information is simply explained. Petrophysical measurements o f porosity and permeability from samples o f the recovered core allow cluantitative characterization o f reservoir properties in the well section. As a further generality. log Bulk density correlated with wireline logs (Fig.speciczl core analysis studies) and character o f recovered fluids and source rocks (geochemical studies).3).2 CORING DECISIONS well placcmcnt). Samples from the recovered corc are also used to study post depositional modification to the pore space (Fig. The diversity o f information that can be obtained from rccovered core implies that a number o f speci a1'lsts are involved in assembling a coring program for a new well .for the coring operation and. Geologists and reservoir engineers require core for reservoir description and definition. technical difficulty and costs. Drilling en.. ment arbitration between departments. and that coring adds significantly in terms o f time to the cost o f a well. complete the well and move o f f to the next location. The arnourlt o f core taken is usually decided on the basis o f a technical argument between data collection. where possible. reach a give11depth. and they may argue that the opportunity to recover samples o f the reservoir is only presented once in each well. 5. Study o f the bedding character and associated fossil and microfossil record may provide an interpretation o f the age and depositional environment (Fig.64 Gamma ray log PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE FD C. 5.e. it is often found that the control o f the coring program lies with exploratioll geologists for exploratiol~lappraisal wells and with reservoir eilgirleers for development wells. by an indication o f the benefits in terms of incremental oil recovery (i.those conducted o n explorationiappraisal wells and those on development wells.each specialist wishing to ensure that sarnples are obtained under the best possible conditions. reservoir description leadillg to better 5. 5. This is in direct conflict with timeconsuming data retrieval and oftcrl results in coring dccisions requiring manage. 5. flow character o f the continuous pore space (. the rock sequence in a well. unless a good .'~lneers tend to argue that the possibility for losing the wcll is increased by coring operations.
A target of 30% cored wells will provide reasonable reservoir control in all but the most complex geology . 5. In this case it is necessary for cooperation between engineers and production geologists to prepare the coring program.4 Diagenetic modification to pore space . and choice of cored wells should reflect this. plug drilling fluids.that is without reference to true north position. subdivided in terms of rock units. It tends to be true that the degree of reservoir continuity and the number of development wells required form an inverse relationship and that core study can provide a basis for reservoir description. In many North Sea reservoirs the geological complexity can only be resolved by a combination and integration of data from many sources . which should lead to more efficient reservoir management. Correlation with wireline logs and between wells may be made on a preliminary basis which will be improved as sedimentological and petrographic studies proceed. Despite delay to first production.3 CONVENTIONAL AND ORIENTED CORING Conventional coring refers to core taken without regard to precise orientation . TQe presentation of results may also be defined by the reservoir engineers. It can be important to specify the plug frequency.to know technical argument and project economics. reservoir zonation may be better established and cores are required by the geologists for detailed sedimentological. These are more appropriately the responsibility of the reservoir engineer to define for the exploration department. wettability variation. In exploration wells the geologists have a primary concern in describing the core in terms of its lithological variation and defining a basis for zonation.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 65 Fig. without particular regard to the conditions of sample selection or preparation of the plugs. 5. It is frequently found that the reservoir engineers do not fully participate in defining the core program for such appraisal wells. There may be some specialist advice from a laboratory group regarding some of these aspects. The conditions of core recovery.SEM of illitelsmectite formed at the expense of kaolinite.the coring should however be 75% complete before the reservoir has 50% of its wells. plug cleaning processes and even the test methods for routine core analysis. sample selection and sample storage require particular definition since results will be affected by. A t this stage. regional analogy exists. The decisions on how many wells to core are generally taken by management after considerations of need. it is sensible to core early development wells as fully as possible in order to improve confidence in reservoir description and development plans. for example. plug orientation. The zonation may initially be in terms of reservoir and nonreservoir intervals. Coring in highly deviated wells is naturally more of a risk than in straight holes or less deviated wells. The second well is often designated a type well by the exploration department and may be extensively cored. The opportunity exists to influence the coring mud program. The coring of development wells is largely controlled by reservoir engineers. Conventional coring .core data being particularly relevant. the basis for sample selection for routine core analysis. and the storage and transportation of recovered core. Routine core analysis on plugs drilled from the core is frequently commissioned by the exploration department. the basis for sample selection for special core analysis tests. mineralogical and reservoir continuity studies and by engineers for attributing reservoir petrophysical properties within the more detailed zonation. in combination with geological zone description. The cored intervals will be decided on the basis of prognosis and analogy with the discovery well section.
pressure core barrel. The core recovered from these devices does not allow visualization o f rock in its exact reservoir condition orientation. 5. may cause a Fig. The top o f the inner barrel is attached to the inner barrel head.. The method is known as dirc. Thc survey instrument is located within a Kmonel collar to prevent any magnetic disturbance from the drill pipe. The cost o f oriented core offshore has recently been estimated as an incremental cost o f some US $50 per metre on convcntional core.4 CORING MUD SYSTEMS It is inevitable that coring fluid will invade a porous reservoir rock to some degree. plastic or fibre glass core barrel.5 Oriented coring:American Coldset oriented core barrel with Spenny Sun adapter ( I ) and scribe shoe (2)in place of conventional inner barrel sub. This may be a limitatio~lin sedimentological interpretation where direction of orientation has significance in predicting reservoir continuity.5). 2 5.g. . A tcchniquc that has found application in onshore coring1l2land is now achieving success in offshore coring involves the scribing o f grooves along the axis o f the core in a gyroscopically controlled orientation. weight etc. sponge insert core barrel. filter loss. The shaft rotates with the inner barrel.ctionnlly oriented coring and requires periodic stops in the coring o operation to take a measureme~lt f orientation. A shaft extends from the inner barrel head through the safety joint and into a muleshoc attached at its top. The scribe shoe is added to the inner barrel by replacing the inner sub with the scribe shoe sub. 5. used to control viscosity. The consequence o f this is that materials in thc mud system. The survey instrument has a builtin marker which is aligned with thc oriented scribe in the scribe shoe at the bottom o f the barrel.66 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE encompasses a range o f particular core barrels and cutting head and includes: steel core barrel. particularly where ovcrbank slump is greater than depositional dip. The orientation in fluvial deposition systems (e. river channels) is o f particular importance in well to well correlation and may not he easily deduced from d i p meter data. The scribe shoe is located at the base o f the inncr core barrel immediately above the core catcher assembly. rubber sleeve core barrel. Orientation o f cores is accon~plishedby running a conventional core barrel which has a scribed shoe containing three tungsten scribes (Fig. Multishot survcy instruments are attached to the upper portion o f the muleshoe.
Exposure to air can result in oxidation of hydrocarbons or evaporation of core fluids with subsequent wettability change['' 4 6 .5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS change in the relative affinity of the reservoir rock surface for oil and water. (b) reactive . 5 1 1 . .sand. The term o cos 0 controls the capillary forces and hence irreducible saturations in a particular rock fluid system. (a) nonreactive . The main constituents of drilling muds are classified as liquid or solid as follows: 5.5). Solids: (1) low gravity (approximate SG = 2. Changes in the term through mud system chemistry will result in the recovery of unrepresentative samples. Best with formation brine composition muds. Liquids: (1) fresh water. It is clear that the ideal coring fluids from a sample purity point of view would be reservoir brine or reservoir crude oil. Eliminate oxidation possibilities. Minimum filtrate invasion: Use lowest mud weight giving control of formation. and to prevent change in petrophysical character. which represents the interfacial tension (IS)between oil and water under the reservoir conditions and the contact angle (8) measured through the water phase as the angle between the oil water interface and the surface (Fig. (a) barite (approximate SG = 4. Best fluid is lease crude if well control permits. Initial water saturation: Eliminate water in mud system. It Unaltered wettability: Use essentially neutral pH mud. marked for identification.5 CORE PRESERVATION The objective of core preservation is to retain the wettability condition of a recovered core sample. Residual oil saturation: Eliminate oil base fluids. The core for routine analysis. Failing these techniques. (2) high gravity. The principal changes that might occur are those changing the wettability of the core or the physical state of in situ clay materials. avoid use of surfactants and caustic soda. It is therefore necessary to use a bland or unreactive mud system. 5. so core may be stored anaerobically under fluid in sealed containers. (3) oils. (c) lubricate drill string.6 Wetting surface. 5. (4) combination of 13. Usually only samples for special core analysis are stored and transported under these special conditions.clay compound. chert and some shales.0). These may change porosity and permeability as well as flow properties determined in laboratory tests. This change in wettability is manifest in the term o cos 8. without special care for wettability change or drying of core fluids. is placed in boxes. limestone. Retention of reservoir fluids (either oil or water) should maintain wetting character. Reservoir brine (or a chemically equivalent brine) will prevent ion exchange processes in interstitial clays and maintain porositypermeability character.6). particularly with asphaltinic crude oils. (e) formation protection. (b) iron ore lead sulphide (approximate SG = 2. Flushing will reduce any oil saturation to just about residual. Flushing from oil filtrate. Formation damage prevention: Need compatibility with formation waters to prevent changes of clay chemistry or physical state. The influence of engineers and geologists requiring core on the mud system recipe must be decided in conjunction with the drilling engineers as the primary functions of the mud are: (a) control of subsurface pressure. (d) hole cleaning. / / / Oil Surface Fig. therefore use low mud circulation rate and high as practica$le penetration rate. but in general these fluids would not allow adequate well control. following visual inspection at the well site. (2) salt water. (b) lift formation cuttings. or to otherwise demonstrate the effect of any particular mud system on the term o cos 0. wrapped in a plastic seal and foil and stored in dry ice. The use of refined oils and paraffins may cause deposition of plugging compounds.2). the core plug may be wiped clean. The general limitations on mud composition dictated by formation evaluation requirements are as follows: + A mud laboratory is used to evaluate the compatibility and performance of chemical additives for drilling muds planned for a particular well.
or a refincd oil (as long as the crude oil is not waxy or ~~sphaItinic~(p1ugging)). The environmentalidepositional model of a reservoir is largely based on the observations from individual corcd wells hut requires correlation of data between wells and integration with other sources of informa 5. The coolant used on the core plug drilling bit is important in Illany cores since it may possibly modify internal pore properties. In addition. The best coolant would be a reservoir brine. will generally form the bulk of the recovered core. situ in the reservoir and used to position the core pieces more precisely. Core for special core analysis should be selected quickly and preserved in the agreed manner. horizontal flowpath. I n cases of doubt it is preferable to prcscrve too much rather than too little and the geologists can always inspect the preserved core in the more controlled laboratory environment. and in an orientation to the whole core specified to represent bedding planes. the fossil assemblages also provide indication of transport encrgy regimes (palynofacies analysis) which help support sedimentological interpretations. This is achieved by visual observation and the rcsult recorded as a core log. It is necessary to preserve samples from all significant reservoir flow intervals and these intervals must span permeability ranges. if salinity is low (danger otherwise of salt plugging). It is convenient to describe the bedding character and macrofossil character within the grain size profile. Photographs of the fresh core prove illvaluable in correcting later misplacements and sometimes in locating fracture zoncs.9 GEOLOGICAL STUDIES The purpose of geological core study is to provide a basis for dividing the reservoir into zones and to recognizc the geometry. one third for curation and one third is often required by the licencing agency (e. Core should be wiped clean for visual inspection and marked for top and bottom and core depth in a box. The plugs are usually about 4 cm long and are tritnmed to 2. Thc readings may be compared with the gainrna ray log readings obtained in . it should be possible to be more explicit during dcvelopmcnt drilling when reservoir zonation may be better understood. One third is designated for geological analysis. The main areas of study involve recog~litioll the of lithology and sedimentology of the reservoir and its vertical sequence of rock types and grain size. as shown in Fig. 5. i.7 CORE FOR SPECIAL CORE ANALYSIS The selection of core for special core analysis is frequently a rather loose arrangement resulting from a reservoir enginccring request to the wellsite geologist to preserve some represmtutive pieces. It is now customary to pass the whole core along a conveyor belt through a device called a Coregumma surface logger which records a reading of natural radioactivity against equivalent downhole position of the core[']. Packing of transportation boxes should naturally he effective and prevent displacement of pieces. It is necessary to specify thc basis for zone recognition. transportation and storage.5 cm to eliminate mua invaded parts.e.68 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE is not rcally known whether this has any effect on the state of pore filllreplacement minerals recorded in subsequent geological analysis. Analyses may be performed on the sample of the whole core. vertical flowpath etc. 5. 5. While this approach may be inevitable with exploration wells. More usually core plugs are drilled at regular intervals (say 36 her metre)specified by the reservoir engineer o r picked at specific intervals. The recognition of depositional and post depositional features is achieved by core description and by microscopic observation of thin sections from cores. the amount of sample required and the conditions for preservation.3. Core for routine analysis should be dispatched quickly following the wellsite geologist's preliminary observations. nonpreserved core. the core is usually sliced along its major axis into three slabs (known as sluhhing). 5.g.8 cm. There is a danger in using tap water in that it may change the nature of interstitial clays by modifying ionic balances. The age of the individual rock units is usually establishcd by association with the lnicrofossil record (micropalynology) and this can be done as well with cuttings as with core samples. These plugs are used in routine core analysis.8 CORE DERIVED DATA The nonspccial core analysis.53. continuity and characteristics of the various zones. the Government). After plug cutting.6 WELLSITE CONTROLS Thc recovery of core at a wellsite requircs care in handling core barrels and an awareness of the ultimate use of the core. The plug diameters arc of the order 2.
1 Principles and methods Routine core analysis is primarily concerned with establishing the variation of porosity and permeability as a function of position and depth in a well. In addition. The core cannot be . The validity of subsequpent measurements made on unconsolidated samples treated in the foregoing manner is the subject of contention. The placement of the contact will be between adjacent samples of relatively high and relatively low values. 3 ' 3 ' visually inspected at the wellsite and is often frozen prior to transportation. in order to provide insight into reservoir geometry and continuity. The samples are. analysis of core '1. (c) high temperature (up to 650°C) retorting at atmospheric pressure (not relevant for hydrated clays in sample). as shown in Table 5. 5. (d) combination techniques.10. There are several disadvantages in the method. The observed OWC may not be coincident with the free water level (FWL). because of ease of core cutting. The cleaning of whole core sections can be difficult and timeconsuming. The use of whole core pieces tends to downgrade heterogeneous character that would be pronounced in small plugs. whole core analysis.The oilwater contact would therefore be tentatively placed at the midpoint between these samples at 2537. usually biased towards the more consolidated reservoir quality intervals. some analyses may also be performed on cuttings and sidewall cores. (a) Conventional core analysis This technique is applied to samples drilled from the whole core piece. The techniques are reported in API booklet RP490 entitled Recommended Practice for Core Analysis Procedure[']. different rock systems require various analytical approaches with particular names. (b) Whole core analysis The technique refers to the use of the full diameter core piece in lengths dependent only on the integrity of the core and the size of porosimeters and permeameters available. the methods for determining the saturation of fluids in the core as received in the laboratory include: (a) high vacuum distillation at around 230°C (not so good for heavy oils). (b) distillation of water and solvent extraction of oil (need to know oil gravity). An example of this would be vugular carbonates where vug size may represent a significant volume of the plug sample. however. If the cored interval passes through an oilwater contact this may be observable from the residual saturation data. Such samples are taken at regular intervals along the core and may represent a statistical sample. i. Although the core saturations reported do not represent saturations in the reservoir.10.10 ROUTINE CORE ANALYSIS 5. The zone appears to be of one rock type and is thus likely to have consistent capillary character. but it is clear that any grain reorientation or lack of similarity with real reservoir overburden stresses will invalidate results. The technique is therefore applied particularly in formations which are friable or unconsolidated. Plug preparation may require frozen drilling to prevent movement of sand grains.1%. samples of recovered core are subjected to measurements and the results plotted andlor tabulated. 5. In order to provide valid analyses. Sponge inserts in core barrels are sometimes used to retain reservoir fluids.5 m and 2538 m from 19. but its utilization provides a method of at least recovering a core sample. conventional core analysis.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS tion. and analysis is generally significantly more expensive than conventional core analysis. and capillary pressure data (see Chapter 6) will be required to determine the FWL. (c) Rubber sleeve core (also plasticifibre glass sleeves) The purpose of a rubber sleeve or plastic sleeve in a core barrel is to support the core until removal in the laboratory.e. they are certainly influenced by them. The experimental techniques should give accuracy of +5% of the true as received saturation condition.6% to 1.2 Residual fluid saturation determination In the API Recommended Practice. In order to do this.1. The plug sample may be supported by some kind of sheath while in a frozen state and is often then placed in a core holder where simulated formation pressures are restored and the temperature restored to reservoir conditions. Thus a rapid change in oil saturation from a relatively high volume to near zero in a similar lithology and reservoir quality interval suggests the presence of an oilwater contact. Full diameter cores are analysed only when there is reason to believe that plug samples will not reflect average properties.75 m and confirmation sought from log data. recovered in rubber sleeve['. The change in core oil saturation as received in the laboratory shows a dramatic change between 2537.
wlorg.p.4 12.83 13.80 2.p.2 2. GY.A A.GR without calcitic n.6 2.29 5.mica 3635.F.77 2. A.ang. rubble 3633.2 0.A.00 3636.8 15.6 2. matter S. V.4 7.25 6.9 5.1 0.A A.2 20.W.A  A.F.71 2.5 0.68 2.70 3634.00 n.35 3634.cemented wimica A.9 2'67 A.00 10 4 0. withoutiorg.70 3637. V.0 39.70 3.16 0.w.ST.A.3 2.16 4.5 0. V.p.A.v.25 0.GR cemented wimica 3637. rubble 31 30 38 85 17 26 25 32 74 14 19 19 24 62 13 15 15 20 53 10 21.4 19.Pore Saturation Helium tion porosity porosity % % SO STW Grain dens.p.68 A.4 1.9 0.68 2.2 17.70 3635.GR. SlLTCalcitic A.8 3.70 21 17 14 11 19.18 0. GYIBR V.68 2.67 A.76 2.8 6.W.2 0.35 3632. S.2 Horizontal permeability milliDarcy KA KL Presentation of routine core analysis results Satura.F.F.0 41.69 V.1 Laboratory measured oil saturation in recovered core Sample depth (m) 4 f%) k (mD) So (core residual) % TABLE 5.67 A. cemented wlmica 3632. matter S.69 2.0 0.1 18.ST. poor calcitic wlovrite V.0 3.GR.0 38.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 5.18 4. Depth Vertical permeability milliDarcy KA KL Formation description S.8 2. GY.GR well cemented w.A.ST.3 19.9 24.35 3636. F.A.A.6 0.0 37.A.35 3633. q/cc 2.29 0.5 21.9 2.00 3634. GYIBR F.ST.GR sub.67 2.8 20.8 3.0 14. .70 3636.
these may be defined as coarse and fine porosities. Fig.cementation. This is especially so in silty or highly cemented formations. as shown in Table 5. Isolated pore space The dry method is preferred. It will normally only be possible to distinguish any effects of dual porosity if the coarse system has a flow capacity about two orders of magnitude greater than that of the fine system. Grain volume measurements should be reproducible to 0. The void spaces in reservoir rocks are most frequently the intergranular spaces between the sedimentary parti(a) the wet method. 5. tens of microns (Fig. crushed core is placed in an unreactive refined liquid (e. 5.4 Data presentatiqn Routine core analysis is usually presented in tabular form.3 Grain density Grain density measurements are sometimes presented in routine core analysis reports. and in some circumstances it may be necessary to define a system as a dual porosity system having primary and secondary porosity. but the flow capacities of the different types of porosity. equivalent to (b) the dry method. These ment equated to its volume.04%. Processes subsequent to sedimentation . fracturing . Two methods are in use: 5. where a weighed uncrushed sample is placed in a Boyle's law porosimeter apparent diameters of voids rarely exceeding a few.the proportion of void space can be calculated a theoretically.7 Representation of permeability with depth. weathering. 5. + I I 5. the lower porosity range normally being of interest only in dual porosity systems.8).10. For regular arrangements of uniform spheres. 5. behaviour is virtually indistinguishable from single porosity systems with some heterogeneity. In the grain volume determination. recrystallization. void spaces are microscopic in scale. The grain volume is the difference between the total gas space of the void volume plus annulus and the calibrated volume of the core holder. These data are usually not plotted in this way by service laboratories. In this . The porosity of reservoir rocks may range from about 5% of bulk volume to about 30% of bulk volume.10. The rock description is provided only as a guide to character and does not pretend to be the geological sample description. For the purpose of recognizing stratification effects. although since it is the physical nature of the porosity that is of interest. where a weighed sample of cles. to determine grain volume. toluene) and the displace. partly to present the values on a condensed scale and partly because it is often found that lithologically similar samples show a linear relationship between porosity and log permeability. it is preferred nowadays to show permeability variation with depth on a linear scale. 2Dimensional representation of pore space Fig. Data may also be presented as a point plot against depth. With lesser contrasts.8 2D representation of pore space. as shown in Fig.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 5.1 1 POROSITY Porosity is generally symbolized $ and is defined as the ratio of void volume to bulk volume.can modify snbstantially the proportion and distribution of void space. The distinguishing factor between primary and secondary porosity from the reservoir engineering point of view is not the origin or mode of occurrence. solution.7. The most usual limitation in the applicability of these measurements is their lack of representation of the bulk reservoir. or a very few.2. the effective pore volume is measured by compressing a known volume of gas at a known pressure into a core which was originally at atmospheric pressure. It has been customary to plot permeability on a logarithmic scale. but this is no@ useful exercise.g.
(b) Grain volume ( Boyle's l a w ) Sol~d reference p1 Sample or sample !iLL Ilf Reference Gas chamber volume v = v. . mercury. P P .72 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE situation. From plug samples. for laboratory purposes. 5. and also may be estimated in situ by well log analysis. 111 reservoir engineering.9 Measurement of core plug porosity. (c) bulk and pore volume porosimeter. only the interconnectcd porosity is of interest since this is the only capacity which can make a contribution to flow. 5. (a) Bulk volume pycnometer. Dead weight tester . water. 5. Porosity may be measured directly on corc samples in the laboratory. In routine core analysis. oil or. . generally only porosities greater than about 10% are likely to be of commercial interest. calibration curve V' againstP2/(P1P2) can be established using steel blanks. the bulk volume is usually determined eithcr by caliper nleasurements or by displaccmcnt of mercury in a pycnometer (Fig.I Measurement of porosity Porosity may be determined from measurenlents on plugs drilled from recovercd core or estimated from (a) Bulk volume pycnometer  wireline log responses.1 1. established using steel blanks) (c) Bulk and pore volume poroslmeter 7 .9). in which the pore volume is considered equal to the sum of any oil. the techniques of routine core analysis provide for rncasurcment of bulk volume and either void volume or grain volume. Micrometer mercury pump I I I I Fig.P ~ * ~ ~ be Reference mark lsolatlon valve Solid volume (Calibration curve v against p2/plp2can .\ is applied to as received core plugs. A technique known as the summation of fluid. The void volume is represented as the interconnected pore space that can be occupied by a fluid such as gas. . (b) grain volume (Boyle's law).
Nondestructive testing is generally preferred since other types of measurements are often required on a common sample.. 5. The sum of the oil + water volumes as a fraction of total bulk gives the porosity. involving injection of mercury into small and irregularly shaped sample chips or regular plugs.P2) The form of the relationship between reservoir condition porosity Q R and zero net overburden laboratory porosity 4)L in terms of pore volume compressibility cp (VlVlpsi) and net overburden pressure APN (= overburden pressure . nondestructive but inherently less accurate technique of porosity measurement involves evacuation of all air from the pore spaces of a cleaned. Samples are not usable for further experiments after mercury injection.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 73 water and gas occupying the sample. In precision work. generally established using steel blanks. Dual porosity systems can be investigated by the technique if the test is conducted in equilibrium steps14].5% around the percentage value calculated. while core recovered at surface tends to be stress relieved. A schematic representation is shown in Fig. In this method which has a reprbducibility of about 2% of the measured porosity. The Boyle's law method is used to provide an estimate of grain volume. A destructive method of porosimetry.fluid pressure) psi has been found for Brent sands["]as follows: " A calibration curve of V. A similar. In general 1 ($1 .10 Porosity by summation of fluids. and therefore laboratory porosity values are generally expected to be higher than in situ values. fine pore structure systems. but at pressures of 600010 000 psi. + pieceof fresh sample containing asreceived' fluids Plug for Piece for gas volume determination by mercury injection I Weigh fragment Several hundred qram sample for crushing and disti~~ation i 1 Inject mercury to displace gas from pores buileave liquids Gas content as fraction of bulk volume I RET0R. These processes are indicated gas in Fig. The maximum amount of mercury injected is equal to the pore volume of the sample. With low porosity. So long as any clay then minerals in the pore space remain u n r e a c t i ~ e [ ~ ~ ] . The method is destructive in that oil and water from a representative part of the core are determined by distillation of fluid from a crushed sample. is designed to replace air with a measured volume of mercury. attainable with standard equipment.T DISTILLATION Water content as fraction of bulk volume J j. a calibration curve defining the relationship between known solid volumes in a sample chamber and reference pressures and volumes is required.4) ( P I .pressure required for displacement. The presence of clay bound water provides a limitation a'nd the values of porosity are considered to represent 10. in the sample chamber thus influences the observed pressure in the system compared with the pressure without the presence of a sample. By conducting the test with small increments of mercury injection and noting the . Total porosity may be obtained from crushed samples during the measurement of grain density.10. against P2/PIP2 is . Rock at reservoir conditions is subject to overburden stresses. A further representative piece is subject to mercury invasion to provide the gas filled volume. the helium porosimeter using this principle has found wide acceptance. high pressures may be necessary to approach 100% displacement. Oil content as fraction of bulk volume Porosity = water fraction + oil fraction + gas fraction Fig.9(b) and the grain volume of the sample or solid volume of say a steel cylinder is denoted by V. The volume of V. 5. Accuracy is reported high and reproducible to one percentage point in the range of porosities of 8 4 0 % .$2) c = . The magnitude of the overestimation will depend upon the pore volume compressibility of the rock and the initial in situ porosity. most of the pore space contributing to flow is occupied. a mercury injection capillary pressure curve and pore size distribution factor can be obtained en route to the porosity measurement. the weight increase of the sample is directly proportional to the pore volume. dry weighed sample and the introduction of water into the pore space. 5. It is not usual to perform routine porosity determination with anything approaching a restoration of reservoir stress. and corrections for mercury and steel vessel compressibility may become necessary.
e.1 Porosity. say: $L = 0. 5.2 Formation resistivity factor Although when clays and shales are present the rock itself has some conductivity. The Effective Overburden Pressure : 0. .0 PSI 0.27 c. Fraction Fig.5% and 27. = 3 x lo" psi' AP.005. a true value of 27% porosity may be measured between 26. i.1 1.4500 = 5500 psi The measurement of porosity on consolidated samples in routine core analysis might generally be expected to yield values of the true fractional porosity k0.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Inserting some typical valucs. in general the solid matrix can be considered nonconducting. 5.1 1 Formation factor (forced a = 1).5% porosity. = 10 000 .
5. such as cesium Fig. formation factor and resistivity index. forming an element of a bridge circuit. and in instances where localized mineralogy may influence response. The tests should be performed at a range of net overburden pressures. are important in electric log validation. 5. being infinite when c$ = 0.1 1. the saturated core being held between electrodes in the bridge circuit. response and application[j21. conductivity and spontaneous potential logs are used in addition (Fig. it should be expected that overburden corrected core porosity will not match log The main logging tools for porosity are the compensated formation density log. to lithology and porosity (Fig. Brine resistivity is determined by a platinum electrode dipped into the brine. in different degrees. Obviously. and perhaps at reservoir temperature in some cases.c. and an index is is termed the formation resistivity factor (or formadefined: tion factor. m = 2. 5.2) and perhaps to the fluid occupying the pore space. As a particular example of wireline log use.) The formation factor can be measured by means of an a.81 for sandstones. conductivity bridge.11.12 Resistivity index for a Berea sandstone sample. In interpreting formation lithology and saturation. 5. and 1 KO True formation resistivity when ( = 1. the resistivity of rock is higher than at 100% satujation. At partial brine saturations. In making comparisons it is necessary to note that the core sample represents information essentially at apoint and on a small scale compared to the averaged response of a logging tool. The 5. the neutron log and the acoustic log. Most wireline logs are designed to respond. 5. This index is a function of brine saturation and to a first approximation R. An example is shown in Fig. and a relationship proposed is I Resistivity of rock fully saturated with brine where a = 1 (taken as 0. These two quantities. the formation density tool response will be discussed further as it provides a particularly useful porosity indication in known lithology. 1 for carbonates). Resistivity of rock fully saturated with brine = Resistivity of the saturating brine Rw 5.= 2. or resistivity factor) and is designated F. (This is known as the Archie Ea~ation[~].13. after[25]).4 Porosity logs The porosity measurements from core plugs are frequently used to validate porosity interpretation from wireline logs. reader is referred to the specialized log interpretation literature for particular details of their calibration.3 Resistivity index where n . the gamma ray tool and variations of the induction.12. the formation resistivity factor will depend on porosity. . The principle of operation concerns the scattering of gamma rays as a function of the bulk density of an environment irradiated by a gamma ray source. In heterogeneous formations.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS electrical resistance of a rock sample fully saturated with a conducting fluid (brine) is therefore very much greater than would be the resistance of a sample of fluid of the same shape and The ratio The form of the relationship is shown in Fig.1 1.
In such shale formations the bulk density is modificd for shale density pYhas follows: .13 Bulk volume interpretation from logs for a 100 ft interval of a North Sea production well (after ["I).. 137 which emits 0.. The detector responses are influenced by their specific length and depth. high densities are indicated by low count rates and low densities by high detector count rates. It is usual for two detectors to be used: the short spaced one being some 6 in. In shaley formations a shale index. The bulk density measured by thc density log is the weighted average of the densities of the matrix and pore fluicl such that Fig. defined from FDCneutron crossplots or perhaps from gamma ray readings. 5. and p is the density of the rock matrix in the . The response is invalidated in poor conditions. This socalled vertical bed resolution is dependent on the heterogeneity of the formation and on tool design and logging speed. is known as V. measured by a GeigerMueller detector is an inverse exponential where pf is the average density of the pore fluid containing pore water. A n average rate is obtaincd by cumulating all counts for a given time and dividing by thc time. Both detectors are located in inserts in a tungsten carrier.TROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE function of the bulk density of a formation. Since the returning gamma ray intensity. The count rate of a detector at a fixed distance from :r source of constant intensity is very closely a sole function of the formation bulk density p . Gamma ray flux from the source is focused into the formation ancl results in about 90% of the instrument response coming from a region within 6 in. and collimation ensures that Compton scattering from formation rocks provides the prime detected energy. the high density solid tungsten preventing unwanted photons from reaching the detectors. of the well bore. the count rate does not change as abruptly as a physical boundary or as a change of character is encountered by the detcctorsource combination. A new photon of lower energy is created which in general moves In a different direction to the incidcnt photon and whrch can be considered proportional to bulk density. Radiation intensity at the detectors is measured in number of cvents per unit time and because all radioactive processes are statistical ip nature the count rate fluctuates around an average value. investigation region. The main interaction at an energy level around 3 MeV is known as Compton scattering.. hydrocarbo~lsand rnud filtrate.. whereby a photon collides with an atomic electron and some of the photon energy is imparted to the electron. It is therefore clcar that ipterprctation of the tool response requires some knowledge of the forlnation lithology and fluids present in the porc space as well as the heterogeneity of the investigation region.66 MeV gamma radiation. from the source and the long spaced detectors 1 ft away. and empirically represents the fraction of shale in formations... As a result. Gamma radiation has neither charge nor mass but may be attenuated by matter as a funct~onof electron density.
25 Clay Recorded density value \ x'\ x . it is therefore important to recognize bed heterogeneity and boundary factors (zonation) as well as the scale of the observations. LI Z 1. ' 2. X x \"i 2. ' \ . 5.\ x I X .50 Sand x . f a 0 a x x Tn . core corrected porosity against p~ in a given zone. Core data in particular may not be generally representative of an interval and is influenced in practice by ease of cutting and picks of good reservoir rock.14 and 5. 9 100 u ?  B ? S 0 ef Pb . The log porosity validated by core observation is the most useful working set since it will represent a continuous depth section. 5. One of the more common forms is a truncated normal distribution. 5. (a) 8 .\.00+ .16 Porosity distribution.25 I 4  _ ' T! Min I Max < & a n 0 1. 1.f 4 @ma I C  /Trend 2 .75 10 I I I I 10 30 50 70 Neutron q5N ( API ) Fig. \\ 1 2.1 1. most core data is discontinuous./Trend Cr. .\. as shown in Figs.50 K 1.16.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 77 In correlating core compaction corrected porosity measurements with density log data.14 Porositybulk density crossplot. 5. . a 5  Fig.00 r*. Sometimes it is observed @hat given lithologies in a reservoir with a particular depositional and diagenetic history will show a characteristic distribution of porosity in a given zone.15. In contrast. as shown in Fig.ed r ?'. 2 L Trend 2 x X / n \\' X \' X 2.75 (b) r \ .15 90 110 +A Fig.r> :. 5. The nature of coring fluid influences the magnitude of pf in the porosity calculation and p provides limits on a crossplot of together with .C t K h . \\ . The distribution may or may not be skewed and may or may not show a trend of value with depth.5 Porosity distributions Data from both core and log derived porosity interpretations may be used to provide zonal properties. 5.
it may be possible to establish an approximate relation between porosity and permeability.. Combinations of different rock units often show up with a multimodal histogram character and this requires separation into subzones. there is not. the mean porosity of the unit is the arithmetic average.e..12 PERMEABILITY 5. the acceleration due to gravity.and their sum can be considered to be a potential per unit mass of fluid. Since pcrmcability dcpcnds upon continuity of pore space.17 Multimodal porosity.U = . this provides one method of evaluating permeability variation from log and drill cuttings data which can be of value. For unconsolidated rocks it is possiblc to establish relations between porosity.h 'd Q A  dh constant dL . Basic equations of fluid mechan~cs (Euler or Bernoulli equations) apply the staterncnt o i encrgy conservation to a flowing fluid.1 Fluid flow in porous media The permeability of a rock is a measure of its specific flow capacity and can be determined only by a flow experiment. and permeability (e.78 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE For a truncated normal distribution. Kozeny model). electrical conductivity and diffusivity. as shown in Fig. The three terms can be considered to be the energy components of the fluid liable to vary during a flow process . but these have a limited application. then has the dimensions of length. The core alialysis porosity histogram is usually only a part of the log derived porosity histogram since sampling is unlikely to be statistically meaningful.12. or of specific surface. and either some measure of apparent pore diameter. 5. and the potential energy of position . any unique relation between the porosity of a rock and its permeability (except that a rock must have a nonzero porosity if it is to have a nouzero permeability). and very high and very low values are sometimes missing. Again for rocks of similar lithologj~subjected to similar conditions of sedimentation. Nevertheless. conductivity. in theory (nor in practice).+ Fig. and and d@ =dX dX Darcy rZ7' originally studied the vertical filtration of water deriving experimcntally the relation = U= g. and is defined similarly by a transport equation dG?' Q.the pressure energy. the kinctic energy. A gradient in potential can also be defined 5. If the potential terms are divided throughout by g. a rate of transfer is proportional to a potential gradient.17. but this is !ikely to be of local value only.g . 5. so that if no energy losses occur an energy balance on a unit mass of flowing fluid is and if irreversibilities exist Poros~ty.constant A dL i. Permeability has direct analogies with thermal and the gradient in potential is a measure of the irreversible energy losses.
A = sq. Obviously. particularly by King Hubbert showed that the constant includes the fluid density and viscosity. Further experiments and analysis.) pg' = (h2 . For the oil industry.A. It is.18. and since kinetic energy changes are generally negligible Fig. p = density of fluid.g. mean throat diameter).19. The group constant k = ~ d = permeability 2 is taken as the characteristic of the porous medium controlling fluid flow within the medium.12. The Darcy can be large for a practical unit. A rock has a permeability of 1 Darcy if a potential gradient of 1 atmlcm induces a flow rate of 1 cclseclsq cm of a liquid of viscosity 1 cp. where N = final constant of proportionality and incorporates a shape factor. 5.h ~ pg' ) = p2 and this is the defining equation for the measurement of permeability by flow measurement. and the milliDarcy is more commonly used. p = cp. the unit adopted is termed the Darcy. the product g dhldL can be related directly to the potential as defined above.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 79 where dh1dL represents a manometric gradient. an absolute length unit could be adopted and 1Darcy lo* ( ~ m ( )~~1 0mm2) '~ For an incompressible fluid (or for a small pressure interval for which an average density may be used) :[ and P + g'Z= . dpIdL = atmlcm. and that the residual constant has dimensions of acceleration and rock geometry. and p = viscosity of fluid. and this is defined by pZc p2+ (2 .2 Datum correction The equation and Qi' may be considered a potential per unit volume. 5. The corrected pressures are then P I C = PI + ( 2 . g' constant = (Nd2). where Q = cm3is. as shown in Fig. giving initially a correctly volumetrically weighted average pressure). cm. d = characteristic length dimension (e.+ g ' z P 5. however.18 Linear Darcy flow. With dimensions of L'. 5. a valid equation when all pressures are corrected to a common datum level (frequently in reservoir practice a level such that equal volumes of hydrocarbon lie up dip and down dip of this datum. For horizontal flow dZ1dL = 0 and Darcy's equation can be written as is encountered so frequently that its restriction to horizontal flow may be forgotten.Z) pgf and the potential difference between points 1 and 2 is then as shown in Fig. .
From Darcy's law we can write kA dP Q=  dr The curved surface area open to flow is 2nrh so P Fig. 5.f Fig.4335 y sin a I In practical situatioils thcre may well be a rcgion of altered permeability around the wellborc. It is incorporated into the steady state equation as follows: r. 5. area is in square fcct. y is a specific gravity rclativc to pure water.) P In (rclr'b") 1..00708 k h ( P . viscosity is in centipoise and volumetric flow rate is in reservoir condition barrels per day. 5.12. 5. as shown in Fig.21 Radial flow system.20 Linear flow in dipp~ng bed.P. .. + pg' sin a If pressure gradient is measured in psiift./ which yields = _ Fig. as shown in Fig.3 Linear and radial flow equations We may now summiiriw the equation for steady state linear and radial flow of a single phase fluid as follows: (a) Linear system. then we have an expression in .80 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Datum (b) Radial flow system.21.20. this becomes Q= 0. which may bc positive for reduced permeability and negative for improvement.. 5. Integrating between the wellbore and the external boulldary of the system we have 12i P. (b) pressure distribution .19 Datum correction. = r e" W External boundary Net thickness h 1 Radial dlstance r from well Z \ re Flowing steady state pressure at well is p. The effect is described in terms of a skin effect S.field units as follows: Q = I In field units with Q in RBID and length tcrins in feet. which may increase or decrease the pressure drop in comparison with an unaltered systcm. permeability is in milliDarcies. 5. (a)Geometry.127 X lo' kA El [ (Pjf'Z) + 0.
Using conventional equipment. This is known as the Klinkenberg correction[" for gas slippage and involves making several measurements of permeability at different inlet pressures.22. The region between the compliant sleeve and the inner walls of the permeameter is subjected to a confining pressure (about 200 psi) in order to prevent the flow along the long axis of the plug. Darcies.1 2. A = sample crosssectional area.e. k = constant called permeability. The horizontal permeabilities of k. For P2 = 1 atm. the permeability measured is higher than the real permeability and a correction is required.22 Permeability measurement.23). The true permeability is the extrapolation of the measured data on a straight line to the point UPrn = 0 (i. normal to k. p = fluid viscosity. Along with routine core analysis measurements of horizontal permeability. 5. atmicm. For this reason the Klinkenberg corrected permeability is also called KL (L = liquid). infinite mean pressure).. The nature of the liquid used in checking Klinkenberg corrections may be important in clay sensitive or reactive formations. When corrective measurements are not made. Any plug drilled along the long axis of the whole core is termed a vertical plug. This real permeability is equivalent to the permeability that should be obtained for flow with the core saturated 100% with an unreactive liquid. in horizontal plane). (Fig. permeabilities in PI Qi = P 2 Q 2 as shown in Fig. In the laboratory.4 Laboratory determination of permeability cap steel &linder Permeability is an anisotropic property of porous rock in some defined region of the system. Dry gas is usually used (air. cm2. it is directional.6 in the milliDarcy range. charts are available for typical corrections but these may be erroneous in specific circumstances. measurements are often made on a full diameter core piece. Routine core analysis is generally concerned with plug samples drilled normal to the long axis of the whole core. that is. For gas flow where flow rate is measured at standard conditions. and kg(. permeability corrections are unnecessary for permeabilities approaching 1 Darcy but may be in the order of 0. Such samples are referred to as horizontal plug samples. In general. the sample is placed in a device called a permeameter which comprises a compliant sleeve sealing the plug samples along its long axis and a steel container with end caps and pressure regulators into which the sample is placed. are usually reported for full diameter is samples (kg(. The permeability for horizontal laminar flow of a single fluid through a granular material has previously been given by i compliant sleeve Fig. and for convenience. the relationship between rate and pressures upstream and downstream at isothermal conditions is given by and calculated permeability is plotted against lip.. He) in permeability determination to minimize fluidrock reaction. N2. dPidL = pressure gradient across sample. cp. The mean permeability is determined as where the units are Q = volumetric flow rate. Sometimes these samples are specifically requested along bedding planes where it has been noted that the long axis of the whole core is not normal to the bedding plane. 5. cm3/s. In carbonate reservoirs where heterogeneity is anticipated.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS plug sample / 5. then The linear Darcy relationship for gas flow at standardconditions thus becomes . At low pressures. 5.. The outlet end pressure is often atmospheric. it is sometimes found that vertical measurements have also been specified. Linear flow of gas through the core plug is established (flow rate proportional to pressure drop is checked).
injectcd water tonguing. D The accuracy is usually within f5% of the true valuc. Consequently. f k. injected gas override. kA T=L QP = AP k \ the range of I x 1v4 up to 20 D can be measured.12. k. # k . In the representation T with subscripts x. gravity smearing or accentuation of unstable displacement fronts. angular and irregular. Application in reservoir simulation models is of intermediate scale. With special pcrmeameters. Core data represents microscale observation as shown in Fig. the property is not necessarily identical in all size samples or orientations. The direction perpendicular to bedding planes is of considerable interest in connection with movement in the gravitational field: gas segregation. 5.y. The sedimentary environment may also lead to the orthogonal permeabilities in the 1101izontal direction also being unequal. The direction of greatest interest in reservoir samples is that parallel to the bedding planes .24 Effect of scale of observation and measurement in permeabilitydata from a Rotliegende aeolian sand cross bed set in the Leman gas field (after [361). 5.. The representation of iJow restriction is at the heart of permeability characterization and is manifest through definition of transmissibility.the !lorizorrtr~l permeability.5 Anisotropy of permeability While permeability as defined in petroleum usage is ayropcrty only of the rock (having the di~nension L ). although the measurements arc poorer at high and low permcabilities.82 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE t * /@)/( / kL The utilization of permeability anisotropy information is very much scale and problem dependent.z indicate direction. and well test derived data is of macroscale. Whenever sediments are poorly sorted. 5. generally the smallest value. the sedimentation process will ensure that vertical perlneability will he less than horizontal permeability even in tllc absence of tight streaks. in general. the quantificato tion is as follows: 0 Fig. Locat~on miniof Fig. . values of caprock permeability can be determined down t c around 1 0 ' D. but this is generally a lesser effect than the vertical to horizontal difference.24. with k. 5.23 Klinkenberg permeability correction.
This type of distribution was first reported in the literature by Law and has been noted by others. can be represented empirically to account for scale by use of a coefficient a  2.7 Permeability distributions In a given rock type unit. Crossflow between adjacent beds can occur unless there are permeability barriers. 5. Linear beds in parallel See Fig./k.26.26 Linear beds in parallel./p. as shown in Fig. Crossflow is also promoted by capillarity.12. it may be expected that a truncated log normal frequency of permeabilities will occur. is a relative permeability. The only source of permeability data for observing the nature of a distribution is from core analysis measurements.25 Linear beds in series. It has also been shown analytically that the mode of a log normal distribution is a geometric average. then A x h so iS is an arithmetic average. which essentially means a unit having similarity in pore size distribution as a result of depositional and diagenetic history. so the pressure gradient will be different and also different between layers. and there is a For equal A then =L/~{L. however.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS The value of k may be from appropriately scaled observation. be remembered that in general &e. 5. The relationship between well test derived permeability Era and core averaged permeability k. zA.25. a = : 5. 1. 5. When all beds are the same width. . kre5 kcor It should. This applies when beds are homogeneous such that PI . 5.12. These are linear beds in series and parallel with no crossflow between beds.) The approprhte mean is thus a harmonic average permeability kH.kr product where k. is an effective_ permeability and really should be considered as a k. Linear beds in series For constant flow rate we can add pressure drops. 5. behind.6 Averaging permeabilities Warren and Price [20]showed that the most probable behaviour of a heterogeneous system approaches that of a uniform system having a permeability equal to the geometric mean Fig. Fig. Two simple systems can be analysed in linear geometry to determine an appropriate mean to represent an equivalent homogeneous system.P2 is constant in all beds at equal distances. It will not be true when water displaces oil since ko/po ahead of front is different from k.
The application of any relationship is purely in the nature of an inout operutor so any reasonable functional form will suffice. Core analysis data can rarely do this. Empirical correlation of porosity with permeability is frequently attempted in order to provide an estirrlate of permeability as a function of depth.27 and has the property that the mode is equivalent to a gcometric average of the sample values.29 Porositypermeability correlations for glven rock types. Fig. 5. . the sand unit probably rcpresents three regions.27 Truncated log normal distribution. rnln Logar~thrn perrneab~lrty of t rnax t Fig. The easiest relationship to test is that of a straight line and it has frequently been noted that a plot of porosity against the logarithm of permeability leads to an approximate straight linc.28 Multimodal permeability distribution. 5. As shown in Fig. 5. In these circumstances. (a) Semilog. (b) loglog. In zonation it is important to recognize depth and thickness trends with permeability which can be differcnt but which can give rise to the s a n e apparent distribution. tests such as the KolmogorovSniirnoff test have found application in testing whether or not sarnple sets belong to a particular population [I"'"]. The idealized truncated log norntal distribution is shown in Fig. so a depth record of permeability is not generally available.84 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE strong possibility that the plugs will not represent a true statistical sample of the unit. 5. Some . 5.13 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN POROSITY AND PERMEABILITY Porosity from validated log response provides a continuous representation of pore volume as a function of depth in a well. . so any practical relationship represents a best fit and may be represented by a convenient inathematical relationship. Reservoir zonation within and between wclls can be aided by histogrant analysis. Permeability distributiolls in a reservoir can be used diagnostically to aid zonation and subzonation. 5. normalization of the frequency axis is rccomrnended for ease of comparison.28. There is no theorctical relationship between porosity and permeability in natural porous systems. Statistical linear scale porosity Logarithm of permeabil~ty Fig. The low permeability zone may sometimes relate to diagenetic damage of pores and exist in a particular depth andlor saturation interval of a given depositional unit. (c)semilog multlfit.
Define relationship between log derived in situ porosity and Klinkenberg and compaction corrected core permeability at common depth. logarithmic scale porosity against log derived @ corrected core I$ and obtain relationship.  . Depth match core and log data. from core against Klinkenberg and compaction corrected core permeability (bedding plane direction) and obtain best fit. In poor correlations a porosity of say 25% may be used to predict a permeability of 300 mD. It may also be apparent that the degree of fit of the equations is important as a calculated permeability is above there are other approaches [j8]. p~ = formation density log response.. s where a = .. One has been the direct correlation of core corrected permeability with well test interpretation and log response informations [j31. It is clear that a statistically significant volume of data is necessary to identify the relationships. .+ C A T + ) . . . As might be expected. The form of the correlating expression in a given zone is as follows: k = aCf(ap. Use each relationship in appropriate zone to predict permeability at each depth value of interest and plot permeability log. Explain anomalies. 1. but be based on a data spread of permeabilities between 1500 mD and 10 mD. 5.. In addition to the correlation methods outlined TABLE 5.3 @ . Examples of the crossplots are shown in Fig. The most usual sequence of operations to provide the correlations is shown i n r a b l e 5.. Since flow rate is directly proportional to permeability the potential errors are significant... obtained empirically. ik.k..29.. only data from unimodal histograms are plotted for defining a particulz permeabilityporosity relationship. log response. Compare compaction corrected core C$ histogram with log derived @ histogram and define appropriate zonation..  .@ = neutron log response.3. b. reservoir units may be represented by curves or multiple lines. 4.c = coefficients ..5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS required from a porosity value at a particular depth. 5. + b@. a. AT = acoustic .Krelationships Oo / + .
(g) Use this value to determine porosity.1 8 ~ ~ +. (c) Determine R. = 5 Om and R . A5. . for zones A and B. Laboratory analysis has shown that Q. B. c m ' m e q ~ ' .2. 0 4 6 0 ~ ' .. to what value of V. and a truc resistivity of 11.1 Om. (b) Determine Rw by considering only zone C. (f) Integrate information from the two shale indicators and select the most appropriate value of V.092 19.3 A shaley sand has t i porosity of 26% over an interval within which R. = model? If R.. .84 blm metres.4 0.2 (see Appendix 11) together with the densitySNP crossplot in Fig.3 evaluate the following information for the permeable zones A and B. and from a shale zone (as included in table).3 0.86 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Another form promoted by a logging service company requires knowledge of irreducible saturation and is based on pore geometry and log response. and plot all points on the DIN Crossplot. C and shale.0 0. What is the porosity? In an updip location the same formation has an apparent hydrocarbon saturation. and VAh calculate the water saturation from the basic Simandoux equation. = 0. = 1. Examples Example 5. NAIL VTI.n=2..120 12./. Assumea=l. Read garnma ray values for zones A and B and convert to VVh. at A and B using i) The Simandoux equation ii) The niodified Simandoux equ a t'lon iii) The Poupon and Lcvcaux equation (Indonesia Equation). m = 2 . 23 .IS this Q. The Coates and Dumarioir equation ['']is a modification of one by Timur '"I and is expressed as follows: where ~2 = 3. 111 an offset well.205 6. (h) Calculate S . a l . Evaluate V. (e) Establish the shale point on a neutron .equivalent on thc modified Si~nandoux Using these values of R .29 Ilm. = 0.2Y Example 5.8and 2.5 0. + (log + : + 2. If the exponent of the resistivity ratio equation is 2.2.density crossplot.m=2.056 Rm. n = 2).75  . Example 5. a thick water bearing layer is encountered having a resistivity of 1.268 Calculate the constants of the Archie equ at'ion. what is the hydrocarbon saturation'? What would be values for exponents of 1./.5 Rm. . (a) Tabulate log values for the zones A.1 A series of core samples from a well give thc following formation factor: porosity relationships: FRF: : 30 0. (d) Establish the clean line and the shale line for garnma ray.2. Note these are Dresser Atlas logs in a sandy formation of a well drilled with an oil base n ~ u d there are n o resistivity logs or an SP..!.1 and A5.3 mcqlcc. .212 X~ and C = 465 p.2 Using the logs in Figs A5. The water resistivity is 0.h for each level.165 8.. Evaluate the water saturation using the WaxmanThomas e q u a t i o ~(~R = 0 .
and gas viscosity at ambient temperature is 0. what is the permeability of the sample? Dimensions are 1in. when the pressure at the HWC is 1450 psi. The effective distance from the HWC to the outcrop is 10 miles.6 The following results were obtained in flowing dry gas through a cleaned extracted dried core plug: Core dimensions: Gas viscosity: Atmospheric pressure: Upstream pressure (mm Hg) Diameter 1in. Under dynamic conditions. a width of 3000 ft and a permeability of 750 mD.4 Darcy's law in differential form is: (a) Show that the equation for isothermal linear flow of an ideal gas in Darcy units reduces to: (b) If a gas flows through a core sample discharging to atmosphere at a rate of 6. Sea level  f2501 Example 5.038. Length 1in. A hydrocarbonwater contact exists at 5250 ft.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS Example 5.018 CP 760 mm Hg Downstream pressure Atmospheric Atmospheric Atmospheric Flow rate (standard conditions) (cm3/min) What is the permeability of the sample. what is the rate of water influx in barrels per day? Assume the specific gravity of the aquifer water is 1. The aquifer sand has a net thickness of 65 ft.2 ccsls when a manometer upstream of the core records a pressure of 190 mm Hg. Example 5.5 A n aquifer is known to outcrop at the sea bed where the water depth is 250 ft as shown in the figure.. 0. after Klinkenberg correction? . length.018 cp. diameter x 1in.
g Average pressure at producing wells = 1750 p ~ at 5000 ft Net sand thicknesc = 150 ft Permeability to oil = 150 mD Porosity = 26% Viscosity of oil at reservoir conditions = 0.0 45.9 Find the expressions for the average permeability of beds or zones of differing permeability when in scrics and in parallel.= 1 0 ~ y n e l c m ' = 981 cm s2 Core Example 5.e. (d). A production rate of 1000 bbllday of tank oil is obtained flom a number of wells lying close to the upper fa~llt boundary.0 67.8 A reservoir is boundcd by three faults and an oilwater contact forming a tilted rectangular block of 3000 ft x 1000 ft x 150 ft.0 20. 1porc volumc of invading water) Use the following relationships: I BB Liday = I . and mounted in a burette as shown in the accompanying diagra~n. the height of the brine above the core is as follows: Time (s) 0 100 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Height (cm) 100.135 rblstb Density of oil at reservoir conditions = 50 lblft' 150 f t 5750ft (a) What is the pressure at the oilwater contact? (b) If the pressure at the original oilwater contact at abandonment is 500 psig.7 psi Compressibility of water = 3 X 10\ols/psi Example 5.48 cm 1 atmosphere = 14.88 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Example 5.84 cm3/s 1ft = 30.0 96. The oilwater contact is 1000 ft long at a depth of 5750 ft. both in linear (a).5 Brine What is the pernleability of the sample? Assume that: Density of brine = 1. (b) and radial flow (c).7 cp Oil formation volume factor = 1.02 gicm Viscosity of brine = I centipoisc g 1atmosphere .1 82.0 13.7 A core sample is saturated with brine. (c) Calculate the mean permeability for the following cases: .0 30. what sizc of aquifer would be necessary if water drivc of thc reservoir werc to be complete? (i. When flow is started.
4 (1965). API Drilling and Production Practice (1941).J. Can. Tech. 889. G. averaging and use of the basic geological engineering data. J. D. [16] Newman.P. 1211 RRIIERC .R. [13] Law. Can. JPT25 (1973). Properties of Reservoir Rocks: Core Analysis.S. 14th Ann. (1970) 1241 Firoozabadi. [20] Warren. Pet. [ l l ] Havlena.M. AIME (1944). Bass. JPT (Feb 1979). A new approach to improved log derived permeability. SPWLA. L. Prediction of formation compaction from laboratory compressibility data.H. R. J.L. 129. Effects of liquid saturation on turbulence factors for gasliquid systems. 1979).S.L. 174. absolute. D. [3] Archie. measured. Penwell. 211. Vol 7 The Brent Sand in the [22] Gewers.M. Symp. World Oil (1948). A critical review of core analysis techniques. Eng. [lo] Cuiec. and Nichol. Pet. [14] Davis. 68. Gas turbulence factor in a microvugular carbonate.C. Tech. An analysis of high velocity gas flow through porous media. Tech. 263. and Katz. [19] Testerman. \. Trans.W.) Petroleum Production Handbook (Vl. Pet. G. J. (1973). R. (Dec. J.D. and Whiting.L. A P I R P 40 (1960). Graham and Trotman (1980). L. Proc.R.E. [5] Anderson. [23] Wong. The permeability of porous media to liquid and gases. Can. R. J. Tech. AIME (SPEJ) 222 (1961).M. Tech. J. J.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS Zone Depth (parallel) Length or radial extent (series) 89 Permeabilitv (mD) References 6 [I] American Petroleum Institute Recommended practice for core analysis procedure. Pet. G.. 200. 202. [17] Coates. effective. J. Wile)! Interscience (1973).W. D . [12] Bell. UKCS: Sedimentological and Reservoir Engineering Study. Tech. Petroleum Reservoir Engineering . [6] Klinkenberg. 278. and Price. A statistical reservoir zonation technique: JPT (1962). J. 42. [18] Teeuw. Reservoir rocks and petrophysical considerations. H. AAPG Bull 36 (1952). Pet. Can. A. SPE (1962). McGraw Hill (1960).K. [7] Amyx. Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology. (ed. G. 153. (1969). 38. Int. Correlating and averaging connate water saturation data. 236. A statistical approach to the interstitial heterogeneity of sand reservoirs. Permeability. Flow in heterogeneous porous media.J. [8] Frick. Trans. (1980).E. [2] Ryder. H. Oriented cores guide Eliasville redevelopment. [15] Keelan. Viking Graben. Tulsa (1975). 6 (1967). C. Can. . Coring and Core Analysis Handbook. [4] Monicard. 11 (1972). S. J. D. Study of problems related to the restoration of the natural state of core samples. L. Pore volume compressibility of consolidated friable and unconsolidated reservoir rocks under hydrostatic loading. Interpretation. J. T. V2).Physical Properties. J. D . A. Pet. SPEJ (1971). and Dumanoir. 16 (1977). Pet. Can. 42. [9] Buckles.
JPT (1974). H. 2 ( 1 979).M. and Kahn. 4IstAnn. 1411 Hook. 1311 Timur..G. Clay Mitz. Syrnp. Electron microscope and Xray diffraction studies of filamentous illitic clay from sandstones of the Magnus field. F. and McHardy. 1574. J.L. Proc.S.1. Wiley. W.C. I. 222. J. M. Eval.K. and Hoffnlan.D. Rc~v. L > J ' 7 0 . The precision of core analysis data and sorne implicatio~is reservoir evaluation. [43] Dupuy. A.L. 6lh ELITOP. P. J . Carnbriclgc (Apr. In Pt. 223. 23. New York (1962).R. SPWLA. A.pore size distribution correlations. J . Houston (Nov. D. The relationship between permeability and morphology of diagenetic illite in reservoir rocks. and Young.J. A. Dalmont. 1985).J.J. (ed.S. AIME Form. . A. Permeability . and Thomas. SPWLA. F. I. 1471 Rathmell. R. 1491 Trudgen. Application of statistical methods to detailed stuclics of reservoirs. H. J. 144. Oxford 17 ( 1 982).R. Prediction of permcabil~ty from logs by multiple regres. (1966). Log. Applied Science Pub. Proc 6th Europ. NormalisecL Qv . A. H. (Woodland.the key to shaley sand evaluation using theWaxmanSmils equation in the absence of core data. and Cable. and Hurst. Wilson. ed. Proc.C.W. [27] Darcy.ion. Applications of clay mincralogy in reservoir studies. Conference.. R. . N. Symp. J. Europec (1982). for (1983). Wilson. In Developtnenl in Pefrolel~m Engineering . 77. Proc. and Ali. Symp. DawciWilson) Elsevier Applied Science Pub. Proc.S. Clay Min. and Timur. C. 1432. 691. and Tait.M. Hemstock. lt~st. Geol. Papel M (1979) [34] Muecke. Geology of the Leman gas field. J . AIME 213 (19581. M. 195.F. J. Symp. M. Statistical Arzalysis in the Geological Scierzcc7s. The measulerneat of pctrophysical properties of unconsolidated sand cores.. [39] Archer. R. P. S. and Pottier. The yublicfbuntains in thc Town of Dijorz. Z . Errors in corc oil content data measured by the retort distillation technique. Barking (1985). . SNS.Y. R .V. Paper EUR 273. A. [48] Pallat. V . 24th SPWLA Ann. W.C. R. polositp and residual water saturation relationships for sandstone reservoirs. [26] Juhasz. Significant contributions in formation evaluation and well testing.J. Statistically analysing core data.Formation fines and factors controlli~lg their movement in porous media.J. Trans. 2225.J. JPT (Dec. . Determination of rock properties by quantitative processing of geophysical borehole logs.S. 1960). [44] Jcnnings.. Core handling and rne>~surement Syrnp. An investigation of permeability. Determining interblock transmissibility in reservoir simulators.troleum and the Continental ShrlfofNW Europe. 1281 Hubbert. F.R. 145 1361 Van Veen.W. Trans. J. techniques for obtaining reliable reservoir characteristics. 759. Paris (1 856). 1321 Swanson. 51 (1965). T. [40] McHardy. E. P. The Log Analyst 9 (1968). and Archer. JPT (1979). JPT (1961). Thermal properties of reservoir rocks and fluids. J. 29. [38] Wall. Determining areal permeability distributions by calculations. SPWLA 22ndAnn. [ i McLatchie. 4] The effective compressibility of reservoir rock and its effect on permeability. (1963). [37] Passmore. (301 Miller. Proc..386.W.J. [2Y] Torouyi. 1331 Allen. B. Darcy's law and the field equations of the flow of underground fluids. 1421 ~ r u g e rW. 1351 N a ~ t e ~ a a l .). 1984).W. JPT (1973). Pet. (June 1981). SPE ?'roc. Barking (l975). A. Relationship of facies and reservoir quality in Rotlicgendes desert sand stones.. Fall Mtg. J. AIME 207 (1956).90 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [25] Peveraro. JPT (June 1967). Paper A (1979). [4h] Luffel.K. M.F. Pet. and Randall. J..M.
800.T.1 (Ed. 0 . JPT (July 1970). [54] Desbrandes. DaweWilson): Elsevier Applied Science. World Oil (March 1985). Coring.C. 43. Graham and Trotman. Encyclopedia of Well Logging.. [56] Threadgold. Fundamentals of Well Log Interpretation.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS [50] Bush. Golden. [53] Dewan.E.W. D. R.. in Pet. 1551 Hilchie. R. Colorado (1982). a ~dvancid Well Log Interpretation. [52] Serra. P. In Developments in Petroleum Engineering . D . [51] Keeland. Amsterdam (1984). Essentials ofiModern Open Hole Log Interpretation. Tulsa (1983). J. Barking (1985). Elsevier. IjA). and Jenkins. Hilchie Inc. L 2 . London (1985). Pennwell. Advances in Formation Evaluation. Sci. 83. Proper hydration of clays for rock property determinations. D.W. (Dev. D.
Using the example o f an oil drop crosssection pore of radius r.2). 6. The angle 8 is known as the contact angle. can also be defined in terms o f these radii and in A pressure differential is required for nonwetting terms o f the interfacial tension o between the phase fluid to displace wetting phase fluid and this is immiscible fluids. The curved interface has two entering pore space iilitially occupied by wetting principal radii o f curvature normal to cach other. we can write 6. 6. . 6. It can be shown that the capillary pressure bons from a source rock region into a reservoir trap.1) assumption that RI = R2. thc PC tcrm is positive for unconfiiled result o f nonwetting phase fluid (hydrocarbons) immiscible fluid pairs..e.. This happens as a convention. By the pore space characteristics. and making the in a water environment (Fig. phase fluid (water) during migration o f hydrocar.pressure P.and R2. R.1 Pressures at an interface. i. The capillary pressure PC is defined as roleurnreservoir prior to production is governed by the difference between the two phase pressures. Oil drop Fig. 92 Fig.2 Immiscible fluids interfacein a confined capillary.1 EQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS where 8 is the angle measured through the wetting phase (water) fluid that the surface rnakes at the contact with the pores wall (Fig.. Capillary pressure may be defined as the pressure difference across a curved interface between two For an i~nmisciblc fluid pair coilfined in a circular immiscible fluids. equivalent to a minimum threshold capillary pressure and is dcnendent on vore size.Chapter 6 Fluid Saturation: Influence of Wettability and Capillary Pressure The curvature o f the interface suggests that the oil phase pressure Po is greater than the water phase The equilibrium saturation distribution in a pet. 6.
and the fluid which spreads more is said to be the wetting phase fluid. through the wetting phase fluid. Air and brine are frequently used as the pseudoreservoir fluids. (= 26 dyneslcm). and the displacement is effected by increasing air pressure in a series of discrete steps in watersaturated core plugs sitting Strongly (a) water wet (b) Preferentially (C)Neutral water wet wettabll~ty (d) Preferentially Oil wet Strongly (e) Oil wet Fig.6 FLUID SATURATION 93 TABLE 6. Nonwetting phase Oil Oil Gas Gas Gas Mercury Conditions T = temperature P = pressure . (c)neutral. 8 is measured in the water phase to aid comparisons. T. (a) Strongly water wet. particularly chamosite.P Laboratory. Contact angles are measured.3 Wetting contact angles in confined capillaries. air and brine with a ( a cos 0) value of 72 may be used to measure PC (airbrine) in the laboratory. T P Laboratory.P Reservoir.e. It will be seen later that fluid displacement characteristics can also be used to deduce wetting character. The degree of wettability exhibited depends both on the chemical compositions of the fluid pair.) = (0 cos @)lab The migration of hydrocarbons into an initially water filled reservoir rock and the subsequent equilibrium vertical distribution of saturation is modelled in the laboratory by a nonwetting phase displacing wetting phase drainage capillary pressure test..1. The main practical difficulty comes from obtaining a smooth representative pore surface at reservoir conditions of temperature and pressure on which to make measurements. T.. (a cos Use is made of this relationship in conducting laboratory tests with fluids other than reservoir condition fluids. 6. T. The relationship for PC (reservoir oilbrine) is obtained using the appropriate value of (a cos 8). The presence of certain authigenic clays.1 System Wetting phase Brine Brine Brine Brrne Oil Gas (After 1261). 6. (d) preferentially oil wet..3..P 30 30 0 0. and on the nature of the pore wall. T. (e) strongly oil wet. (b) preferentially water wet.. For example. denoting fluid pairs by the subscripts 1 and 2 (a cos PC(" = PC. In Fig.2 LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH RESERVOIR SYSTEMS Since a cos 8 = rPcM it follows that the capillary pressure measured in any given porous system using a particular fluid pair will be related to that obtained with any other fluid pair merely by the ratio of the a cos 8 terms. together with contact angles and interfacial tensions. The qualitative recognition of preferred spread is called a wettability preference. T.P Reservoir. particularly the asphaltine content of the oil.P Laboratory. Pure quartz sandstone or calcite surfaces are likely to be wetted preferentially by water. may promote oil wet character. by convention. Reservoir. . The relative spreading concept applied to fluids on a surface may be used to illustrate the understanding of wettability description applied to an oilwater system in a reservoir. 0 140 30 48 72 (50) 4 480 The angle 8 is influenced by the tendency of one of the fluids in the immiscible pair to spread on the pore wall surface in preference to the other. A table of typical fluid pairs of interest in reservoir engineering is shown in Table 6. i. The capillary pressure forces that influence allowable saturation change in pores of a given size are thus directly influenced by wetting character. 6. ( 0 COS 8)res PC(..
5 Laboratory measurements of drainage capillary pressure. Wett~ngphase saturat~onSw Fig. as shown in Fig.) the water saturation decreases and its value is established by weighing the core plug. 6.. For pressures greater than the minimum threshold pressure. The crosshatched region in Fig. (2) Liquid saturations measured after equilibrium saturation has been reached. is reached and no further increase in differential pressure causes further desaturation.5 psi and 3. nonwetting phase should be most difficult in the smallest borc tube (highest threshold pressure). and measuring the quantity of any produced wetting phase. In laboratory tests this final irreducible saturation value is often beyond the breakdown pressure of the porous plate and is sometimes obtained by centrifuge spinning at a rotational force equiva1en. for a given rockfluid system. Again.0 psi some desaturation is achieved and the minimum threshold pressure (P. If the density of water is denoted by P w . In higher permeability reservoir rocks (500 mD) the value of PC. 6. As a result of an increase in pressure (ecluivalent to PC since PC = Pa.4 Gas liquid drainage capillary pressure measurement. 6. may be indistinguishable from zero applied pressure.) is known as the transition zone region. 6.. Between 0.. llr it will he observed that entry of the since P.t to about 150 psi.5.6. The apparatus layout is shown in Fig. a decreasing pore size is invaded by nonwetting phase fluid until an irreducible wetting phase saturation S. The relationship between applied pressure differential (equivalent to capillary pressure) and saturation thus gives a characterization of pore size distribution.arid PC (S.. with equilibrium being controlled by the core plug taking longest. The first applied pressure differential does not cause any desaturation of wetting phasc and is interpreted as meaning that the threshold capillary pressure of the largest pore sizes has not beenieached. 6.94 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE on a semipermeable porous diaphragm. 6.P.. (1) Portion of liquid in saturated cores is displaced at a particular pressure level by either gas or displacing liquid.PC. A number of cores of similar petrophysical propertics can be analysed simultaneously. . I  Neoprene d~aphragm Atmosphere \ Screen \ Porous plate 10300 03 1 Pressure regulators transducers and d~g~tal voltmeters qI I m Cyl~nder Alr compressor Fig. The physical significancc of threshold pressure may be apprcciated by an analogy with capillary rise of water in different bore glass tubes suspended in an open tray of water. The laboratory test results may look like those shown in Fig.. There will be a threshold pressure for each pore radius which has to be overcome by the applied pressure differential in order to move wetting phasc fluid from that pore..4.) lies in this region.. (3) Repetition for several successive pressure levels..5 which lies between .. The nonwetting phase fluid finds it easier to enter the largest pore spaces in the porous rock first since.
In British units this ratio is unity. . From our definition of capillary pressure as PC = Po . 6. .(PFWL..P O I The saturation which exists at this height H i s a rock property dependent term and is obtained from laboratory tests P = f (Sw) C therefore Po . At some height H above the free water 20 cos 0 PC = level. then at the FWL and P.81. the capillary pressure at a depth equivalent to H above the free water level is given by P C P C = ( P F M ~ LP O = g/gc g/gc H ) . which is a convenient datum and where Po = r PW=PFWL it also follows that the saturation which occurs at Po = PFWL POg/gc . 6.pw g/gc. = PFWL.P W g/gc H) therefore H(pw . or g' is the ratio of the acceleration due to gravity and the gravitational constant.7 Static pressure gradients in a homogeneous reservoir interval. Using the free water level as a datum and defining its position in the reservoir as the place where oil phase pressure Po equals the water phase pressure P. .. .P. . The relationship between height above free water level and capillary pressure is derived from consideration of the gravitycapillary pressure force equilibrium. i.P . Fig.e. = 0 = P ~ ( F w L ) H = f (Sw) Figure 6. and in SI units is 9. The FWL is thus a property of the reservoir system. H where gig. while an oilwater contact observed in a particular well in the reservoir will depend on the threshold pressure of the rock type present in the vicinity of the well and there may then be a zone of 100% water saturation from some height above the FWL.6 Capillary rise above free water level. . H height H will depend on a pore radius term r. The threshold capillary pressure found in reservoir rocks is proportional to the height above the free water level (FWL) datum. The free water level in the dish provides a convenient datum location. where a region of 100% water saturation will be found.6 FLUID SATURATION 1 2 3 Pressure + .7 shows fluid gradients for the oil and Since we also have the relationship water phases which are defined in terms of density of the fluids. + gradient pressure gradient Fig.
8.10 shows a number of diffcrcnt characteristic mercury injection capillary pressure curve shapes.96 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE PC(sW) = therefore 20 cos H .8 Static water saturation distribution and definition o contacts and transition zone in a homogeneous reservoir.v. = PI. 6. Figure 6. then H ( P . f .. The pore size distribution function D.) = r . The magnitude of the threshold capillary pressure can influence the location of fluid contacts predicted by gradient intersection methods from RFI' data since the tool respo~idsto filtrate invaded zone character (P.S/gc  (PW  PO) Similarly. H i s in feet and fluid densities are in units of Ibmift'.). which is equivalent to the height of an observed oilwater cdntact above FWL in a particular rock type is given by The water saturation distribution in a homogeneous reservoir is shown in Fig.g/gc . (pwr p PO) 20 cos 8 H(SI.. The shapes of the capillary pressure curves can be used diagnostically to compare samples of similar rock type.3 PORE SIZE DISTRIBUTION The pore size distribution in a givcn rock type. the nonwetting phase with respect to air.H(s. is equal to unity. it has the advantage that high pressures can bc attained and mercury.. can be forced into very small pores. 6. the threshold height H. in the sense that the sample cannot be used again. + P. for oil production Observed OWC (Pc=Pc+)  gz  level (PC= 0 ) Fig. 6.PO) PC = 144 (Note: 1 glcm" 62. 6. is usually deterrnined using a mercury injection test. then the depth of the FWL (= DFWI. which has been shown to influence saturation distribution. and gig.). Although this test is destructive. The FWL depth is usually determined by noting an observed OWC in a well and conducting a drainage laboratory capillary pressure test on a rock sample from the interval to find the threshold capillary pressure. is determined from the volume of mercury injected over a givcn pressure step '"1 (Fig. DFWL DOWC+ Hr = In frequently used oilfield units where P is in lbfisi. .4 lbmlft?) Well 'clean 011' Top transltlon zone  Transition zone Lowest location ..9). .
C 6. The hysteresis phenomenon gives rise to the curve pair character shown in Fig. 6. the imbibition wetting phase threshold pressure is sometimes called a capillary suction pressure.9 Pore size distribution function. This is close to the truth in systems without strong wetting preference and with essentially monosize pores and the magnitude of the difference APc(Dm may often be negligible in comparison with viscous force pressure gradients. The experimental difficulties in determining the definition of the imbibition direction capillary pressure curve. and the rate would be different depending on whether phase saturation was decreasing (drainage) or increasing (imbibition). (This last assumption depends on whether the gradients are being compared over large distances between wells (macrosystem) or over small pore . 6. The directional effect is attributable to the threshold pressure dependency on pore radius. 6. combined with the difficulties of using the information in reservoir simulation models. The condition PC = 0 in the imbibition direction effectively defines the residual nonwetting phase saturation which is therefore a property of the particular rock pore size system and should be recognized as such. for practical purposes. capillary pressure hysteresis does not exist. 6. Unsorted Well sorted Well sorted Coarse skewness Sw Well sorted Fine skewness Fig.6 FLUID SATURATION The pore size distribution would be expected to control the rate of saturation change in a given wettability system for a given phase pressure difference.i= Sw Fig. I I \ r pore radius 0 (lSH.11 Capillary pressure hysteresis. has led to the assumption by many reservoir engineers that.10 Characteristic mercury injection capillary pressure curve shapes.4 CAPILLARY PRESSURE HYSTERESIS When wetting phase pressure is increasing.11. Poorly sorted Slightly fine skewness Poorly sorted Slight coarse skewness Fig.
The observed oilwater contacts representing thc effects of threshold entry pressure are denoted OWC. Multiple oilwater contacts and transition zoncs which arc shown can be seen to relate to appropriate portions of each sand's capil 11 tk/ sand 1 Fig. Each sand has a capillary pressure curve.5 SATURATION DISTRIBUTIONS IN RESERVOIR INTERVALS In real reservoir systems it is expccted that a number of rock type units will be encountered. but a single free water level. A well penetrating all sands as shown will log a saturation profile as shown. as shown in Figs 6.) For the application of hysteresis in the dynamic pressure of reservoir fluid displacement. whose free water level is denoted as FWL. 6.k4 with kl>k4>k3>k2.13.12 Observed oilwater contacts and their relationship with free water level in a layered reservoir with a common aquifer. '3" 6. and different irreducible water saturations.12 and Well 6.98 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE diameter distances on a nlicrodisplacemcnt scale. the reader is referred to the literature [' 291. Each unit can have its own capillary pressure characteristic and the static saturation distribution in the reservoir will be a superposition of all units. Prof~le t well a Depth FWL0 sw 1 Fig. The sands are labelled 14 and have pern~eabilities k.13 Saturation discontinuities in a layered reservoir and an example of multiple observed oilwater contacts. 6. four sand units are connected only at a co~ntnon aquifer. . In this example. depth related to saturation.
and lack of correlation can suggest the need for further zonation. Since capillary pressure is a function of saturation.16 Correlation of capillary pressure with permeability in a given rock type. 6. 6. then we could substitute V'k for r and maintain the dimensionless nature of the group. 6.15.15 Effect of permeability on capillary pressure in a given rock type./ o cos 8 will be dimensionless. Logarithm of permeability  Fig. then the dimensionless capillary pressure term (J) is also a function of saturation. with the exception that (kl+)O was preferred.6 FLUID SATURATION 99 lary pressure curve.  o cos 0 Fig. Those curves are often obtained for sands where large permeability variations occur in a very narrow range of porosities. as shown in Fig. s w Fig.6 CORRELATION OF CAPILLARY PRESSURE DATA FROM A GIVEN ROCK TYPE From our definition of PC = 2 o cos 0ir where r is a mean radius. it is used to predict reservoir saturation distribution. we may note that the grouping rP. 6. 6. 6. Leverett [q in fact defined a dimensionless capillary pressure group in this way. 6. Since permeability has the dimension L2 (the unit of area). . so long as the porous rocks have similar pore geometries.. Thus we may write ~P.. an approximate linearization can be made by plotting the logarithm of capillary pressure against the logarithm of permeability as isosaturation lines. There will therefore be a particular correlation for given rock type. This enables easier interpolation and regeneration of particular capillary pressuresaturation relationships to predict reservoir saturation distribution. A further correlating technique makes use of an observation that in a given rock type.14) will apply as a correlating group for all measurements of capillary pressure using different fluid systems. Following the establishment of the correlation from representative rock samples under laboratory conditions. as shown in Fig. capillary pressure curves from samples of different permeabilities often form a family of curves.14 LeverettJfunction correlation..  This relationship (Fig.) With this shape of curve.16. This behaviour is important to recognize in correlating oilwater contacts and in the zonation of reservoirs.
T. McGraw Hill.1 82..25 anhi a permeability o f 500 mD. Tech. The reservoir condition oil has a specific gravity o f 0. and Scriven. Physics and thermodynamics of capillary action in porous media. [4] Leverett. AIMB 142 (1941).s of Oil Production. It is described as follows: Sw (fr 1.F. 70. Ind. M. .7 35.S.3%.0 1.C. Soc. AIiME Ann. 62 (June i970).P.7 16.4 5. C. Am. Powder Tech. Use a Jfunction method to generate the reservoir condition capillary pressure curve and estimate the depth relative to the free water level o f the top transition zone and the observed oilwater contact. [2] Muskat..1 An oil water capillary pressure experiment on a core sample gives the following results: 01 w capillary pressure 0 4.5 23 100 It is believed that the reservoir is better represented by a porosity of 0.C. porosity 1. J. Chem.R.5 11.6 10.5 0. 89. London (1967). The determination of pore size distribution from gas adsorption data..0 (psis) water saturation: 100 100 90. Academic Press. Full Mtg.3 0. [6] Mohanty.2 Pc(psi) 0 1 4 6 8 9.8 0.7 0. in the previous example (6. SPE Paper 9406. and the permcability and porosity had been 100 IIIDand 18% respectively. The reservoir condition value o f o cos 8 is taken as 26 dyneicm.J. S. Plzysicul Princip1e. N Y (1949).9 0.H.2 0.785 and formation water at reservoir conditions has a specific gravity o f 1. 54. Can Pet. and Sing. and Singhal. 15 (1976). M. Adsorptiori.22 and permeability 150 mD. what is the expected water saturation at that clcvation? I f thc hydrocarbon bearing thickness from the crest o f the structure to the oilwater contact is 175 i t .1).K.. [7] Shull. W. Role of capillary forces in determining nlicroscopic displacement efficicncy for oil recovery by waterflooding. K..C~ern. J.2 13. B.026. C. A.2 29. 33.a network apploach. the interfacial tension o cos 0 had been 25 dyneicm.. and BIandner. Use a mercury interfacial tension of 370 dyneicm.. Example 6. N. [S] Melrose. Surface Arc~rrand Porosilq~. Trans.4 0.6 0.L) References [I] Morrow. construct the mercury capillary pressure curve f o r a sample o f similar lithology with permeability 25 m D . 70 (1 948).0 0. what is the average water saturation over the interval'? (pw = 64 lbs1ftz.G. Physics of oil entrapment in water wet rock. Capillary bchaviour in porous solids.K..8 (percent) Given that the sample was taken from a point I00 ft above the oilwater contact. Example 6. . L. [8] Pandey. [3] Gregg.5 15. J.4 43. (1980).C.E. Evaluation of the capillary pressure curve techniques for dctcrn~ining pore size distribution .7 32.3 A drainage capillary pressure curve using an airbrine fluid pair ( o cos 8 = 72 dynelcm) is generated using a core plug o f porosity 0. = 45 lbsiftz) p . Davis.2 I f . K. Eng.. 152. 13 (1974). .3 5.100 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Examples Example 6.
Interpretation of capillary pressure data.P. [20] Schilthuis. 149. D . [lo] Donaldson. Application of airmercury and oilair capillary pressure data in the study of pore structure and fluid distribution.. The adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. E.G. AIME 198 (1953). 55th Ann. R. Am. AIME 186 (1949). AIME 189 (1950). L. Swanson. Eng. Interfacial phenomena and oil recovery: capillarity. F. SPE Paper 6856.J. Trans.. H. J.J.. Chambers. W. [25] Bruce. The restored state method for determination of oil in place and connate water. Use of centrifuge for determining connate water. Capillary equilibrium in porous materials. and Lorenz.. Fund 17 (1945). 25. Trans. W. Paper SPE 9403. Special Core Analysis. J. Ramey. S. and Prehn. Determination of the structure of porous media. M. Effect of temperature level upon capillary pressure curves.D. Baker. Trans. 62 (Oct. and Batra. [30] Melrose. (1977). F. 60 (1938). AIME 189 (1950). SPE of AIME (1980). 440. Ann. AIME 127 (1938). [28] Morrow.. Spec.B. Wettability as related to capillary action in porous media. P. Evaluation of capillary character in petroleum reservoir rock. Connate water in oil and gas sands. J. SPEJ (1966).T. J. Capillary pressure investigations. residual oil and capillary pressure curves of small core samples. and Reichertz. O. R. [16] Donaldson. 199. and Tippie. Trans. W. C. and Purcell.. [31] Sinnokrot. W. F. 55. Kendall. . World Oil (May 1981). S. 782. J. McCaffery. [15] Brooks.H. R. Thomas. [27] Pickell. 1970). A.W. 111. and Hickman. Properties of linear waterfloods. In Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Water as a Driving Fluid. SPEJ (March 1966). 309. [32] Mungan. Trans.S. SPEJ (Oct.B.L. Surface area measurements of geologic materials.6 FLUID SATURATION [9] Kimber. V.F. W. Chem.. [11] Ritter. 1974).C. Ind.K.. 139.H. 223. P.K.J. 13. 127. L. [24] Dullien. Hodgins.C. N. [12] Burdine. L . 153. 259. SPEJ (March 1966). SPEJ (Sept. [13] Brunnauer.C. W. AIME 160 (1945). Fall Mtg. [la] Hassler. Drainage capillary pressure functions and their computation from one another.M.A. OGJ (July 26.L. [29] Batycky. Trans.S.C. Physical characteristics of natural films formed at crude oilwater interfaces. and Marsden. Comparisons between log and capillary pressure data to estimate reservoir wetting. and Manning.. and Leas. H. Reed. L. SPEJ 15 (1975). Surface area measurements on sedimentary rocks. R. E. Soc. Fall Mtg. a [14] Rose. W. H.L. A. and Silverberg.A.L. (April 1974). and Welge. Trans. 114.J. [33] Dunmore.F.C.S. Eng.. r211 Brown. Proc. R. 289. [26] Core Labs Inc.B. [23] Holmes.R. and Brunner. Pore size distribution in porous material. SPEJ (1969). Wettability determination and its effect on recovery efficiency. 55.S. Interpreting capillary pressure and rock wetting characteristics from unsteadystate displacement measurements. Pore size distribution of petroleum reservoir rocks. W.A. AIME 192 (1951). Emmett. SPEJ (March 1971). P. AIME 195 (1952).A. B . [17] Purcell. Trans. Chem. 127. I. C. E.L. E. Chem. [22] Rapoport. Measurement of capillary pressure in small core samples.1947). R.R.R. and Harris. 13. 1965). AIME 192 (1951).. 369. and Drake. P. N. Trans. Ind.A. N. Gournay. and Bruce. and Teller. B . G. 67. Studies Section CL Inc. [19] Slobod. and Fisher. 195.R.K. D.A.
. it maintains a relationship for linear flow o f the form I E x a. k . is the effectivepermeability o f the phase. = k .(. i. the relative refers to cffective phase permeability.)refers to phase volumetric flow ratc.1 Representation of effectivephase permeability.e.. = k x w (.0 Fig.... represents the irreducible wetting phase saturation.. Similarly.divided by permeability to nonwetting phase at the pressed as functions o f saturation. The relationship really expresses the Darcy flow o f a twophasc or multiphasc system in a porous system.e. increasing wetting phase saturation). In oilwater systems in particular.(wzin 1) in Note that S. It has been convenient to relate the relative permeability to saturation as it is observed that effectivepermeability decreases with decrease in the phase saturation..1 DEFINITIONS Relative pcrlncability is a concept used to relate the absolute permeability (100% saturated with a single fluid) o f a porous system to the cffective permeability o f a particular fluid in the system when that fluid only occupies a fraction o f the total pore volume. 7.Chapter 7 Relative Permeability and Multiphase Flow in Porous Media 7.occ~~rs a twophase system when . as shown in Figs minimum wetting phase saturation..i. d@'/dL refers to datum corrected permeability scale is often normalised by representing relative permeability as effective permeability pressure gradient (pseudopotential).) (i. Tn twophase systems the relationships are ex.. S. The process represented in these figures is one o f imbibition where qO. wetting and nonwetting phases respectively.k. the nonwetting phase reaches thc residual nonwetting phase saturation. where the subscripts w and nw refer to kc. is the relative permeability o f thc phase.z. u I I O t SWmin Sw t Swmox 1. k is the absolute permeability o f the porous system.1 and 7. 7.e. refers to phase viscosity. i.sw. k. kI.2. k. kc. where k .
7../k. = k. or Swirr Fig.4 Gasoil relative permeability. such as: (1) movement of an oil zone or (2) aquifer into (3) a receding depleting gas cap.3 Oilwater relative permeability (imbibition direction). In the gasoil system. In gasoil systems the third phase. In the oilwater system this is often expressed symbolically as k ... as shown in Fig. 7. as indicated in Fig..2 Representation o relative permeability. which in . 7. where k. SWrnin Swmox Fig. is the oil permeability at connate water saturation.. 7.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 103 1 Sw = Sw. 7. the direction of displacement is particularly important as the process can represent a drainage process such as gas drive (gas displacing oil immiscibly) or an imbibition process. f critical gas saturation Sgr residual gas saturation Sgmox (=ISwi) Fig. water.3.4.
= 4. as shown in Fig.= P. The directional aspect may perhaps be appreciated by consideration o f the difference between bedding plane gas advance towards a production well and downward gas movement vertical to the bedding plane in the vicinity o f a production well. and the expression becomcs . 7. = so+ s . This is attributed to the physical process o f the gas phase becoming continuous through the system in order to flow. and the effec 1. The directional differences may be incorporated in reservoir engineering calculatiolls by determination o f frontal saturation and the use o f pseudofunctions.  Fig.ikk and kJko (Fig. 7. In a system where gas saturation increases from zero (a liquid drainage process) it is observed that gas does not flow until some critical gas saturation (S. where q. .kdd ratio Curve(semilog scale). 7. A . AP.) has been attained.. kdd k1Pci and subscript d = displacing fluid.. It is therefore argued that experiments in the laboratory can be coilducted with or without irreducible water present.. Writing a Darcy law expression for steady state flow o f each phase in a linear horizontal system we  kIc.0td M = 1+ M kd kdd where M kd Eldil = .s .7.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE reality is always present in reservoirs is considered to stay at irreducible saturation and play no part in the displacemcllt processes.6 Fig. q.6).2 FRACTIONAL FLOW Phase permeability characteristics are also frequently presented in terms o f permeability ratios k. Pd . 7. we can write Po .. 7... = s. fM. dd = displaced fluid. as shown in Fig. 7. and modification to laboratory data may be necessary. The reservoir fractional flow o f wetting phase displacing fluid in an oilwater system with water as the displacing fluid is therefore 4 w..5. + 4 . This is because the fractional flow o f displacing fluid (fcl) at the outlet end o f an i~lcompressible linear horizontal system with no For the condition in which viscous flow forces are considerably greater than capillary forces.) is reached.. The calculation o f frontal behaviour is discussed under the hcading o f fractional flow analysis. Sd s d m a x l0 swi The 16. 7.5 Directional aspects of frontal gas movement.7 (right) The fractional flow curve for water displacing oil. capillary pressure effects can bc represented at differentsaturations in terms o f mobility ratios M 4(1 =4.. In liquid imbibition processes (gas saturation decreasing from a maximum initial value) the gas permeability goes to zero when the residual or trapped gas saturation (S. . are reservoir condition rates. The directional aspects o f relative permeability representation are often more pronounccd in gasoil systems.
This leads to an equivalencing for all times up to breakthrough 9f the saturation change behind the front to the volume of displacing fluid injected: At breakthrough the distance travelled by the front Xfwill equal L.) saturation behind the front up to the time of water breakthrough at the outlet end (production well) of the system. 7. In the BuckleyLeverettIWelge analysis of displacement of oil from a system with a uniform initial water saturation S. y as a specific gravity.this means that over any part of the crosssection. 7. = ~ I N J . curve are shown in Figs 7.9 Linear saturation profile before breakthrough. The tangent point indicates the saturation SWf of the displacement front shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. is given by (Note for a constant injection rate and an incompressible system q r = q. From BuckleyLeverett theory for the rate of movement of the frontal saturation. 7.t) and the gradient of the fractional flow curve at the front with respect to saturation: OL  Xf Distance X from OWC at time t Fig.5. the length of the system. using field units of RBID for the total flow rate q n length terms in feet.  7. Therefore where tb is the breakthrough time: . The intercept of the tangent at fw = 1 indicates the average (S.. Typical shapes of the effective permeability curves and the f. This is a condition assumed in the laboratory core analysis determination of relative permeability rock curves.. A tangent drawn to the fractional flow curve from the initial water saturation has two important characteristics. it will be positive for the displacing fluid moving from downdip to updip.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW In tilted reservoirs of dip angle a. 7. the saturation of oil and water is uniform and no fluid segregation exists. + Sw Fig.1 Analysis methods Analysis of the fractional flow curve by the method of Buckley and Leverett and Welge [I0] allows the recovery performance of a homogeneous reservoir to be determined. the distance Xf travelled can be related to the volume of displacing fluid injected W. and will be negative for displacing fluid moving from an updip to a downdip position. This technique is applicable to relatively thin reservoir intervals where diffuse or dispersed flow is assumed .2. a graphical technique can be utilized.8 Fractional flow analysis. Since the angle a is conventionally measured from a horizontal axis to the axis of a line in the direction of flow. the fractional flow of water.14 and 11. q. viscosities in centipoise and permeabilities in milliDarcies.8.9. (= q.
= k." are k T M= n .e. k'.3 EFFECTS OF PERMEABILITY VARIATION Reservoirs characterized by a number of different . i.  S " .n)SWi . It makes use of the fract~onal flow curve at a saturation greater than the frontal saturation and relates ally such saturation to its fractional flow saturation gradient. For a wateroil systcm. . the particular outlet end saturation is defined as S. Immiscible displacement in a system having a transition zone cannot be handled by the geometrical constructioi~ methods appropriate to a uniforrn initial saturation distribution.) is reached.' LA@[ 1 1 .e. Stratified reservoir analysis by analytical methods is subiect to constraints regarding end point mobility ratios and the reader is referred to the original papers by Dykstra " and Parsons "A.10 Fractional flow gradients after breakthrough.. and material balance methods are needed f7'1. 7.and k'. at Sw.]. It is imagined that after breakthrough. n(l  S. k. and its gradient from the fractional flow curve is C~fwldSw1s. A t any time after breakthrough. Displacement stability can be analysed in relatively simple homogeneous linear reservoir systems..  S . The Welge analysis is used to calculate the average water saturation..) + (1 .. Welge demonstrated that and 3. then appropriate relative permeabilities at the weighted average saturation S. the average water saturation m the reservoir will increase with increasing volume of injected water until a maximum value of (1 . Since sw Fig. a sharp interface is assumed to exist between the displacing and displaced fluids. at S. In this case. then the relationship between time and the attainment of a given outlet end face saturation is readily obtained. and since at this front we are dealing with endpoint relative pcrmeabilities (i.. 7." = (1n) k.. 7. s41 and by Stilcs '"'1."= S.. " " ' . the outlet end of the system (production well) will experience an increasing water saturation with time. the gravity segregated distribution of oil and water at any distance X along the flow path can he represented as shown in Fig. In both cases the effective permeability characteristics of each pore size rock type are required. In terms of saturation this will be S.So.. time after breakthrough This relationship at can be seen in Fig. + The reservoir condition recovery factor after breakthrough is obtained from the ratio of oil produced to initial oil in place. and the fraction a of flood'ed thickness.' n and k. o r by numerical modelling techniques if crossflow is significant.. = k...10. where endpoint mobilities are used and the approach of Dietz ["'I applied.. the weighted average saturation S" is given by . that is gravity segregation dominates any capillary forces. rock typcs may be analysed analytically if they are totally stratified... 7.3 1 b y a thickness weighted distribution.106 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE After breakthrough of the frontal saturation at a production well for a water displacing oil system. In terms of the water phase saturation S.
" .(or from So. The pore volume of each bed between the injection and production points is (PWj = (LA@). feet. The flow is considered incompressible and q~ the reservoir condition injection rate is considered equal to the total reservoir condition production rate. S. Note that for downdip displacement a will be negative and that for all endpoint mobility ratios less than or equal to unity the displacement is unconditionally stable and becomes pistonlike. In any bed j.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 107 .SWj. . the piston displacement assumption means. Since there is no crossflow between beds. (q)j As each layer reaches breakthrough.12 Relative permeabilities for segregated flow.sor))j The time taken tb to reach this condition in the particular layer j is thus (tbIj= (Wib1..S. milliDarcies and specific gravities. Pistonlike displacement in stratified reservoirs characterized by thin beds with no crossflow between them can be analysed very easily by the Stiles[j5] approach.12 this indicates that a straight line relative permeability relationship with average saturation is appropriate.Swi kr.1 1 Dietz analysis. This leads to S. In such an application the fractional flow curve is generated from the k. as Fig. 7." and k. the total fractional flow of water at a producing well is determined at a number of times as each thin bed achieves water breakthrough. In this way pseudorelative permeability relationships may be used to solve displacement problems in thicker sands.. The stability of displacement in a homogeneous 2D system will depend on the mobility ratio of the fluids and the dip angle a of the where the subscript D refers to the displacing phase and DD to the displaced phase. centipoise. to So. the calculation technique is facilitated by rearranging the actual beds in a sequence with the highest kh product beds at the top.. The volume of injected fluid needed to change the saturation from Swito Swiro. in field units of RBID. 7. therefore. 7. Dietz showed that the maximum rate for stable updip displacement was given..sor [ + [ I As shown in Fig.so. effectively transforming a homogeneous 2D displacement to a 1D problem solvable by a BuckleyLeverettiWelge technique." .So... krott krof = 1 .SWi and 1 .!! = krwJ 1 ." v. the injection rate is where qT is the total rate." relationship. For equal oil and water mobilities the pressure gradients in all beds are assumed equal and the displacing fluid is distributed between beds in proportion to the bed kh.) at breakthrough of the displacing phase is (Wib)j= (LA@(l S w i . for say a wateroil SW" Fig..t Flow direction Oil immobile connate water + reservoir. In this technique..
Oit wet preference L + o Z 2 > 0 K  0 1 4w = (41 + 42) 4 .4 WETTABlLlTY EFFECTS Wettability effects in fluid displacement are d~splayr ed by etfective and relative permeability culve characteristics. plus the oil from any layer which has not yet achieved breakthrough. that only water flows thereafter. saturation change so long as viscous flow forces are not controlling. plus the oil from any layer which has reached breakthrough. = k . (sol)l  SO. at reservoir conditions. 7.).13 Oil recovery efficiency. For an illcompressible flow system t h i ~ easily calculated since the proportions is at the outlet are equivalent to inlet rate distributions. . The recovery factor for such a layer at that time is thus = J I 1 I \ \ Fig.)IS.14.14 Effect ofwettability on effective permeability. the term qI. + (1X)(So. = (47 . approaches zero by a film drainage mechanism) : higher values of k . 7. Oil wet systems tend to be character~zed. the oil remaining is (Pv~{x(s.)l] (L%. lower initial water saturatiolls for a given pore si. and the layer continues to take water from the injector.Water wet preference .0 ~ ' ' ~The] effective permeability character '~ .: 7e the condition k . 7.pDLIA in Darcy units is greater than about 2. The total production at any time t is therefore the water from any layer which has reached breakthrough. at most values of water saturation.108 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE system. the recovery will be (So.4. and capillary pressure controls the sequence of porc.d.) The fraction flow of water is given.13 and 7. 7. * The establishment of in situ wettability conditions14'l is therefore very important in the proper conduct of laboratory experiments. at most values o f water saturation. In any layer which has broker] through. as PV water injected Fig. In practice it may in fact be sealed off. occurs at lower values of water saturation. in comparison with water wet systems. . by: earlier water breakthrough. I n r and the reservoir condition wateroil ratio as WOR = qw 40 The recovery factor at any time will be obtained by evaluating frontal positions and conducting a material balance.. the wettability of a surface depends on the term o cos 8. which should duplicate or account for field conditions..S. The overall economic rccovery factor will be controlled by surface handling facilities and economic rate. for water wet and oil wet systems is shown in Figs. less pistonlike approach to a residual saturation (the So. In a laver not yet at breakthrough.. lower values of k.r)~+(lx)(soI)~} where is the distaace of the front from thc injection location.~). A t sonle time t i n a system in which two out of n layers have reached breakthrough we have . Viscous forces tend to control when. As discussed previously. but this only indicates the condition of the as received sample. The inost frequent laboratory measurement of wetting tendency is through the Amott testl'l.
The displacement theories d Buckley and LeverettL81 are combined with that of Welge['olin a technique described by Johnson. 7. (b) constant pressure. or unsteady stateand equipment arrangements are shown in Figs. Gas displacement processes require a significant back pressure (say 20 bar) to facilitate flow rate interpretation. A reservoir condition test is conducted at^ reservoir pore pressure conditions and reservoir temperatures with real or simulated reservoir fluids.15 Unsteady state relative permeability measurement: (a)constant rate. Bossler and Naumann[l31.15 and 7. or with gases such as air. and severe errors can occur with heterogeneous samples. The determination of relative permeability is based on observation of the fractional flow of displacing phase fluid from the outlet end of the core plug and its relationship with saturation.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 109 7. 7. . Such reservoir condition tests may model displacement under steady state[231.16.5 LABORATORY DETERMINATION OF RELATIVE PERMEABILITY DATA Laboratory determination of effective permeability is generally conducted as a special core analysis test on representative and carefully preserved core plug samples.The detection of the breakthrough time of the displacing phase at the outlet core face is critical in the representation of relative permeability. Room condition relative permeability tests can be conducted at outlet end pressures of one atmosphere and at room temperature using refined oils and synthetic brines. Flow rates are determined according to the method of in Rapoport and Leas[761 order to minimize the effects of capillary pressure forces in retaining OIL COLLECTOR BRINE COLLECTOQ KdSKA PUMP / CYART RECORDER / Fig. nitrogen or helium. Unsteady state relative permeability tests simulate the flooding of a reservoir with an immiscible fluid (gas or water).
40 0. At such a condition the Darcy law equation is applied to each phase to calculate effectivepermeability at the given steady state saturation. For each test pair the injection rate and oilwater viscosity ratio was constant. Capillary pressure tends to be ignored and a major difficulty is the determination o f saturation at each stage. At each ratio from 100% displaced phase to 100% displacing phase an equilibrium conditiorl must be reached at which the inflow ratio o f fluids equals the outflow ratio. It has become clear that the room condition tests are not necessarily a good guide to reservoir conditions behaviour.1 shows the results o f a number o f different room condition and reservoir conditions unsteady state tests conducted on different small plugs o f sandstones.17 shows the effect o f core length on observed breakthrough recovery at u constant LVpD factor in a strongly water wet outcrop sandstone. and with homogeneous samples. The flooding efficiency ratio is defined here as the breakthrough to total oil recovery ratio for the reservoir condition test divided by the equivalent ratio for the room condition tcst. To some extent this conclusion is based on the applicability o f Rapoport and Leas LVpn core flooding criteria. there is some evidence to suggest that conventional short core plugs (7 cm) should not be used. 0.25 Between BTand WOR = 100 Room cond.26 0. Figure 7. The unsteady state or dynamic displacemcllt test is most frequently applied in reservoir analysis o f strong wetting preference.40 No. cond. the velocity may be too high for proper imbibition processes to take place between fingers o f invading water. These data indicate the significance o f temperature in that the flooding efficiency ratio appears to correlate with temperature and might be considered influenced bv wettabilitv. 0. 0. 0. Experimental evidence suggests that core lengths o f at least 25 cm are needed to obtain consistent results. The steady state piocess providcs simultaneous flow o f displacing and displaced fluids through the core sample at a number o f equilibrium ratios.15 0. wetting phase fluid at the outlet end face discontinuity.1 Comparison between reservoir condition and room condition waterflood tests Oil recovery (fraction PV) Sample Reservoir cond. and at which thc pressure gradient between inlet and outlet is constant.30 1. 7.15 Residual oil satn (fraction PV) Room cond. T o obtain cores o f lengths TABLE 7. In cases where reservoir condition mobility ratios are signiricantly greater than unity.06 0.30 0.07 . cond. 0. A B Resv. TRES (OF) PREs psi 3430 2100 199 176 Before BT Room cond. In short cores. Between five and ten stages are usually needed to establish relative permeability curves.35 Flooding efficiency ratio 1. cond. For reservoirs with more corescale heterogeneity and with mixed wettability.26 Resv. 0. the steady state laboratory test at reservoir conditions and with reservoir fluids is preferred.16 Steady state relative permeability measurement.30 0. Table 7.110 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE CONSTANT DISPLACEMENT R l l S Y A PllMPS Fig.13 Resv.
19 Comparison of field and laboratory capillary numbers and residual saturations. In gravity stabilized oil drainage by gas advance into an oil zone.40. 7.7 08. as shown in Fig. capillary and gravity forces and little effect of rate on residual saturation is observed. NC = V / L ~ / (cos 0) . Composite cores should have component sections of similar petrophysical character in any representative section.18 Comparison of composite and continuous core performance with'homogeneous water wet outcrop sandstone. residual saturations approaching single percentage figures have been claimed . 7.6 \ \ cp l \ \ p 0. T k influence of capillary pressure is exerted at pore scale rather than at interwell scale and. \ Wetting phase \ residuals \ \ 0. The greater than 25 cm in the bedding plane from reservoir rock cores it is necessary to butt together small cores and construct a composite core. 0 I 1.20 Correlation between residual saturation ratio and capillary number (after [271). 7.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 111 Core length (cm) Fig.6 RESIDUAL SATURATlONS Residual saturations tend to be dependent on pore geometry and on direction of saturation change with respect to wetting phase.18 shows that they can behave as a continuous sample. When composites obey this rule. The capillary number concept has been used to represent the residual oil saturation resulting from competition between viscous and capillary forces.20 shows the ratio of . A 30cm cont~nuouscore 3 0 c m . depending on wettability. In most laboratory tests. 7.17 Effect of core length on breakthrough recovery at constantLVb. potential for mobilizing the residual oil saturation from conventional recovery processes is the target in improved hydrocarbon or enhanced oil recovery (IHR or EOR). can influence the location of residual fluids. 7.19. 8 piece composite core Fig.e. This may not be true in the field. the viscous flow forces are designed to dominate Fig. 7. 7. Figure 7. l 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0!60'70'8 019 1'0 0 1 1 1 1 Pore volumes of water injected \ \  Fig.0 '$A A Laboratory / 1 Field Measured Residual Logarithmic scale I I I 'y Number I 1 Field Capillary 0. and they are maintained in capillary contact by compressive stress.2 G ' 0 ~ 0 . i. Fig. but some field analyses tend to support its application. Its scaling to field conditions is O problematical.this contrasts with a dynamic but otherwise equivalent wettability process of water displacing oil where residual saturation between 20% and 40% might be expected.
112 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE I residual oil from chemical flood processes to that from waterflooding as a function of N. for a range of laboratory tests lz71. wettability will changc cffcctivc phase permeability characteristics. The drainage case is conceptually the simplest. It is. difficult to demonstrate. 7. plug cutting.then it is apparent that oil can be liberated more easily frorn higher permeability re\er. however.7 IN SlTU WETTABILITY CONTROL All laboratory measurements on core samples are dependent on preservation of reservoir condition cliaracteristics at the time of testing. of preferential wcttabilities between fluids and rock surfaces.8 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY FROM CORRELATIONS In spite of the wide variety of porc structure in reservoir rocks.21 Effect of permeability on critical displacement ratio (after 1271). but smoothing relations are not unacceptably illaccurate. The clit~cal displaceruent ratio for a given rate and permeab~lity is shown in Fig.K.IK. With transformat~oninto rad~al coordinates it is possible to show that residual saturations in high velocity regions around a wellborc may be different from that some dictance away.~). A comparison with true in situ wettability is. cxperilncntal measurements are lengthy and troublesome. I(.lK) against saturation. reproducible.. It is therefore clear that any core cutting. The accuracy of approximate correlations may then be little worse than the present accuracy of the more usual measurements! idealized pore models have their greatest application in calculating relative permeabilities. 7. 1 7. demonstrate wettability change and contact angle modification.. :111d the more rapid expcrimental techlliqucs generally show poor rcproducibility. attractive to attempt to formulate theoretical semiempirical. then. extending (or even dispensing with) cxperimental measurements of effcctive permeability. The capillary numbel at which increased recovery starts can be used to represent mobilization. and in fluid properties. I *Crit~cal ratio \ . exhibit gcllcral similarities of form.22. and gives generally lcss satisfactory results. to assist in smoothing.21 shows that when the ~nobilization represented as a critical displacement is ratlo (units I. 7. Both static and dynamic capillary pressure measurements can be used to . Figure 7. This is particularly so since accuratc. reliable. dlsplacernent Veloc~tlestoo low for ' i r~ Rod~aldistance r Fig. or purely empirical relationships. core transportation. The imbibition case is more difficult to model. processes which altcl. extrapolating. normalized plots of relative permeability. Methods for restoration of in situ wettability conditions Id51have been proposed and are presently under scrutiny.22 Influence of near wellbore velocity on residual oil mobilization (after lz71). ( K J K . plug cleaning etc. and scveral simple idealizecl flow models lead to acceptable smoothing relations. Air permeability ( r n d )  Fig.volrs. Some restoration of wettability is claimed by conditioning cores at reservoir temperature in the prescncc of reservoir cr~ldcoil for some days or weeks. 7.
Laboratory experiments can explore the sensitivity of derived curves for rate effects and hysteresis in given test methods using core obtained and prepared in ways which minimize wettability alteration. together with selecting and use of relevant core plugs to represent zones of interest.y2(Sw*)2drainage 7.x f. (b) resaturation of plug and saturation distribution. lmbibition case where S.. a = 1013 (statistical model). Particular concerns in use of laboratory derived data arise from the scaling of microsize core plug displacement to reservoir simulation grid size displacement.8. Core plug experiments tend to be run at high viscous:capillary force ratios and the system represents a disperse or diffuse flow regime..2 Correlations for nonwetting phase relative permeability 1. 2. i.23.. Normalized end points can be adjusted using factors based on experience. as shown in Fig.. These include: Z (a) wettability change associated with coring fluids. The direct application of core plug data in simulators where thick grid cells are modelled will result in improper representation of gravity forces it can be shown that straight line relative permeability relationships are more representative of the gravity segregation of fluids.The value off might.5 ~ )s 2. straight line relative permeability curves do not lend themselves manipulation as the initial to stable n~m~erical gradients to and from irreducible saturations are too steep. Drainage case = (1 .s. Recognition of these effects.3 Use of correlations With a limited amount of fairly readily determined experimental data . = (1 . This at least ensures that a given curve set will reproduce the fluid recovery and where Swi = irreducible wetting phase saturation. = KrCul. The results of waterflood core tests can furthermore be processed using the same reservoir simulator as the reservoir model.Sw*)(1 .irreducible water saturation. can minimize the problem of applying relative permeability data in model studies. The test can be conducted at reservoir conditions using reservoir (or simulated reservoir) fluids. Gravity forces are generally negligible in core plug tests.( s ~ " ~ .8. 7. K. As a practical compromise some curvature is usually provided. In simulators. these smoothing relations can be used (or modified) to generate complete relative permeability curves.5 Krw.9 VALIDATION OF RELATIVE PERMEABILITY DATA FOR USE IN DISPLACEMENT CALCULATIONS Laboratory derived relative permeability data reflect a number of characteristics which may be associated entirely with handling procedures and which may not be typical of in situ reservoir behaviour. particularly with respect to steady state or unsteady state displacement mechanism and nature of the moving interface through the system with effect on distribution of residual fluid. lmbibition case Krw = (Sw * l4imb (Sws)imb = (Sw*)drainage.*)~ (1 + 2Sw3) K.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 7. represent the ratio K. (c) test fluids. (d) test method. = irreducible nonwetting phase saturation.1 Correlations of wetting phase permeabilities 1.~ 0.e.8. and the phase permeabilities at these saturations. 7. A n alternative correlation is the Pirson model: 3/2 Krw = SW3 (SwY) . 7. plug cutting and preparation. for example. Drainage case Krw = (SW3)" where a = 4 (Corey model). There are no proven rules for obtaining valid relative permeability data for use in models. storage. and be a function of permeability and/or pore geometry.lKub. residual nonwetting phase saturation. particularly with respect to viscosity and interfacial tension. or 0. .
23 Curvature at end points in use of straight line relative permeability curves.24 Application of laboratory derived permeability in reservoir simulation (after [301). 7. 7.25 Flow between cells. M o d ~ f y curves kr and check PC Check lab derived curves in I . . 7.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Fig. In order to aid numerical stability.25. Fig. /' '1 I I I / //I I I )Jpstream cell I I I I I I M / / 1.1 I J . / Downstream cell ' 1 I I '2 J / I I I . wettability an appropriate sam~le used for core flood at reservoir condit~ons ~ t h w pressure grad~ents function as of cumulat~ve ~ s p l a c ~ n g d curves uslng JBN or J .e./' Fig.{DXI Dx2] . I Is h ~ s t o r y match acceptable? t +  DX /7 .24 and follows the ArclierWong method. thc relativc pcrrneability of the upstream cell block at 'the start of a tirne step is often used in effective transrriissibility calculations.R methods Check base for Kr is compatible w ~ t h slmulat~on pressure distribution measured in the laboratory A flow diagram representing the usc of a 1D simulator for checking corctlood relative pcrmeabilities is given in Fig. i. Relative permeability in simulation models is used to dcterminc trarlsfcr of fluid between grid cells at grid cell boundaries.D core flood simulator to history match oil recovery and pressure gradients as functlon of cumulat~ve qo = k oA ~ [@i%] p<. DXI The potential term (a') can include any capillary pressure contribution. 7. from Darcy law for onc fluid in xdirection flowing across the boundary between Cell 1 and Cell 2 in Fig. 7. A / ./ 07 ' weighted average kr curves ~f necessary to represent reglon of reservolr In the slze of g r ~ d block appl~ed the model For In th~n cells the lab curve may / / ' I .
ev d D re i psuedocurves _ Heterogeneous flne g r ~ d cells The average saturation S. k.1 1 STATIC PSEUDORELATIVE PERMEABILITY FUNCTIONS As a start point in many reservoir simulation problems.26 Pseudorelative permeability functions in coarse grid definition.  1 (krw)n at ( S w ) n 1 n hj kj k d . The generation of a pseudocurve is described for a reservoir unit with N thick layers.27 Layer system representation for static pseudocalculations. For each condition of equilibrium oilwater contact from n = 0 to n = N we can write n+l N s w Fig.28. = N 7. In large field simulation. = C n+l 1 hT hj kj k.10 PSEUDORELATIVE PERMEABILITY IN DYNAMIC SYSTEMS It is often a convenience in reservoir modelling to reduce the number of grid cells in a system in order to reduce model run costs.. ( k d . as shown in Fig. in each of which segregated flow staight line relative permeability curves are assumed to apply. 7. 7.27. at (SW). h..26). The pseudofunctions generated will depend on position in the reservoir system and are clearly also dependent on ordering and thickness of the layers. 7. hjkj ( n = N ) Total thickness I I 115 Permeability ( m d ) k Layer N I H I i I Fig. . as the reservoir unit approaches flood out to residual oil may be calculated assuming crossflow through the vertical component of permeability. The sole purpose of the curves is to reproduce the fluid and pressure distribution and displacement characteristics of the fine grid system in a coarse grid system. ' \ .7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 7. The dynamic pseudorelative permeabilities can be significantly different from calculated static pseudos or from modified pseudos obtained by history matching observed reservoir behaviour. different pseudofunctions may be generated for different regions of the reservoir. as shown in Fig. considering the position of the local oilwater contact from its initial position at the base of the bottom layer (n = 0 ) to its final position at the top of the top layer (n = N).. The flow behaviour of a reduced cell system may be matched with that of the full definition system by use of a set of pseudorelative permeability curves in place of the original curves. This is essentially an advance of bottom water. f . The current methodology for creating pseudos in a dynamic flow system is due to Kyte and Berry [js]and essentially determines the functions by summing flow rates from fine grid systems into the equivalent coarse grid and recalculating the effective permeability using Darcy's law (Fig. 7. 7. static pseudofunctions provide an insight into possible performance.
Examples Example 7. Thesc data can then be used in 1D displacement calculations or in coaise simulator cells.1 cP.2765 RBISTB.29. Thc viscosity of the laboratory brine is 1. o9 o6 1 04 3 Fig. The oil production rate is constant prior to breakthrough .28.2 A linear horizontal sand reservoir of length 1 mile between a water injector and an oil producer is 1 milc bide and has a net thickness of 50 ft. Prepare the steady state relative permeability curves for this sample and comment on its characteristics. 7. Thc reservoir pressure can be considered as 5000 psia and at this condition the oil formation volume factor is 1. Fig.29 Pseudocurve character which might result from static calculations. rcspectivcly.2 cm Core average water saturation (from weight change) (% PV) Oil flow rate (cc/h) Brine flow rate (cc/h) Pressure drop psi (from transducer) The viscosity of the laboratory oil is 2 cP.28 Flow in layered system used for pseudocalculation.25 and 0. but actual shape will depend on layer ordering and reservoir character. Example 7.1 The following laboratory data have been obtained from a steady state room temperature rclative permeability test: Air permeability Helium porosity Plug length Plug diameter 20 mD 20% 9 cm 3.$16 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE The resulting pseudorelativc permeability curve is shown in Fig. The porosity and initial water saturation distribution are uniform and are 0. 7. 7.
a density of 48 lb/ft3 and a relative germeability in the presence of connate water of 0.4 The intitial saturation distribution and relative permeability data for a linear isolated sand reservoir subjected to water drive are as follows: Distance from original water oil contact (ft) 0 10 12 18 26 35 50 90 350 SW (% PV) 100 79 75 65 55 45 35 25 16 kr w 1. The reservoir is 8000 ft wide and 100 ft in net thickness and has a permeability of 800 mD.00 kro 0. The relative permeability data for the reservoir are given as follows: Sw 0.125 RBISTB what oil production rate in STBID might be expected initially? Example 7. Represent the initial saturation distribution graphically as a series of steps equivalent to the continuous distribution.02 0..13 ' 0.25 0.38 0.0 and 2.10 0.03 0.17 0. The gas formation volume factor is 7.09 0.00 0.45 0.30 0.63 0.0 years.06 0.35 0. = f .75 and 0.oo 0. Other relevant reservoir zone data are as follows: .23 0.70 water saturations at the following times: 0.8 cP.3 It is proposed to inject gas into an updip well of a linear geometry oil reservoir at a rate of 15 x lo6 SCFID.5.44 0.70 8 Example 7. a viscosity of 0.02 0.52 0. ) 0.".427 0. The end point mobility ratio has been estimated as 2. 0..79).28 0.65 kro 0. Determine the position of the 0. The withdrawal rate from the reservoir zone is 9434 RBID.98 Calculate the fractional flow curve C for the water saturations between initial water saturation (S.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 117 at 10 000 STBID and water injection is used to maintain reservoir pressure in the 'incompressible' system.028 cP and a relative permeability in the presence of residual oil and connate water of 0.79. The gas has a reservoir condition density of 17 lblft . The reservoir dip is 10".) = 0.05 0.16) and residual oil saturation (S.60 0. Further estimate the reservoir condition water cut and recovery factor one year after breakthrough assuming water injection continues at the initial rate.55 0. The oil has a reservoir condition viscosity of 1.00 kw 0.54 0.778.73 0. Estimate the frontal saturation of the injection water prior to breakthrough and the time in years of water breakthrough at the production well. 1.5.80 0.5 x lo" RBISCF.37 0.9.0 0.23 0.94 0. If the oil formation volume factor is 1.90 0. Show by calculation whether you consider the gas injection stable.0 0.02 0.
M. Hafford. J . 111 Burdine. l957).E. [8] Buckley. Experimental investigation of factors alfecting laboratory relative permeability measurements. C.5.K. Tcrwilliger. and Hocott. N. and Yustcr. S. W. P. J.M. Trrrns. [S] Morse. D. T.05 Distance from the original owc to the first line of producers 1s 350 ft Determine the frontal saturation after six months production using the material balance expression: Example 7. on OGJ (Aug 23. Tran.T . AIME 146 (1942). J. = 0 15 So. J. R. Each layer is 10 ft thick and the oilwater contact is initially at the base of the lower layer. li. ' = 0 5 References Relative permeability calculations from pore size distrihutioll data. AIME 192 (1951).71. E. Water relative permeability at the residual oil saturation of 30% is 0.R. 50md 50 Sw..S. AIME 198 (1953)..' . Laboratory measurements of relative permeability. W.9. A. 1954).) = 0. J . [3] Amott. I E m U ) 2000md 20 1500 1 In each layel 1 ? 30 500md Assume + 40. For simplicity to assurnc that in cach layer the following propertics apply: Oil relative permeability at the initial watcr saturation of 15% is 0.. 19 (Nov.01 Rewrvoir water sp. 1500 mD.C. McCardcll. P.R.A. 156. 500 mD. The interrelation between gas and oil relative permeabilities. 98. 99.M..5% Oil viscosity (reservoir conditions) = 1. Mon. J. [4] Geffcn.0 9 kr. [2] Corey.C. From botto~n top the layer permeabilities are 50 m D . Kerver.L.T. OGJ (May 13. 2000 mD and 2500 mD. 34.83 cp Reservoir oil specific gravity = 1. Trans. AIME 216 (1959).A. Prod. R. Owens.K.rms.W. 47. Relative pcrnleability mcasurcn~cnts small cole sa~ilples. 107. Observations relating to the wettability of porous rock..118 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Average reservoir thickness = 100 ft Averagc reservoir width = 8000 ft Formation dip = 6" Permeability = 276 m D Porosity = 21. 10. Trans. 1947) [6] Osoba. cond. = 030 kr. and Morsc. Mechanism of iluid displacement in sands.5 Prepare the static pseudorelative permeability curve for a five layer reservoir assuming bottom water advance. S. Richardson..A.51 cp Water viscosity (res. Parrish. A I M 6 192 (1951). M.. [7] Jordan.T. and Levcrctt. and Blair. Effect of rate on oil recovery by waterflooding. gravity = 1.~.
[24] Jones.R. J. D. J. ASCE (1966).O.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW [9] Cardwell.. [27] Taber. L. JPT (Feb.P. Trans. D. W. E. The effect of fluid flow rate and viscosity on laboratory determinations of oilwater relative permeability. J. Paper 6824. SPEJ (Dec.M. L.E. 1970) 381. Trans. J. Davis. [31] Tao. Ir. R. and Owens.). 243. (Feb. [ l l ] Kyte. 1191 Rathmell. J. Vol. A. F. and Langley. D. Fluid flow within a porous medium near a diamond bit.E. and Scriven. C. R. Soc. and Blackwell.R. J.A. ed. 1216. 531. L. 66. 271. W . V.T. 1972). [22] Huppler.F. Naumann. [30] Archer. R. N. JPT (Feb. Certain wettability effects in laboratory waterfloods. [23] Braun. H. 3 (1971). Trans. Archer. Bossler. 343. Tech. [15] Kyte. 1979). T.H. Linear waterflood behaviour and end effects in water wet porous media.E.. [lo] Welge. An improved unsteady state procedure for determining the relative permeability characteristics of heterogeneous porous media. Relative permeability measurements using reservoir fluids. Proc.. Mtg.K.L. Calculation of relative permeability from displacement experiments. P.O. Braun. and Watson. A simplified method for computing oil recovery by gas or water drive. Trans.61. Reservoir waterflood iesidual oil saturation from laboratory tests. P. 175.A. and Sippel. R. Tech. [29] Hvolboll. 1966). 81. C.. R. Pet. 398.F. [32] Sigmund. Flow of Fluids Through Porous Materials. Properties of porous media affecting fluid flow. 36. 370. 247.D. Graphical techniques for determining relative permeability from displacement experiments. Irrig.). G. 91. [34] Brooks.. Proc.C. J. Elementary mechanisms of oil recovery by chemical methods.Y. [33] Collins.H.M. 579.H. [25] Craig. 1973). on EOR (1981). [17] Mungan.C. 1973).T. Fall Mtg. 19th Ann. Laboratory evaluation of the wettability of fifty oil producing reservoirs. SPEJ (Oct. V. A steady state technique for measuring oilwater relative permeability curves at reservoir conditions. Pet. T. AZME 216 (1959).D.S. Oil recovery by surface film drainage in mixed wettability rock. Gournay. and Rapoport. (N. SPEJ (Feb. AZME 195 (1952). and Corey.R.. The provision of laboratory data for EOR simulation.J. Penwell. E. R. and Naumann.E. (June 1961). Tech. J. [16] Sandberg. [26] Brown. SPEJ (Dec. L A . and Hunter. [13] Johnson. Pet. 1978). 92. (1981). SPEJ (April 1984). H. 807. [18] ~alathiel.S. Accuracy of JBN estimates of relative permeability. L.F.T.T. Div. Trans. Pet. [12] Mungan.P. # [28] Larson. The Reservoir Engineering Aspects of Waterflooding. 209.W. and Mattax. 15. N. 1973). Morrow. R.J.E. 423. SPEJ (Aug. and Rozelle. J. Numerical investigation of the effects of core heterogeneities on waterflood relative permeabilities. W.M. C. and McCaffery. L. Huppler. Europ. Research on E O R past. S. 1972). J.J. In Surface Phenomena in EOR (Shah. Paper SPE 10155.O. Proc. JPT (Oct. 2. 239. AZME 216 (1959). M.G.J. .W. S.. [14] Colpitts. Symp. J. and Perkins. Laboratory displacement of oil by water under simulated reservoir conditions. AZME 213 (1958). Use of a reservoir simulator to interpret laboratory waterflood data. Methods for accurately measuring produced oil volumes during laboratory waterflood tests at reservoir conditions. G. 3 (2) (1964). Tulsa (1976).. A I M E 213 (1958). Effect of reservoir environment on wateroil displacements.O. CIM (May 1968). [21] Treiber. SPEJ (Dec. The meaning of the triple value in noncapillary BuckleyLeverett theory. and Salathiel. (1981). 1982).A. Proc. 0 . and Wong. F.. SPEJ (May 1978). Can. V. 13. Plenum Pr. [20] Jenks. Drain. 56th Ann..R. D. A. SPE Monograph No. present and future. G.T.
Tulsa (April 1980). P.H. A. H.A: VHF electrical measurement of saturations in laboratorv floods. EOR. Tulsa (April 1984). SPE 8847. L..effect of capillary number. V .J. API (1950).I. H. [42] Dietrich. 1981).S. SPEIDOE. SPE (Oct. SPE 12915. and Berry. T. C. L. D.120 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [35] Torabzadeh. Rathjens.A. and Comer. 269. SPEJ (March 1971).E. Pet. JPT (July 1979). [59] Dake. and Bondor. Dempsey. Trans. B. [55] Stiles. J.H. SPE (Oct. [45] Cuiec. Tulsa (April 19S4). SPE (Oct. 1975). 9. H. 1371 Ramakrishnan.W. (1978).E. S. [36] Heiba.A. Mtg.. SPE 6044. J. Proc. J. SPEIDOE 12689. 160. I Pet. Elsevier Dev. M. J. [44] Killough. [58] Kyte. J . Rec. N. A. 397. Estimation of three phase relative permeability and residual oil data. drainage and imbibition. 81. An investigation of three phase relative permeability. 1571 Evrenos.. 1501 Davis.H. [51] Fayers. M.J.a simplificd graphical treatment of the DykstraParsons method. Proc.A.L. J.E.E. Calculation of imbibition relative permeability for two and three phase flow.B. Proc. R. [39] Corey. [53] Dykstra. Waterflood performance of heterogeneous systems. Trans. 37. Sec. F.N.. Simulation of stratified waterflooding by pscudo relative permeability curves. 1st Jnf SPEIDoE Svmn. and Wasan.G.A. [52] Dyes. 829.M. A. A. 163. 805. Tec11. 205. 83. Tech.. The effect of temperature and interfacial tension on wateroil relative permeabilities of consolidated sands. Proc.H. Caudle. L.T.53. and Morse. (0ct. C. D. 345. .R. 1976).Dec. Proc. 4th Symp. models. Fall Mtg. C. Rocky Mt. 149. The use of vertical equilibrium in two dimensional simulation of three dimensional reservoir performance. J. (1969). SPEI DOE EOR. 1975). 63. Davis.(July 1971). Reservoir simulation with history dependent saturation functions. SPEJ (June 1968). Sensitivity studics of gaswater relative permeability and capillarity in rcservoir modc!ling.CPE2608 (1969).T. Three phasc relative permeability. A. The relative permeability function lor two phase flow in porous media . Proc. [47] Berruin.E. 4th Symp. A I M E 207 (1956). 147. [48] Coats. Proc. Computed relative permeability. [56] Ashford. Tru~ls. EOR. [38] Manjnath. SPE 5634. and Scriven. Restoration of the natural state of core samples.M. Three phase oil relative per~ueability [43] Carlson. R. R.R. L. and Wylie. F. Truns.5hB. 51stAnn. 1976). The effect of capillary pressure and gravity 011 two phase flow in a porous medium.S. . 121. 44th Ann. I M E 201 (1954). Sci (8).T. 105. Full Mtg. A Oil production after breakthrough as influenced by mobility ratio. 56th Ann.E. and Handy. . SPE 10157. Reg. van Weteizschuppen. A I M E 186 (1949). 12693. Tulsa (April 1984).. 1491 Dietz. A theoretical approach to the problem of encloaching and bypassing edge water. AIME 216 (1959). Proc. Use of permeability distribution in waterflood calculations. A. 12690. Full Mtg. Fundamentals of rcservoir engineering. n The prediction of oil recovery by watcrflood.B. Ann. and Honarpour. [46] Hearn.L.P. o f oil i the U. D. W. 1973). and Sheldon. A I M E 207 (1956). from rock properties. Proc. and Erickson. Truns. Can. 4th Syrr~p. 349. C. SPE Paper 2582. J. [41] Land. Proc.K. F.H. [40] Stone. . Koninkl Akad. SPEJ (Aug.L. Pet.S. Henderson. and Henderson. L . K.W. SPEJ (Feb. 2nd ed. Full Mtg. Statistical network theory of three phase relative permeabilities.L. and Parsons. Predicition of oil recovery by waterflood . (May 1984). New pscudo functions to control numerical dispersion. EOK. 1541 Johnson. L. (1953) Amst. Simulation of relative permeability hysteresis to the non wetting phase.
7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW
121
[60] Jacks, H.H., Smith, 0 .J , and Mattax, C.C. The modelling of a three dimensional reservoir with a two dimensional reservoir simulator  the use of dynamic pseudo functions, SPEJ (June 1973), 175. [61] Woods, E.G. and Khurana, A.K. Pseudo functions for water coning in a three dimensional reservoir simulator, SPEJ 17 (1977), 251. [62] Chappelear, J.E. and Hirasaki, G.J. A model of oilwater coning for 2D areal reservoir simulation, SPEJ (1976): 65. [63] Koval, E.J. A method for predicting the performance of unstable miscible displacement in heterogeneous media, SPEJ (June 1966), 145. [64] Handy, L.L. and Datta, P. Fluid distribution during immiscible displacements in porous media, SPEJ (Sept. 1966), 261. [65] Higgins, R.V., Boley, D. W. and Leighton, A.J. Unique properties of permeability curves of concern to resen20ir engineers, U.S. Bur. Mines Rept. Investig., RI7006 (1967). [66] Hagoort, J. Oil recovery by gravity drainage, SPEJ (June 1980), 139. [67] Bragg, J.R. et aL A comparison of several techniques for measuring residual oil saturation, SPE 7074, Proc. Symp. Impr. Oil Rec., Tulsa (April 1978), 375. 1681 Deans., H . A . Using chemical tracers to measure fractional flow and saturation in situ, SPE 7076, Proc. Symp. Impr. Oil Rec., Tulsa (April 19781.399. [69] ~ o v e , ' ~,:~~ n. g e nJ.K. and Read, P.A. i , Visualisation of laboratory core floods with the aid of computerised tomography of Xrays, SPE 13654, Proc. Clif. Reg. Mtg. SPE (March 1985). [70] McCaffery, F.G. and Bennion, D.W. The effect of wettability on two phase relative permeability, J. Can. Pet. Tech. (Oct./Dec. 1974), 42. [71] Singhal, A.K., Mekjerjee, D.P. and Somerton, W.H. Effect of heterogeneities on flow of fluids through porous media, J. Can. Pet. Tech. (JulySept. 1976), 63. [72] Fulcher, R.A., Ertekin, T. and Stahl, C.D. Effect of capillary number and its constituents on two phase relative permeability curves, JPT (Feb. 1985), 249. 1731 Melrose. J.C. et al. waterrbck interactions in the Pembina field, Alberta, SPE 6049: Proc. 51stAnn. Fall Mtg. (1976). 1741 Archer, J.S. Some aspects of reservoir description for reservoir modelling. Proc. Intl. Seminar North Sea Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Trondheim (December 1985). [75] Slider, H.C. Worldwide Practical Petroleum Reservoir Engineering ~Methods,Pennwell Books, Tulsa (1983). [76] Rapoport, L.A. and Leas, W.J. Properties of linear waterfloods, Trans. A I M E 198 (1953). 139.
L

L
2
Chapter 8
Representation of Volumetric Estimates and Recoverable Reserves
8.1 INPLACE VOLUME
The volume of hydrocarbon in place in a reservoir depends on: (a) the areal extent of the hydrocarbon region of the reservoir; (b) the thickness of reservoir quality porous rock in the hydrocarbon rcgion; (c) the porosity of reservoir quality porous rock in the hydrocarbon rcgion; (d) the saturation ot hydrocarbon in the hydrocarbon region. This is represented in terms of avcrage properties as follows where A = area (avg), EN = net thickness (grpss thickness x net thicknesslgross thickness) (avg), @ = porosity (avg), S,, = water saturation (avg), V = reservoir conditioo volume of hydrocarbon. At standard conditions, the volurne of hydrocarbon in place is the reservoir condition volume divided by the formation volume factor. Each of the components of the volumetric equation is subject to uncertainty and spatial variation. We shall now examine the source and representation of these data and develop a probabilistic approach to volumctric estimation.
8.2 AREAL EXTENT OF RESERVOIRS
The areal extent of reservoirs are defined with some degree of uncertainty by evidence from drilled wells combined with geophysical interpretation of seismic data. The amount of well cclntrol has thc main influence on the mapping and representation of reservoir structure. Maps tend to represent time stratigraphy as depositional units. Since reservoir fluids are contained in, and recovered from, permeable beds, the combination of permeable elcments of a number of time stratigraphic units leads to mappable rock stratigraphic units having (a) areal extent, (b) thickness, (c) petrophysical properties.
Fig. 8.1 Example o a structure contour map on top f
porosity.
8 VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATES AND RECOVERABLE RESERVES
.Completed producers
proposed well locations
XAbandoned gulf wells
Fig. 8.3 Top sand structure map, Rough gas
Structure contour maps are used to connect points of equal elevation. It is customary to map structure at the top and base of porosity and the map indicates the external geometry of the reservoir. The map shown in Fig. 8.1 shows the boundaries as a fluid contact, a porosity limit to reservoir quality rock and fault boundaries. The contour intervals are regular and represent subsea depths. The map would be labelled top sand, base sand or refer to a geological age boundary. The difference in elevation between the hydrocarbonwater contact and the top of the structure is known as the closure or height of the hydrocarbon column. Structure maps of the top sands of Thistle oil reservoir[l61and the Rough gas field[l51are shown in Figs 8.2 and 8.3. A schematic crosssection of the Rough field is illustrated in Fig.
Contour i n t e r v a l
50 feet
o Well control
8.4["1. The area contained within each structural contour can be measured by various mathematical techni
Fig. 8.2 Top sand structure map, Thistle oil reservoir. (after
tive
carbon/ contact
Fig. 8.4 A schematic crosssection of the Rough field. (after!151)
124
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
qucs but is most ssually performed by a digitizing process or with the aid of a calibrated device called a planimeter. A plot of the area contained within each contour against the conlour elevation for the top a11d base structure maps establishes the basis for calaulation of rock volume, as shown in Fig. 8.5 The area contained between the top arld base structure and limited by the fluid contact can be measured from the plot by planimeter and is equivalent to the gross rock volume of the hydrocarbon interval. The validity of the maps, the scale and the accuracy of planimetering all influence the numerical value of the rock volume obt2tined.
Helghest elevat~onon top structure
Fig. 8.6 Net pay thickness isopach. well test interpretation. It is custo~naryto use a porosity cut ofJ' in log analysis equivalent to some f D minimum pern~eabilityon a porosity permc;~bility :z crossplot (i.e. 8 % porosity at 0.1 mD permeability). :r c In addition, VLl.iy and water saturation are often 0 included 2 s additional delimiters, i e . if Vc,,, 40% 1 > and S,, > 60% i  then the rock might in a particular 0 Area conta~ned contourby circumstance be considered sonreservoir quality. Fig. 8.5 Rock volume estimation. The net: gross ratio defines the thicksless of reservoir quality rock to total thickness in a given unit. Isopach maps of sand tliickness in the Rough field and the R4urchison field are shown in Figs 8.7 and 8.8. 8 3 THICKNESS MAPS . The area contained within a given isopach car1 be plotted against isopach value, as shown in Fig. 8.9. Contours of equithickness points in a reservoir can he drawn and are again influenced by geolo@cal and The area enclosed by this plot represents the net geophysical interpretatiorl and well control. Where rock volume and can be obtained by planirnetry. When a reservoir is composed of a nurnber of thickness represents for ma ti or^ thickness normal to different rock types or S ~ I S Iunits, and they ;ire ~ the plane of the reservoir (true bcd thickness) the mapped separately, the thickness rnaps are known contours are called isopachs. Often the thickness of a bed is mapped as a vertical thickness and such a for each rock type as isoliths.
He~ghest elevat~on on base structure 
z
0 L


I
1
contour should strictly be known as an isochore. A thickness mapped between top and base porosity and including nonreservoir material is known as gr0s.y reservoir i~opach.If the impermeable beds are excluded it becomes a net reservoir isopach. I the C thickness is measured from a zero datum of the hydrocarbonwater contact. the map would be either a net or gross pay isopach. Figure 8.6 sl~ows net pay thickness isopach map a and the zero contour indicates the fluid contact. Sand thickness is increasing downdip in this representation, cind the sand pinches out at the top of the structure with a change in lithology to nonreservoir material. The definitiol? of reservoir qoality anci nonreservoir quality material is a petrophysical definition based on core analysis, log analysis and
8 VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATES AND RECOVERABLE RESERVES
125
8.4 LITHOFACIES REPRESENTATION
Rock lithology can provide a guide in contouring, and lithofacies maps are generally presented as ratio maps, typically sand: shale or limestone: anhydrite (Fig. 8.10). The ratios follow geometric progressions (1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8 etc.) and equal contour spacings do not therefore represent equal changes in lithoC logy.
Reservoir sand. Shale ratio 4 1 2 122:l
0
2:1  4 : l
24.1
Fig. 8.10 Lithofacies mapping.
8.5 ISOPOROSITY MAPS
In a given reservoir zone or subzone, the areal variation in mean porosity may be represented. The porosity control values are thickness weighted average porosities for the zone at each well. The shape of the isoporosity map shown in Fig. 8.11 may be obtained by application of geological modelling, by statistical techniques such as Krige mappjng [I719] or by computer controlled contour mapping! A n example of an isoporosity map of the Rough gas field is shown in Fig. 8.12.
Fig. 8.8 lsopach map (a) and mesh perspective diagram (b) of Brent Sands, Murchison reservoir.
Porosity C . I. 5%
Area enclosed
Area contained by contour Fig. 8.9 Hydrocarbon volume from net pay isopach.
Fig. 8.11 lsoporosity map.
126
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE

I
I
I
Fig. 8.12 Rough field porosity map  average gas saturation 63% (after [151).
Fig. 8.14 Rough field permeability map (after [15]).
8.6 ISOCAPACITY MAPS
Isocapacity is used to denote equal values o f a permeabilitynet thickness product, which is significant in appreciating well production capability. The product is frequently mapped instead o f pcrmeability, as permeability for a particular zone is sought as a functional relationship with porosity ( k = f n (@)). Figure 8.13 shows an isocapacity map in which the absolute permeability has been obtained as an arithmetic average in the zone, i.c. at a well
8.7 HYDROCARBON PORE VOLUME MAPS
As has been derived previously, an estimate o f hydrocarbon porc volun~e can be obtained by comb~ningthe net rock volume from isopach mapping with a mean porosity @ and a mean hydrocarbon saturation ( 1  S,,). The porosity should be a volume weighted average, 1.e.
The data, when modified for effective permeability can be validated by well testing. A permeability map o f the Rough gas field is shown in Fig. 8.14.
and is obtained by dividing the reservoir into regions o f constant porosity and measuring the bounding areas and mean thickness. The isosaturation map may be derived by noting the relationship in a given rock type betwecn irrcducible water saturation and porosity. The porosities and saturations in a hydrocarbon zone are generally considered interdependent. Contouring o f any isosaturation map must respect capillary transition zone characteristics and, as a consequence, regional average values areoften o f more practical use than a contoured map. Saturation should be weighted average: represented as a pore volu~ne
Fig. 8.13 lsocapacily map.
A n altcrnative to this approach is the dircct mapping o f hydrocarbon porc thickness (HPT) at each well control point. HPT is characterized at a well in a given zone as L$ . h N .Sh) whcre TI, = 1 St,,,. average porosity The ( in the net thickness interval hhi is likcly to be an I arithmetic average, as indicated from a porosity histogram. At the hydrocarbonwater contact Sjl is
8 VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATES AND RECOVERABLE RESERVES
zero, and at the porous rock limit $ is zero. Figure 8.15 shows the form of an HPT map. A map of HPT in the Rough gas field is indicated in Fig. 8.16. The shape of the contours might be suggested by geological controls such as structure, depositional environment and/or diagenetic modifications. The planimetering, or any alternative way of measuring area, of the areas represented by each HPT value results in data for a plot of area against HPT, as shown in Fig. 8.17. The area under the curve generated represents the hydrocarbon pore volume of the reservoir unit.
Area t
Fig. 8.17 Hydrocarbon pore volume from HPT maps (area under curve = net hydrocarbon pore volume).
8.8 PROBABILISTIC ESTIMATION
It should be apparent that there are a number of ways to map any given set of data. A numerical value of hydrocarbon pore volume thus represents one outcome of a given map combination. The presentation of hydrocarbon in place as a probabilistic estimate rather than as a deterministic value seeks to show the uncertainty of the estimate. The association of ranges and distribution shape with h, each of the components A,(@Sh), NIG of the volumetric equation is a subjective technical exercise. One method, which has found widespread use in arriving at a probabilistic estimate, is the Monte Carlo approach [''I. Since standard condition (Vsc) volumes are usually needed, the reservoir volume of hydrocarbon in place is converted to a standard volume by use of an initial formation volume factor (Bhr)for the particular hydrocarbon, and its uncertainty is included in the estimation: HCPV Vsc = Bhi where HCPV represents reservoir condition hydrocarbon pore vojume. The shape of distributions and maximum and minimum values are generally agreed in specialist group committees, and rectangular and triangular distributions (Fig. 8.18 (a) and (b)) based on subjective assessment of reservoir characteristics are most frequently used. The distribution can easily be converted into a cumulative frequency curve which can be sampled at random. The repeated random selection of values and their probabilities from each independent variable set leads to the calculation of a large number of volumetric estimates (Fig. 8.19). The cumulative frequency of these estimates is used to show the likelihood that a given value will be at least as great as that shown, as indicated in Fig. 8.18 (c). The independent variables considered in
Fig. 8.15 Hydrocarbon pore thickness map.
Fig. 8.16 Rough field hydrocarbon pore thickness map (after ['51).
hydrocarbon porosity. (a) new suite of 25 values. hG. All combinations of two parameters (say h and $) Ot are computed (giving 25 products). Figure 8. .20 The recoverable volume of hydrocarbon from a indicates the change in volumetric estimate from particular reservoir will depend on reservoir rock [I4]  . (b) triangular five. 8. When the distribution is symmet90% level is known as aproven value.128 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE volumetric and reserve calculations are A. A n alternative method attributed to Van der Laan is suited to desk calculation and makes use of a number of values of each variable . a .8 chance of yielding a low value). Prior to drilling a well which indicates the presence of hydrocarbon.21) are used to represent concepts the potentially misleading best estimate value to of certainty at given levels. e. (5) a very pessimistic value (say 0. level is known as a proven + probable + possible value.18 and 8. The next parameter is then combined to yield a Fig. (c) resultant distr~bution introduced. the 50% level rical the expectation value of the field can be found. (3) most likely value (say 0.3 or 5 values to represent the probability distribution.19 Representation of volume in place calculations.5 chance of yielding a lo\< value) . 8. (4) a pessimistic value (say 0. ($Sh). (2) an optimistic value (say 0. are then obtained. (1) a very optimistic value (say 0. These methods may give a clearer idea of the The values on the cumulative frequency graph possible spread of results and divert attention from (Figs. the other possibilities. Mln Value  Max Value + Fig. Min Max reduced to five by averaging successive groups of Value five. very optimistic value.g. Bhi and R F (i. Each of the five values has a probability of 1 in 5 or 20%. which are again reduced to Rectangular dcstribution (no preference).V/G. The process is repeated until all parameters are distr~bution (strong preference).e.3 chance of yielding Value a low value). there is no proven value. formation volume factor and recovery factor). ranging from multiple calculations or from multiple random from very pessimistic through the most likely to a sampling of distributions. In common usage['].9 chance of yielding a low value).I \  + . net gross ratio. area.9 RECOVERY FACTORS AND RESERVES It is also important to realize that the distribution of values can change with time as more information about a reservoir becomes available. 8.2 chance of yielding a low value) . gross thickness. and a final range of five values.18 Representationof independent variables.at is known as a proven probable value and the 10% the 50% cumulative probability value. 8. and these are 4 i. predrilling through discovery and appraisal to early production and finally to late time depletion.
then. tj is an interval time.e. (d) delineationlearly production. The fraction of original hydrocarbon in place that will be recovered. The heterogeneity of the reservoir pore space will influence pressure gradients during dynamic displacement of hydrocarbon and leads to regions of poorer recovery than would be predicted by laboratory measured residual saturations. as well as on economic conditions. Cqjtj Bhi Cqj RF= HCPV where qj is an interval standard condition volumetric production. Np is the cumulative stock tank oil production then. where G is the standard condition gas in place. Bhi is a hydrocarbon initial formation volume factor. (e) mature production. all volumes being represented at a standard condition. at some time t and pressure P The recovery factor at any stage of reservoir depletion is represented without spatial distribution . (f) late time depletion. (c) appraisai.20 Time (and data) variation of probabilistic estimates. is known as a recovery factor. For oil. chemical flood etc. is the cumulative standard condition gas production.8 VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATES AND RECOVERABLE RESERVES t Y 'k l'hL1h Value O min  max O min max Value + O min Value  rnax Value  Value  Value  Fig. where N is the stock tank oil in place.. The ultimate recovery factor refers to the change in saturation of hydrocarbon from initial (= 1S. 'v I P . at some time t and pressure P. in terms of the cumulative recovered hydrocarbon. 8. (a) Predrilling. waterflood.) to residual conditions (Shr)in a completely contacted region and implies a particular recovery mechanism (i. It is not achievable throughout the reservoir. (b) discovery. and fluid properties and continuity.). G. ~ For gas.
in some instances. proven probable reserve at the 50% level and proven probable +possible reserve at the 10% level. Under such conditions it is prudent that the owners or operators where A = area. transition zones. in that agreement is the main concern. The use of computer models to represent a threedimensional reservoir as a number of grid cells in which property variations are expressed is now commonplace. The final definition of parameters may sometimes be only quasitechnical. In North Sea reservoir operation the equity determination most frequently applied in joint operating agreements is on the basis of stock tank oil in place. This means that the reservoir should be operated as a unit and the costs and revenues shared in an agreed manner. experience indicates that it rarely provides a basis for agreement. saturation and mapping techniques. Bhl = initial hydrocarbon formation volume factor. ($I ' (1Swi Shr) Bhi Proven + probable 0. 8. The resulting cumulative frequency distribution shown in Fig. It is appropriate that we consider unitization in this chapter as most equity formulae are based on volumetric estimation of hydrocarbons in place. international boundaries.21 Probabilistic representation of recoverable reserves. The summation of hydrocarbon pore volume for each grid cell leads to a deterministic evaluation of initial hydrocarbon in place (standard conditions). Specialist subcommittees from all parties are required to formulate the bases for agreement of all parameters in the volumetric formula if unitization is to proceed.1 V Recoverable reserve __f Fig. 8. hN .21 is used with the same connotation as that of the hydrocarbon volume in place estimation. hni = net thickness. The basis for agreement depends on apportionment of equity in the unit. and ultimate recovery factors may be uncertain because of their origin with core tests and the representative nature of samples. = porosity.. Shr = average residual hydrocarbon saturation.130 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Recovery factors representing a given deveiopment concept can be calculated using the techniques and methods of reservoir dynamics and represented probabilistically as a distribution.e. porosity. The use of this approach involves the least amount of contention but is nevertheless a major exercise involving the establishment of rules for defining net pay. MHV. The lack of agreement between licence or lease owners over the proper representation of residual hydrocarbon saturation is the main reason why this formula is rarely applied in equity agreements. This allows a recoverable reserve estimation t o be performed using a Monte Carlo technique and for the results to be represented probabilistically. and the reservoir operation will then be considered unitized. i. The recoverable reserve histogram can be used to develop a risk ratio for application in development decision making. = A . namely proven reserve at the 90% level. This is because economic recovery factors will be influenced by well density in heterogeneous reservoirs. Development decisions are often taken assuming reserves at the 6070% probability level. by defining upside and downside potential of the reservoir. fluid boundaries. The ultimate recovery formula is also known as the movable hydrocarbon volume (MHV) formula. Although recoverable rather than inplace hydrocarbon may appear equitable. Swr = average connate water saturation.10 DISTRIBUTION OF EQUITY IN PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS It frequently occurs that the boundaries of a petroleum reservoir straddle lease lines and. For each randomly selected parameter set the calculation: Recoverable reserve (standard conditions) = recovery factor x hydrocarbon in place (standard conditions) of each lease region enter into some sort of agreement to develop the reservoir in a cost and energy efficient manner. + + 8. The mapping of the reservoir follows rules agreed in geological and geophysical subcom + .
22 Reservoir regions defined in the Dunlin field for volumetric calculations (after [31).. The petrophysical interpretation agreement will also define the methods for interpretation of saturation from well logs. 8. the deterministic total hydrocarbon in place at standard conditions V. Following any redetermination. The equity determination may be reviewed or redetermined at certain times in the development lifetime of the reservoir. Interaction with a reservoir engineering subcommittee is necessary to reach agreement on representation of capillary transition zones and the validation of log derived saturation in a given rock type with capillary pressure data. The definitions of net thickness and porosity tend to emerge from the agreements reached in petrophysical subcommittees on log interpretation methods and corelog correlation. \ ~ ~ \\ 1 Fig.8 VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATES AND RECOVERABLE RESERVES 131 mittees. particularly where log interpretation involves wells drilled with both oilbased and waterbased muds. One owner or licencee in a unitized reservoir will agree to act as the Operator of the unit on behalf of all members. and the exercise may be conducted by an independent expert if there is no unit concensus. . The reservoir engineering subcommittee will usually undertake the responsibility of defining fluid contacts and will be involved in agreements regarding zonation. The fluid properties relevant to each computer grid cell allow areal and vertical variation in initial volume factors for hydrocarbons but depend on agreement reached in the reservoir engineering subcommittee on the use of fluid samples and the calculation methods for PVT properties (see Chapter 4).22 shows reservoir regions defined in the Dunlin field volumetric study r31. The equity distribution between leases or licenses is obtained by arranging the computer grid system such that it follows the lease boundaries and it therefore facilitates regional subvolume calculation. For a resultant computer model of n grid cells. The compaction corrected core porosity is often taken as a standard. Reservoir engineering methods for zonation are described in Chapters 5 and 14. The mapping exercise provides gross reservoir rock volume as top structure and isopach (isochore) maps of each reservoir zone or layer. Figure 8. historical costs and revenues may be reapportioned according to the nature of the Joint Operation Agreement. This of course presupposes some agreement on vertical zonation and reservoir boundaries. is then * a 0 Platform oil producer e r ~njecow e n ~ Platform dry hole ' ~ \ y48\ .
132
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
Examples
Example 8.1
The table shows values of net sand thickness and area for a reservoir. The porosity varies linearly with sand thickness from 0.15 to 0.28, the water saturation varies hyperbolically from 1.0 to 0.33 from water contact to crest, and the oil formation volume factor is 1.355. What is the oil in place? Table of net sand isopach values v. area within contour
lsopach value (ft)
350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0
Area within contour (acres)
0 400 730 965 1200 1520 2150 2600
NB. The general equation of hyperbola is x2 y2 a2  b2 =1 and the relationship between x (= S,, fraction) and y (= h, ft) can be fitted using the expression
164 h = 139 sinh x
where sinh x is lh (ex  eFX).
Example 8.2
The probabilistic distributions of reservoir properties are summarized in the following table at the cumulative frequency levels (equivalent to cumulative probability greater than a given value) of 90%, 50% and 10%. These data might correspond to minimum, most likely and maximum values. Compare the deterministic and probabilistic estimates of the recoverable reserve in stock tank barrels of oil.
Cumulative frequency level greater than given value Variable
Area (acres) Net thickness (ft) Porosity (fraction) Porosityoil saturation product (fraction) Initial oil formation volume factor (RBISTB) Recovery factor (fraction)
1780 225 0.125 0.099 1.214 0.17
2115 250 0.133 0.1 13 1.240 0.31
2450 275 0.140 0.127 1.260 0.52
8 VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATES AND RECOVERABLE RESERVES
133
References
[I] Archer, J.S. Reservoir volumetrics and recovery factors, In Developments in Petroleum Engineering, (Dawe, R . A . and Wilson, D.C. ,eds), Elsevier Applied Science Publishers (1985). [2] Walstrom, J.E., Mueller, T.D. and McFarlene, R.C. Evaluating uncertainty in engineering calculations, JPT (Dec. 1967), 1595. [3] Van Rijswijk, J.J. et al. The Dunlin field, a review of field development and reservoir performance to date, Paper E U R 168, Proc. Europec (19801,217. I. [4] A ~ ~ S ( J . J . A statistical study of recovery efficiency, API Bull D l 4 (Oct. 1967), Am. Pet. Inst. [5] Bankhead, C.C. Processing of geological and engineering data in multi pay fields for evaluation, Pet. Trans. Reprint Series No 3, SPE o f A I M E (1970). 8. , , 161 . . ~ r a v s d nC.J. ~ayksian analysis  a new approach to statistical decision making, Pet. Trans. Reprint Series No 3, SPE of A I M E (1970), 215. [7] Ryan, J.M. Limitations of statistical methods for predicting petroleum and natural gas reserves and availability, Pet. Trans. R e ~ r i nSeries No 3. SPE o f A I M E (1970). 227. t [8] H&baugh, J. W., ~ o v e t o n : ~ and. ~ a & J.C. .~ , Probability methods in Oil E.xploration, J Wiley, New York (1977). [9] Pritchard, K.C. Use of uncertainty analysis in evaluating hydrocarbon pore volume in the RainbowZama area, JPT (Nov. 1970), 1357. [lo] Stoian, E . Fundamentals and applications of the Monte Carlo method, J. Can. Pet. Tech. 4 (1965), 120. 1111 Archer, J.S.  Reservoir definition and characterisation for analysis and simulation, Proc. 11th World Pet. Cong., London (1983), Paper PD6 (1). 1121 SPE Standards pertaining to the estimating and auditing of oil and gas reserve information, JPT (July 1979), 852. [13] Martinez, A.R. and Ion, D.C. Classification and nomenclature systems for petroleum and petroleum reserves, Proc. 11th World Pet. Cong. (1983), Study Group Report. [14] Van der Laan, G. Physical properties of the reservoir and volume of gas initially in place, In Proc. Symp. on the Groningen gas field, Verhandel Konikl. Ned Geol. Mijnbouwt Genoot Geol. Ser. 25 (1968), 25. [15] Hollis, A.P. Some petroleum engineering considerations in the change over of the Rough gas field to the storage mode, Paper E U R 295, Proc. Europec (1982), 175. [16] Hallett, D. Refinement of the geological model of the Thistle field, In Petroleum Geology of the Continental Shelf of North West Europe (Illing, L.V. and Hobson, G.D. ,eds), Inst. Pet., London (1981), 315. [17] Davis, J.C. Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology, Wiley Int. : NY (1973). [18] Krige, D.G. Two dimensional weighted moving average trend surfaces for ore valuation, Proc. Symp. Math. Stat. and Computer Appl. in Ore Valuation, Johannesburg SA (1966), 13. [19] Matheron, G. Principles of geostatistics, Econ. Geol. 58 (1963), 1246. [20] Garb, F.A. Oil and gas reserves classification: estimation and evaluation, JPT (March 1985) 373.
A
L
A
Chapter 9
Radial Flow Analvsis of Well
This chapter will serve as an introduction to the subject of pressure analysis in reservoir engineering. The theoretical basis of radial flow analysis and the rudiments of data analysis for buildup and drawdown in oil and gas wells are presented. Well test procedures are briefly discussed for exploration and development wells.
For a radial coordinate system (Fig. 9.1), with angular and vertical symmetry and isotropy, the resultingequation is
9.1 RADIAL FLOW IN A SIMPLE SYSTEM
Considerations of conservation of mass, of Darcy's equation for flow, and of an equation of state for a slightly compressible liquid lead to a linearized partial differential equation of flow for a fluid flowing in a porous medium. This equation is linear for the assumed conditions of constant @, p, k and small and constant compressibility. Solution is possible by Laplace transform methods (Hurst and van Everdingen .)I"[ and for more limited boundary conditions by applying the Boltzmann transformation:
Between the limits t = 0 and t (when s = x) then:
One solution applicable to well test analysis is the exponential integral, or line source solution [''I:
Fig. 9.1 Radial flow towards a well.
where, since the exponential integral of a negative argument is negative, an alternative nomenclature may be used:
9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE
CO
135
ei(x) = Ei(x)
=
9.2 DEVELOPMENT OF THE LINE SOURCE SOLUTION
This exponential integral is calculable from the series
where @PC? x =4kt The boundary conditions necessary for this solution to apply are as follows: (a) external boundary is at infinity, re = a; (b) the rate is zero at the inner boundary r,, and is instantaneously changed to q at time zero and maintained constant
then: for small values of x (large values of ktl@yc?) Ei(x) = logex 0.5772 or ei(x) =  0.5772  logex =  EL(x)
+
(The terminology ei(x) =  Ei(x) is commonly used and values are shown in Fig. 9.2.) (c) the inner boundary r = r, is vanishingly small, r, + 0; (d) porosity, permeability, thickness and viscosity are constant; (e) compressibility is small and constant; (f) pressure gradients are small; (g) Darcy's law is valid. In spite of these apparently severe restrictions on the use of this equation, it has wide applications and will be valid for real systems (i.e. re # cc, r, # 0) provided that: (a) Dimensionless time for the radius at the inner boundary is greater than 510. The dimensionless time parameter is defined as follows:
Fig. 9.2 The functioneik).
This means that:
Since the wellbore radius is this radius in well testing, this condition is met within a few seconds or minutes of production in most cases. (b) There is no significant pressure drop at any outer boundary. This condition will be met if the dimensionless time for the outer boundary is small, e.g.
kt log,  0.809
+
Since all solutions of the diffusivity equation involve a coefficient qplkh, a generalization of solutions is possible in the form Since the dimensionless times are large for radii and times of practical interest, the simplified equation is valid in many situations.
I
136
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
where qpi2nkh is the coefficient for steady state radial flow, and PD(tD) is a dimensionless pressure function for the boundary conditions specified. The dimensionless pressure function will be a function of dimensionless time and may be a simple analytical function, or a complex function requiring numerical evaluation, depending upon the complexity of the boundary conditions. Tabulation or plots of PD(tD) for the more common idealizations of boundary conditions are available in the literature [','ll.
where p,,p =psi, q =STBID, p = cp, k h = m D ft, i.t = c,S, c,S, cfi(psi)1 r =ft, B, = RBISTB.
+
+
If t is in days
t,
=
0.006336kt $clGr2
9.4 APPLICATION OF ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS IN WELL TEST METHODS
Considering the equation for a well in an infinite reservoir
r
' 1
9.3 RADIAL EQUATIONS IN PRACTICAL UNITS
The constant rate, radial flow equation in Darcy units is
which in field units becomes
it is apparent that if this well is maintained at a constant rate of production, then a plot of P, against loget will yield a straight line, with a slope of qyi47ckh. If, then, the fluid viscosity is known. an estimate can be made of kh, the permeability thickness product of the formation. This estimate will be an estimate of the average kh in the area drained by the well during the test period, and consequently is representative of a very much greater reservoir volume than can be tested by coring or by wellbore survey methods.
TABLE 9.1
Characteristics of some current downhole pressure gauges (after Schlumberger)
Pressure type/ Temp. type Pressure range (psi) Temperature Pres. range ("C) accuracy % orpsi for10K Pres. resolution %fs orpsi forlOK Temperature Temperature accuracy resolution ("C) ("C)
Manufacturer Designation
Flopetrol Johnson Flopetrol Johnson GRC Geo Services Sperry Sun Lynes Lynes
SSDPISG
Strain gauge Junct, trans HP xtal Plat. Res. Capacitance Plat. Res Strain gauge or Plat. Res Strain gauge Strain gauge Quartz
10 000 15 000 (option) 13 500 10 000 5 000 10 000 15 000 10 000 5 000 10 000 5 000
01 50
i 5 psi
0.02 psi
k0.5"
k0.06"
SSDPICRG EMR 502 EPG 520 Derneter
0150 01 50 0150
i0.035% i 3 . 5 psi
0.02 psi
k0.3" +I0 i0.3"
0.03"
t0.09% FS 0.01 psi i 9 psi i0.04% t4psi k0.05% + 5 psi 0.012% 1.2 psi 0.005% 0.5 psi
fl o
0.02"
MRPG MK Ill DMR 3121200 DMR 31 4/200
0150 0125 0105
0.03" +lo +lo 0.03" 0.14"
+0.25%FS 0.025% +25 psi 2.5 psi +O.O5%FS 0.01 % i 5 psi 1 psi
9
RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE
137
The problem in this case is the practical one of accurate measurement of the small pressure drops normally encountered, at the fairly high absolute pressures involved. The characteristics of some current downhole pressure gauges are reproduced in Table 9.1. Rates of pressure decline may be substantially less than 1 psilday in extensive reservoirs with large permeabilities or thickness. Standard pressure gauges in use have an accuracy of 0.10.2%, but may be sensitive to pressure changes of 0.25  0.5 psi
( a ) Radial flow system
 and since the pressure differences are more
important than the absolute value of the pressure, these can give the data required in many cases. More sensitive gauges are available which are capable of detecting pressure changes of a few hundredths of psi, but the significance of these small changes in a flowing well may be obscure. For prolonged testing, surface recording pressure gauges are available and eliminate the possible failurg of clockwork or battery driven recording mechanisms. The procedure of measuring the pressure decline
1v Radial Log A t
( b ) Spherical flow system
I
I I
Log
t
fi
1 /Kt
r
4~
LO^ n t
/ 1iv /
Spherical flow
Fig. 9.3 Behaviour of pressure against time plots in spherical and radial flow in an infinite homogeneous reservoir (after [391). (a) Radial flow system, (b) spherical flow system.
~
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
( a ) Homogeneous reservoir
Log
At
Linear flow Log At
( b ) Finite capacity fractured reservoir
Log
At
4fi
'a Jl
I
Log
At
Fig. 9.4 Contrast in well test plots for assumed linear flow mechanism in infinite homogeneous and fractured reservoirs (after [391). (a) Homogeneous reservoir, (b) finite capacity fractured reservoir.
in a producing well is known as drawdown testing and is usually undertaken for purposes other than kh measurement, which can normally be done more convenientiy by pressure buildup testing. In many reservoir geometries the pressure changes with time will indicate a number of influences:
(a) For some time following start of flow, the pressure at the wellbore is not influenced by the drainage boundary of the system. and analysis can be conducted as if the system was infinite. The solution is said to be a transient or early time solution. (b) At some later time the influence of the
The change from transient to semisteady state conditions depends particularly on reservoir geometry..5 "Trans' .6 is a typecurve showing combined pressure and pressure derivative curves ["I...3. The uncertainties in interpretation remain linked to assumptions of boundary conditions applied in solution of the original diffusivity equation. 9.S I I I Fig. . nearest reservoir system boundary is experienced at the wellbore and the solution is said to be a late transient or middle time solution. capacity and permeability. 9..6 Combined derivative and pressure type curve (after [321). especially in the absence of good geological and structural information.lnf~nite Infinite m=Seml logs lope No flow representing infinlte acting radial flow . 9. If possible.... Transitionstarts1 before end of I W..5 show some responses under different boundary conditions. Fractured wells ')  (With Xflow) Loglog g piot g _1 I ! Semi log plot (Cartesian) I Derivative plot 8 3 1 J/\ 05 7 : .4 and 9. Closed system 3.0. 139 (z:ek$.4411. (c) When the rate of change of wellbore pressure becomes constant in time then semisteady state stabilized flow conditions have been established. 9. Many techniques have been proposed to identify the reason for anomalies [43.. 1 0. lines develop I . Figure 9.5 PRESSURE BUILDUP ANALYSIS A pressure buildup survey involves measuring the changes in pressure which occur after a flowing well has been shutin. This dimensionless approach is often used to match observed well response to properties of a particular reservoir type. and interpretation is frequently difficult and ambiguous.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE Homogeneous reservoir Model Double porosity reservoir interporosity flow 4)Pseudo steady 15) Transient state . The ideal drawdown and buildup plots are only rarely seen. the flowing pressure prior to shutin should also be recorded..5 Summary of wellireservoir model responses in different reservoir systems (after [42')..) I)'infinite" systems 2.. and Figs 9.Pressure mantenance boundary Key 1~ conductivity Uniform flux wellbore storage 21. 1o2r Approx~matestart of semi log straight line CD~" Fig..5 0.
1 I 2 x 4 _dddI I I I I ! 1 lo3 . .. .0. even when corrections for afterflow production are made.a'* .809 . Better agreement is obtained if it is assumed that in the vicinity of the wellbore. 1' 0 tLAt . This is known as a Horner plot (Fig.140 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE I I T o enable the analytical equation to be used for pressure buildup analysis..k . for the infinite reservoir. so that the total rate is zero.9). 9. and many examples of responses can be found[']. At + loge .411in analysis of pressure buildup is increasingly popular. Extrapolation of the straight line to infinite shutin time gives an extrapolated pressure Pxwhich. or for wells tested early in the life of the reservoir... (Fig. 9..7 Constant rate flow followed by constant rate shutin.k* F _.9 Pressure buildup analyses at initial time and after significant reservoir production. The use of type curves [32. ( t At)/At should give a straight line of slope qu14nkh.p*lntiol = Fig. (t+At) 4xkh I .+ AP2 = 4nkh @C1Er..6 SKIN EFFECT It is frequently found that observed pressures in the very early part of a buildup do not agree with the theoretical relation.2 1 I I 9 . the data are plotted on semilog paper.8 A Horner plot (field units slope = m 162. slope=m= t 6 2 6 q p .809 @C1cr. and the best straight line fitted to obtain a slope of rn psi/loglo cycle. Pressure drops are usually larger (rarely smaller) than theory would indicate.. then the change to zero rate at time t is effected by continuing the production. maintained for a time t + At (At being the time after shutin) is qp AP1 = .) (the pressure measured in the well at time after shutin) against log.. py L / 109 *p nltlol . time after shutin) is given by the sum of these expressions: I r The permeability thickness product of the reservoir is obtained from Consequently a plot of P(A. 9..8).6qpB kh . prior to shutin. due to a positive rate of production q. 1 The pressure due rate of production is the negative Fig. the discontinuity in the flow is removed by the technique of superpositior.7. 9. 9. 9.. 9. as shown in Fig.unity + At + where units are field units./* /* */* / 10 ! . and m is the slope in psi/loglo cycle. At infinitely long shutin time t+At . + log.. The net pressure drop at any time t + At (i.e. at Fig. Conventionally. but from time t superimposing a negative rate 4. some . It is important to identify the appropriate reservoir model for type curve matching and the use of pressure derivatives reduces but does not eliminate ambiguity.log.pXafter some depleton oftersomedeplet~on The pressure drop at r . . If the well is considered to have flowed at rate q for a time t. has the physical significance P* = P. + 0. qC( log.
7 = (psi)' and r. The magnitude of the skin factor can be found from a pressure buildup survey as will be shown. .0. inaccurate or plugged perforations.the skin effect . for values of At such that t + At+(. steady state pressure drop.0. given as the product of a flow rate function. to interpret the skin factor as a zone of radius r. units the resulting equation used with a solution at one hour of shutin time (Plh): I I + .AP. Altered zon. this has limited application. p = cp. The equation for the pressure at the flowing well at the instant of shutin is: Pi .809+2S $yErwZ 1 where P. 9. and S makes it difficult to calculate kh from flowing pressure data alone.log.P. within which the permeability is altered to some value k.lErw 1 2s (in Darcy units) 4nkh or 0.809 + 2 S @l.10 Concept of altered zone around wellbore. k = = mD. The ratio of theoretical pressure drop to the actual pressure drop may be considered an index of the flow efficiency: P* . 9. "skin" Fig. and in field.87 m. At ir P(A*) qp .P.Pwf APsk~n= *.S in field units when rn is in psi/logIo cycle. or k. where S = skin factor in a zone of altered kh compared to the bulk formation kh as shown in Fig.can then be considered as a rate proportional. Conventionally and conveniently At is taken as 1 and the equation manipulated to yield S. The pressurl drop in the skin is given by Note that uncertainty in the values of k/@pc..f loget = 4nkh 2+ + log. but not generally very useful.P W f = . m = slope psi per loglo cycle. and so flow within this damaged zone can justifiably be considered as steady state.P(sr)= Zh 4nkh [loget . and a dimensionless skin factor: the pressure at closedin time is: L J and for small At (early shutin times) Pi . mudding off of formation or perforations by drilling fluid solids.'. . Pwf psi.log. For any other value of At (subject only to the restriction t At + t ) + . affecting only a very small volume of the reservoir. Physical reasons for such an impediment are obvious and include: incomplete..9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE impediment to flow exists. Efficiency = P* . . It is possible. The effect of damage .10. or practical. filtrate invasion and consequent clay swelling or water blocking etc. when: The total pressure drop for a flowing well in an infinite reservoir is then the transient solution r 1 but since it is not possible to assign an unambiguous value to either r. All these effects are local to the wellbore. = ft. I$ = fraction.
The slope of this line is 1 Ye dV and d V = Zxrhrpdr 4 9. = 0. It may be noted that the presence of an aquifer can influence interpretation through its volume and compressibility.ves Note that the average reservoir pressure P i s P= rw A plot of pressure against time on linear (Cartesian) coordinate paper should be a straight line. and pressure fluctuation or gauge drift and vibration do not obscure the trend. = (psi)' and q = stblD.e. (log. and the flow equation will be The pore volume is therefore v. a significant pressure change will occur at the boundary.2 q At rn .3 for the outer boundary) the reservoir is assumed to reach a pseudo steady state condition when the pressure at all points of the reservoir is falling uniformly with time and the equation for the pressure at a flowing well is obtained as follows: Since qo= NpB. i. The literature gives equations for the analysis of the intervening period (tDe equal to 0. If the kh is apparently unchanged by the stimulation.7 PRESSURE DRAWDOWN AND RESERVOIR LIMIT TESTING By the time the initial disturbances due to bringing a well on production have died out. In this case: since qdt = Vp .142 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 9. If a test can be prolonged sufficiently to reach this semisteady state period. to obtain negative skin factors.w f 1 nr:h@i. then the physical interpretation of the situation is normally that the effective well radius has been increased. With a noflow boundary condition. a plot of Pwfagainst log time will be a straight line of slope qpl4kh. therefore. after stimulation treatments. pressure will fall more rapidly than is predicted by the infinite reservoir equation. If flow is continued then at some time (usually estimated as tD = 0.0418qB0 (SF reservoir barrels where (S = psilh (slope).1 Negative skin factors It is possible. then  162. the log approximation to the exponential integral solution will be appropriate. and c. At some later time (again usually taken as tD = 0. but the theoretical justifications are dubious. and results . is given by rw (effective) = r. for an aquifer of volume Vw using nomenclature from Chapter 10 NpBo = N B o 2 C e AP + V w L AP At early times. i. This effective well radius.1 to 0. and efficiencies or completion factors greater than 1. . defined as the radius of a well in a reservoir of uniform permeability giving the same pressure drop as the real system.3)./At. If flowing well pressures are recorded. [rJrw] + S .1 for the outer boundary of a symmetrical system). dp then 4t p = p. reducing the value of the log term of the righthand side.2) The definition of 7 will determine whether total pore volume or hydrocarbon pore volume is calculated.6. then the drawdown test (or reservoir limits test) can yield an estimate of hydrocarbon in place in a closed reservoir. the plot may yield values of kh..
or inertial effect correction. 9. where Q = flow rate. B is some function of rock properties. and may not describe accurately the productive potentials of wells. Empirical test methods were developed for the statutory control and regulation of gas wells and Figure 9. and is invalid if a very wide range of flow rates is studied. kh ~ z log . and B is a coefficient of nonDarcy flow. .0 (laminar). = static reservoir pressure.P. so that observation of pressure in a well offsetting a producing test well can indicate the time when the radius of disturbance reached this point. n = slope. 9. This equation is not strictly the result of any particular flow law. and a pore volume (or BBLs of hydrocarbon per acre ft) can be estimated for this region.11): reservoirs [8. If the flow were true Darcy flow of an ideal gas under steady state condition.1']. P. gas properties and interval open to flow but is always treated as a grouped term. Dividing through by Q we can transform the equation into a linear form with slope B and intercept A (Fig. A is the coefficient of Darcy flow. . requiring a quadratic equation for a realistic description of the pressure drop rate relationship. but is not considered in this text. However.12. and any slope taken at a time prior to semisteady state should be larger (and so the pore volume estimate should be smaller) than the value calculated for the steady state condition.12 shows the loglog plot of back pressure test data.  and the p u 2 term is a kinetic energy. data in this region can be used to determine minimum hydrocarbon in place since the slope of the linear scale pressure:time plot declines monotonically.11 Correlation of high rate gas test data. with the coefficient C given as C = constant . The basic equation for these conditions is known as the Forchheimer equation: 1 Q Fig. although the empirical equations in use give no insight into reservoir behaviour.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE ambiguous and uncertain.8 GAS WELL TESTING ' High rate gas wells are one common example of departure from the simple Darcy equation. One advantage of these methods is that testing at more than one rate is required so that inertial effects can be investigated. the exponent n (the slope of the loglog plot) would be unity. but will not define inertial effects. test results will generate an approximate straight line when q is plotted against ( . 9. The usual form of equation used in field practice where flow to the wellbore is essentially radial is A(P2) = A Q = B Q~ where P* = F2 . over moderate ranges of flow rate. Pwf = stabilized flowihg bottomhole pressure. .['] " $la 9. Approximate radial flow analysis indicates that the transient stage can be considered as pseudo steady state flow within a moving boundary (the radius of disturbance). However. The loglog slope is defined as ratelAP. C = coefficient. More advanced interpretation of such interference effects is possible. standard volumes per day.?) on loglog scales. The empirical relationship between rate and flowing pressure used to correlate data is known as the back pressure equation: A single constant rate test for a well described by a nonDarcy flow equation will give kh and the extrapolated pressure. as P' shown in Fig.P .5 (turbulent) and 1. [rel'w] T . between 0.
9. the loglog plot of the + BQ2 il(p2) = A Q where (transient) + BQ2 0.Pwf). Between each rate.144 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE data will not be coincident with the true back pressure curve. and this procedure may further reduce the time necessary for testing in low permeability formations. until the flowing bottomhole pressure approaches stabilization. and measuring Pwf The well can then be allowed to buildup to static pressure. The test itself may be termed an AOF test .3 Analysis of multirate data The empirical back pressure equation If the flow were fully turbulent the exponent n would be 0.2 Modified isochronal testing A further modification may be used. the last value of shutin pressure before flow is used instead of P.e.472 re A = . the well shoilld return to the fully builtup conditions ((dpiPdt) < 0.pwf2) = P (i. 9. the theoretical flow rate corresponding to this value is termed the absolute open flow potential).[lo& 1422pzT kh + S] semisteady state . in which identical flow and shutin periods are adopted. but will be parallel to it. Unless stabilized conditions are attained ir. this may be repeated for three or four rates. In this case. but a combination of a Darcy flow equation and a power series expression for z can lead to a value of exponent other than 1. When multirate data are available it is more useful to revert to one of the basic flow equations in field units: (semisteady state) 9.2%ih) but with short flowing periods the buildup periods are also short.8. The standard test procedure involves producing wells at a constant rate.or absolute open flow test. the pressures not necessarily being the stabilized pressure.. Values of n between 0.12 Back pressure test analysis. the flow periods chosen.8. and modified standardized test procedures have been . The results are then plotted on loglog scales. and this will frequently be the case. and P : the line extrapolated to the value ( : . this point when plotted giving the position of the back pressure curve.pwf2)" is not especially helpful in predicting reservoir characteristics or in analysing the components of pressure drops. Log scale rate  Fig. it is desirable for a test at one flow rate to be prolonged until stabilized conditions are attained. .8.5. Q = C (P: . Consequently.5 and 1 are generally taken as indicating the existence of some inertial effect. and a test carried out at a new rate. although it may be useful in characterizing well performance.I developed to reduce the test duration' ' [ The isochronal test uses the flowing pressures after identical flow durations at each rate.1 Isochronal testing The requirement of stabilized flow and full buildup between flow rates may require very prolonged testing periods in low permeability reservoirs. the static pressure in the term (P. 9.
enabling the well to be brought on production without a production flow string and wellhead. Because of cost considerations. andthe lack of selectivity in testing. severely limit the utility of openhole tests. Drill stem tests may be run in open hole. k mD. A review of currently used equipment and techniques is referenced in ['']. Progressive testing of increasingly thick intervals allor~s assessment of productivity and zone contributions.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE 145 or x T I kh [$(loget. The drill string is customarily used as the flow string (Fig. and in evaluating the productivity of individual wells.809) + S 1 (transient) 1 and B = nonDarcy coefficient. h. Because of the localized nature of the nonDarcy effect.13) (hence the term drill stem test).9. and the well then killed prior to abandonment or permanent completion. the first tests on an exploration or appraisal well may be made by means of drill stem tests. Q = MSCFID. but the uncertainty in obtaining a good packer seat. y = cp. kept for this purpose. When testing in cased holes. thereby eliminating the need to run a casing string. It is perfectly possible for a stimulated well with a true negative skin to exhibit large positive apparent skin factors. P = psia. where 1422T and D Q is known as the rate dependent skin This provides one method of isolating the nonDarcy effect. .9 WELL TEST PROCEDURES Tests of the flowing behaviour of discovery and appraisal wells are necessary.m(Pwf) correlated with rate: m ( p > . but does not enable the skin effect to be separated from the Darcy effect. . and tests in cased holes are very much to be preferred. it is possible to regard this as a local additional rate dependent skin effect. a number of intervals can be perforated for test at one time. and care should be exercised in determining'a B correlation. both to help in determining reservoir parameters.m(Pwf)_ 1422TQ loge5 . upon which will depend the number of wells needed to obtain a specified rate of production. I . =  $ +s ]+ FQ' 9. although in some cases the test tool assembly may be run on a tubing string. intervals can be tested selectively in a series of drill stem tests.2 Testing tools and assemblies There are the essential components in an assembly of testing tools. Pb 1 :p  and either A ( ~ ( P ) ) ' or m(F) . and by use of a retrievable bridge plug and the testing tool. L + 0. T = OR(= 460 O F \ + = It must be remembered that the skin factor calculated from a constant rate test will generally involve a nonDarcy component unless the rate is verv low.1' It is more appropriate[341 use the real gas to pseudopressure m(P) defined as m(P)=2 9. for pressure surveys to be made. 9. . conforming to the equation S'=S+DQ where 9.r = ft. without the well being completely equipped for continuing production. the greatly increased possibility of sticking pipe and losing the hole.9. rearranging the equation as D Fkh The analysis of multiple rate for the apparent skin effect S' will result in a set of rate dependent data.1 Drill stem testing A drill stem test is a temporary completion of a well.
13 Drill stem testing. Valves operated by changes in annulus pressure are increasingly used instead. fluid would be released only as stands are broken on the derrick floor. a bottomhole choke will generally be run. Equ~lizlng valve open  Formation fluid About to set packer Test In progress Test term~nated. Choke assembly On a first test of a formation when pressures and potentials are unknown. The valve is operated by vertical movement of the drill pipe. and also enables the pipe to be pulled essentially dry. They can be operated reasonably reliably under the conditions of a floating drilling vessel. The mud column in the annulus must then be isolated from the test interval. imposing less restriction to flow than the mechanically operated types. When pressures are known. inducing flow. 3. Since the initial flow period will displace drilling fluid (possibly gelled). which may plug narrow restrictions in valves and chokes. Packer The interval to be tested must be exposed to a reduced pressure in order to induce flow. Tester valve This is the main valve in the tool. The reverse circulation sub provides this connection and eliminates the necessity of spilling formation fluids (since these can be circulated out before pulling).. . if there were no means of opening the drill pipe bore to the annulus. opening of the test valve exposes the test interval to the low pressure of the drill pipe bore. Reverse circulating sub Since the tester valve will be closed when the pipe is pulled. about to pull out Fig. 9. mud cake. some screening system is necessary at fluid inlets. 4. and the valve will not open with a temporary hold up when running in the hole. This serves to throttle the flow of the well and dissipate some of the pressure of the system. or a selected size run to control pressures and rates.PETROLEUM ENGINE:ERlNG: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Grili pipe to surface =ormotton fluid in drill pipe Moin valve Maln valve closed . When the test packer is set. relieving the wellhead assembly of excessive pressures. 2. against a spring holding the valve normally closed. perforating debris etc. by means of a packer. which enables the drill pipe to be run wholly or partially empty of drilling fluid. chokes may be omitted completely. A hydraulic control system delays the opening of the valve when drill pipe weight is applied so that the drill pipe weight can be used for setting the packer without opening the valve. . 1.
and with one blanked off. The safety joint enables the test string to be The main object of the cushion is to ensure that detached at some point above the packer. giving a variable cushion Any type of pressure gauge ['jZ4. in case the within the drill pipe above the tester valve. but a test will always use two gauges.14 Principle of the Amerada gauge. data as is possible on flow and pressure can be Table 9. formation fluids flow into the well. Safety joints and jars 8. flow may ple of the rugged Amerada gauge with mechanical be detected by a blow of air at the surface. commonly with one gauge in the flow stream. be test string.14 shows the princiImmediately after the valve is opened. it taneously exposed to a pre5sure effectively atmosmay be desirable to obtain a fluid sample at a pheric. tools.) As an alternative to a water cushion. . some back pressure is maintained on the formation immediately after the tester valve is opened. leading to plugging of. a pressure  Time (b) + Base line Fig. A secondary concern in very deep high pressure (Note that this is a flowing sample and does not wells is that of preventing collapse of the test string necessarily correspond to a true sample of reservoir due to the unbalanced annulus mud column pressure. Samplers are available which close top and and possible damage to unconsolidated formations. so that packer or any other part of the tool becomes stuck.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE 147 5. ure. as close as possible to bottomhole press. bottom valves at the end of the final flow period. If a 6.1 shows some current downhole pressure subsequently reconstructed.y:ureo> 1 depth survey \ Lnt: \ . Pressure gauges predetermined pressure. an explosively violent period of flow could pressure. gauge characteristics. as clocks. the test string can be pressure charged with nitrogen to any 7. but with no flow through the chamber.9. fluid. that is Accurate interpretation of test results requires concontained within a chamber with ports to the tinuous monitoring of all events. which should be carefully calibrated gauges of 9.3 Test procedures. (b) Amerada chart for a typical pressure buildup survey in a producing well. so that as much wellbore. Cushion These are not essential to the test operation. Samplers moderately high pressure formation were instanParticularly when flow does not reach the surface. 9. Figure 9. The first signifi A movement d i m e 1 :. or damage to.result."]can run with a effect as the nitrogen is bled off. but The water cushion is a column of water contained assist in the recovery of the test string. data analysis known accuracy. the test string is not run completely empty. (a) Amerada pressure gauge.
9.) . A piston device and an associated packer can be actuated to force a probe through mud cake and allow the flow of smdl volumes of fluid (about 10 cc) into each of two pretest chambers (Figs. and choke pressures should be routinely recorded. materially complicating analysis. The difference between this time and instant of valve opening. the sample chamber seal valve may be closed and the tool left in place to record a buildup. If filtrate invasion is severe.oil being tested through a separator.15 shows test burners. In operation. Difficulties with burners. possible to use choke pressures to estimate the magnitude of flows. attempts are made to stabilize flow . can often result in data going unrecorded for significant periods. debris. separators. (Photo courtesy of BP.15 Test burners. 9. a valve is opened and a hydraulic intensifier expands a backup shoe. a shaped charge is fired through a sealing packer giving a flow channel from the formation to sample chamber. The repeat formation tester (vertical pressure logging) The earlier tools have now been replaced by an openhole testing tool that measures the vertical pressure distribution in a well. The formation tester (FT) and formation interval tester (FIT) These are devices run on electric wireline enabling a small sample of formation fluid. measures effective permeability. because of cutting of the cushion by formation solids. in mud pressure ratings up to 20000 psi and mud temperatures to 35O"F. One such device which has found frequent application is known by its Schlumberger trade name of the repeat formation tester or RFT. Since there will usually be mud solids. 9. with gas being vented or flared through a meter and oil being stored or burned off. but the flow and pressure data are generally of poor quality. If there is no flow in open hole. and the extent of transition zones. erode or damage orifices.9. but in casedhole it should generally be possible to recover formation fluid. and followup drill stem or production tests are necessary. or if the hole is cased. can be used to estimate a flow rate for this period. Alternatively. The tool may be particularly useful in locating hydrocarbonwater contacts. to be obtained from a selected interval.4 Wireline testing 1. and very limited pressure data. forcing the tool and two sealing packers against the formation of casing wall. however. Analysis of the flow and Fig.17). When the well has cleaned up and formation fluids are flowing. Pressures are monitored from the surface. 2.) Bleeding down the hydraulic pressure releases the tool for pulling. and if this fills with formation fluid a pressure buildup is subsequently recorded. possible formation solids which may plug. The device is designed to operate in openhole sizes between 6" and 143/4". and a robust mass flow meter would be of help in analysing such flow periods.148 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE cant measurement that can be made is the time of arrival of the water cushion at the surface. Figure 9. but an Amerada gauge is generally connected to the sampling system for a more accurate measurement. this period is not metered. with frequent changes of chokes (and so of rate) in attempts to stabilize and control flow. and the void volume of the test string. in certain circumstances.16 and 9. recovers formation fluid samples and. and other surface equipment. openhole tests may recover only mud filtrate. The sample chamber is small (generally taking a 10 litre sample). It is. The end of the water cushion may be more difficult to estimate. (This could lead to an overpressured condition in some circumstances.
The builtup pressure response at a number of depth points in a well I3l1 is shown in Fig. 30 In many instances the pressure measured by the tool will be the pressure of filtrate which is less than hydrocarbon pressure by the magnitude of capillary threshold pressure. 9. . . . J ~ r e s s u r e gauge valve (to mud column) Chamber 1 . the probe can be retracted and reset at a different vertical location in the well. 9. . Formation 1 Seal valve to upper chamber . . The deviation between current and initial gradients in a producing reservoir can provide a basis for interpretation of reservoir depletion and crossflow by matching in reservoir simulation[26461. Fig. After each pretest pressure buildup.5 psi for temperatures f1°C of true. 9. .17 Photograph of the RFT tool. buildup curves using spherical and cylindrical flow analysis may lead to an estimate of effective permeability. The builtup pressure is recorded by a strain gauge and can be backed up with a high precision quartz gauge with accuracy typically around 0. and the log is compared with the initial pressure gradient of the reservoir. In this way any number of pressure data points may be logged in a well. 9. . .19. A n example of the pretest pressure response in a well is shown in Fig.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE Mud cake 4 / b . Flow line Chamber 2 probe closed Seal valve chamber Probe open and sampling Fig. Sample chambers between 1 and 12 gallons can be fitted for saving a fluid sample in extended flow. This difference will only be significant 'in lower permeability formations but .16 Schematic of the RFT tool. .18.
The production facilities may be temporary (e. tank dips. 9. It is frequently a practice to flow a well for clean up before beginning a production test proper. enabling very much more significant pressure data to be obtained. Gas flow rates will generally be measured by orifice meters. safety valves etc. essentially constant rate. interference and buildup tests of days' or weeks' duration may be undertaken. flow string and any necessary downhole production equipment (storm chokes. a range of flow rates may be utilized to help establish the productivity index and inflow performance of a well. The Christmas tree and surface controls will be installed. handling capacities and manpower availability.) installed. and testing is limited only by the restraints of production facilities.10. Rolo tester or other portable tester). It is particularly important that all events should be properly recorded .g. with the final casing and liner (if run). Oil flow rates may be measured by one or more of the following: orifice meter readings.1 Production testing Production tests are carried out after a well has been completed. Separator and tank samples should be monitored regularly for bottom settlings and water.10 WELL TESTING AND PRESSURE ANALYSIS 9. or permanent. unless it is certain that the reservoir returns to an equilibrium state before the production test. and continuous monitoring of oil and gas flow rates. With prolonged testing. and the stabilized flow conditions giving better oil and gas samples than is possible on shorter tests. and the produced hydrocarbon will not generally be flared (although gas associated with produced oil may be burnt off). flow and buildup survey. Under these conditions long drawdown. 9. positive displacement meter readings.when there is a divided  . Good testing practices involve the monitoring of bottomhole pressures with a subsurface gauge.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Digital pressure record ( psi ) o Analog lo4 interpretat~on First Second Pressure record from RFT test (pretest) at a glven depth in the wall Fig. leads to the conclusion that RFT gradient intersection may represent a hydrocarbon water contact rather than a free water level (see Chapter 6). but since this period will induce pressure transients it is desirable that some monitoring of this period through orifice meter or burning line pressures should be maintained. but this should always be secondary to establishing a valid. and of annulus (when open) and wellhead pressures.18 Pressure record from RFT test (pretest) at a given depth in the well.
recording of datum levels used (SS. bottomhole. choke changes. wellhead. Accurate times. with missing or inaccurate data it may become impossible! . RKB or wellhead tend to be used indiscriminately without being logged). annulus. flow line and separator pressures.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE 151 responsibility for bottomhole gauges and surface separator readings. accurate recording of rates and GORs are essential to accurate interpretation of test data. Interpretation may be difficult enough under ideal conditions. it is sometimes possible for essential data to be omitted from reports.
= 0. y. = 0.05 D Example 9. time (h) pressure (psi) 0 5050 1.15 r = 10cm u = 0.01 D r = 100000 cm t = 10000 s k = 0.5 cp 1. what is the estimated permeability to oil? .05 D = = = Example 9. p c h = = = = 0.7cp t = I s c = 10 x atm' k = 0.12 0 .12 r = 10cm p = 0.3 cp t =10s c = 15 x 10~atrn' k = 0.1 Calculate the dimensionless time tD for the following cases: (a) 4. 7 ~ ~ 10 x 10~psi' 2400 cm r q t k 500 000 cm 250 000 ccsls 365 days = 0.05 D h = 2400 cm q = 10 000 reservoir ccsis (b) (c) as above 4. c as above (c) 4.3 Plot the following drawdown data and estimate the permeability thickness product. 11.152 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE Examples Example 9.0 4935 9.7535 RBISTB If net pay thickness is 60 ft.0 4937 6.0 4929 12 4927 18 4923 24 4921 48 4916 72 4912 Flowing rate was constant at 500 bopd.1D (b) +.2 Find the exponentia! integrals and pressure drops for the following cases: (a) 4. c as above r = 10cm t = 1000 s k = 0.5 4943 3. Oil viscosity Oil formation volume factor 0.
Example 9.25 0.0 48 4967 4974 4981 4984 4987 4991 4998 5002 5008 5014 5017 Oil viscosity = 0.0 6.454 Oil formation volume factor Estimated net formation thickness = 120 ft Average porosity = 0.5 2.6 A test on a gas well gives the following results: Flow rate MSCFId Duration fh) Bottom hole pressure (psial .0 9.0 36.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE Example 9.50 1.0 18.0 1.5 A well discovers an undersaturated oil reservoir of thickness 50 ft. k.135 Effective fluid compressibility = 17 X (psi)' = 6 in. skin factor and completion factor.365 RBISTB Effective compressibility of fluid in place = 15 x (psi)1 The well was tested at a constant rate of 500 bid.4 An oil well produces at 500 stbid for 60 days Initial reservoir pressure = 5050 psi Flowing pressure before shutin = 4728 psi Pressure buildup data: Shutin time (h) Pressure (psi) 0. Example 9. and pressure drop across skin. Effective well radius Calculate: kh.0 3. during which the following pressure record was obtained: Time (h) Pressure (psia) Time (h) Pressure (psia) 3 1438 84 1396 6 1429 96 1395 12 1420 120 1392 18 1415 144 1389 24 1412 168 1386 36 1407 192 1383 48 1403 216 1380 72 1398 240 1377 Calculate the order of magnitude of the oil in place. The static pressure is 1800 psia.7 cp = 1. A fluid sample has the following properties: Oil formation volume factor = 1.
M. F.S. Sci. Dallas (1982). The estimation of permeability and reservoir pressure from bottom hole pressure build up characteristics. A method for determination of average pressure in a bounded reservoir. Pet. and Shryock. [ l l ] Energy Resources Conservation Board Theory and Practice of Testing Gas Wells. A I M E 201 (1954).5 2511. L . SPE 3016: 45th Ann. 182. Determine A O F and slope. R..154 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE The following buildup was then recorded: Shutin time (h) Pressure (psia) 1 2509.S. (1970). New generation drillstem testing tools/technology.J. 1974).. Aust.856.1 4 2512. SPE 4529.H.91. C. Devel.W. Eng. W.5 5 2513. 0. [3] Dake.. S. H .A. in Pet. 1131 Matthews. Fundamentals of reservoir engineering. G .017 cp z = 0. 75. [12] Lee. viscosity and compressibility factor can be considered constant at y = . and Shira.47rh Ann. P. 8.. Expl.G. ERCB Report 74T (Nov. A I M E 189 (1950).J. SPE 4125. Pressure Build Up and Flow Tests in Wells. Seeds. Society of Petroleum Engineers. J. M. (1973).7 1. R.B. . Dyes.C. 16(1).7 3 2512. Influence of tidal phenomena on interpretation of pressure build up and pulse tests. Monograph Series 1 SPE of AIME (1967). [2] Matthews.3 2. C. re = 138°F = 2515 psia = 0. Pet. [7] Gibson. A. G.7 2 2511. Textbook Series. 137. Monograph Series 5 SPE of AIME (1977). J .4 ft = 200 ft = 0. (1976). [14] Miller. Canada.10 = 0.P. 1974).T. [8] Energy Resources Conservation Board Guide for the Planning. San Antonio (1972). 1 References [I] Earlougher. [4] Cullender. (b) Determine permeability and apparent skin factors. (c) Determine inertial coefficients and inertial pressure drops. C. Pulse tests and other early transient pressure analyses for insitu estimation of vertical permeability. Calgary: Canada. A. [6] Fetkovich. The isochronal performance methods of determining the flow characteristics of gas wells. The isochronal testing of oil wells. SPEJ (Feb. L.48th Ann. (July 1974).A.0 6 2513. W.5 2510.C. Reservoir temperature Initial reservoir pressure Well radius Formation thickness Hydrocarbon porosity Gas gravity. A I M E 204 (1955). Trans. Trans. 1101 Khurana. Conducting and Reporting of Subsurface Pressure Tests.64 = 5000 ft (a) Plot the back pressure curve. Well Testing. and Campbell. D . [9] Hirasake. ERCB 7534 (1975). Calculating the distance to a discontinuity from DST data. Elsevier (1978). [5] Edwards. Brons. Fall Mtg. A.J. and Russell. A. G. y. Trans. Fall Mtg. and Hazebroek. 99.2 Over the pressure range considered. A new surface recording down hole pressure gauge. C.H. and Hutchinson. Calgary. Fall Mtg. 46. Advances in Well Test Analysis.B. [IS] Miller.K.
(1975). Proc. T. Tech. 3rd World Pet. [20] Timmerman. and Crawford. 9. A comparison between different skin and wellbore storage type curves for early time transient analysis. P.F.G. Montrose field reservoir management. SPE 12959. 2 5 2 7 . M081022 Schlumberger (1981). and Wittmann. [32] Bourdet. Conf. Fall Mtn. An investigation of wellbore storage and skin effect in unsteady liquid floilr. [22] Vogel. 1980).J. How areal heterogeneities affect pulse test results. [19]Ridley. Mon.50th Ann. T. Interpretation of the pressure response of the repeat formation tester.. 335. Fall Mtg. Use of a well model to determine permeability layering from selective well tests. 1500. SPE 8205. and Schueler. Reg.G. Fall Mtg. 83. [37] Horner. Pet. Fall Mtg. Application of the repeat formation tester in vertical and horizontal pulse testing in the Middle Jurassic Brent sands. A.R. Proc. The application of the Laplace transformation to flow problems in reservoirs. 1975). 1965).E.H. 1 Pressure build up in wells.J. [40] Ramey. i Practical use of drillstem tests.B. J.R. J P T (Nov. RFT: Essentials of Pressure Test Interpretation. r271 Pinson. W. [24] Weeks. J P T (Feb. Conf. (Dec. Interpretation of well block pressure in numerical simulation.54th Ann. Moreland. London (1984).C. D.June 1972). 1985). Prod.P.F. H. SPEJ (June 1978). Use of pressure derivative in well test interpretation. R. G. [38] Baldwin. 769. Permagauge . 54th Ann. and Farris. SPE (1975).44th Ann. J P T (May 1966). [39] Erhaghi.50th Ann.31 [21] van Everdingen. Proc. Tech. [34] AlHussainy. Mtg. 205.J.A. J. Fall Mtg. R.E. and van GolfRacht. Pet. 2023. Examples of pitfalls in well test analysis. M. (Apr. I171 Raghavan. Pet. . J P T (July 1982). Ayoub. SPE 2568. Europ. Europ. [31] Bishlawi. S. R. [41] McGee. Europ. H. Can. 1 (1951). 4 7 . H.a permanent surface recording downhole pressure monitor through a tube. (1980). I [18] Ramey. AIME 186 (1949) 305. Pressure transient testing. S. The unified analysis of well tests.. [36] Streltsova. Cong. 1976). SPE 5587. and Woodbury.V. R. and Colpitts. 183. Tech. [35] Agarwal. SPEJ (Aug. (May 1967). R. Proc. SPEJ (Oct. SPE (1969).K. Characterisation of a gas well from one flow test sequence. and Ramey. Pet.T. 1972). E.M. I. H. L. Well pressure behaviour of a naturally fractured reservoir. A. SPE ofAIME (1979). Application of the line source solution to flow in porous media .E. [33] Gringarten. Off. H. SPE (1979). D. A S . 196. M.. R. J P T (Jan.G.a review. 1983). J. Can.J. Pet.D. (1982). J. SPEJ (Sept. 111. Pressure derivative approach to transient test analysis: a high permeability North Sea reservoir example.J. Calif. and Hurst. Proc. 624. L 2 L . I421 Clark. 279. Inflow performance relationships for solution gas drive wells. A Monte Carlo model for pressure transient analysis. Paper EUR 166. [26] Stewart. G.P. Trans.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE ' I I I I [16] Odeh. Pet. G. . SPEJ (June 1970). (JulySept. 1970). SPE Paper 12777. [29] Schlumberger. ~onceining value of producing time in average pressure determinations from pressure build up analysis. [23] Vela. E. and McKinley. D . J. Doc. 503. Off. . [30] Dake. J. P.D. SPE 8362. Conf. AlHussainy. SPE 5607. D. S. Proc. Ramey. 33. Paper EUR 270. Advances in estimating gas well deliverability. 1369. Y.L. and Pirard. (1984). G. 181. A.P. 1968). [25] Wkestock: A. and van Poollen. et al. J P T the (Nov. and Moore. W ~test analysis: well producing by solution gas drive. [28] Peaceman.J. The flow of real gases through porous media.
1 (Ed. In Developments in Petroleum Eng. [45] Brouse. 89. 87. Pressure analysis: the hardware. In: Developments in Petroleum Engineering. M. Proc. A. Pet. 11th World Pet. J. 1471 Diemer .S. London (1984). Conf. Proper equipment and techniques ensure better drill stem tests. Dawe and Wilson). Cong. SPE 12966. C. Reservoir definition and characterisation for analysis and simulation. Europ. (Ed. Barking (1985). Proc. Interpretation of transient well test data. Dawe and Wilson).R.156 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [43] Wilson. . London (1983). E. Paper PD(l). Elsevier Applied Science. M. [46] Archer. Elsevier Applied Science (1985). Some well test analysis results for a North Sea oil well. World Oil (May 1983). [44] Gringarten.
i = subscript for initial conditions. in the absence of water influx the volumetric material balance reduces to the following expression or at reservoir conditions: E= 5Ilz zi Initial gas volume at initial pressure = remaining gas volume at lower pressure Using the termhology: G = standard condition volume of gas initially in place.G .G. therefore = The expansion of gas in the reservoir pore space as pressure declines during production is the most significant mechanism in analysis of gas reservoirs. %] This equation can be arranged in a linear form as shown in Fig.Chapter 10 Reservoir Performance Analysis T Recovery of hydrocarbons from a reservoir may make exclusive use of the inherent energy of the system (primary recovery). A plot of Plz against the cumulative produced gas volume has two significant intercepts.1. at Gp = 0 and secondly Gp = G at Plz = 0.vo1..lz. then G(B. energy may be added to the system in the form of injected fluids (secondary recovery).L) = (GGpIB. greater than that of the reservoir pore volume: and P. = gas formation volume factor (res. The application of the Plz against Gp plot in the reservoir analysis of a depletion drive gas reservoir . B.P . 10.cond.1 RECOVERY FROM GAS RESERVOIRS For an isothermal reservoir Ti T. Since the gas formation volume factor represents a ratio between reservoir and standard condition volumes then a simple equation of state can be used in its representation: 10.. Gp = standard condition volume of cumulative gas produced. from which The compressibility of gas is generally significantly z.). firstly Plz = P.z G .vol1 stand. some of the residual hydrocarbon trapped during conventional recovery processes may be mobilized (tertiary or enhanced oil recovery).
The magnitude of trapped gas saturation is likely to be rate dependent. as shown in Fig..158 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE the surface condition volume of water produced from wells and B. Figure 10. GP Fig.B.e.2 shows the more usual representation of limited aquifer influx indicated by production data.W. In addition.and the linearized equation is. classification of the aquifer.3 Aquifer performance.Bgi) as Ex.) B. A linear equation which can be solved by assuming values of We to force linearity can be written as follows: Abandonment value The relationship between the values of We indicated and reservoir pressure at the original gaswater contact can be used to establish the performance Fig. + We . Wp is + Fig. In this case the material balance equation must be written as follows. pseudo steady state: unsteady state. 10. 10. Through partial maintenance of reservoir pressure by the influxed water the gas expansion process is arrested. is the formation volume factor for water G(B. 10. . When the F = We + GEx value of G indicated by the plot is significantly different from volumetric estimates. but for many sandstones the sparse literature suggests an .) = (GG. steady state.2 Effect of limited aquifer influx on the P/z plot  Figure 10.3. the water traps gas at relatively high pressures behind the advancing front. 10. The variation of field data from linearity is a fairly frequent observation and thus may be an indication of water influx (increasing pressure support) or aquifer depletion (decreasing pressure support by fluid transport to another reservoir). then assump.1 The P/z plot.) are denoted as F and the volume without water influx is therefore particularly useful expansion term (B. the material balance in providing a further estimate of gas in place by equation becomes extrapolation of early production data. Water influx in a gas reservoir lowers the recovery factor GpIG by two mechanisms in comparison to normal depletion. i.3 shows that the evaluation of We is a forcing exercise. where We is the cumulative volume of water influx at reservoir conditions. If the production terms (Gp Bg Wp B. tions of reservoir continuity in the field might be questioned.
and the three principal categories of reservoir drive are: (1) solution gas drive (or depletion drive) reservoirs. these expansion mechanisms are . Initially this gas may be a disperse discontinuous phase.e. so that pressures in undersaturated oil reservoirs will fall rapidly to the bubblepoint if there is no aquifer to provide water drive.10 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS order of 40% pore volume. The analysis of drive mechanisms using a method of material balance follows the general form described by Schilthuis [I3]. (d) invasion of the original oilbearing reservoir by water from an adjacent or underlying aquifer. saturation . although the reservoir GOR may continue to increase in terms of standard volumes. where a = abandonment pressure conditions.of the order of 1 % to 7 % of the pore volume. Frequently two or all three mechanisms (together with rock and connate water expansion) may occur simultaneously and result in a combination drive. The compressibility of oil. A comparison of ultimate recovery factors for natural depletion and water influx can be made. although pressure drops may be small if gas caps are large. rock and connate water is generally relatively small. the producing GOR will decline. If a reservoir at its bubblepoint is put on production. Such comparisons often yield water influx: depletion recovery factor ratios of about 0. not usually considered separately. (c) invasion of the original oilbearing reservoir by gas from a free gas cap. and these may be termed mechanisms or drives. Segregation will be affected by permeability variations in layers but is known to occur even under apparently unfavourable conditions. (3) water drive reservoirs. and aquifers large and permeable. gas will be mobile and will flow under whatever potential gradients may be established in the reservoir .1 Solution gas drive: analysis by material balance where Sg. but cannot flow to producing wells.segregating vertically if the gravitational gradient is dominant. Ultimately. and pressures may stabilize at constant or declining reservoir offtake rates under favourable circumstances. a well producing from a closed reservoir will produce at solution GOR. Initially then.2 PRIMARY RECOVERY IN OIL RESERVOIRS 1 Oil can be recovered from the pore spaces of a reservoir rock by expansion or only to the extent that the volume originally occupied by the oil is invaded or occupied in some way. is the average residual gas saturation in the reservoir. When the critical gas saturation is established and if the potential gradients permit. until some minimum saturation . Possible sources of replacement for produced fluids are: (a) expansion of undersaturated oil above the bubblepoint. As a result. The actual order of values of critical saturation are in some doubt.is attained.towards producing wells if the flowing or viscous gradient is dominant . and where one replacement mechanism is dominant. There are several ways in which oil can be produced from a reservoir. As more gas comes out of solution. as pressure declines and gas comes out of solution. Once the critical gas saturation has been established. 10. In addition to the effect of gas on saturation of. (b) the release of gas from solution in the oil at and below the bubblepoint. and gas saturations increase. but there is considerable evidence to support the view that values may be very low . and the gasoil ratio trend is to oil mobilitj~ reversed. Similarly. essentiaily immobile. gas will flow towards producing wells. or critical gas.2.the equilibrium. i. The permeability to oil will become lower than at initial conditions. the pressure will fall below the bubblepoint pressure and gas will come out of solution. and there will be a finite permeability to gas so that the producing gasoil ratio will rise. permeability to oil diminishes and this trend accelerates. the change in gas formation volume factor offsets the increasing gas ratio. All replacement processes involve a reduction in pressure in the original oil zone. At early times. permeability to gas increases. (2) gas cap expansion drive reservoirs.77:l. the reservoir may be said to be operating under a particular drive. the ratio standard cubic ftlstock tank barrel may decline. 10. as reservoir pressure declines towards abandonment pressure.
B. Since initial oil saturation S. The methods consider a number of static equilibrium stages of reservoir production during which pressure changes have occurred.i can be represented as NBoLIVp. and the remaining solution gasoil ratio R.i)l(Bo)iAP then in terms of the effective oil compressibility c. The nomenclature for describing these processes between initial pressure Pi and some later pressure P is defined as follows: cumulative gas produced at surface (standard volumes). the decrease in fluid pressure is equal to the increase in grain pressure. A reservoir condition volumetric balance is thus NpBo = N B. = AP = pressure change from initiaI conditions (= pi. + WinjB. The pore volume is represented by vp. = reservoir condition volume of oil initially in place. injection of a cumulative volume of gas..) For oil production of an undersaturated reservoir from Pi down to bubblepoint pressure Pb. The pore volume compressibility cf is therefore a positive value with respect to fluid pressure reduction.. the loss of gas from solution also increases the viscosity of the oil and decreases the formation volume factor of the oil. For a constant overburden pressure. The solution gas drive performance of unconsolidated sand reservoirs and chalk reservoirs (such as those in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea) require consideration and inclusion of pore volume compressibility as it can be of the same order as oil compressibility [I5 221.. = cumulative produced gasoil ratio (standard volumes) (= GpINp). As the pressure falls below bubblepoint pressure. S. then i )+ i Vp C. = stock tank volume of cumulative oil produced. The pressure reduction between initial and later conditions is accompanied by all or some of the following: expansion of remaining oil. oil. = reservoir condition volume of cumulative oil produced..(Boi) Wet = net water influx in reservoir condition The middle term represents the expansion of connate water as fluid pressure is reduced and the compaction of pore volume as grain pressure is increased. + c. or volumetric balance techniques. = solution gasoil ratio (standard volumes) . the solution gasoil ratio remains constant in the reservoir. = (B. +c fj 4P + Wet The equation thus becomes transformed into Since. compaction of rock pore volume. )c. gas from solution is released and may form free gas saturation in the reservoir oriand be produced. the pore volume compressibility may be small in comparison to gas and oil compressibility and may be ignored below bubble point. A reservoir conditions volumetric balance thus . The analysis of performance of a solution gas drive reservoir can be conducted by use of reservoir condition material balance.. production of a cumulative volume of gas.. volume units (= WeJQB. = effective oil compressibility = cjlS..P). 4P We1 The recovery factor for pressures down to bubblepoint becomes + (Boi)coe 4P We1 +. liberation and expansion of dissolved gas. production of a cumulative volume of water: injection or influx of a cumulative volume of water. At any equilibrium stage a balance is made on the original reservoir content at original pressure and the current reservoir content at current pressure.NB. = stock tank volume of oil initially in place. The cumulative gas oil ratio Rp will then become greater than R. this expression becomes Therefore NpBo = N(B. expansion of connate water. production of a cumulative volume of oil.S. down to bubblepoint pressure c. In well cemented reservoirs.. = total compressibility = coS. .160 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE and permeability to. + cgsg + cf. in the reservoir will fall below R.
4 (b). Production volumes and PVT properties from field data are required for the analysis... .N(B. . Values of We are chosen to provide the required linearity and will then indicate the aquifer character. + E. B. pore volume and connate water compressibility can be small in comparison with gas compressibility and is often ignored in calculations. (B.RsNpB. the production and expansion terms can be grouped as follows: Fig. as shown in Fig.) N.4 Representation of field data using Havlena and Odeh methods. the energy contribution of compaction drive cannot be ignored even at quite high gas saturations. a plot of F against (E..) yields a straight line through the origin with slope N. 10. + WpB. . 10.R. equivalent to total production with the volume change associated with remaining and influxed fluids and adjusted pore volume. B.B.( W e f ) (Bo . 10. The material balance equation for a solution gas drive has also been represented in its static form ignoring pore volume compressibility as follows: N= and the balance equation can be represented more easily for calculation purposes as F = N ( E . .Rs) Bg + We' .(Boil) + (R$i.NR.4 (a). The expansion of original oil between pressure PI and current pressure is NB. In other situations.S.) + G. 1 + wef In high pore volume compressibility reservoirs such as chalks and unconsolidated sands.10 RESERVOlR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS becomes an equation of the change in reservoir volume.B.. + Ef.) The expansion of liberated solution gas expressed in reservoir volumes at the current pressure is NR. Following the nomenclature used by Havlena and Odeh [*I. The production of oil and free gas together with any water is A linearization which yields IV as an intercept and has unit slope is given by NpBo RpNpB. The change in hydrocarbon pore volume between pressure P. The net influx terms are represented by We' The balance therefore becomes + (Rsi . and the current pressure is + and is indicated in Fig. .Rs) Bg + A p (cw S w i + cf) (Boil 1 . In the absence of any influx terms..
letting AN. = 1 PV. .) B. Let initial oil saturation Soi = 1SWiin pore volume NpFo+ G. be the cumulative oil production we have (NP)j= (NPljl ANp + and 1 = ((N.F.4 0. + given by material balance as follows. as a function of the average oil saturation or liquid (= 1 .Swi) material balance equation.J + Ri(k) R= 2 This is obtained by an iterative process.((NpljI(Folj) . or (So + SWi) shown in as Fig.] (Bo). " Between Pi. = 1/D Tracy developed the earlier Tarner [I' method using this formulation to predict recovery performance below bubblepoint pressure..(lVP). it is necessary to estimate the average producing gasoil ratio R during the decrement: . ) ( F ~ ) ~ + A revised estimate of R is obtained from R = ( ~ ( k ) from which + R1)/2and used in a fresh circuit of calculations 1 . then for a pressure decrement from Pil to P.((GpljI(Fglj) until a convergence in R is obtained (say within AN. After (Fo)j + R ( ~ g ) i convergence The average oil saturation in the reservoir at time j is (GpIi= (Gp)jl R AN. 0 I I I U 0. 10.B.F.6 SO 0. an analysis in terms of unit stock tank volume of oil in place can be written: . = 0. Relative permeability data is required which gives kg/k. R' = (RJj + I \ \ \ \ 10 1. From this.R. + GpFg If we use the subscript j to represent the time level in which we are interested.e. .v [N .R. i. and Pi the incremental production added to the cumulative production at the time j1 gives the cumulative production at time j.R. D = (B. then: production is (NPlj is A' = NpFo + GpF.8 I 1. where Fo = (B.01 b\ \ \ \ \ \ \ 0.1%) for the estimated value of AN. Therefore Fig. so Ri(k) represents the estimated value of R at time j for k guesses from k = 1 to n. .0o \ \ \ \ \ Y m \ Y 0.Xg) in the reservoir. = Bg/D F.2 0. For the saturation situation where net influx and water production is zero and where pore volume compressibility is insignificant. at time j is obtained as a function of S. The correct value of Ri will be obtained by comparing R ( k ) with a value V/R1 calculated as follows. i.001. a new estimate 8' of the average producing gasoil ratio can be derived and compared to the original estimate R(k): 1 = N.5 Relative permeability ratio..1 \ \ \ \ \ 0.Boil + (RSi The oil saturation at time j when the cumulative oil . .We' F.5. .h e main expansion terms are in the ctenominator .0 (GP)jl R A N .e.)/D (So)j = PV F. 10. .~+ AN. Tracy ['I defined the following (1 . \ F~~unit stock tank oil in place this becomes sL The relative permeability ratio kg/k.).NtBoiJ PV = and by calling them D. l 162 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE ..
10.: In this case We' can include gas injection GI. i. . The volume of gas at initial reservoir conditions is related to the volume of oil initially in place at reservoir conditions by the ratio term m : Fig. 10. 10. Gas cap expansion = G B. The material balance equation must be formulated by taking into consideration the expansion of the initial gas cap as well as liberation of solution gas from the oil as pressure declines. = 1. The efficient recovery of oil will depend on keeping as much gas as possible in the reservoir to act as an expansion energy completion intervals and location of oil wells are therefore particularly important. + We1 t \ LL w + 0 9 00° /* /* y 5 .(Bgi) 1 To solve for net influx and injection terms the value of m must be known and. in comparison with gas expansion it is small. It is also expected that the term E L . This may not hold true in chalk reservoirs or other highly compressible unconsolidated sand reservoirs. i.e.6. + + then.)) against (E. i. Fo + G. F.2.I(E.7. in Havlena and Odeh formulation F = N E. + mE. as shown in Fig. 10. letting ET = E.7 HavlenaOdeh plot using lnflux and injection terms. The functions Fo and F. data by plotting (FI(Eo + ( l + m ) EL.2 Gas cap expansion drive The presence of a gas cap at initial reservoir conditions serves to retard the decline in reservoir pressure as oil is produced. B. can usually be ignored since. .10 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 163 and a check is obtained from N. E T = Eo ( l + m ) EL. against WelIET gives a line of unit slope and intercept N. are usually prepared from the PVT data as functions of pressure.. The pressure at the original gasoil contact is by definition the bubblepoint pressure since the oil must be saturated.)) as shown in Fig. 10. In the absence of influx and injection terms the material balance equation can be solved to provide estimates for m and N from production and PVT N t we'/ ET + Fig.e. + mE.. EL.6 HavlenaOdeh plot in absence of influx and injection terms.+ ( l + m ) %] .+ (1+m) EL. In the formulation a new term must be added to the righthand side of the solution gas drive equation to represent the gas cap expansion drive process.e. [ + mE.. then a plot of FIE.
10. and gas will wells down flank from primary or secondary gas segregate in the reservoir. so that the pressure decline at One mechanism.) Under these conditions the expected recovery efficiency will depend on the economic limit for wells and could be as low as 23% for low permeability reservoirs with high viscosity and low gasoil ratio oils. under the influence of that of gas cap drive reservoirs. only briefly referred to.e. the oil possibility of gas reinjection to increase Wfe. i.less than 10%. the will be higher . but which any given oil cumulative will be smaller. . The conclusion may however. Under these conditions the recovery efficiencies the gravitational potential g'Ap. saturation around wellbores and also to consider the This mechanism has two effects. (Saturation gradients existing as a result of contrast dual porosity systems where almost comhorizontal pressure gradients.the movement (generally of gas and oil) of phases and the later life of a reservoir may then be similar to countercurrent to each other. will slightly exaggerate this behaviour.3 GRAVITY SEGREGATION volves smaller gross fluid withdrawals than would AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCIES otherwise be the case. normal GOR.. as shown in Fig.8 Initial conditions rn a reservoir with a gas cap.. 10.if the economic limit is low. behaviour is that of gravity segregation .164 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE near the wellbore.The saturation in the lower parts of the reservoir is expansion energy of gas caps serves oil production maintained at a value higher than the average oil best by having gas retained in the reservoir rather saturation . low viscosity oils. Since F = NET+ Wef therefore for no produced water Fig. but will rarely exceed this range. the lower producing gasoil ratio in10.IN evaluated at different pressures during the life of a gas cap drive or solution gas drive recovery process is clearly related to the cumulative produced gasoil ratio R. and So at abandonment. with the has an important role in several aspects of reservoir usual effects on k.and may approach or even gas saturations build up uniformly throughout the oil exceed the range 2040% of oil in place. and than by producing it in large quantities with oil. there will be a vertical component of gas be translated into practice by completing producing flow under the gravitational potential. Gravity drainage of oil from a slowly advancing gas cap is reported to give extremely low residual oil saturaIt is clear from this relationship that low values of RP tions .8. pressure than high values of R.. Firstly. Secondly. The producing gasoil ratio is then lower than for solution gas drive alone. and up to about 15% or so for high permeability reservoirs. migrating to structurally caps. Considering the solution gas drive reservoir. to minimize gas high positions. possibly behaviour described earlier assumed essentially that very much higher . lead to higher recovery factors at a given reservoir If the vertical permeability to gas is nonzero. permeability to gas lower than for the purely solution gas drive case. the pressure drops plete segregation can take place in the secondary w The recovery factor N. The segregated gas may form a secondary gas cap.so that permeability to oil is higher. Gravity drainage plays its greatest role in high zone without any saturation gradients in the vertical direction. with oil counterflowing downwards. B.
. is the cumulative water injection and G.=. h is the average width of the linear aquifer.S. for radial systems and wLh@ for linear systems. is dimensionless time equal in Darcy units to tD kti(Qp~r. For each instantaneous pressure drop from time zero to the end of the nth time step.4 MATERIAL BALANCE FOR RESERVOIRS WITH WATER ENCROACHMENT OR WATER INJECTION If a reservoir is underlain by. we can write at some time T where: is the dimensionless time equivalent to time T. Timmerman and McMahon [''I. where the equivalent instantaneous pressure drop occurring at time zero and subsequent times represented as AP. is the net thickness of the aquifer. This is achieved using the method of van Everdingen. . is the fractional encroachment angle of the f radial aquifer = 8"1360°. is the linear distance from the original OWC L to the puter limit of the aquifer. The basis for unsteady state aquifer analysis is found in the methods of van Everdingen and Hurst [51. or is continuous with. 10.. are as follows: + The response time of an aquifer to a change in pressure at the original oilwater contact is of great practical importance. which depends on the dimensionless time each has been effective (TD. 10. The total influx into the reservoir is calculated at any time T by superposing the influxes from each pressure drop. TD F (We + W q Bw + G'nj Bg . and water influx under steady state conditions will obey the rule AV.  The water influx due to each instantaneous pressure drop is calculated as a time function up to the maximum volume indicated by a steady state instantaneous influx. and the wells produce throughout at solution gasoil ratio.9. Water injection allows a more immediate replacement of oil zone energy. a large body of water saturated porous rock (an aquifer).(t~)!). The determination of aquifer characteristics is important if water injection is not planned. and can be applied in material balance formulations. The unsteady state aquifer representation of Hurst and van Everdingen requires the discretiza . The properties of an aquifer are rarely known with any confidence since there is usually little well control. . is the aquifer constant equal in Darcy units U ~ to 2 n f Q h ~ r . is the cumulative gas injection both volumes being represented at standard conditions.. steady state instantaneous influx may be a good representation but large aquifers tend to behave in an unsteady state manner. such as that due to Havlena and Odeh I[' and discussed in the previous sections.AT+ ET ET where W. is the radius of the oil zone.. The c ) may total compressibility of an aquifer (c.AP. reD is the dimensionless radius equal to raqulilerlro. (~D)I is the dimensionless time at which the instantaneous drop Ap. the unsteady state response of an aquifer may negate its usefulness and external water injection is frequently used instead.2)for radial systems and for linear systems. r. then reduction in pressure in the oil zone will cause a reduction in pressure in the aquifer.V~AP tion of a continuous pressure decline into periods of instantaneous pressure drop. They are used to provide estimates of cumulative water encroachment We in the total influx term We1. although reservoir simulation can cope with irregular volumes.10 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS porosity system.WpBw) . radial and linear. AP1. Gravity drainage is then the predominant mechanism in draining oil to residual saturation in the secondary gas cap.. Carter and Tracy [61 and Fetkovitch ['I. In small aquifers. Typical values are shown in Fig. w WD(tD) is the dimensionless cumulative water influx function for a unit pressure drop at the original reservoir OWC at time t=O and easily read from charts or tables of WD against tD for different values of re^. Two main aquifer geometries. commenced. When water is required for pressure support in an oil reservoir. may be considered in analytical analyses. be relatively large (about 1066x10~~ psilf.
).WpBw) or (linear system. rate in reservoir barrels per day U = 1.G(Bg)i I . Setting G(Bg).ro2) (radial system.1781 w L h @cbbllpsi tD = 2.309kt / (@yi. = G. In this formulation the subscripts c and s refer in gas terms to conditions in the gas cap and in solution F = NET + We' where: =N . = volume N(Boi) expansion 1 Injected volumes ~ (G(Gp)c)(Bg)c .) B. = mN(Bo)i. length in feet. (Bo + (RpRs)Bg) EO= (Bo . tin years) If water injection is employed in a reservoir then natural rate. = 2. time in years. (G. pressure in psi.N. and Gini are cumulative injection volumes at stock tank conditions. Wi.(BoL))+ ((Rs.2 bbllpsi (radial system) c gas. we can write + (linear system) U = 0.309kt / (@p3~') + (We + WiniBw+ GinjBg .R. R.166 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE In field units where permeability is in mD.). tin years) F = N (Eo + mEg + ( l + m ) Efi) t.) B. and Gp = (G.to equilibrium at pressure P can be formulated to show all expansion.).IN.119f@ h r. influx may siill occur if the pressure at the original water contact decreases from initial pressure. The combination drive material balance equation which represents a step change from equilibrium at pressure P. volume (N. production and injection terms as shown below.
This will depend on the transmissibility at the OWC and the pressure gradients established in the aquiferreservoir system. Because of the similarity in oil and water viscosities (for light oils at normal depths). Fig.80. It is sometimes noted in matching aquifer performance that not all injected water enters the oil zone.11.05 0. 10.01 0.5 1.61  0.10 Combination drive. and provided that localized channelling. In general.11 Water injection near original OWC.0 2 5 10 The aquifer characteristics may be explored and correlated with an appropriate aquifer model by making use of the linearized material balance formulation and validated production and PVT data. fingering or coning of water does not occur.10 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 8  6   4 2 Finite linear aquifer + . . and the reservoir may behave almost as a depletion reservoir for a long period. water drive will generally represent the most efficient of the natural producing mechanisms for oil reservoirs. as shown in Eig. HavlenaOdeh plot.  I 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 I I I l 1 1 l 1 l 0. 10. more than 85% of the injected water is expected to move towards the oil zone rather than repressure the aquifer.10.2 +D Fig. 1. if offtake rates are low.0: 0.5m) constant terminal pressure solutions (after l5]).4 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 0. 10.1 0. as shown in Fig. if offtake rates are very large. 10. Fig. A water drive reservoir may then be particularly rate sensitive. the displacement of oil by water is reasonably efficient.9 Dimensionless water influx functlon WD (tD) at different dimensionless times (tD) for linear and radial (reD = 1. or as an almost complete pressuremaintained water drive reservoir.02 0. 10.
In dealing with past production histories. 10. then pressure maintenance or secondary recovery operations may be initiated to improve recovery factors. Problems with secondary recovery operations are similar to those of the related primary mechanisms .) The first requirement in maximizing recovery is to establish the probable natural mechanisms of a reservoir and the extent to which these are likely to be rate sensitive. efficiencies of 3040% would be expected. and frequently the cumulative produced gasoil ratio R. .5 ACCURACY OF THE GROSS MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION There are several sources of error in material balance calculations. calculating a recovery efficiency depends on knowing the initial oil in place. All Pressure dependent values refer to this Pressure. or where substantially higher offtake rates would be possible if natural mechanisms are augmented.5. Although generalized correlations are fair& reliable: &ere is no certainty that they will match the behaviour of 10. values at any given saturation. or gas injection. but the term itself may often be relatively small. With multireservoir fields the individual reservoirs are not always (rarely!) metered separately. but the latter being increasingly important because of gas conservation requirements. tank farm and well test data taken intermittently. of course. 10.2 Pressure data For the simplest calculations. Provided that water can be controlled reasonably. reducing the saturation and minimizing the terms So!Bo for any given economic limit. The recovery efficiency of water reservoirs will be governed by an economic limit. this is not a major source of error.. Water produced is also very uncertain depending upon interpretation of separator. but practically never corresponding to a situation where the whole reservoir is shut in at one time.particularly control of gas or water and the prevention of excessive fingering or channeling of injected fluids. and a calculated high recovery factor might simply be the result of underestimating oil in place.168 PETROLEUMENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE As with the gas cap drive reservoirs. 10. the whole reservoir is zwmned to be at some average datum Pressure. and under favourable sweep conditions recovery efficiencies of 5060% might be calculated.5.1 Production data Cumulative oil production is generally measured accurately for royalty and transfer payments. the limit in this case being dictated by water handling problems. Obviously. the inter~retation of average Pressure from this data is possibly in error. this would be either water injection to augment a natural water drive. Regardless of the accuracy of the Pressure data itself. With wells located in structurally high positions this would give maximum recovery and maximum efficiency. if a reservoir is very much undersaturated. (Ultimately. corresponding to some cumulative production. Where recovery efficiencies seem likely to be low. gas has generally not been measured with any accuracy. and R. and any considerations of maximizing recovery must also involve economic factors. Normally. Reservoirs now being developed should involve less uncertainty since gas is increasingly a marketable product. if the offtake rate did not generate sufficient income to justify the expenditure on field development it would not be an economic rate. and the allocation of cumulatives to reservoirs depends on intermittent well testing. However.3 Pressure dependent oil properties The values of B and R assigned for any value of reservoir pressure and temperature will depend on either: (a) the use of generalized correlations relating oil gravity GOR. the former tending to be more efficient because of mobility ratio considerations. if at all. The average Pressure must be calculated from a series of essentially transient well tests. will be subject to very great uncertainty. A single reservoir field then presents no difficulty and N. reservoir temperature and vressure to B. Reservoirs pressures at datum in given wells may be assigned volumetric or a real regions of influence in the calculation of weighted average reservoirpressures: = ZP I @ I ~ I A J ~ @ I ~ I A . This is another aspect of reservoir management in which gravity segregation can play an important (and essentially adverse) part. it should be possible to determine a reservoir production rate at which the aquifer response will maintain pressure around the saturation pressure for the whole producing life of the field. will be the factor most precisely known.5. a maintained pressure leads to lower viscosities and higher B. and has a potentially large aquifer. take? at varying times and positions. Nevertheless.
3600. then systematic errors which affect the absolute values.437 1.) term are greater.00190 0. (rblscf) B. = 96 mD Example 10.. but not the differences. All these sources of error contribute to inaccuracy in material balance calculations.B.2 Find the expression for the flowing gasoil ratio of a well (volume of gas sclvolume of stock tank oil) in a reservoir having a gas saturation in excess of the critical. = 1. estimate the value of gas in place assuming seismic.). Pressure (psia) R. but the factor which most dominates the accuracy is the denominator term (B. = 1000mD R. There has been no water production. B. Since this is a difference between two quantities of the same order of magnitude.00250 1.. is SCFibarrel . material balance calculations at early times of reservoir history are unreliable compared with later calculations when pressure drops are greater and differences in the (B. = 0.363 rbistb p = 0.594 1.018~~ . or (b) a laboratory analysis of a reservoir fluid sample.300 1. (rbistb) 1. is reservoir barrelslSCF R.00124 0. . provided random errors can be reduced).363 1. and geological interpretation have provided the following estimate: I Thickness (average) Area Porosity Water saturation 500 ft 100 sq miles 12% 35 % What is the recoverable gas for an average reservoir abandonment pressure of 500 psia? Example 10.363 1.3365 and B. B.g.258 B.00150 0. no gas cap). and B. log.8cp . = 500 scflstb k. a small absolute error in either term can lead to a verv large error in the function.001162 rbiscf k.B. if B. . but provided that a high degree of relative accuracy can be maintained in the values of B..4%) can lead to a 100% error in the difference. an error of 5 parts in 1360 (0. In view of the uncertainty in pressure dependent values of . (scflstb) 690 62 1 535 494 B. and R. = 1.2.3 A reservoir is estimated by a volumetric method to contain approximAtely 14. Examples I Example 10. The table below gives the properties of the reservoir fluids and production data for the reservoir. e. this would appear serious..1 Using the data from Problem 4. Calculate the gasoil ratio for the following conditions: p = 0.333 1.B.e. = 1.. Even so. (rbistb) Rp (scfistb)  N (stb) p 0 1715 000 3 430 000 ? 1850* 1600 1300 1000 + 0.5 x lo6 barrels of stock tank oil.10 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 169 any given crude system with any particular degree of accuracy. are less important and the error in the difference may not be too important. The problem in this case is the question of whether or not the sample obtained (either as a bottomhole sample or recombined sample) is truly representative of the reservoir fluid. (i.748 878 996 1100 bubble point B. originally just saturated at the initial reservoir pressure (i.e.
The radius to the oilwater contact is 9000 ft and the outer radius of the aquifer is 81 000 ft.82 GP 12.82 of the surrounding aquifer Example 10. The pressures at the original oilwater contact have been determined initially (P. what is your estimate of the cumulative production obtainable by the fall in average reservoir pressure to 1000 psi? Pressure (psi) 1850* 1600 1300 1000 R.715 x lo6 and 3.81 1. The oilwater contact is found at 4260 ft subsea.7 x 10' SCF. The initial pressure at the gasoil contact.4 43.1.81.748 43.00150 0. is 5000 psi.045 x lo9 SCF 26. Assume B. The water compressibility is 3 x psi'.24 respectively (bed thicker than the column).363 1. the initial average reservoir pressure at reservoir datum being taken as 1850 psi.00124 0. 1. and a base radius of 3 miles at the oilwater contact. The cumulative gas and reservoir production pressure has been reported as follows: '. (scflstb) 690 62 1 535 494 Bo (rblstb) 1.81 and 1.17 and 0. P3) after the start of oil zone production as follows: .363 1.4 A reservoir may be considered as a right cone with dimensions 750 ft from apex to oilwater contact.4 cp. Estimated values of porosity and water saturation are 0.1 x 10' 5.170 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Calculate the water influx at cumulative oil production of 1.) and at subsequent yearly intervals (PI. and a fully shutin pressure of 1919 psi was measured at this depth.1.1. Water injection started at a constant rate of 70 000 BBLld on 1. and the aquifer temperature and pressure is 0.333 1. (scfistb) B.594 1. Ol density i (rblstb) (lblb3) 1.1.437 1.1 NP (stb)  P (scflstb) 1100 1350 1800 (est) 31 x lo6 55 x lo6 63 x lo6 (est) 3.6 An oil reservoir is totally surrounded by a radial aquifer. The PVT properties of the system at reservoir conditions are as follows:  P (psi) Bo (rblstb) R.258 B.430 x lo6 stb.00250 B.00190 0.5 x 10'  Example 10. The aquifer and oil zone net thickness is 200 ft and the aquifer has psi' and water viscosity at aquifer conditions of a porosity of 18%.80 and a constant oil production of 60 000 STBld has been maintained.9 44.5 45.1. Given the following PVT and production data.300 1. (rblscf) 0. What would you expect the cumulative production to be at a reservoir pressure of 1000 psi? Example 10.5 A reservoir is believed to contain an initial oil in place of 300 x lo6 STB and has an initial gas cap of 120. The pore volume compressibility is 4 x permeability is 707 mD.P2. for injected water is 1.00 RBIBBL. which is also a convenient datum.280 x 10'SCF P (psi) 4300 4250 Estimate the cumulative water influx on 1. (rbiscf) The uniform initial water saturation is 30% and water and pore volume compressibilities are each 3 x psi Production started on 1.1.
H. JPT(Feb. D. L.L. [6] Carter. 1973). A simplified form of the material balance equations.H. The application of the Laplace transformation to flow problems in reservoirs. D. R. G. How different size gas caps and pressure maintenance programs affect the amount of recoverable oil. References [I] Tracy. K. Dev. McGraw Hill. [3] Teeuw. D. J. Application of the material balance equation to a partial water drive reservoir. L I I i I 1 I I I I : I I I > . 8 Elsevier. Prediction of formation compaction from laboratory compressibility data.R. W. JPT (Nov. AIME 231 (1964). Active oil and reservoir energy.J. and McMahon.L. ~ e kM. 896. and Odeh. and Moscrip. and Gardener.10 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS Time Initial E n d year 1 E n d year 2 E n d year 3 P (psia) 5870 5020 4310 3850 Estimate t h e aquifer performance in reservoir barrels of influx at the end of each year assuming unsteady state behaviour and using the method of Van Everdingen and Hurst. McGraw Hill (1960). 1 I .J. E. Lubojacky. Trans. [2] Havlena.. G.Trans. Method for predicting the behaviour of mutually interfering gas reservoirs adjacent to a common aquifer.H.J. 415.S. The material balance as an equation of a straight line. 1971).H. Amsterdam (1978). Timmerman. 247.A. [12] Wooddy. AIME 216 (1950). SPEJ (June 1961). 1976). [15] Blanton. Performance calculations for combination drive reservoirs. and Aruna. [8] Tarner.W. [16] Newman. Petroleum Reservoir Engineering. Deformation of chalk under confining pressure and pore pressure. R. Maren field . 128.W. and Hurst.J.solution gas drive reservoir. Conf. A simplified approach to water influx calculationsfinite aquifer systems: JPT (July 1971). An improved method for calculating water influx: Trans. T. [9] coats. IHRDC (1937). 1107. 814. Off.D. SPEJ (Sept. R. and Katz. Flow of Homogeneous Fluids through Porous Media.M. 32.D. H. Pet.L.P. Elements of 011 Reservozr Engineering. A. M.a composite analysis of the behaviour of a compaction drive . Trans.W. London (1950). D. M. 243. 51. 92. [5] van Everdingen. AIME 219 (196). C. Pore volume compressibility of consolidated friable and unconsolidated reservoir rocks under hydrostatic loading. Trans. [19] Amyx. S. JPT (Sept. Sci. [17] Pirson. AIME 118 (1936). [4] Merle. 815. [14] Poston. [13] Schilthuis. Pt I1 Trans. and Whiting. AIME 207 (1956). and Tracy. (1978). I181 Dake. 1983). AIME 204 (1955). [7] Fetkovitch. AIME 228 (1963). [Ill Stone.F. [lo] van Everdingen. J. Bass. M.. R. [ZO] Muskat. Pet. 263. L. 129. et al. Europ.. A. A. .L. 305. Proc.W. S. AIME 186 (1949). R. The Bachaquero study . Pt I Trans. Trans. A. 33. Analysis of gas cap or dissolved gas drive reservoirs. Trans.W.an engineering review.F. J.O. 327. Fundamentals of reservoir engineering. Paper EUR 41. Oil Weekly (12 June 1944'. 2105. AIME 198 (1953).
976. 1985). An analysis of a volumetric balance equation for calculation of oil in place and water influx. IHRDC (1949). i [22] Newman. M.H. The effect of water chemistry on the laboratory compression and permeability characteristics of some North Sea chalks. Physical Principles of Ol Production. JPT. (Sept. 1664. D. .172 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 1211 Muskat. JPT (May 1983). G.H. [23] Tehrani.
We will consider the effects of Pwh Pressure gradient 1 '\\ \ ". 11. the principles of fluid displacement in secondary recovery are reviewed. normally water or gas. i. In offshore field development this is not usually possible and pressure maintenance is implemented early in field life.. In order to provide the capability for natural flow to surface under high water cut.. The level of pressure maintenance in oil production is usually just above bubblepoint pressure such that injection costs are minimized. then the process is known as pressure maintenance.e..*. in order to observe the dynamic response of the reservoir.Chapter 11 Secondary Recovery and Pressure Maintenance Secondary recovery techniques involve supplementing the natural energy of a petroleum reservoir by the injection of fluids. fluid properties and saturations.1 Operating pressure for natural flow in originally overpressured undersaturated oil reservoir under pressure maintenance.a depth + 4 O r ~ g ~ npressure of al overpressured reservoir Fig.*Water . rock characteristics including heterogeneity of permeability. reservoir volumetric rate of production is equal to reservoir volumetric rate of fluid replacement. reservoir geometry and lateral continuity. When the reservoir condition volumetric rate of fluid replacement is equal to the reservoir condition volumetric rate of production.... the technique is known as complete voidage replacement. reservoir dip angle. DISPLACEMENT PRINCIPLES I The displacement of oil by water or gas under immiscible conditions occurs both microscopically . 11. the selection of pressure maintenance level might be determined as shown in Fig. It is assumed that the injected fluid is immiscible with the displaced hydrocarbon. however. When this is done such that average reservoir pressure is held constant. any fraction of voidage could be replaced if it provides an optimum recovery scheme.1. In practice.. Proper design of a secondary recovery scheme is best performed after a period of primary recovery. Firstly. 11. Since production rate is also dependent on reservoir pressure gradients. Hydrostatic /\\ gradient Reservoir datum . The efficiency of secondary recovery and pressure maintenance schemes can be explored by reference to the physical processes occurring. flow rates and well locations. then the choice of pressure maintenance level will also include rate consideration.
174
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
and macroscopically in a reservoir. On the micro (since relative permeabilities are considered saturascale we consider the distribution of trapped oil in tion dependent) as follows: pores swept by displacing fluid. The distribution of residual oil will depend on competing viscous, capillary and gravitational forces and is particularly influenced by pore size, pore geometry, wettability and displacement rate. The laboratory determination of residual oil saturation in core plugs provides an estimate of the microscopic displacement efficiency, through measurement of an ultimare residual oil This expression is given in field ,units where the saturation Sor(ULT)for the pore scale recovery injection rate q, is in RBID, the crosssectional area A is in ft3: the absolute permeability k is in mD, the process: are viscosities of oil and water, po and h., in cp, the 1  Swi densities of oil and water (y) are in terms of specific Recovery factor(uLTj= 1  Swi gravities relative to water at 60°F, 14.7 psia, the dip The value of Sor(ULT) may be less than 10% of angle a is in degrees and by convention is positive pore volume, for low rate gravity drainage of oil for updip flow. The terms dP,/dS, and 2Swi2x are below an injected gas cap, to over 40% in a high rate both negative and are normally considered small linear water injection in which imbibition between enough to neglect. Under semisteady state conditions, the flow of oil advancing fingers is restricted. into a wellbore is given by the radial flow equation On an interwell scale, the driving force for displacement is represented by a potential gradient including mechanical skin as follows: (or datum corrected pressure gradient) between an injection well and a producing well. At some economic limiting condition of production rate or fluid cut, the recovery efficiency is represented in terms of an average oil saturation in the reservoir. In field units, where rate is in RBiD, pressures in We may distinguish between an average saturation psia, length terms in feet, permeability in mD and in the swept region of the well pattern so,(,,,,,^ and viscosity in cP, the equation is as follows: an average residual oil saturation in the whole reservoir including noncontacted or swept regions So,. This latter oil saturation should be the same as the material balance residual oil saturation. The term {q, BoI(P  Pwf)) is known as a productiv1  Swi  Sor (swept) ity index (PI) and has a particular dependence on kh Recovery factor (swept zone) = as well as on saturation and pressure influenced 1  Swi terms. For injection wells an expression known as the 1  swi sor injectivity index (11) can be similarly described using Recovery factor (material balance) = 1  SWi the difference between the flowing bottomhole For a homogeneous reservoir with constant injection pressure Pwfand the average reservoir pressure P, in rate and incompressible fluids, the water cut or gas conjunction with the water injection rate Q, in cut will be controlled by the saturation at a produc RB/D: ing well. Welge's equations allow a representation of the producing well performance in terms of the average material balance saturation S,, the producing well saturation S2, the fractional oil flow fO2 at the producing well, and the gradient of the fractional where k.kr is the same as the effective fluid flow curve at the saturation S2, i.e. permeability k,. Well inflow equations are linked to pressure loss calculations in production strings to evaluate producing rates consistent with wellhead choke and The fractional flow of displacing phase (water or separator conditions. The particular influence of k,h gas) is given as a saturation dependent expression at well locations may influence the total well number
11 SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE
175
requirements for a given voidage replacement scheme. In water saturated regions of many reservoirs, diagenetic damage to pore space may have reduced absolute permeability by several orders of magnitude compared with that in the oil zone. In such instances the injectivity of water into an oil zone may prove more attractive than injection into the water at an oilwater contact, even though the relative permeability to water in the presence of residual oil may be less than 30%.
X
Fig. 11.2 Saturation profile before breakthrough.
11.2 FACTORS INFLUENCING SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE SCHEMES 11.2.1 Mobility ratio
The mobility ratio expresses the ratio of the mobility of the displacing phase to the mobility of the displaced phase. If we consider the case of water displacing oil, then Mobility of water = h,
 effective pesmeabilit!. to \\.ates
M ' = k '. k "
k'o Figure 11.3 shows results of experimental data from 5 spot patterns for wateroil, gasoil and miscible displacements. The effect of the volume of displacing fluid injected on total swept area after breakthrough can also be represented as a function of mobility ratio. Using datall01for a direct line drive, and representing the number of displaceable volumes injected as V d ,Fig. 11.4 has been prepared. In this figure the numerical value of Vdis (volume of injected fluidl(1 S,,S,,)PV).
Clw
k,, Similarly,
viscosity of water
11.2.2 Reservoir dip angle
Reservoir dip has an effect on gravity stabilization during immiscible displacement and, by inspection of the fractional flow equation, it can be seen that dip angle influences oil cut. As shown in Fig. 11.5, the magnitude of the effect of dip angle on fractional flow depends on the wetting preference of the rockfluid system and on the direction of displacement. Compared with the fractional flow curve of a horizontal reservoir with no particular strong wetting preference, a strongly oil wet horizontal reservoir will show a higher water cut at a given saturation, and a strongly water wet one will show a lower water cut at the same saturation. At any given wettability the fractional water flow for updip displacement of oil by water will be lower at a given saturation than for downdip flow. This is a direct result of gravity stabilization of fluids of differing densities. Increasing reservoir dip angle accentuates the stabilization for updip flow and decreases stabilization for downdip water flow. For gas injection. the fractional flow equation indicates that better gravity stabilization will be obtained by updip injection with downdip gas flow at high reservoir dip angles. The density difference between immiscible fluids
It is clear that the effective permeabilities of oil and water are saturation and direction dependent. The mobility ratio could therefore be expressed at any saturation condition during a displacement. In general usage, the water mobility is frequently defined at the average water saturation in the water contacted region of a reservoir. For efficient displacement this is often represented as a piston front condition. As shown in Fig. 11.2, a plot of water saturation distribution versus distance (x) from the injection point in a linear system, the frontal saturation Sfoccurs at position xf The mobility ratio at prior to breakthr~ugh a well (location x = L ) will use
=
ho
]
.
Clw
[r]
ko s ,
s ,
A particular case of mobility ratio representation known as endpoint mobility ratio (M') defines k, as k, at So, and k, as k, at SWi:
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE
0 1
0.5
1.O
Mobility ratio
5
10
Fig. 11.3 Effect of mobility ratio on areal sweep efficiency at breakthrough: 5 spot pattern (afterl31).
1.0
0.90.8 
2 5 .
0.6 0.5 0.4
0.75 \ 0.5 wd
Direct line drive Areal sweep efficiency ( E A ) vs. mobility ratio ( M ) for different displaceable pore volumes of injected fluid ( V d j
"'1
0.2
Mobility ratio, M

Fig. 11.4 Direct line drive areal sweep efficiency against mobility ratio for different displaceable pore volumes (Vd = volume of injected fluid) of injected fluid. (Data
PV(1 sw,  So,)
11 SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE
Horizontal reservoir, strongly oil wet
177
It should be noted that for an endpoint mobility ratio of unity (M' = 1 ) the displacement is unconditionally stable at any rate.
(a) U p d p flow
(b) Downd~p flow
Segregated d~spiocement
Fig. 11.6 Segregated displacement. (a) Updip (positive) flow, (b) downdip (negative) flow.
Fig. 11.5 Effect of dip angle and wettability on fractional flow.
11.2.3 Reservoir heterogeneity
Although reservoir heterogeneity can imply many variations in rock properties at different scales of influence, only permeability variation will be considered for the present. So far the representation of reservoir performance by use of a fractional flow equation has assumed a homqgeneous reservoir with constant vertical and lateral permeability character. The fractional flow curve can, however, be used in the performance analysis of systems with vertical permeability variation. When there is no crossflow between layers, then the methods of Stiles["] and Dykstra and Parsons["] may be appropriate in generating fractional oil flow performance. When there is pressure communication between vertical layers or different rock properties, static or dynamic pseudorelative permeability functions have to be '1. In Fig. 11.7 a vertical section generated LZ4, through a northern North Sea production well has a permeability profile as shown. In reservoir analysis, the connection between vertically adjacent sands is important, as well as the degree of contrast in permeability in a given unit. Where a nonreservoir interval is indicated by core and log in a given well, the geometry of the nonreservoir material becomes significant in assessing whether or not vertical sand connections will occur around the nonreservoir unit at some distance away from the well. The combination of core absolute permeability data, with well test derived effective permeability, and with dynamic RFT response in new wells drilled in producing fields, allows judgement of these possibilities. Figure 11.8 shows RFT data obtained in a Dunlin well in the Brent Sand region of the UKCS North Sea
"3
may lead to segregation. In steeply dipping reservoirs, the gravity segregation forces may dominate capillary forces, and displacement behaviour is controlled by viscous: gravity force ratios. The mechanism of this process has been presented by Dietz and others [13.151 and involves the calculation of a critical displacement rate. For rates less than critical, the displacement is stable and underrun or override of displacing fluid through tongue formation should not occur. If the endpoint mobility ratio is defined as M', displacing fluid subscripted D, and the dip angle a considered positive for updip flow, then, as indicated in Fig. 11.6, we have: in Darcy units
k k : A ( p ~  p 0 ) gsina ~ r 1.0133 x lo6 yo (MI1) in field units 4.9 x k k:D A (yDyo) sina
qcrii = qcrit =
E"D (MI1)
The field units used above are as follows:
qO, = rbiday; k =mD; A = ft2; = res.cond.specific gravity relative to water y at standard conditions; a = degrees; 1.1 = centipoise.
178
core ~ e r r n e a b i l i i y (Dcrcyl
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
Torbert Sonds
Upper Ness Sands
100
n
a
0
+
2
P
"s
E
+
2: 200
E t v e Sands
300
Ronnoch Sonds
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1 0 1 1 1 2
Fig. 11.7 Permeability distribution through a vertical section of a Brent Sand well in the northern North Sea (UKCS).
\5
compared with detailed sedimentological analysis of nearby core [43]. The degree of vertical connection between sand bodies is suggested from the RFT gradients and may be matched by reservoir simulation. The effect of characteristic sand body types on the flow of injected water and on oil displacement may be anticipated [261 with reference to Figs 11.9 and 11.10. In Fig. 11.9 the depositional environment represents channel sands developed as a lateral accretion surface. Without further significant diagenetic alteration the gamma ray profile and core permeability profile may be as shzwn. The unit permeability thickness product (kh) would be obtained from z k j h j by subdivision into n sublayers. Water injection into such a sand body would probably result in the combination of gravity forces and viscous forces giving a profile with poor vertical sweep as shown. The sweep will depend particularly on the permeability contrast and the bed thickness. Figure 11.10 shows the behaviour of a bed with the same (Eh) product as the channsl sand but with the higher permeability sands at the top of the unit. This arrangement frequently results from bar sand deposition. In waterflooding such a unit, the viscous and gravity forces counteract each other and a more efficient sweep may be obtained. Pseudorelative permeability curves are required if such units are to
RRI/ERC ~nvironmentol
\h
\
b
y
Et!;;",:"
r e 211/242 
\%
\$ ;\
Upper Juross~cshales
\.
Dunlinwel
9\
\
\P \"
\ \
.
         1
Extensive morlns sheets~nds
Upper Brent sand ( TARBERT)
A07
\ \
\
92001
T
i
6
4
        L o c a s e d barsands       Loc(111sed b~rsonds   Carrelot~ve mouth badtdol f o l s complex
\
Mlddle Brenf sond (NESS I
\
   
     
\\
\ \
C Extenswe d ~ fiats_ $   ~ Extenswecoastal :i: v ~barrisrsond a r 5 l ~ M
  ~
~
        
(ETIVE)
       ,     7 \\ 9700jI
\ \ \
s \,
\ I 64C0
I
I
I
I
I
I
Extens~veshallow morinesheetsond
M~caceour sand IRANNOCHI
~~~~t sand
Extsnslve marne prodelto shole  .    L~ttoroi~~nd body
     
      
oa:iB,dasar
5200
5400
5600
5800
6000
6200
I
Pressure ( p s ~ g )
Fig. 11.8 RFT pressure response in a producing reservoir (after [291).
I f SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE
Depth
( a ) Unfavourable
Fig. 11.9 Effect of unfavourable permeability distribution in waterflooding.
Sea level coarser sediment In shallow turbulent wqter
F~ne sediment in deeper quiet water
GR
profile ( A )
Note: Thevertical sequence ( a t profile B ) ~ s t h e same as the lateral sequence being deposited at one time
,
GR proflie ( B )
Permeabil~tyt
Depth
( b ) Favourable
P I
Fig. 11.10 Effect of favourable permeability distribution in waterflooding.
180
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
be represented as single layers in numerical calculations. Even very thin, low permeability layers sandwiched between higher productivity sands can be significant. A thin 12 ft very micaceous sand near the top of some North Sea Rannoch Sand reservoirs [431 have had, for example, a major effect on waterflooding. The micaceous sand is not a total seal, but under dynamic conditions prevents vertical movement of injected water. This particular situation has been described by Dake 13']. In a particular example, the consequence of ignoring its presence in waterflood calculations is to predict water breakthrough significantly later than reality.
Original oil water contact
.
/
, ,'
, , ,
\/*+;..
0y
Proposed site for ~njector
Poorly characterised faults
I
'
proposed otl producer
Proposed oil producer
11.2.4 Reservoir geometry and continuity
Sandbody continuity is largely determined from integration of detailed sedimentological observations with petrophysical and pressure data. The vertical pressure gradients measured in dynamic and static reservoir environments by RFT tools have probably allowed the greatest advances in prediction of continuity. It is fairly obvious that the continuity and directional aspects of sandbodies have significance in the design of water and gas injection facilities. Effective vertical communication dominates the distribution of gas in gas injection schemes, whilst lateral connections and permeability contrast are significant in design of water injection schemes. The areal geometry of a reservoir will influence well spacing and, if offshore, will influence the location and number of platforms required. The position of production and injection wells with respect to faults and original oil water contacts is important. Figure 11.11 shows the effect of a high rate oil producing well in the distortion of an oilwater contact with
Fig. 11.12 Effect of inreservoir faults on injection! production well locations.
resulting poor sweep efficiency. Figure 11.12 shows how characterization of partly sealing faults may influence design location of water injection wells. Recognition of effective dynamic separation of reservoir beds in complex depositional environments leads to the design of separate injection production facilities for efficient reservoir management. This is illustrated in Fig. 11.13.
11.2.5 Production rate effects
In homogeneous systems there is a lot of evidence to support the contention that rate of oil production. or injection rate, does not affect commercially recoverable oil volume. This assumes that the velocity of oil in a linear geometry is in the order of 0.11 miday and that well spacing ensures high sweep efficiency. In offshore oilfield production, current economic factors require high initial production rates in order to pay off capital investment. A rule of thumb for a reservoir is to base peak plateau rate on about 10% of the recoverable reserve per annum, or else on about 4 % of stock tank oil initially in place (STOIIP) per annum. This is in contrast with traditional onshore operations where peak rates may be around 12% of recoverable reserve per annum. Economic factors set the target rates  reservoir characteristics determine whether they are reasonable and prudent. Reservoir heterogeneity and geometry can lead to lower recoveries than might have been calculated assuming homogeneous properties. The effect of
1 j
4
I
High rate well
k u t
rnntrni
1
Fig. 11.I 1 Effect on oilwater contact.
14 Crosssection of a stable water cone. 11. 11.phenomenon of coning may be important["]. reservoir flow rate must be reviewed in the context munication may require lower rates to promote of competing forces of capillarity.)I"[ OWC lsopotent~al line 1 OWC I Fig.1980 1 0 1.13 Pressure history in the UKCS Dunlin reservoir showing dynamic separation of major reservoir units (after.1. Reservoirs with high per.1979 Stort of water injection L.4. Gravity drainage In a homogeneous reservoir.producing well shows that the rate dependent meability contrast but having vertical pressure com.Ness/Etive/Rannoch 1. analysis of the radial mechanisms require low rate and high dip angle to flow behaviour of reservoir fluids moving towards a promote segregation.1980 Tarbert/U.1~80 20 Cumulative production (10' STB) 30 40 Fig. Ness e LL 1.4.11 SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE . These operate at both pore scale and higher permeability regions. interwell scale to differing degrees. gravity and crossflow by imbibition from low permeability to viscous flow. Coning .
The local saturations can be significantly different from the bulk average saturations (at distances such as a few hundred metres from the wellbore) as indicated in Fig.182 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE ( a ) Low rate: stable .@2 h.. From the viscous gravity balance A@' = gt Therefore. The prediction of coning behaviour is important since it leads to decisions regarding (a) preferred initial completions..... The relative permeability to oil in the pore spaces around the wellbore decreases as gas and water saturation increase. The gas and water in the vicinity of the producing wellbore can therefore flow towards the perforations. A fairly simplistic representation of the maximum oil potential gradient possible for a stable cone can be written in terms of cone height x and the potential @' (or datum corrected pressure). Areal sweep efficiency at breakthrough and recovery efficiency calculations are often determined by consideration of wells in particular pattern units. The effect of increasing fluid velocity and energy loss in the vicinity of such a well leads to the local distortion of a gasoil contact or a wateroil contact.16 Cone stability. The maximum producing rate at which a stable cone can exist is known as the critical production rate for coning ... Note that at critical rate 11.15... (b) critical rate. (b) estimation of cone arrival time at a producing well. A t the critical production rate the elevation of the cone from the bulk fluid contact is known as the critical cone height. 11.. Figure 11.14 shows the potential and stream line contours around a producing well.. It is more difficult to apply in offshore development and development from pad locations. ( b ) Critical rate [. and requires average saturation dependent well pseudofunctions to represent well performance in Cartesian grid cell simulators. ..16. 11.higher rates will cause an advance towards the perforations. p in specific gravity and g' = 0... (a) Patterns The majority of well patterns defined historically pay no attention to gravity effects in dipping reservoirs or to vertical heterogeneity. " = 0.. (a) shows the potential gradient for a stable water cone and (b) shows the gradient at critical rate.433 (Ap) To progress any further in analysis the reader is directed to the works listed in the references at the '4 ' 18 19 20 48 551 1 end of this The nomenclature of coning recognizes a stable cone as existing in steady state conditions where gravity and viscous forces are balanced. x (pwPO)  Oil For field units with @ ' in psi."J81... 11. (a) Low rate: stable.15 Water and gas cone formation. The main arrangements of wells are shown in the following figures and paragraphs..2. A n unstable cone is one that is in the process of advancing or receding.433 psilftglcc. Fig...6 Well locations and patterns The development well pattern was established for onshore fields from analysis of areal sweep efficiency. Referring to Fig. The most frequently cited . (c) prediction of fluid production rates after cone arrival and (d) design of preferred well spacing. 11. and in reservoir simulation mode^':^^^^.@2 behaviour has been studied analytically [4.. the viscous gravity balance equation for cone height is Fig.
direct line drive and staggered line drive. 11.A . The ratio of producers to injectors AND DISPOSAL OF BRINES d e ~ e n d verv much on the ~ermeabilitv the water s in zoke.A .18 Well arrangements for dipping reservoirs.18 shows the arrangements frequently minimize interwell gradients. . Its success depends on low pressure gradients frequently employed.17 as the five spot. 11. nine spot.11 SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE 00000 I l l 1 1 I I I I I I ! ! I I l l l l l 00000 AAAA / I l I I I I I l l I I l l ! I A 1 l I I I I I I 0 LoLo. The conversion of middip producers to injectors after break(b) Well arrangements recognizing structural dip through may be possible in some reservoirs to Figure 11. well patterns may be analysed as segments of water injection scheme is probably the most com. Inverted patterns are those with injector locations and producter locations exchanged. ' j " . although in shallow dips pressure maintenance with water injectors may provide a pressure support that flank wells alone cannot achieve.oLo I I / I 1 I / l I 1 I l l l 1 . 11. The peripheral poses.A AAA Staggered I ~ n drive e A O A I I O A I Nine spot Fig. For analytical purencountered for dipping reservoirs..A. In &me North s e a reservo& diagenetic The design of secondary recovery and pressure damage has reduced water zone permeability by two maintenance schemes requires attention to the orders of magnitude in comparison with oil zone quality of injection fluids and their compatibility permeability. Oil producer / Fig. o ' \ . A / / .line drives../ 0 o ? Flank water encroachment and A Injectors o Producers . although reservoir simulation is more mon.AAAAl I I 0 1 I l l A . between ~ r o d u c e r sand iniectors so that reservoir energy is restored quickly and pressure maintenance 113QUALITY OF INJECT~ONFLUIDS can be employed. patterns are shown in Fig.A + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Dlrect line drive a O A I I O A + I A I oiololo I I I 1 I I I 1 I I 1 I I I 1 1 l I AA9 i II + O A O + I I AAAAA I . Crestal injection is usually reserved for gas injectors. I 7 Well patterns for areal sweep.!.
Produced fluids entering the inlet separator undergo primary separation into oil. and injectivity calculations are generally made using the higher viscosity. The viscosity of injection water may be significantly higher than formation water as a result of temperature difference.19 the schematic plan view of the production facilities designed for the Magnus field (Quadrant 211 of UKCS) is shown.21.l9Magnus Field . together with pipeline transport of produced hydrocarbons. In the same context we may consider the disposal of nonhydrocarbon produced fluids. It is beyond the scope here to deal with these matters in any detail. 39. as shown in Fig. 42. as well as attention to reservoir displacement efficiency. In Fig. 11.schematic plan view of production facilities . water and gas i i m ~ of platform well t 20" Gasline t o FLAGS line 24" Crude oil pipeline to Ninian and Sullorn Voe . 51. "Fig. 3'. 11. and the reader is referred to the reference list for more information 1'. I I Oil producer \ I I I I 0 O Water injection Producer/injector Subsea wellhead i / /' \i I I The length of the Magnus f ~ e l d from NE to SW IS about 16km.184 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE with reservoir fluids. The general arrangement shows the platform and subsea wells for oil production by water injection. j4].20 is a simplified flow sheet indicating the principal components of an offshore productioninjection system. Figure 11. Sea water must be filtered and deaerated and biocides added to prevent bacterial 343 growths. Filtering is designed to a degree which prevents formation plugging with fines. 11. The sea water must be demonstrated to have compatibility with formation water and must not lead to destabilization of clay material in the pore structure.
deaerators Water injection pump Oily water treatment Coalescer Storage cell Flash drum Inlet separator Production manifold 13 Metering station Fig. 11. .11 SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Water lift pump Filters.21 Example of offshore UKCS water injection layout. 11. Turbid~ty \ .20 Simplified flow sheet for offshore secondary recovery/pressure maintenance. ' '~. /' ' Measurement point I D E bulk 1 hopper I / Hypochlorite Turb~dity Overboard dump Fig..
. . 13.5 cp.3). and oil passes perhaps to temporary storage or direct to a pipelinelpump system. 11. and final separator conditions therefore differ. 500 cp. = 0. Examples Example 1 1..  .55 cp) and calculations assuming it is the same temperature as formation water (y.. the gas composition also requires careful control.5 ft... The gases injected may change PVT properties in the gas cap as they will generally be leaner than the original gas. All gases separated at decreasing pressures and temperatures in the separator train may undergo liquid knockout. The products from the final coalescer represent the final separation condition and water passes to the oily water treater (Fig.6. 11. For reinjection at miscible rather than immiscible pressures with oil. phases.  PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE . . . Example 11. k. 50 cp. This may have an influence on displacement calculations. .35 cp) in a particular reservoir. In North Sea operations the tanker loading is often facilitated by use of an articulated loading platform which allows the tankers to take up preferred orientation with respect to winds during loading (Fig. s = +4.22 Example of offshore UKCS process layout. . Assume the reservoir properties are as follows: re = 1500 ft. and workover treatments may then be required. For offshore loading of crude oil into tankers.. 5000 cp. r .23) before disposal into the sea.. There is a facility for fluids from this separator to be flared in the event of emergency.. = 0.2 Estimate the ratio in injectivity indices for calculations assuming injection water is colder than formation water (y.   I I Compressor drum ( n o hydrocarbon flow) ' 1 storage wells storage Crude transfer pumps CD Test separator plus NGL'S t o pipeline or tanker Fig.22. = 0. scrubbing and compression for gas sales or reinjection. . the change in PVT properties may be even more significant. Fue! gas .. a lower vapour pressure crude is required than for pipeline transportation. as shown in Fig.. h = 100 ft and k = 1325 mD. injectivity may be impaired over a period of time by precipitation in the formation of greases from compressor lubricants. 11. . .I Show the effect on productivity index of oil viscosity for oils of increasing 'viscosity' in the range 0. = 0. When the reinjection gas is a mixture from several reservoirs.186 . . . When gas is reinjected into the reservoir. . 5 cp.
3 A line drive water injection scheme is being operated in a reservoir of length 1 mile between injection and production wells.4. For a stable cone to form just below the lowest perforation what is the maximum potential difference (datum corrected pressure differential) that can be allowed during production? .23 Maureen field oily water treatment (after 13']).4 cp and the water viscosity is 0.85. The water formation volume factor for injected water is 1. Seawater train I) I 011 stompe/watersurge tank c A 4  Seawater CPS unlt . At reservoir conditions the specific gravity of the formation water is 1. Example 11.01 and the specific gravity of the oil is 0. I Example 11.t :o : E>I I I I I 01 1 dehydrator  L . The relative permeability to oil at the initial water saturation of 30% is 0. 11. (ZT 01ly water toD dra~ns tanks \ \ \ To sea via 30" calsson 01ly water CPS u n ~ t \ \ seawater  Fro". 3 1 0 0 MB/D  > 011 to 2 n d stage separator / Ta oil storage t Emergency overflow to sea desalter! 0 f\le : 1 A II . The oil viscosity at reservoir conditions is 3.d l SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE Adjustable wler flow splitterbox 01Iy water surge tank Produced water train F7i 011 H C to sectlon of d r a m tgnks 1 or r._ &T 011 H C to sectlon of drams tanks Cellar DK 011to H C sectlon of drams tanks . JT>. Dra~nstanks s~mpllfled(API separator p r ~ n c ~ p l e ) Note. . Estimate the areal sweep efficiency of the scheme after 10 years if the average daily water injection rate is 53 000 BBLIday. The average porosity is 25% and the relative permeability to water in the presence of the residual oil saturation of 30% is 0. 'J to sea sect~on dralns tanks SW from SW return HDR r .. Grav~ty flow imless pump sbo wn Fig.4 cp.005 RBIBBL.4 An oil well is perforated to within 50 ft of a static water table. and of crosssection dimensions 4 miles wide by 98 ft net thickness.81.
G. and Hancock. AIME 195 (1952). A systematic study of gas and water coning by potentiometric models. B. > The xeservoir Engineering Aspects of Water Flooding.L. 269. Amsterdam (1953). 1974).L.418. and Ridings. AIME 261 (1976). A. M.. 829. Caudle.K. A numerical coning model. [2] Muskat.E. Pet. [25] Kyte. 1964). 594. JPT (March 1964). L L . SPE Monograph Vol3 (1971). and Morse. i The Prediction of Ol Recovery by Waterflooding. B. J. W. Trans. Areal sweepout behaviour in a ninespot injection pattern. Fundamentals of reservoir engineering. JPT (July 1979). Trans. Paper EUR 197. Prediction of waterflood behaviour in a stratified system. NY (1950). Pet. SPEJ (Feb.P. 222.F. and Cosgrove. F. 63. G. A correlation for predicting water coning time. Use of simple mathematical models for predicting reservoir behaviour.J. JPT (Sept. Eng. 81. Texas. 1971). 160. H. N.P. AIME 201 (1954).A.J. ~aterflodd prediction methods compared to pilot performance in carbonate reservoirs. [17] Chierici. W. Trans. N.N. [20] Letkeman... Dev. [15] Hagoort. Waterflood performance of heterogeneous systems. Trans. NY (1950). A. E. G. Evaluation of waterflood prospects. SPEJ (June 1964). [19] Chappelear. and Pizzi. Darcy's law and the field equations of the flow of underground fluids. and Berry. 1970). Amsterdam. 65.f Oil Production. New pseudo functions to control numerical dispersion. 83. J. Dallas. Use of permeability distribution in waterflood calculations. AIME 207 (1956). D. J. Proc.S. J. Akad. [22] Koval. [18] Sobocinski. V56B. Pet. [6] Warren. JPT (July 1971).H. and Cooper. J. SPEJ (Dec. [12] Hubbert. 501. J.B.. . Trans. C. 145. 1963.L. and Erickson. 276. = . H . A simplified method for computing oil recovery by gas or water drive. Soc.G. The Flow of Homogeneous Fluids through Porous Media. Simulation of stratified waterflooding by pseudo relative permeability curves. F. Conf. A theoretical approach to the problem of encroaching and bypassing edge water. J. [Ill Kimber. r31 Crain. [5] welge. API. O. Inc. and Cornelius. H. and Hirasaki. JPT (Oct 1959). Ciucci. D .M. JPT (Aug. Inc. van Wetenschappen. Elsevier. B .K. Sci. Secondary Recovery of Oil in the United States.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE References 1 [I1 Hancock. G.as influenced by mobility ratio. D. [26] Archer. Trans. R.. 1145. Proc. McGrawHill Book Co.H. SPE (August 1975). 91. Displacement stability of water drives in water wet connate water bearing reservoirs.J. 8 (1978).J. 1141 Richardson. [4] Muskat. M. R . [I61 Berruin.P. (1937). J. R.W. JPT (May 1965). Caudle.J. Physical Principles o. An appreciation of Middle Brent Sand reservoir features by analogy with Yorkshire coast outcrops. [21] Stiles. Europ. AIME231 (1964). [23] Dykstra. and Parsons. 1131 Dietz. 149.R. [9] Dake.E.E. A model of oilwater coning for 2Dareal reservoir simulation.H. AIME 228 (1963). and Blackwell. [8] Calloway. R. R. AIME 186 (1949).E.L. Oil production after breakthrough . [lo] Dyes. 199.F. A method for predicting the performance of unstable miscible displacement in heterogeneous media. M. Off. 805.P ~ e v e l o ~ h eof ta reliable gas injection operation for the North Sea's largest capacity production platform. McGrawHill Book Co. Trans. JPT n (Nov. 171 Abernathy. [24] Hearn. L. 11. (1980). 923. 1983). J.
Application of the repeat formation tester in vertical and horizontal pulse testing in the Middle Jurassic Brent sands.P. JPT (April. F. Pet. and Hawkins. Europ. Conf. Pet. Mechanics of Secondary Oil Recovery.L. Paper EUR 168. Pet. Viking Graben. 511. Proc. and Laffont. Oil GJ (13 May 1957).K. [35] Diehl. 205. Paper EUR 165. Off. Conf.. G. Off. J. Alaska. Europ. P. Europ. Gulf Publ. 1nnovaGve engineering hakes Maureen development a reality.C.. Conf. Injection rates the effect of mobility ratio. R. Dynamics of Petroleum Reservoirs under Gas Injection.review of field development and performance to date. Effects of rate on oil recovery by waterflooding. Proc.future needs. Conf.11 SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE [27] Nadir. P. R. (1980). [38] Tosdevin. [43] Robertson Research InternationalIERC Energy Resource Consultants Ltd The Brent Sand in the N.. R . Pet. [45] Deppe. M. Paper EUR 98. and Niko. [50] Poettmann. (1978). Conf. 1311 Nichols. Proc. [48] Smith. The Dunlin field . M. W. Paper EUR 313. Prentice Hall Inc. Secondary and Tertiary Oil Recovery Processes. . 99. ~ontrosk field management. Conf. [32] Tyler. and Adams. Use of gamma rayemitting tracers and subsequent gamma ray logging in an observation well to determine the preferential flow zones in a reservoir. J. Proc. R. J. area swept and pattern. [49] Sandrea. F. ~ e v e l o ~ h eof t Beryl 'A' field.H. (19821. Proc. Off.drainage mechanism model. etal. Proc. and Whittingham. Conf. and Westbv. JPT (June 1985) 1010. R. J.M. 1361 Dufond.C. Magnus subsea wells: design. Con5 (1982). O"f" f . Proc. Pet. Reinhold Pub. 407. r411 Steele. Applied Petroleum Reservoir Engineering. Proc. (1978). Europ. 325. Europ. Metzger. Paper EUR 231. Paper SPE 12960. Pet. Pet. Off. J. 1371 . Conf. 33. [29] van Rijswijk. A.V. C. the first giant gas field in the northern North Sea. Proc. T. Dake. Pet.P. Europ. G. Conf.and Moore. Pet. Pet.E. Off. K.P. A statistical study of recovery efficiency. Europ. Piper field . L. Tech. Paper EUR 298. J.J. 397. [32] Kingston. Paper EUR 331. (1984).E. (1975). Europ. et al. B. 81. (1980). and Hocott. [40] Simmons.A. M. Paper EUR 166. Wales (1980).A.A Sedimentological and Reservoir Engineering Study. (1982). C. Off. Texas (1974). Europ. C. and Twyford. Off. Proc. [30] Stewart. R. L. Off. P. [44] Jordan. . R.T.F. K. [46] Arps.F. 217. (1978). (1978). Off. Conf. Thistle field development. Pet. and Dimmock. Europ.H. 9.M. (1984). Paper SPE 12973. Cobb. Proc. Paper EUR 97. Conf. (1980). Conf. SPEJ (June 1961). and Murray. Development planning of the Brent field. Interstate Oil Compact Commission (1974). H .R. 319 n the r341 Hillier. et al. L 2 > L 2 L 2 L J L 2 . Houston.R. A review of the N. Off.R.T. 133. Conf. Europ. The selection of scale inhibitors for the Forties field.E. Pet. 1985) 711. Europ. Off.North Sea's Beryl field after seven years production. Pet. installation and early operational experience. 193 r281 Bishlawi. L. 1190 r331 Marcum. 1421 . et al. RRIIERC.reservoir engineering. McCardell. Europ. (1982).E . N. Frigg. Europ. API Bull 14D (1967).341. Llandudno. Auk Lower Zechstein . (1980). Pet. Off. NY (1966). AlHussainv. L. N. J. [33] Gesink. B. and Neilsen. Paper EUR 152. Proc. [39] Hughes.Sea .Pet. Paper EUR 270. Conf.~ a w s b nA. The development of the Brent field. (1980). Paper EUR 108.R. 207.. Proc. Proc. Europ.N. 185. [47] Craft. Proc. Analysis and treatment of formation damage at Prudhoe Bay.. Pet. M. Reservoir development planning for the Forties field..C.. Paper EUR 110.R. NJ (1959). M. North Sea offshore compression .51.
Design and operating factors that affect waterflood performance in Michigan. Oilfield Water Systems. 1521 Reznick. Reservoir Engineering and Conformal Mapping of Oil and Gas Fields. R. Proc. L 2 .E. (1977). Campbell Pet Series. Con$ (Oct. An analytical extension of the DykestraParsons vert~calstratification discrete solution to a continuous realtime basis. SPEJ 24 (Dec. 19841. and Panvelker. Enick. B.643. JPT (Oct. SPE 12984. North Sea development: historic costs and future trends. Pet. 19841. Europ. 227.A. 1984. [53] Thomas..A. Norman. Okl. I541 Tinker.C. C. W. [55] Hurst.190 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [51] Patton.M. Tulsa (1979). A. W. Pennwell. G. 1983).
Chapter 12 Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery mate potentially recoverable oil by improved processes. more so than the total oil volume. capillary redistribution and residual oil saturation. appear to offer significant bon recovery and the bibliography and reference list potential for further reducing residual oil saturation at the end of the chapter should be used as an entry into the more detailed literature.1 shows some of gravity segregation will influence local oil saturation. In addition to the potential for further recovery The recovery of light and medium gravity oils by displacement with gas and water. Near wellbore residual systems modelled by core flood experiments. the competing made about microscale and macroscale definitions of forces of viscous flow. can be consi.develop reservoirs which might not be developed by niques lead to gas recovery factors in the range conventional processes. For the literature and Fig. the possible terminology. In practice. Oil recovery pro. 12. The ratio of methods.oil.introduction to possibilities in improved hydrocarjects.3. Any improvement to gas recovery is very less that 20" API). These techniques are discussed in the Bond number (= g'k (p. and very low ism. These tech.2.Capillary number (N. the distribution of residual oil in a reservoir is of particular significance. It can be argued 12.1 TARGETS .p. there must be consideration of techniques to dered conventional recovery processes.2 THE INFLUENCE OF RECOVERY that infill drilling is an effective improved recovery MECHANISM IN RESIDUAL OIL process [831 as is increasing produced water handling facilities.reservoirs and volatile oil reservoirs. [1.)/(+o cos 0)) which in normal waterfloods. gravity oil measurements may be influenced by stripping in forces have in general been neglected and a term the vicinity of an injection well and thus underesti. and Table 12. high pressure gas condensate limited in terms of design of the recovery mechan.1 shows some data on has a value around comparative measurements. This chapter is designed solely as an pletion and compression choice. however.productivity (low permeabilitythickness) oil and gas eration of income through well location.4 ll]. on the other hand.) is used to represent the ratio 'a8 12. well com. core recovery with fluid control and by gravitational to capillary forces is represented by NB material balance. Distinctions can be reservoir undergoing displacement. The term residual oil implies nothing absolute about oil saturation and it is process and In a fully contacted region of a homogeneous oil reservoir property dependent. and efficiency increase mainly involves accel.reservoirs. and the recovery from reservoirs containing distributions of residual of relatively dry gases by expansion. Measurement of residual The pore geometry of the system will particularly oil saturation in the field may be by logging influence capillary trapping of oil. In this latter category we 7080% and oil recovery factors in the range may consider higher viscosity heavy oil (API gravity 2050%.
Heterogeneity modification. Core flood data may require modification in thick sections. Core flood data may be applied in analysis.hole logs  CCI End point relative permeability ' This is a modified . Vertical sweep < 100%. No indication of sweep. Could be changed in changed economic climate. Near wellbore So can be different from other regions. Readings are taking while stationary. All systems .and So) System 1D linear system Microscale So.192 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 12. Solimits are attained at economically limiting oil rates or oil cut in produced fluids. from core floods in totally bounded system. 12. 2D areal system So from material balance. depends on wettability.918ft is omitted. 100% sweep contact. . 2D crosssection Sofrom material balance. Usual to provide estimate of So.a TDTK with T D T . viscosity ratio and core heterogeneity.flood out conditions Residual oil saturation (12910'12920') * LIL (TDTL)'  * Conventional core analysis" +  * L * Open . Use of pseudofunctions. These conditions relate to well and gathering centre design capabilities to handle fluids. The saturation of thts plug was more than 2. Crossflow possibility.1 Residual oil measurements by different techniques in the interval of a single well (after 13']). Practical.5 standard deviattons from the average. 3D systems Core flood data only useful in discrete regions. Saturation of core piug at 12.G electronics sourcedetector spacing of 6 0 c m . Areal sweep assumed 100%. So in contacted region contrasts with So in uncontacted regions. Sofrom material balance generated from integration throughout system. Fig. Approach to So. Macroscale So from material balance. Need to validate if gravity effects important. at less than 1 part oil 1000 in flowing effluent in core flood experiments.1 Residual oil saturation (So.
The most frequently used form of the capillary number is that of Moore and Slobod (1956) 12. 12.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 193 only a limited range of field operation for potential gradients and superficial velocity. the group be considered for conventional oils under the generk k . between viscous and cap~llary forces and its effect on oil saturation. The potential for reduction of residual oil enhanced oil recovery: past.. is the initial uniform oil saturation.. a is the interfacial tants) tend to lead to adverse economics in field scale tension between the displacing phase and the oil and applications. This topic focuses attention on the near wellbore region.. but in practice their efficienagainst So. is the equilibrium average oil saturation remaining in equilibrium approach and economic factors. 12. 0 \ 1 o50\\ 025 0 oL '. polymers are complex and involve nonNewtonian essentially constant So.systems are then considered as heavy oils and high tive permeability. is as shown in Fig. The improved oil recovery mechanisms may Through Darcy's law for linear systems. regions.2. z . portion of the figure is flow.2 Capillary number correlation. The tionable. Improvement can be considered in terms of increased rate of oil production without increase in ultimate volume of recovery (an acceleration project) and in terms of increased total volume of recovery. interfacial tension (IFT) systems are another V is the apparent or superficial velocity of the approach to reducing residual oil saturation.*on modification of the summarized different formulations of the capillary terms... the most significant being o. Well productivity improvement can be most easily understood by reference to the semisteady state . the saturation dependent rela. Low the core plug. So. l '\ ' \ \ l l l l l l l l l ' l lo' N=YtLD ccar8 Fig. pD is the Newtonian tion of chemical agents inducing the IFT (surfacviscosity of the displacing phase. The same comments apply to high viscosity interpretation of these data in terms of conventional polymer fluids which could be added to displacing recovery and enhanced oil recovery potential water to increase the viscosity term in the capillary focuses on an extrapolation and scaling of the number. The reservoir heterogeneity and adsorparea of the core plug face. Well workover activities may be considered as acceleration projects while massive fracture projects may open up otherwise unrecoverable hydrocarbons. In the limit. appear very attractive. Their particular interest at present seems more considered equivalent to conventional field scale in the role of diverting agents where they may enter displacement mechanisms and covers several orders a floodedout high permeability region and divert of magnitude of displacement velocity at normal flood water into less permeable higher oil saturation field interfacial tension and wettability conditions. Nonconventional permeability and k . The stability of surfactants at reservoir 0 is the upstream equilibrium contact angle. which may VPD approach spontaneous imbibition. A @ / L can be equivalenced to the group V p D . The mechanisms for oil displacement using laboratory phenomena to field conditions. Units conditions of temperature and salinity is also quesare generally Darcy units with a in dyneslcm. a number in the years 1935 to 1979. The flat. and these factors together with effective permeability improvement cannot be changed sufficiently to give much change in So.3 PERMEABILITY IMPROVEMENT \ \ v. k the absolute processes and chemical processes. cy will be controlled by reservoir heterogeneity. capillary forces N. and displacing phase and is equal to the constant several processes have worked well in laboratory volumetric flow rate divided by the crosssection conditions. = o cos 0 represented by ocose are dominant and may control Taber in a review paper entitled Research on So. In this figure So. al headings of permeability improvement.. present and future ['I1 has saturation is concentrated. The general becomes zero as all fluids in a system become relationship for core plugs and bounded h e a r flow miscible.. Miscible displacement processes therefore systems suggests that the form of the relationship N. '.. A t very lour displacement rates. For practical purposes there is pressure gas condensates. miscible where AWL is the potential gradient.
drilling fluids. An important factor in most improved oil recovery processes is that of mass transfer between the displaced and displacing phases. Another mechanism called condensing gas drive involves the transfer of intermediate components from the displacing gas to the residual oil and results in a swollen residual oil. In Darcy units q. The phase behaviour for miscibility is indicated in Fig. re is the radial distance from the well to the external boundary of wellbore the system.e. is influenced by many factors including drilling. This mechanism is known as vaporizing gas drive. The resultant oil is of lower It is clear that when k > k. perforating techniques.3 Pressure distribution around producing well. the relative permeability to oil at a saturation in the vicinity of the well. In a multicontact system. then S will be positive. completion fluid interaction with formation and formation fluids. temperature and composition that are required for miscibility (i.4 MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT MECHANISMS The displacement of oil by nonaqueous injection of hydrocarbon solvents. These factors are largely obvious and receive considerable attention in the literature. costs of treatment versus incrementally assigned production increase. Pwf the flowing bottomhole pressure at the sand face. residual oil behind the displacement front may be stripped of light and intermediate fractions. . the elimination of an interface between residual oil and the displacing fluid). 12. saturation PWf for S = negative 14 I + PWffor S = positive I well bore Fig. The magnitude of AP. 12. Hawkins defined the relationship between the radius of the skin zone around a well and the permeability k. P the volumetric weighted average reservoir pressure.4.3 in terms of pressure drops across a skin zone compared with the zero skin case. borehole rugosity. The effect of hydraulically fracturing wells or acidizing them may be to make k. r. injection fluid incompatibility including plugging. The analysis of permeability improvement in real heterogeneous reservoirs requires recognition of proper models for perforation. is the radius of the effectiv~ and S is the skin which causes an incremental pressure change in the real system compared with that of a system with bulk formation properties. i. fracturing. h is the average net thickness of the tested interval.194 PET'ROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE radial flow equation for oil flow in an isotropic horizontal system. is the reservoir condition volumetric oil flow rate. whether on first contact or after multiple contacts. precipitation and destabilization of natural formation cements. > k and S then becomes negative. 12. mud cake invasion. NZor flue gases are generally described as miscible floods.e. yo is the oil viscosity at reservoir conditions. These models are not generally validated and productivity improvement tends to be assessed simplistically on economic criteria. The minimum miscibility pressure can be defined in such a diagram as the pressure at which the oil composition lies just to the right of the limiting tie line passing through the critical point. acidization and rate dependent sand particle flow. lean hydrocarbon gases or high pressure nonhydrocarbon gases such as COz. The extension of the simple isotropic radial flow system under semisteady state conditions to stratified heterogeneous reservoir performance under transient flow control (particularly in low permeability reservoirs) introduces considerable analytical complexity. The effect on near wellbore pressure is shown on Fig.e. where an extended vapour liquid tie line from the two phase region must not pass through the oil composition. It is therefore clear that miscibility between lean gas and oil will occur at pressure P2 but not at pressure P I . i. k . in this zone to the bulk formation permeability as follows (see Chapter 9): changes causing decrease in permeability. k the permeability of the bulk formation. The various conditions of pressure. 12. and if they are equal S will be zero. are dealt with comprehensively in the literature. reducing substantially the residual oil saturation.
12. 12.95 . Carbon dioxide has been shown experimentally to be superior to dry hydrocarbon gas in miscible displacements. O2 and SO.2 Properties of miscible fluids Fluid or solvent Reservoir condition densitv 646 450 300 190 650 240 (40) (2530) (19) (12) (41 (14. so that the characteristics of the scheme can be defined and evaluated. Consequently. The more usual ones together with fluid vroverties are summarized in ~cble 12. Experience in the USA has indicated that LPG and NGL can be used in slygs in excess of 10% PV. Rich hydrocarbon gases have found use in relatively low pressure environments in condensing gas drive mechanisms.5 MISCIBLE FLOOD APPLICATIONS Displacement stability and the potential for gravity override must be considered in the evaluation of miscible schemes l9 j 27 31 32 34 36. viscosity and has an increased oil permeability. In an ideal process. Heterogeneity and nonequilibria therefore lead to less than ideal recovery. Stability problems are likely to be the least with C 0 2 which will tend to be gravity stable.80 0. with C 0 2 . Flue gas has been considered in miscible processes as it is predominantly nitrogen. Heavy hydrocarbons are volatilized into the gas phase. discontinuous residual oil phase leads to the formation of an oil bank which may then itself scavenge residual oil as it moves through the formation. or at least a very large capillary number.4 Miscibility in a vaporizing gas process. In implementation of pilot projects in offshore fields. the conclusion is that projects must be started while cash flow from conventional operations exists. water).50 0. Where the formation is contracted by the miscible solvent it is expected that oil recovery is complete. the fractional flow of oil may be very low in early time. These volume effects can be significant even when full miscibility is not attained.6) Formation volume factor 267 Viscosity (cp) Light reservoir oil Liquefied petroleum gas Rich hydrocarbon gas Lean hydrocarbon gas Carbon dioxide Nitrogen  0.66 0. but the risk and expense in using them may not be enough to balance their immediate sale value. Lean hydrocarbon has a relatively high miscibility pressure as measured from slim tube experiments.771. Nitrogen has a higher miscibility pressure than C 0 2 or hydrocarbon fluids but is less effective.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 195 c 7+ c26 Fig. Several fluids are potentially capable of attaining miscibility with residual oil. The oil bank formed by mobilization of previously residual oil may in many instances be of low oil saturation in the presence of the previous displacing fluid (i. Recent North Sea experience suggests that reinjected gas cushions at pressures below expected miscibility undergo significant mass transfer and approach a vaporizing gas drive process. Trapping behind the oil bank is prevented by the existence there of miscible conditions.2 for reservbir conditions of 4000 psia and 200°F. although viscous instability may TABLE 12. The presence of additional compounds increases miscibility pressure.e.. and under favourable pressure and temperature conditions there is a rapid approach to miscibility. the swelling and mobilization of the disperse.
PSlA Fig. 12. although it appears that results are unpredictable.5. In the North Sea. a. a degree of miscibility has been achieved with temporary gas reinjection in the Beryl field and into the Statfjord formations of the Brent and Statfjord fields. Offshore generation of C 0 2 or N2 will require additional platform facilities which may render projects uneconomic. . Nearly twice as much C 0 2 would be needed as N2 to occupy one reservoir barrel of pore space.6 CHEMICAL FLOOD PROCESSES Chemical processes for oil displacement are dependent on changes in p.196 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Fresh water 100 000 ppm salt water 200 000 ppm salt water I iobo 2doo 30'00 40'00 50b0 6000 70'00 Pressure. 0 and on the capillary number [12. C 0 2 is soluble in formation water. as shown in Fig. cause concern and will accentuate effects of slug breakdown caused by heterogeneity. The fluid choice for miscible displacement projects in North Sea reservoirs is firstly with hydrocarbon gas and secondly consideration of the relative merits of C 0 2 and N2. 12. austic solutions have been reported to change reservoir rockfluid wettability and generate in situ surfactants. Ideal reservoir candidates in a gravity stable miscible process should have steeply dipping beds of good permeability or else be high relief reservoirs with high vertical permeability. is more corrosive than N2 and is more expensive to produce than N2.15 17. In addition. Wettability change alters both shape and endpoints of relative permeability curves and thus leads to improved fractional flow and reduced residual oil saturation in favourable conditions. Classic examples of field miscible schemes are the Weeks Island gravity stable C 0 2 displacement and the Golden Spike LPG flood.5 Solubility of C 0 2 in water at 1OO"F (after [641).8.7.221 C . 12.
The polymer solutions are in general nonNewtonian in behaviour. high salinity environments. . The usual representation (Fig. 12. Figure 12. Although many real systems will be significantly more complex. in the swept zone. The basic ingredients in a surfactant system are oil.02 ppm. Surfactant processes concentrate on reduction of interfacial tension to increase capillary number and reduce So. brine and surfactant (plus consurfactants such as alcohols). 100% brine to the left and 100% oil to the right.15% polymer solutions in 33 000 ppm TDS brine with dissolved oxygen less than 0.6 Thermal stability of polymer solutions (after ['21) Fig. a pseudo threecomponent system can be used to represent phase behaviour at varying compositions. Polyacrylamides tend to have increased viscosity at higher rates and are viscoelastic. which decrease their effectiveness.1 1 1 0 100 1000 Days stored at 205' F + Fig. 12. Biopolymers such as xanthan gums exhibit decreased viscosities at high flow rates and are known as shear thinning fluids.6 shows the results of a test at 205°F on 0.7) is in the form of equilibrium ternary diagrams with 100% surfactant concentration at the top. Most polymer systems considered for oil displacement are prone to adsorption on reservoir rock surfaces. Depending on the overall composition. The thermal degradation of both polyacrylamide and xanthan solutions was essentially complete in a few hundred days.7 Surfactantbrine4 ternary diagrams. particularly shaly sites. 12. whereas targets of at least five years might be set. The process becomes unattractive when significant crossflow between layers exists as the polymer solution may become ineffective some distance from the wellbore. the thermal stability of polymer systems must be demonstrated. an equilibP TY~e I1 100% Surfactont Point Aequilibrotes to oil and microemulsion 100% Brine 100% Type IT + looO/o Surfactant A Point A equilibrates to microemulsion and brine 100% Brine c a looO/o oi\ Type 100% Surfactant PointAequiIibrates to oil and microemulsion and brine 2 phase 0.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY Polymer applications are centred on thickening of injection water with water soluble polymers and either use as diverting agents or in the consequent improvement in mobility ratio and increased sweep efficiency [2022j. For application in high temperature. The particular interest in polymer solutions in stratified reservoir systems is in blocking high permeability depleted layers and allowing displacement in the lower permeability thickness layers.
Under such conditions a singlephase system is unlikely with any practical surfactant. an upper excess oil phase and a lower excess brine phase.8. 12. Shinoda and others [12. the balance Oil I Brine I Fig. brine and surfactant.198 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 12. There are a number of parameters that. flood performance can be calculated as a number of equilibrium steps. The terminology of surfactant systemphase diagrams has developed through Winsor c8]. 12. 12.9 Shinoda diagram (after [''I). I I V ."] have demonstrated that the Type I11 condition corresponds to a hydrophiliclipophilic balance in the middle phase which will lead to maximum oil mobilization. balance var~able+ Fig. Figure 12.7 equilibrates with an upper microemulsion phase and a lower excess brine phase and has tie lines with a positive slope in the twophase region. When B is temperature. will alter the position of hydrophiliclipophilic balance. introduced into a reservoir in a saline aqueous phase. 12.I'[ PIT.9 shows a plot known as a Shinoda diagram in which the balance variable B is plotted against the fraction of total fluid (oil + brine + microemulsion) that is microemulsion.3 Equivalent terminologies Winsor Type 1 Type II Type Ill Nelson and Pope Type IIType II+ Type Ill Reed and Healy Lower phase (microemulsion) Upper phase (microemulsion) Middle phase (microemulsion) rium can exist in which one. but this introduces the possibility of formation damage in clay sensitive sands. two o r three phases are present.3 Following the Nelson and Pope nomenclature. chased by a mobility control polymer. or (ii) lower concentration surfactant in flood water without polymer chase. The current North Sea interest is in low surfactant concentrations. can form. higher concentration surfactant slug. Nelson and Pope rZ31 and Reed and Healy and is approximately equivalenced in Table 12. It is.7 equilibrates with a middle microemulsion phase. In multiphase environments a homogeneous phase containing oil. as illustrated in Fig. and known as a microemulsion.7. I1 indicates a twophase system and I11 a threephase system. 1 Q p . Surfactants must therefore be formulated for performance at a PIT equivalent to the reservoir temperature. As shown in Fig. the Type 11.a threephase system at some location in the reservoir at some time. . The main options in surfactant flooding with preselected optimal surfactants are either (i) lower volume.8 Equilibrium representation of phase distribution in a cell . The onshore North American experience. the optimal point B. The microemulsion can be considered in thermodynamic equilibrium with any other phase present in the system. however. A Type I11 condition during chemical flood displacement may therefore be an important target in flood design. Hydrophiliclipophilic balance microemulsion "C j 1 microemulsion 1 ! I fl ! Excess brine . Pope and Nelson [241 have demonstrated that.system equilibrates with a lower microemulsion phase and an upper excess oil phase and is characterized with the lines of negative slope in the twophase region. inevitable that during the passage of any chemical mixture between an injection location and a production location there will be changes in mixture composition and a continuous change in phase equilibrium. The Type IIt system shown in Fig. Salinity can sometimes be modified from high to low by preflush. 12. for practical purposes. The Type I11 system in Fig. when B is salinity the balance point is known as optimal salinity. for a given surfactantoil system. 12. point is called the phase inversion temperature .
[I5] and centre on the difficulties of offshore handling bulk chemical in volumes needed for higher concentration slugs. the majority of effort at present is concentrated on surfactant chemical formulation to meet optimal condition. even though perhaps significant adsorption occurs around the hydrophiliclipophilic balance condition. ['I and has a formulation C. 12. With increasing salinity the phase system moves from Type I11 towards Type II+ and is analogous to the shift from Type 11. The adsorption of surfactant on the particular reservoir rock is considered sacrificial in these circumstances and although it can be quantified it probably cannot be changed much. A concentration target for the seawater additive system appears to be around 12%.0(EO). can be manufactured with relatively narrow molecular weight distributions.11 and reported for petroleum sulphonate systems. Although there is no particular consensus in the . as shown in Fig. low salinity might be around 6000 ppm TDS and high salinity around 120 000 TDS. Preliminary surfactant interest can be assessed from ability to mobilize oil from a static residual column and is a precursor to laboratory core floods. In core floods a comparison is made between recovery after waterflooding at reservoir temperature and recovery after surfactant flooding at reservoir temperature and at preferred concentration.10 Iz21.For offshore North Sea reservoirs the interest has focused on the low concentration synthetic surfactant additive to a seawater high volume flood. A potentially interesting group of oxyalkylated suplhanates with high temperature and high salinity tolerance has been identified by Mattax et al. micellar polymer mainly using petroleum sulphonate surfactants and their derivatives.10 Chemical flooding. For low surfactant concentration in continuous seawater floods.C3S03Na where (EO) represents an ethylene oxide group (CH2CH20). The circumstances leading to this route have recently been discussed by Grist et al. The philosophy adopted in the design of a low concentration surfactant flood involves development of a surfactant which exhibits Type IIIIII+ behaviour and stability at reservoir temperature and salinities and which has an acceptable adsorption character in the specific reservoir.I Fig. If adsorption is too great to give an economic flood then that surfactantlreservoir system should be rejected. In this context. These synthetic surfactant systems are designed to equilibrate in the Type 111 to Type II+ phase systems. It has been shown that minimum.through Type I11 to Type IIt shown in Fig. tends to be of the higher concentration slug type. 12. although costly. Synthetic surfactants. 12.
Table 12. (g) asphaltene content (up to +50% weight). =500 ppm). . The core experiments to recovery potential will show an upper since residual oil saturations will be those of a c o m ~ l e t e swept 'One.200 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 12.1 Initiate short and long core flood tests at reservoir conditions and model results using compositional simulator. Tune simulator parameters and pred~ct core flood outcome.12 is based on vacuum distillation of the crude oil which results in a volatile component. of which several versions have been to assessing surfacdescribed.1 i 1 literature./y. (b) high viscosity at normal reservoir conditions (PO> 20 CP). but are in offshore reservoirs difficult to develop for many reasons. The presentation shown in Fig. Define phase equilibria for salin~ty scan. Design freld flood or next pilot. Run pllot flood and retune s~mulator. (d) dark colour. Table 12. Find surfactants having optimal salin~ty above and below resident brine salinity and check phase representations. (c) poor reservoir mobility (k. The majority of these oils are not heavy in a world wide characterization. This incidentally indicates that some preplanning is necessary if preserved core of in situ wettability is to be available. . key Run experiment for valldatlon. Select formulation so that oil solubility is largest at a given blend and concentration. heat change and adsorption Isotherm techniques. A method proposed by Yen has been used 1611 to distinguish the pseudoternary composition and origin of heavy oils. 1 L . V. it is suggested that tests should eventually be conducted on reservoir zone core lengths up to 2 m.).4. (f) metal content (Ni. (e) sulphur content (> 3% weight).5 illustrates some characteristics of heavy crudes in the UK sector.4 The screening of potential surfactants for use in field operations Define reservoir sallnity and surfactant concentration range. North Sea heavy crude oils are not very well documented. The 'Ombination l~ of phase equilibrium experiments and core flood experiments will allow calibration of a linear surfactant core flood simulator. A genera' tant reservoir system potential is shown in Table 12. In the USA some 127 x . 12.1 Characterization of heavy oil crude A generalized 'lassification of considers an association of the following properties: (a) low API gravity less than 20". Use simulator to design pilot flood. Y i i Blend surfactants at reservoir temperature using equal volumes of reservoir brine and crude oil.7. mainly hydrocarbons and a potresidue.7 HEAVY OIL RECOVERY 12. The crude oil composition as plotted on the ternary diagram can be used to distinguish thermally mature oils from weathered and biodegraded heavy oils. Any particular heavy oil may have some of these properties and there is nothing absolute in any classification. Check adsorption characteristics in flow loop using surfactant compositron. 12.6 contrasts some selecteci examples of heavy oils from other parts of the world It is clear that some recognition of the characteristics of heavy oil crudes from around the world might be used to guide expected properties from heavy oils to be found in the UKCS. The residue is mixed with cold apentane which separates asphaltene from polar compounds.
lnvasiant point moves continuously from 100% brine point to 100% oil point as salinity increases.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY lOO0/0 Asphaltene . TABLE 12.5 TABLE 12. increases Hydrocarbons (volotiles) Fig. Fig. Texas USA. 12.524 1115 1526 25 23 23 Temperature pF/ 120 115 120 175 130 135 Viscosity (CP) Reservoir Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone 81 4 1502750 (30) 4 5 3. 12.6 Examples of heavy oil reservoirs Field Gela Ragusa Dur~ Darius Harbur Karatchok Bat1 Raman Tia Juana Jobo Lloydminster Cold Lake San Miguel Kern River Midway Sunset Country Italy Italy Sumatra Iran Oman Syria Turkey Venezuela Venezuela Canada Canada USA.12 Yen classification.5 12 8 101 8 101 2 121 5 14 14 Estimated viscosity CPJ(rc) 80220 25 (25) 650 3700 6200 3000 100 000 801 00 4200 1600 .5 Characterist~cs UKCS heavy crude oils of Reservoir condition UKCS quadrant 2 3 9 14 16 206 Gravity ("A PI) 20. a. Californ~a 01 1gfavlty 81 3 19 20 1220 1823 1923 12. Yen classification based on vacuum distillation and npentane solubility of pot residue Invariant point moves continuously from 100°/o brine ~ o i nto 100% t oil point as solinit.11 Effect of balance variables on phase distribution. Texas USA.
friable sandstones of Palaeocene and Eocene age. and the figures are given in Table 12. Reservoir rock and fluid properties are often difficult to obtain as coring can be unsuccessful and the fluids may not flow to surface. 50% 8% 48% 52% 20% 35 % 45 % Heavy oil gravity: 2025"API less than 20" API Heavy oil reservoir depths less than 500 m between 5001 000 m more than 1000 m Heavy oil reservoir lithology limestone reservoirs sandstone reservoirs more than 3 m thick and shallower than 1000 metres lo9 STB of heavy crude oil in place has been identified [611. This figure excludes tar sands and is similar to the volume of medium and light oil historically identified. Table 12. '. 12OAPI crude oil 12. The interpretation of porosity from .7. These data from a mature exploration area show that heavy oil is widespread geographically and that volumes in place approach that of conventional oil. In the North Sea the heavy oil reservoir potential is linked through economic considerations to reservoir size.13 shows the form of relationship between oil viscosity at surface and reservoir temperature conditions for different gravity oils.8 illustrates some pore volume compressibilities in reservoir rocks having porosities greater than 20%. Figure 12. reservoirs and depths might also serve as some kind of guide to expectations.202 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 12. Recovery factors from heavy oil reservoirs are not a good guide to their potential since they are production process dependent. water depth and subsea depth. typically providing 7 m core lengths. deg F Fig.2 Properties of heavy oil reservoirs Many of the North Sea examples of heavy oil reservoirs are found in relatively young. The tables show us nothing of the reservoir sizes and only suggest that production from heavy oil reservoirs is disproportionately small. The reconstituted samples may not reflect in situ reservoir stresses when used in conventional processes for measuring porosity and saturation. 12.13 Relationship between kinematic viscosity and temperature solid C 0 2 for transportation to a laboratory. Cores may be more successfully obtained from friable sands using rubber sleeved or fibre glassed core barrels.7. The US experience in distribution of heavy oil in terms of gravity. Oil viscosity at reservoir conditions may be roughly estimated from dead oil viscosity where the oil is relatively gas free. Friable and unconsolidated sands can exhibit high pore volume compressibilities in comparison with the often used literature values of Hall around 2 x lo6 psi1. At surface. geometry. as well as reservoir rock and fluid properties.7 Heavy oil resource distribution in USA Heavy oil as percentage of all crude (STOIIP) Heavy oil production as percentage of all crude (annual) . The pore volume compressibility is important in correlating core and log data at the same in situ stress condition. the recovered core may be quick frozen and packed with Temperature.
12. however.3 Production characteristics of heavy oil reservoirs Porosity distribution and oil saturation are required for determination of hydrocarbon in place for a heavy oil reservoir. the relative permeability to oil and po the oil viscosity. Oil viscosity (cp) Fig. The key parameter in the flow of heavy oil in a reservoir is the mobility.30 0.8 Reservoir rock Pore volume compressibility of reservoir rocks Surface porosity (Frac) 0. and the density of fluid in the interpreted zone is best represented by that of the heavy oil. temperature ( 'and saturation (S) may be written as [kkro/po]s.15 Effect of oil viscosity on PI. 3.T semisteady state radial flow productivity index is dramatic.30 0. which at some 7) given reservoir pressure (P). be recognized that mud filtrate invasion and oil displacement is likely to be very low.5 x lo4 3. i. = saturation.A ~ N STOIIP = =(So cp) DOL Formation density RHOB (g/cc) where A = area.25 0.8 x low6 5. Using a mud filtrate density rather than an oil density in the porosity calculation leads to an overestimation by 3 porosity percentage units.14 Porosity interpretation from FDC log in North Sea heavy oil well. it is flow properties that determine performance. . In the relationship for PI the particular effect of variation in viscosity is shown in Fig. 12. on The effect of the term [kkrol~o]S. Eocene Fig. It should.. Gamma ray API units 12.21 0. 12.T where k is the formation permeability.p.e. k.14 shows a density log response in an Eocene heavy oil reservoir from the North Sea [jq.39 Pore volume compressibility (psi') 1.0 x 10.15.5 x lo4 > 20 x lo6 Oilfield sands (Hall) Frio sand Berea sand Weakly cemented sand Athabasca sand Ottawa sand (c109) North Sea Chalk formation density logs and their derivatives has been reasonably successful in openhole conditions.7. Figure 12.345 0..P. c = porosity and Boi = initial oil formation volume $ factor.8 x 14.33 0.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 203 TABLE 12.75 x 3. EN = net thickness.4 x lo6 6. However.
204 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE This illustrates one of the reasons why thermal expansion of oil and reduction in viscosity by the addition of thermal energy is attractive for heavy oil systems.16.' of temperature Fig.8 THERMAL ENERGY The introduction of thermal energy into a heavy oil reservoir should result in improvement in productivity. proppants and rock strength. Uncertainties are attached to the description of induced fractures and acidized permeability and the proper representation of dual porositylpermeability . Temperature change. 1 . 12. may shift relative permeability curves as shown in Fig. steam drive.16 Effect of heavy oil viscosity on fractional flow of water. 12. Thermal injection the terms in the following relationship: processes include steam soak. m m + Oil Relative permeability relationship fluences the nature of any improvement in permeability. drive and a variety of combustion processes from Productivity = Po forward to reverse and from air to oxygen with and Increase in permeability may be achievable through without water injection (see Figs.20). 12. .8 Water saturation (frac PV) / / Noteffect solely always n . From a design standpoint. Relative permeability improvement relates to wettability change as well as to changes in irreducible saturations.kr. consideration must be given to reservoir lithology and heterogeneity obviously in. The all these processes.17. In fracturing and acidization of reservoir rock. The time changing magnitude of improvement as saturation and pressures change is important in the economic assessment of improvement.o not well 0. The mechanisms of relative permeability change are not well understood and are not capable of being incorporated directly in productivity design. 12. These changes are observed empirically with particular reservoir rocks and may be partly controlled by pore filling minerals. The economics of a particular process can be Improvement in the productivity of heavy oil assessed in terms of an energy balance as cost of reservoirs can be considered through modification of total energy as compared with value of the product after operating costs and taxes.the volume of the heated zone and the mechanisms Fig. 12. The effect of the ratio between oil viscosity and water viscosity on fractional flow of water in horizontal homogenous reservoirs can also be illustrated as in Fig. 12.17 Effect of temperature on relative permeability. particular consideration must be paid to rock debris flow. Introduction of carbon dioxide in a heavy oil reservoir can also lead to viscosity reduction of the oil in some circumstances. as well as introduction of chemicals such as caustic solutions.1812. hot water k .
12. 12. . Stack gas scrubber  Fig.19 Steam flooding.18 Cyclic steam simulation.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 205 SOAK (shutin phase) fi days HUFF (injection phase) days to weeks PUFF (production phase) weeks to months Fig.
steam. The critical point for steam is shown in Fig. Steam properties indicate that superheat at elevated reservoir pressures and temperatures is not proportionately beneficial.42613621.producer The heat capacity (C) is applied to reservoir rocks and fluids. For details of the various processes and explanation of mechanisms there is a wealth of current literature [2. oil. Typical data required in calculations of thermal processes are shown in Table 12.3.206 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE ~ Fig. designated V r .9. can be represented for consideration of thermal properties in the following form: Vrh= Complex function ' Recoverable [latent heat conductivity ] Thermal [diffusivity ] [%city] [Time] ' I Temperature gradient injector .4"F. consideration of full threedimensional geometry is important as fluid density differences (i. Appreciable latent heat release is not achieved at pressures greater than 2200 psi.20 Insitu combustion. Data requirements include thermal properties of rocks and reservoir fluids together with temperature. It is clear also that reservoir structure. Steam override mechanisms have been the subject of laboratory investigations and results support the current interest in application of horizontal well technology. pressure and saturation dependent empirical relationships for relative permeability. capillary pressure and PVT properties. will be important. For deep reservoirs steam may not condense. of heat transfer which result in productivity improvement. Steam properties will also be important. gravity override of hot gases. 12. equivalent to a depth of some 5000 ft SS in a normally pressured reservoir.e.21 as 3206. In order to solve equations for heated zone volume. 12. The volume of a heated zone in a reservoir. The characterization of reservoir transmissibility and continuity is probably a greater uncertainty than any error in fluid and rock properties introduced by use of literature correlations. Some of these data can be obtained quite satisfactorily from correlations and others require specific determination for a given reservoir fluidrock system. heterogeneity and geometry will influence well spacing and heat transfer. particularly steam. . combustion gases. thermal conductivity (A) and thermal diffusivity (D = hlCp) are applied to the reservoir and the rocks overlying and underlying the reservoir. In processes typically considered for thermal stimulation of heavy oil reservoirs. water) play an important role in displacement efficiency.2 psia and 705.
 .) Correlation (Lit.5 Btulftday"F psi 6 Water and steam Reservoir rock Steam tables Correlation (Lit.21 Properties of steam.) Measured Measured Measured Measured Measured Overburden Heat capacity and underburden Thermal conductivity Oilwater Gasliquid Relative permeability Capillary pressure Relative permeability Capillary pressure Solubility Pa Pa m3/m3 psi SCFISTB  (P.00029"F' 0.2 psia and 705.) Correlation (Lit.9 Example data requirementsfor steamdrive analysis Typical value or units System Oil Propefly Density (21"C) Compressibility Coef.n 12. Heat capacity Viscosity Density Compressibility Heat capacity Latent heat Heat capacity .00052 K' 1.963 kJikgK 5 mPa at 373 K kgim3 Pa' kJikgK kJikg 1. 12. thermal expan. 12.A0 ' ' 0 / point ( 3206.3 kJ/mdayK Field units 23.4OF) I Temperature Fig.3 Btu/ft3"F 38. It can be seen that if the reservoir temperature of the gas phase mixture is above critical and below the Liqud Gas 0 400 300 : 40 80 120 160 l I I I I I I I I I 200 I I Critical Pressure ( b a r ) // / / .00073 Pa' 0.22 Gas condensate phase diagram.4 M J / K ~ 96.469 Btu/lb°F 5 cp at 212°F Ib!ft3 psi' Btu/lb°F Btuilb 25.1 6 Btulftday°F mD psi' fraction 21 Btu!ft3"F 15. 12.22 for a constant composition system.7 kg/m3 0.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 207 TABLE 12.9 GAS CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS A pressuretemperature phase envelope of a hydrocarbon mixture known as a gas condensate is shown in Fig. Thermal conductivity Permeability Pore volume compressibility Porosity Source Measured Calculated Measured Measured Measured (fn 7) \ Sl units 912.) Measured Measured Measured Correlation (Lit. Fig.7 MJ/m3 K 238 kJ/mdayK pm2 Pa' fraction ~ 1.5" API 5x psi' 0.
Liquid drop out character during isothermal constant volume expansion is shown for three samples with different single stage separator gasoil ratios in Fig. S content C7+0. Relative permeability and oil trapping phenomena will play a large part in well productivity.40 0.1 0 Condensate analysis (after Oil flow rate 525 BOPD Gas flow rate 13475MSCFD Natural gas analysis 146°F 664. fraction is significantly different from black oils. This behaviour is characteristic of a gas condensate. Sampling gas condensate reservoirs is notoriously difficult because of proximity to critical conditions and retrograde behaviour.4 Avg. factor can be used to check if liquid samples are indeed characteristic of the condensate.59 2. The nonequilibrium conditions occurring around a wellbore might invalidate such a calculation. Relative permeability behaviour of condensate systems are also the subject of considerable uncertainty. and validation depends as much as anything on representation of the well stream fluid in sampling. Table 12. The stock tank liquid is often very pale yellow in colour and the Watson characterization factor (K. 4. Bottomhole sampling may frequently fail to represent total reservoir fluid. The magnitude and location in the reservoir of liquid drop out from a condensate reservoir undergoing pressure depletion i~ vital to the design of a produotion scheme.) of the C. Condensate PVT properties require matching with equations of state.208 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE cricondentherm then.52 0. is around 12 for a condensate system and 11.63 13.10 shows an example of a separator gas and liquid composition from a condensate reservoir.7802 Avg.09 83.6 IbiBBL 232440 Iblday Mole % 0.2 psig 226.57 1.6" F 707. mol.56 4.36 10.24 shows schematically a liquid saturation and pressure profile in radial flow towards a wellbore of radius r.30 54. and recombined surface separator samples in these particular conditions are often preferred.55 3. For more detail the reader is referred to the current literature. the liquid content of the mixture may increase and then decrease in a phenomenon known as retrograde condensation.84 7.23.84573 The K.49 4. C7+ 143. 12.01 0.04 0.36 0. It might be predicted from radial flow pressure drop and constant volume depletion data where liquid drop out might occur [66j.49 0. A typical K.5579 ~0 '5178 4 8 4 5 7 3 B + .16 2. TABLE 12. wt.95 0. during isothermal pressure reduction.1 40 lblft 705 580 Iblday Mole % 0.12 Gas gravity = 0.97 Specific gravity C7+ 0.63 3.03% wt K C7+from: .90 for a black oil using the relationship between liquid specific gravity (y) and molecular weight (M) as follows: K W = 4. In addition the API gravity of resultant stock tank oil is likely to be greater than 45" and producing gasoil ratios are often in excess of 3000 SCFISTB.. The numerical modelling of gas condensate reservoir systems is limited by proper representation of flow physics and thermodynamic behaviour in addition to normal reservoir description. The mechanisms of liquid drop out and its effect on hydrocarbon recovery and well productivity are not yet fully understood.7 psi 2.6942 H2S 10 ppm Oil analysis Separator temperature Separator pressure Flowing density Mass flow Nitrogen Carbon dioxide Methane Ethane Propane Isobutane nbutane Isopentane npentane Hexanes Heptanes 157..37 4.5579 M (0 15178) Y 0. Figure 12.
I / Production methods for gas condensate reservoirs include [37]: (a) pressure depletion.. .' ' ...' \ \ ....._I 1 0  0 G O R = 3 0 0 0 0 SCF/STB 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Pressure (psia) Fig.24 Pressure and saturation profiles.......this would be particularly true in offshore development of deep reservoirs... 12.. 12.a +/.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY GOR = 5 0 0 0 SCF/STB (s~ngle stage) 30a & a C GOR = 7 0 0 0 SCF/STB 20 2 + e C 0 g .......... 1 I i The water drive mechanism may be appropriate for high pressure reservoirs where dry gas compression and reinjection could be costly .. n f kevaporisation mechanisms~.... (b) pressure depletion with dry gas recycling.. (c) partial or full pressure maintenance by water drive.. . ."...*" \\ . Partial pressure maintenance in gas condensate @/.. *A /' .. ___ Liquid saturation ccC Max saturation according to Constant volume depletion t J 0) .a"\\ ' ." . Nonequilibrium &liquid drop out '\end kr effects .. *' Wellbore influence On Compositional transport rw r Fig....23 Liquid content during isothermal constant volume expansion of some condensates... pressure P\'! .
At low rates it is possible that some trapped gas could be recovered during blowdown. one of the significant uncertainties is trapped gas saturation at high pressure and the effects of pore geometry. is the effective hydrocarbon net thickness.4 ft3 at 60°F and 14. In consideration of processes involving water drive in gas condensate systems. $ is the volume weighted average porosity and S.97) W = (5..4 x p) 379.SCF Dry gas volume = V.3p1[1. the weight of oil and gas produced at stock tank conditions for each 1 STB liquid is W as follows: (Ry. as well as a greater density. After contact of all wet gas and recovery of liquids at surface conditions. Pressure depletion alone would result in unacceptable recovery factors in most instances. P (psia) and T ( O F ) . the oil content at stock tank conditions is given by + Table 12.615 x 62.7) can be used to derive a value for Z at datum. 4. if reliability is placed in the compositional data. the average saturation of gas condensate in the hydrocarbon region. The performance prediction of a gas condensate using the laboratory PVT data assumes that liquid saturation remains below some critical value and is thus immobile.02829 z (T+460) B gz. The gas condensate formation volume factor B.11 shows the type of information available from a laboratory constant volume depletion and Table 12. consid . Since wet gas might have a significantly greater viscosity at reservoir conditions than dry gas.). = RCFISCF P The reservoir hydrocarbon pore volume estimated volumetrically is related to the standard condition volume Vsc as   R p yg Mo = = = total gasoil ratio of the system (scflstb). and ultimate recovery can be judged from laboratory simulation of a constant volume depletion using a valid fluid sample. where A is the effective hydrocarbon reservoir area in ft3. gas gravity (relative to air = 1).e.12 indicates that liquid recovery is quite poor. although the mechanism would be a complicated threephase process. From PVT laboratory data the following information is available: For each 1 STB of liquid produced the number of moles (n) produced is therefore The molecular weight of the reservoir condition fluid (MW). is therefore The critical properties of the gas condensate can then be obtained from the pseudocritical property chart (see Fig. h.. liquid density (g/cm3).7 psia. the displacement will then tend to be unstable in terms of Dietz criteria (Chapter 7).210 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE reservoirs is conducted with the aim of keeping pressure above dewpoint. however. and gravity override may occur at quite low rates. =molecular weight of liquid (estimate from Mo = 44. At separator conditions the dry gas is that fraction of the total moles of reservoir fluid that are gas. can therefore be estimated from The reservoir condition gas condensate gravity (y.03p]. i. Recovery calculations must. ["13:9'4 Assuming that one pound mole of gas occupies a volume of 379. Gas recycling is a miscible recovery process with mass transfer between advancing dry gas and wet gas in the pore space.4 1 Similarly. 4.. At the pseudoreduced temperature and pressure in the reservoir the Standing and Katz chart (Fig. the reservoir should contain a singlephase leaner gas which is itself recoverable by pressure depletion or blowdown as if it were a dry gas reservoir. . A design drawback to the recovery process is viscous instability which is accentuated by reservoir heterogeneity. The determination of the dry gas and oil in place equivalent to the wet condensate volume can be estimated as follows. is thus 0. It is this result that focuses interest in dry gas recycling and pressure maintenancelwaterdrive projects. capillary number and Bond number on its magnitude. at initial datum conditions.4 1blft3 at the same condition.) (28.7) or by use of Kay's rule. and that water has a density of 62.
oil and gas mobility and reservoir heterogeneity control performance.1610 0.7040 Stock tank liquid recovery (STB/STB) 0 0.14 BBLIMMSCF original fluid 8.1 195 0.0727 0.1289 Second stage liquid recovery (SSBBL/SSBBL) 0 0. Below bubblepoint. Compositional I' approaches to reservoir calculations are used ' [ and equilibrium constants (kvalues) are required to predict molar relationships between phases.1203 0.1 gallonsIMMSCF original fluid C5+:6.6 gallonsIMMSCF original fluid C4:5.0746 0.0847 0. C4 564 gallons1MMSCF original fluid C5+ 5416 gallonsiMMSCF original fiuid Reservoir fluid initially at 5750 psig TABLE 12. 12.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 21 1 er the effects of reservoir heterogeneities and constraints imposed by wellbore conditions and processing equipment.3958 0.1288 Primary separator gas recovery (SCFISCF) 0 0.64 STBIMMSCF original fluid 5. These equations of state often require tuning of coefficients using PVT data.0502 0.10 VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIRS Above bubblepoint pressure a volatile oil reservoir can be treated as a black oil system. Equations of state may be used to calculate the behaviour of the original fluid composition during production.26 MSCFIMMSCF original fluid C3: 10.47 MSCFIMMSCF original fluid Total plant products in wellstream fluid C 878 gallonsIMMSCF original fluid .2157 0.5821 0. : C5+:997 gallonsIMMSCF original fluid Second stage separation at 100 psig and 120°F Liquid Gas Gas products 109.0446 0.3 gallonsIMMSCF original fluid Stock tank fluid Liquid Gas 0 psig and 60°F 102. Economic considerations are particularly important in evaluation of gas condensate potential.1079 0.0445 0.5434 0.2051 0.7568 C5+ plant recovery (gall/gall) 0 0.2450 .2052 0.0851 0.87 MSCFIMMSCF original fluid C3: 814 galionsiMMSCF original fluid C 489 gallonslMMSCF original fluid .11 Constant volume depletion data: example system Distribution of original fluid between separation stages Primary separation at 500 psig and 220°F Gas Gas products 912.1 093 0.1074 0.12 Recovery of fluids by depletion Pressure (psi) Original fluid recovery (SCF/SCF) 0 0.3720 0. TABLE 12.
Assume the steam is injected at a bottom hole temperature at 380°F with a quality ratio (fsdh) of 0. with oilbrinesurfactant being the components.75 g/cm3 and 0. The viscosity of the injected gas is 0. The following phase equilibrium data have been obtained for the twophase part of the system. (h. Example 12.1 (see Appendix 1 ) estimate the breakthrough 1 sweepout efficiency and the dominant flow regime in the following displacements. Assume that the permeability of the reservoir is isotropic. 40% surfactant is added to 150 g of a solution 50% oil.25 q. The density and viscosity of C 0 2 at reservoir conditions are taken as 0.)) = 355 Btullb m Latent heat of vaporization at Ts.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Examples Example 12.75. For five spot patterns assume the Darcy flow veIocity can be approximated by 1.8 glcm".. (b) What is the composition and weight fraction for the equilibrium separated phases for 200 g mixture of total composition 4% surfactant. It has only a single. (h. The sand is 60 ft thick and has a permeability to oil at reservoir temperature of 1000 mD. Assume that the horizontal permeability is represented as 3 mD and the vertical permeability by 1mD. A is in equilibrium with B.and a twophase region and can be represented on a ternary diagram.. (Lvdh) 845 Btuilb rn = ...2 A simple surfactant system has been discovered. and can be represented as 130 mD.)) = 69 Btullb m Enthalpy of liquid water at TS. 40% surfactant? (e) What is the composition of the resulting phases when 100 g of a solution composed of 12% surfactant 5% oil is added to 100 g solution composed of 20% surfactant. Other thermal data may be assumed as follows: Enthalpy of liquid water at T.Ihl in field units and the viscous gravity force ratio is given by 2050yUL/(khAp).055 cp.36 cp. (a) On a five spot pattern with L = 1500 ft and thickness h = 70 ft 9 gas is being injected at 4000 RBld..(T.v(T.4 and 0.. Surfactant Ol i Surfactant Ol i (a) Plot the data and construct the phase envelope.64 g/cm3 and 0. carbon dioxide is being injected at 1000 RBld. Estimate the composition of the plait (critical) point. 77% oil? (c) What weight of surfactant must be added to 100 g of 20% oil in brine mixture to make it just single phase? What is the composition of this final mixture? (d) What is the composition of the mixture when 150 g of a solution containing 10% oil.3 Contrast development by steam stimulationlinjection and conventional water injection on a 9 acre fivespot pattern of a reservoir sand containing 150 cp oil at the reservoir temperature of 100°F.. The reservoirs have not been waterflooded previously.02 cp and the oil viscosity is 0.5 cp. The compositions are in weight percent. The oil density and viscosity at reservoir conditions are 0. The wellbore radius is 0. The reservoir condition densities of gas and oil are 0..1 Using the Stalkup relationships shown in Figure A12. (b) On a five spot pattern with L = 2000 ft and thickness 50 ft.5 ft. 717% oil? Example 12.
(Ed. Soc. by the relationship L ' = 208. 1 Example 12.71 ( A ) ' . The minimum flowing bottom hole pressure permitted in the shallow reservoir is 200 psi and the maximum bottom hole injection pressure is 900 psi. L': is related to the well spacing in acresipattern. [6] Stalkup.58 Total gasoil ratio = 5000 scflstb References [I] Bond. IFP Publications. N Y (1981). Plenum Press. Academic Press (1977). [2] Poettman. IHRDC. Enhanced Oil Recovery. [8] Shah. Cong.S."F t~ Heat capacity of surrounding rocks (M. Penwell Books.O t~ F Thermal diffusivity of surrounding rocks (a.75 f t 2 i ~ a y In the five spot pattern the side distance. is the reservoir condition oil viscosity (cp) h is the reservoir thickness (ft) FG is the pattern geometric factor. A .) i Determination o f Residual Oil Saturation.2" API Separator gas gravity (re1 air) = 0.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY Heat capacity of reservoir (MR) = 35 ~ t u i f. (Ed. steady state flow resistance for injectivity and productivity is considered The equal and can be represented by where AP is the pressure difference at bottom hole flowing conditions between injectors and producers (psi). Pet.O. M. [9] Katz. SPE Monograph No 8.A. which for the five spot is 2 [ln(L'/r. D. (Ed. (Eds) Improved Ozl Recovery by Surfactant and Polymer Flooding. M. qinjis the injection (or production) rate in rbld p.) Secondary and Tertzary Oil Recovery Processes. 11th World Pet. Proc.0.K. [7] Shah.) = 45 ~ t u i f.)= 0. Interstate Oil Compact Commission (1978). Boston.) Surface Phenomena zn Enhanced 011 Recovery. Oil recovery by miscible displacement.) . Graham and Trotman. [4] van Poollen. and Stalkup. Tulsa (1980). Oklahoma. Fundamentals of Enhanced Oil Recovery. Carbon Dioxide Flooding.C. Miscible Displacement. R. Engr.4 Determine the dry gas volume and liquid volume at standard conditions for a gas condensate reservoir with the following characteristics: Net thickness = 300 ft Effective radius = 3 miles Average porosity = 18% Average connate water saturation = 25% Reservoir temperature at datum = 210°F Reservoir pressure at datum = 4500 psi Separator liquid gravity = 57. London (1983). ~ .I. M. [3] Latil. London (1980). F. (1984). Interstate Oil Compact Commission (1974).. Oklahoma. RTD 2 (1). D.96401 For a steam heated injector and a cyclic steam stimulated producer assume that the flow resistance compared to nonsteam injection reduces by a factor of 5.5 years from the start of injection. for times between 1and 2. F. D.L.O. R. and Schechter. H. [5] Klins. Steam injection should be planned until the steam zone occupies 50% of the pattern volume.I. Dallas (1983).H. .
[I51 Grist. London (1983). 513.. . J.A. Soc. 40. Cong. and Stahl.. M. 275. Europ. SPE 12999.H. J. Washington. 339.f. [33] Fulscher. W.S. [18] Macadam. Modelling of a miscellarlpolymer process. IP 84008 reprinted from Petroleum Review (July 1984). Cong. Polymer flooding calculations for highly stratified Brent sands in the North Sea. (Ed. 325. Eng. Numerical simulation of COPflood performance. 867. Fleming. l l t h World Pet. 1984). Proc. London (1983). and Tomich. 11th World Pet. C. RTD (3).D.J. J. J. and Wells. and Ypma.A. [30] Thomas.S. Dawe and Wilson): Elsevier: Amsterdam (1985). North Sea stimulation logistics and requirements. and Stosor. NY (1981). J. and Foulser.D.C. 593. [34] Reitzel. [24] Pope.W. [ l l ] Bath. and Bolland. Summary of recent French work on surfactant injection. EOR. J. 2nd Europ. [31] Chase.O. C. Symp. Thermal properties of resen70ir rocks and fluids. Effect of capillary number and its constituents on two phase relative permeability curves. B. 617. 1985). Aberdeeil (Nov. J. R. L. A ternary. Proc. 16th Ann. JPT (Feb.W.S. Proc. In Surface Phenomena in EOR (Ed. OTC. W. Houston (1984). Symp. C. P. and Ausburn. Proc. and Kirkwood. on Enhanced Oil Recovery. E.R. T. 597. R. Conf. S. Proc.A. Blackwell. 2 phase mathematical model of oil recovery with surfactant systems. SPEJ24 (1984). 1291 Bang. 1271 Doscher.M. Hill. 1171 Archer. present and future. [22] Shah. Cong. andNelson. past. C.. and ElArabi The displacement of crude oil by C 0 2 and N2 in gravity stabilised systems. . Proc. JPT (Feb. Pool description and performance analysis leads to understanding Golden Spike's miscible flood.J. Effect of C7+properties on equation of state predictions..C. SPEJ (1984). Research on EOR. Pet. Bournemouth (1981). 1261 Coulter. Design concepts of a heavyoil recovery process by an immiscible C 0 2 application. 13. 606. et al. Proc. F.G. and Winter. Pet. SREA. and Caudle.P. 1985).A. [32] Kantar. 643.R. R.C.A. B. Soc.C. Con. Cong..C. The efficiency of enhanced oil recovery techniques: a review of significant field tests.E. 1131 Putz. T.. C. and Todd: M. K. H. Surfactants and polymers . Proc.M. SPEJ24 (1984).214 2 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 1101 Thomas. Bosio. G. Proc.H. (1978). and Callow.P. JPT (July 1977). 1121 Mattax. and Archer? J..O.J. 1st Europ.E. V. R. Phase relationships in chemical flooding.M. Determining swept zone residual oil saturation in a slightly consolidated Gulf Coast sandstone reservoir. l l t h World Pet. J.. G. Plenum Pub. ATD 2 (2). and Simandoux: P. R. Shah).G. SPEJ 18 (1979). Engr.F. R.G. London (1983). Lambrid. [19] Cooper. London 1984. OTC 4795.H.D. J. [25] National Petroleum Council Enhanced Oil Recovery. [14] Kuuskraa. J. 1281 Whitsoh. 685. Enhanced oil recovery in the North Sea. R. G. G.A. D.on Improved Oil Recovery. 18 (5). JPT (June 1972). D. P. SPEJ 24 (1984). RP13. l l t h World Pet. NPC Report (June 1984). Recent advances in surfactant flooding. 1161 Passmore. 1. V. 1201 Sorbie. A chemical flooding compositional simulator. van der Burgh. R. Off. In Developments in Petroleum EngineeringI. and Pope. [21] Taber. Pet. Robets. Fundamental aspects of surfactant polymer flooding processes. Hammershaimb. 249.J. Oyekan. Paris (1982). RTD 2 (4).. A .state of the art. Ertekin. SPEJ (1984). Offshore Enhanced Oil Recovery. Effective diversion during matrix acidisation of water injection wells. London (1983). K. [23] Nelson. G. JPT (April 1979). The advantage of high proppant concentration in fracture simulation. E.
JPT (Dec. [56] Vogel. Clark. I E A Workshop on EOR.E.M.F. Symp. 54. P. [40] Rathmell. K. J. Bournemouth (1981).. E. [55] Sayegh. T. C. 379. Bournemouth (1981): 425. EOR Bournemouth (1981). and Pusch.D. Soc. (1981). S.J. C. [SO] Jennings. Wheat. Reservoir waterflood residual oil saturation from laboratory tests. Symp. r391 Katz. 285. JPT (Feb. Some aspects of the injectivity of non Newtonian fluids in porous media. Laboratory testing procedures for miscible floods. Proc. Symp. Control of numerical dispersion in compositional simulation. Wright. D. SPEJ (April 1982). E O R 7Bournemouth (1981).C. [54] Risnes. 1st Europ. [46] Wilson. Proc. and Dawe. SPEJ (June 1963). A recipe for residual oil saturation determination. CO.S. Weeks Island 'S' sand reservoir B gravity stable miscible C 0 2 displacement. Dalen.M. J. Predicting phase behaviour of condensatelcrude oil systems using methane interaction coefficients. Downhole steam generation using a pulsed burner. Role of capillary forces in determining microscopic displacement efficiency for oil recovery by waterflooding. and Fishman: D. Lam. R.. W. A caustic waterflooding process for heavy oils. EOR. J. EOR (1982). Phase equilibriom calculations in the near critical region.M. Con$ London (19821. H. 81. and McAuliffe. Proc.C. 1st Europ. 1978).E. 1999. and McCafferty. (Oct. Europ. Pet.A.G. 219. 175. EOR Bournemouth (1981). C.J. JPT (Nov. 1st Europ. E . [48] Koval.J. 1649.. C. Complete modelling of EOR processes. and Casinader. and Brandner. et al. Symp. 329. A. D O E Symp. G. Pet. V and Jensen. 1973). The adverse effects of heterogeneities on chemical slugs in EOR.A. [57] Brown. 1974).12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 215 i I I I 1 I1 1 I I [35] Kidwell.H.. 1982): 2746. Tan. C. B.. R. and Langley. [44] Aziz.Y. P.L. Proc. Bournemouth (1981). Soc. Tech. Prior. de The use of slim tube displacement experiments in the assessment of miscible gas projects. [42] Mahers. Proc. J.A. Mobilisation of residual oil under equilibrium and non equilibrium conditions. Proc.E. 1980). and Kidwell. and Wade. G.M. [43] Wall. 1st Europ. and Guillory. 467. 367. [49] Metcalfe.K. r451 Bristow. symp. Europ. Symp. EOR 11979). 3 (1979).I. Proc. Proc. F. C. and Perkins.C. Eng.R. Johnson. Symp.A. E O R Bournemouth (1981). [37] ~ i l s d nD . Europ. [36] Perry. EOR. P. EUR 329. Europ. 1st Europ. Effects of impurities on minimum miscibility pressures and minimum enrichment levels for C 0 2 and rich gas displacements. The role of diffusion and mass transfer phenomena in the mobilisation of oil during miscible displacement. D.G. Proc. JPT (Nov. Proc. Proc. R. EOR Bournemouth (1981).G. 145. Braun.C. [41] Schechter. JPT (Dec. C.. [38] Sigmund. 243. 1983). M. [51] Melrose. and Dawe.H. P. Laboratory C 0 2 floods and their computer simulation. Europ. 10th World Pet. An analysis of recovery techniques in large offshore gas condensate fields.. 179. Three dimensional numerical simulation of steam injection. Proc. Pet. G. F. EOR Bournemouth (1981). Symp.S.G. 1974). Symp. A. > L A . The provision of laboratory data for EOR simulation. Eng.. 56th Ann. 1st Europ. J.Can. [53] Lemonnier. C.O. E. 563. flooding strategy in a communicating layered reservoir. 5th Ann. and Riddiford. Proc. [52] Chesters. Proc.C. R. E. P. SPE 10198. Proc. A method for predicting the performance of unstable miscible displacement in heterogeneous media. Fall Mtg.L.S. T. C. D. R. [47] Claridge. Symp. 1344. Vienna (Aug. Pet.J.. Cong.S. and Firoozabadi. EOR. R. .
[64] Okandan. Single well performance prediction for gas condensate reservoirs. JPT (July 1965). and Krause.Dec. Possibility of cycling deep depleted oil reservoirs after compression to a single phase. R.. Merrick. 309. A . C. A I M E 195 (1952).L. K.M. Luxembourg (1979). Symp. T. T. E. Can. J. 19. 56 (Oct.H. Proc. 3rd Jt. 175. A . J. [72] Firoozabadi. . and Handv. 143. Barthel. 1978). 75. Bowers. Proc. Surfactant dispersion in porous media. J. JPT (NOV. Hekim. Proc. New Technologies for Exploration on and Exploitation of Oil and Gas Resources. [63] Nakorthap. D. [70] Eaton.H. Proc.3rd Symp. Graham and Trotman. [62] Offeringa. Proc. J. M.N. A.C. UNITAR (McGraw Hill Inc. J.P. D . C.216 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [58] Archer. 1982). A compositional material balance method for prediction of recovery from volatile oil depletion drive reservoirs. EOR. [73] Katz. SPEIDOE 12661. and Weijdema. Thermal properties of heavy oil rock and fluid systems. Oyez Scientific and Technical Services (March 1985). J. Symp. EOR (April 1982). [61] Meyer. and Jacoby. EOR. 1984). Modification of a black oil model for simulation of volatile oil reservoirs.A.S. Flow of condensate Bnd highly volatile oils through porous media. Tech. Pet. J. and Hinds. 359. B. JPT(Jan. Proc. 1973). JPT (July 1973). JPT (March 1982). SPE 4891. water systems. [67] Ham. and Phillips.O. and Katz.. . Proc. Fall Mtn. [60] Bing.D. R. Mtg. R.F. D. J. JPT (Feb.L. [65] Spivak. Problems Associated with the Production of Heavy Oil. EOR. and Wade. [79] Greaves.D. A. J. Paris (Nov. SPE 8819. JPT (Feb 1971). 635. Symp. Proc.E. Chern.E. R. [69] us sell. 191. SPE 11217. A model for forecasting the economic potential for enhanced oil recovery in Canada. SPE J. 1661 Dvstra. steam. 1711 .D.C. SPEIDOE 10695. L. R. 1982). 1st Jt.H. Steam generation with high TDS feedwater. B. Schechter. Nato AS1 Series. and Caudle. 203. D.K. [78] Elias. 1981). Can. Houston. The Hague. B. 860.L.D. SPE (Sept.L. Keynote paper: thermal recovery methods. 44. F. and Lomas. California Reg. Paris (Nov. [59] White. G. Martinus Nijhoff Pub. and van der Vlis. P. Symp. J.. Conf. and Eilerts. Simulation of gas condensate reservoirs. and Dixon. 1st Int. 1982). SPEiDOE Syrnp. H. Proc. A. (June 1974). [80] Rovere. R . Use of polymers to control water production in oil wells. [76] Fernandes Luque. SPE 4271. J. ~ A L A A . 99. [77] Perry.H. 1st Europ. 527.C. 610. (June 1979). K. Proc. Parameters for computing pressure gradients and the equilibrium saturation of gas condensate fluids flowing in sandstones. 1961). NY). Weeks Island 'S' sand reservoir B gravity stable miscible C 0 2 displacement.) Heavy Crude Oil Recovery. Los Angeles.W. Ruedelhuber. 2nd Europ. Temperature dependent relative permeability and its effect on oil displacement by thermal methods. P. Conf. Relative permeabilities of surfactant. and Evans. Reservoir depletion calculations for gas condensates using extended analyses in the PengRobinson equation of state. H. Proc. Y. R. R. E O R (April 1984). (1984). and Patel. Brill. R. Johnstone. Syrnp. [74] Sprinkle. 315. R. SPEiDOE Fourth Symp. 57th Ann. and Steele.. T. EOR Bournemouth (Sept.. . The future of heavy crude oils and tar sands. [75] Holst. and Bossie Codreanu. and Zadick. Adverse influence of stratification on a gas cycling project. 2nd Europ.. Tulsa (April 1980). J. Compositional simulation for effective reservoir management. Goddard.F. Sabathier. [81] Monslave.L. 1681 Saeidi. H. (April 1974). Trans. Numerical Simulation (1973). Eng. A new depletion performance correlation for gas condensate reservoir fluid.R. (Ed. J. 1131. calculated pressure build up for a low permeability gas condensate well. Duns. A. W.M. (Nov. 1957).T.S. 852. ~ e s e a r c 5 improved hydrocarbon recovery from chalk deposits.
Analysis of nitrogen injection projects to develop screening guides and offshore design criteria. R. [88] Coats. V. (1976). [86] Whitson. A novel pressure maintenance operation in a large stratigraphic trap. JPT (Aug. SPE Monograph Vol7. al. Pet. and Baldwin. Fall Mtg. [93] Clancy. SPE 6047. and Davis.W. Recovery optimization through infill drilling concepts. Thermodynamic modelling of quaternary systems: oillbrinelsurfactantlalcohol. (1974).H. Oyez Sci. Proc. JPT (April 1985). London. 5lstAnn. 49th Ann. [89] Schirmer. [92] Kilpatrick. Simulation of gas condensate reservoir performance.K.T. J. Proc.L. L. Soc. Conf. M.. 1911 Weiss. 915.E. 1985). and Shallenberger. Scriven. and Howell.R. 13. SPEJ 25 (1985). 1831. and Eson. D. 1959). (May 1983). A I M E 207 (1956).G. JPT (Oct. 1903 [90] Nierode.R. [85] Weyler.J. Practical aspects of characterising petroleum fluids. . J.R. 1870. Thermal Recovery. Comparison of hydraulic fracture design methods to observed field results JPT (Oct. 720. R. Tech. Planning and implementing a largescale polymer flood. Insitu determination of residual gas saturation by injection and production of brine. et.T. W.P.H. 1097. Proc. A directfired down hole steam generator . 1985). K. North Sea Condensate Reservoirs and their Development. H. A. [87] Prats. et aL Mechanism of water flooding in the presence of free gas. Dallas. SPE 4977. P.E. J. 330. C. Trans. R.K.M. [84] Kyte. JPT (June 1985). Fall Mtg. R. Serv. L. J.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 217 [82] Bragg.from design to field test JPT (Oct 1985). Eng (1982). and Sayre. [83] Driscoll.
218 Fig. recompletions redrilling. tubular selection. safety valves. wireline services1 facilities. wellhead selections. prediction: (d) Stigulation and remedial operations Acidization. Fig. 13. remedial acceleration. 13. (e) Oil and gas processing Separation. completion practices. performance analysis.1 Jackup rig being used to work over a well on a remote jacket platform. dehydration. 13. completion equipment. packer selection. (c) Wellperformance analysis Natural flow performance. possibly multireservoir. The total field of production engineering is very much wider than the subject matter of this chapter and can comprise: (a) Reservoir performance Completion intervals. multiwell.Chapter 13 Factors Influencing Production Operations This chapter is concerned with providing a brief introduction to the principal elements of production systems. artificial lift requirements. (b) Well equipment Stress analysis for tubulars and packers. perforations performance. corrosionlerosion considerations. system of producing wells.1 THE PRODUCTION SYSTEM The total production system is a complex.) . fracturing. (Photo courtesy of BP. (f) Produced water and injection water treatment. sweetening.1 shows a jackup rig used for a workover at a remote jacket.
optimum or design rates of production can be maintained at minimum costs. The principal objectives are to determine the initial deliverability of a well under specified conditions.the reservoir. 13. At this stage. or where wells are required beyond deviation angles of platforms.) . One of the primary purposes of production engineering is the evaluation of producing system characteristics and their interactions so that maximum. The further considerations of changes in deliverability and prediction of artificial lift or compression requirements belong in a more advanced treatment. the principal concern is the design of one representative element of a production system one producing well: This comprises the associated reservoir volume.especially reservoir and well characteristics .3 Offshore loading of oil by tanker from a spar. 1 Fig. 13. 13.4).13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTION OPERATIONS / Field A / / Field B Fig. capital investment and market requirements. a common alternative to pipeline transportation. the wellbore and flow string. 13. primary process facilities and delivery lines (Fig. Interaction with other elements of a complex system is assumed to be defined by constraints on flowline pressure and/or well flow rate. the flow string and the choke system . flowlines.14. (Photo courtesy of BP.3 shows offshore loading of oil to a tanker. Debottlenecking is an important aspect of production engineering. The use of subsea wellheads is more appropriate in deeper water fields. The rates of production required will be checked by a combination of technical factors . ~ffshbre alternatives t o fixed platfGrm developments are shown in Fig.is the system to be considered (Fig.contract quantities.2 Complex system of reservoirs. Figure 13. pipelines and stations in a gas field development. The analysis of an existing system to identify bottlenecks or constraints and to modify such a system for improved performance. 13. surface control chokes and delivery to the flowline.and of economic factors . Flow from the reservoir to the flowline through the three elements concerned .2).
and k . where q = rate of production m 3 / ~ b/D. is a .4 The flow system. P = flowing * bottomhole pressure at the rate q. and idealized radial flow equations are modified for this purpose. P = or reservoir average or static pressure.q PI=J= drawdown P.2.2 . with effective oil permeability. 13. If the pressure near the wellbore drops below the bubblepoint. the product . where p B. gas and water saturations and viscosities change. and the IPR becomes curvilinear. and as a basis for analysis. productivity index will vary with flow rate if the range is large and inertial effects arise. and when straight line extrapolation may be overoptimistic..and at any one instant of time the relationship would be linear with Pwf The flow rate of a well is then determined uniquely by a specified flowing bottomhole pressure. The use of this index implies that it is a constant characteristic of a well. q. dp 13. are functions of pressure. Particular care is needed in planning if test rates are artifically restricted to values very much lower than anticipated development well rates.220 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Fig. but it has long been used as a basis for representing well productivity. will vary with pressure if gas evolves.1 Productivity index and well y inflow performance A simple index of well performance is the productivity index (PI) of the well. Above the bubblepoint. = hypothetical rate at zero bottomhole flowing pressure. In practice.B. rather than advanced reservoir engineering.  between flow rate q and drawdown ( P . and the "gel IPR is Qmax 4 = 1 .P.. pwf = flowing bottomhole Pressure at the rate 4. is approximately constant and k. is 1 at zero water saturation. A general dimensionless quadratic equation can be defined as 13. For an oil well with no inertial effects an equation can be written constant.2. kh 9= I 1 0 B. and any study of well performance must start with an assessment of reservoirlwell interactions. or if inertial effects become significant at high rates. so that the PI is approximately constant for these conditions if inertial effects are absent. static pressure. 1 k.u.2 Dimensionless IPRs for oil wells It has been found that the curvature of the inflow performance relationship is reasonably well fitted by a quadratic equation for a very wide range of reservoir conditions.2. then the PI is not constant. 13. and with time as oil. The a was found by VOgel be 0. For a constant PI a linear relationship would exist \ I \ I where P = reservoir average.0. The complete relationship between flow rate and drawdown (or flowing bottomhole pressure) is defined as the inflow performance relationship (IPR) . which is by no means true. For production engineering purposes a fairly simplified criterion of reservoir behaviour is needed. function of saturation. defined by rate of production .Pwf).2 RESERVOIR BEHAVIOUR IN PRODUCTION ENGINEERING It is evident that no more oil or gas can be produced from a well than will flow into that well from the reservoir.
2.3. 13. Obviously simulation studies could generate IPRs for complex conditions but this is not an objective of production engineering.HIZT H = vertical depth to tubing shoe T z = = = = 13.3 WELLBORE FLOW The general assumption will first be made that a specified wellhead pressure should be maintained. densities of oil and gas vary only 13. = d = .. since under most conditions pressures will fall below the bubblepoint and gas will be evolved from solution.P. 13. which can be used for different flow string diameters and drilled depths of wells. When field data is available for matching it may be possible to derive a locally valid equation: P2. it is important to use accurate volumetric data on the gas and oil concerned. Alternative cases will be considered thereafter.? .1 Flow of gases Although the flow of gas in a wellbore is not strictly singlephase (since gas must be saturated with water at reservoir temperature).3. Figure 13.5 and 1. d in inches.. and Q is in MCSFld. then the constant is 0. Since the majority of the head loss in wellbores is the hydrostatic head. L insfeet. mean temperature (absolute) gas deviation factor f friction factor (see Fig..? 4. and the intersections with the IPR for the well establishes the well deliverability for those conditions.5 .. the local ratios of gas to oil will change substantially due to gas expansion and to continued increasing evolutior.3 IPRs for gas wells It has been conventional for many years to test gas wells at a series of flow rates and to express the results in the form of a back pressure equation: Q = constant (P2 . Tubing flow characteristics can be established for a range of diameters and specified wellhead pressures.0..13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTION OPERATIONS Theoretically this relationship should be used below the bubblepoint pressure and a linear relationship above the bubblepoint. but as a first approximation to the curvilinear IPR the Vogel relationship will be considered adequate at this stage. against This equation enables a further plot of Pwf rate to be established.TfzL where Qb = Pwf= P. P in psi and T in degrees Rankine. With a very large pressure drop from reservoir to wellhead. There can be no simple single equation for flow under these conditions.the next element of the system is the wellbore itself . = volume rate of flow of gas at base conditions flowing well pressure wellhead pressure pipe internal diameter gas specific gravity relative to air I 0.)~ where n is expected normally to have a value between 0. as shown in Fig. 13. The use of these can be justified [2135] because the principal element in the head loss is the hydrostatic term.1. and an approximate analytical equation used to describe the pressure drop:flow rate relation in the wellbore.7 illustrates a typical set of pressure traverses where pressure: relative depth relations for one single flow rate and a series of gasliquid ratios are illustrated. and the calculation of local density and friction loss can be difficult.1) y. Alternatively.2 Flow of oil The flow of crude oil in a wellbore can be very complex.P.6./.the determination of the flow rate that can be sustained from the reservoir depth to the wellhead. Under these conditions the patterns or regimes of flow possible in twophase flow may change continuously.5) L tubing length S = dummy variable = constant y. of gas. Such an equation is Qb = constant (P. unless such traverses have been specifically established for a field. data may be expressed in the form When f is a Fanning friction factor. =AQ +B Q ~ In each case it is possible to fit observed data and to generate a complete IPR plot of Pwfagainst rate Having considered the reservoir performance the deliverability from reservoir to wellbore .es p:)d5 S (es . 13. but even complex iterative calculation is subject to substantial error in calculating overall pressure drops. and a simple approach usually involves the use of generalized pressure traverses or lift curves. it can frequently be approximated as such.
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE .
at a relative depth of 7550 ft (point B). 13. For example. The pressure at this point is found to be 1520 psi at point C. Reference to further pressure traverses gives plots of additional data points. 100 psig Fig. not their positions in space.7 at a rate of 1500 bid in a flow string of diameter 4 in. Pressure n over small ranges. i.6 Gas well performance. 13. a wellhead pressure of 200 psi is specified for a well with a gasoil ratio of 200 SCFlb.e. 13.7 Example flowing pressure gradient. It must be remembered that the depth scale is in no sense an absolute one .8.13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTION OPERATIONS 223 ?? V) a ? ?  Max rate for the spec~fieddiameter and wellhead pressure Rote q l o w Performance ) Fig. This constitutes one point on the flowing bottomhole pressure: rate relation. . This gives a relative depth of 2550 ft. The reservoir depth is assumed to be 5000 ft below this..only the intervals existing between points of different pressure are represented. referring to Fig. viscosity is not a factor in the highly turbulent flow involved. other factors are of minor importance. to generate an operating relationship as shown in Fig. 13.
severely restricted maximum values of acid gas content .5. (c) meet any statutory requirements for the disposal of any part of the production. is to take steps to remove water and water vapour before delivery to a pipeline. a hydrocarbon dewpoint . flowlines and pipelines are not to be subject to the hazard of hydrate blocking. (d) meet any specification necessary for fluids for reinjection into the reservoir. so that a stable. Hydrates are inhibited by the presence of alcohols.carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide . if wellheads. or duplicated. 13.particularly where delivery is to a tanker. Very rich condensate streams may produce more than 1000 m3 liquid condensate per million m3 of gas produced. and methanol and glycol may be used as inhibitors. 13. 13.9. also.the temperature at which water will condense from the gas stream. a calorific value (possibly associated with the gas density in an index of burner performance or suitability). In some cases the objectives are easily met by very simple processing.which are corrosive and. 13. These icelike materials are dependent upon both pressure and temperature.224 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (b) characteristic (multiphase flow) (c) (d) (e) Performance Reiat~onsh~p which must be lower than any temperature likely to occur. toxic. offshore processing may be supplemCnted.5 NATURAL GAS PROCESSING A sales specification for a natural gas will usually involve: (a) a water dewpoint . and the Sullom Voe terminal for crude oil handling.1 Processing of dry natural gas The first requirement. heat and momentum transfer processes that are necessary to: (a) meet sales or delivery specifications of hydrocarbons (whether to pipeline or tanker). a delivery pressure. but in other cases moderately sophisticated processing will be necessary .8 Oil + water (+ gas) well performance. in the latter case. All natural gases are produced saturated with water vapour. even when ambient temperatures are above hydrate formation temperatures. which also must be lower than any temperature likely to occur. low vapour pressure product must be delivered. and such liquid recovery will usually be necessary to meet sales gas specifications. heated or inhibited very' near to the wellhead. nearly all natural gases contain small proportions of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons which will condense on reduction of temperature. as in the case of the UK east coast gas process plants for gas.5. Even the driest gases. 13.the temperature at which liquid hydrocarbons will condense from the gas stream. (b) optimize the economic value of hydrocarbons produced. The expansion of gas through valves and fittings can cause such locally low temperatures. of carbonaceous origin. since they coexist in the reservoir at reservoir temperature with interstitial water in the reservoir. Consequently.2 Natural gas dehydration 13. Also. Drying may be effected by: . In the case of offshore fields. Rate Fig. A typical process flow stream for the offshore processing of natural gas is shown in Fig. Water and hydrocarbons can combine together to form crystalline materials known as hydrates. The (wet) gas is then heated and passed to a drying column. Increasingly. gases must generally be dried. at the wellhead. will precipitate a few parts per million (on a volume basis) of liquid hydrocarbons. The well stream is passed to a simple separator (knock out drum) in which free liquid is separated. but are in general formed only at low temperatures (generally below 70°F). associated gas streams are processed for liquid recovery before gas is flared.4 FIELD PROCESS FACILITIES Field processing involves all the mass. by onshore processing.
. The drying Drocesses also knock out hvdrocarbon condensate. The dry gas passes to a pipeline.4 Onshore processing The processing necessary to meet dewpoint specifications is normally a moderately cheap refrigeration process.... and the condensate is usually spiked back in to the dry natural gas line for recovery in onshore processing..10 shows a typical process flow diagram.10 Onshore processing.ethanolamine or diethanolamine. i. Only if i L  t Sales Fig. I I I Heat el pr?Gel exchanger Separator .Gas to shore Fig. the light hydrocarbons involved separating very easily from water.Sulfinal and Vetrocoke.. gas from one or more reservoirs.g. The intake gas is first chilled by heat exchange with the cool processed gas. and the dry glycol is recirculated to the column. liquid counterflow process (e... potassium carbonate wash. Figure 13.e... The wet glycol is passed to a regenerator where water is boiled off. 13. 1 ! 1 I coaiescer Condensate . sieve trays or valve trays.9 Offshore dehydration (S..... suitable wash agents are: amine wash. 13.g.. counterflow with a wash agent in a bubble cap tower. ?his is recovered by simpie separation. In this case. 13.13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTION OPERATIONS 225 dry desiccant process (e. the normal procedure would be to transport the sour gas to shore after dehydration (inhibiting if necessary) and to sweeten the gas on shore. and is stripped of water by the glycol... or fields (some sweet. If an offshore field has a significant content of acid gases and a dedicated pipeline to shore. the offshore processing of a small part of the total gas stream might be more attractive than the onshore processing of a very large gas flow.... silica gel). For hydrogen sulphides removal: amine .. ethylene glycol). patent processes .North Sea).. . was to be commingled in a single pipeline system would offshore sweetening normally be conducted. 13. The of Fig' 13" shows a liquid 'Ounterflow process. For C 0 2 removal only.5. Other processes are also available. glycol being Stream I. The gas passes in counterflow cap through a equipped with a few trays. Wet condensate . some sour). there is rarely sufficient condensate produced to justify a separate pipeline. Sweetening is accomplished in a manner similar to that of dehydration.. In production from offshore natural gas reservoirs.3 Natural gas sweetening Sweetening is the process of removing acid gases from natural gas.5..
In this case. the produced water can flash to the vapour phase.ocarbons. and the resulting stream stabilized to give a stable condensate fraction and a nonspecification gas stream.5. the separation of gas to meet vapour pressure specification. C3H8) gives an excessively high calorific value. and the breaking of any produced emulsions to meet a refinery specification. The process adoptkd will depend primarily on the subsequent use of gas. leaving salt as a residue. (b) (c) (d) 13. with common carrier . 13. and a process involving several (34) stages of separation with carefully designed separator pressure will be necessary. or less efficiently propane from the condensate stream) where it is cooled to 18°C. this can be reduced by dilution with nitrogen. The resulting gasliquid mixture is separated. and field and finM Process plant are ion be installed at the process plant. the associated gas will be processed to recover intermediate hydrocarbons and obtain a sales gas specification. In the rare cases where the high paraffin content of gas (C2H6. near the 'Ihisreduces power rewhere Pressure losses between quirements. the removal of any noxious or toxic materials . If there is a significant content of nitrogen. the separation of produced water. the liquids will be spiked back into the crude oil stream and recovered in this way. as liquids will not be recovered to any significant extent from the gas stream. together with maximum retention of intermediate hydrocarbons is desirable.6. a dry natural gas will meet the usual calorific valueldensity specifications.5 Calorific value If no inert gas is present. In this case optimization of the separation process is highly desirable.1 Light oil processing In this case. optimization of a separator process can yield a few extra percentage points of stabilized liquid and can make a difference of one or two degrees in the API gravity of the product. enrichment may be necessary if the gas is to be put into a national grid. This is done by adding propane (or liquefied petroleum gas) in small quantities. This latter is ideal for fuel.5. In the case of pipeline transport to an onshore process plant. This can be a problem when crude oil is produced with small proportions of water and first stage separation occurs at high temperatures. the necessary is preferably installed as far upstream as is possible (i. However. the cool gas being heated first by heat exchange with incoming gas. and possibly the processing of the gas to meet a sales specification.crude stabilized at 1 atmosphere and ambient temperature if necessary.6 CRUDE OIL PROCESSING The processing of crude oil will have as its objectives: (a) production of a liquid stream which meets a transport specification.from the crude oil prior to delivery. Where gas surplus to fuel requirements is simply to be flared. a stringent vapour pressure specification is necessary . Liquids from slug catchers and knockouts are blended in. condensate and glycol. gasoil separation is the major objective. Simple freshwater washing is the only necessary process. gas stream processing will not be justified.226 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE added to inhibit hydrate formation. 13. a large industrial user may take a nonspecification gas using burners designed for the appropriate calorific value. 13. and fields). together with maximum recovery of intermediate hyd. The liquids are boiled off to separate water. the removal of salt to meet a refinery specification. With a large crude oil flow this can be highly significant in cash flow terms. When gas is to be disposed of by a sales outlet. and dewpoint specifications are met. the accurate metering of mass is desirable for equity considerations. but this then involves further water separation. For tanker transport. the vapour pressure specification will not be stringent. Alternatively. (e) lines. and then by a fired heater before measurement and transfer. Under these conditions. The gas then passes to a refrigeration unit (either using freon as a refrigerant.especially hydrogen sulphide .e.6 Compression When is needed to meet a specification !as be the case with a with water drive gas depletion gas field.
the pressures and temperatures of each stage of separation are important to the efficiency of separation (Fig. .Manifold 1 . level warnings and shutdown svstems will k e e ~ the separator w&king within its design limits. With multiple stages of separation. .50 ftis. coalesce and drip back into the liquid phase. a separation problem can occur if foams form with flow through the restric woterouileig Fig. p p are fluid densities. 13. 13. The important factor in this phase of separation is the residence time. and gas bubbles can rise and separate upstream and downstream of the weir.6. about 0. gas velocity is the critical design factor. water separates and a level controller maintains an oilwater level within limits. C is the separator coefficient (empirical. Inlet The gas phase may pass through a coalescer in which liquid droplets impinge. A weir retains a high liquid level and. The well stream impinges upon a deflector which effects a crude separation of liquid and gas. the liquid being decelerated and deflected to the lower part of the vessel.).3 Foaming problems With light gassy crude oils. Level controls. or may contain several separation elements. After the coalescer.6. behind this weir. Optimum values can be found by laboratory experiment on field samples.350. 13. Oil spills over the weir.11 Threephase separator. In the gas region of a separator.13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTION OPERATIONS 227 13. Woter control Level  vortex :. and a rule of thumb expression for maximum gas velocity i s 1 1 Cooescer ootes Dernlsler G050utlet where Vis the critical entrainment velocity (ftls. further to entrap and coalesce entrained liquid droplets.12 Mult~stage separator. and separators are usually designed to give a residence time of three to five minutes. Wells Gas treatment h G a s to p ~ p e l ~ n e or reservoir . F~rst t a g e s e p a r a t o r s YNGL Meter +P~pe I~ne Meter prover t I Oily w a t e r W a t e r dump Fig. Figure 13. or by computation. the gas passes through a demister section (a pad of wire mesh).12).2 Separator design considerations Separator vessels may be very simple.$I b~kers outlet 13.). . depending upon the difficulty of processing.11 shows a separator of moderate complexity.
the high viscosity of produced crude greatly retarding gravity settling of water. 13. Figure 13. When used they should be applied as far upstream as is possible .4 Wax problems Light oils are generally paraffins.13 shows a typical schematic. but in a few cases of very obstinate emulsions. Additionally.. Alternatively. Sand tosea Q To seq via caisson Fig. 13..8 PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT There are stringent specifications for the disposal of water within oilfields . and wax buildup in well tubing strings. 13. done in a heater (direct or indirect fired) upstream of the first stage separator.C e D Bubble coeleser Oily water to slops 1 . The first procedure adopted in difficult cases is to heat the well stream to reduce viscosity. When stable emulsions are formed and are a problem which cannot be remedied by heat and settling time.~ 228 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE tions of a typical separation system. Most systems installed are capable of reducing the hydrocarbon content to less than 30 ppm.6.possibly by injection at a downhole pump intake or at least below the wellhead. the residence times necessary for foams to drain effectively and break can be prohibitive and separation highly inefficient. The essential procedures are mainly gravity settling. Chemical treatment followed by heat treatment will deal with most problems. The most effective remedy is chemical foam breaking. Again chemical treatment is effective.disposal into the North Sea currently requiring a hydrocarbon content of less than 50 ppm. chemical inhibitors apparently acting to prevent growth and crystal development of the wax.7 HEAVY OIL PROCESSING With heavy oils. and it is the separation of produced water that is the greater difficulty . and the heaviest components may be paraffin waxes. .. This requires that water from all stages of separation and any oily slops or washings should be cleaned before disposal. This may be . e s O D a r * 1 Sand wash . or in a combined heatertreater. After first gas and water separation. the oil may pass to a heated storage tank where very long residence times may give the necessary separation. Oily water to slops Oily water to slops 13. gasoil ratios are usually low. These waxes may precipitate if the temperature falls below some critical value. flowlines and pipelines may occur. the addition of a silicone liquid upstream of the separators being highly effective in promoting foam drainage and breakdown.13 Produced water treatment on offshore platform. In this case. trace heating or periodic heat treatment and scraping can be used to remove wax after it has built up. chemical demulsifiers may be used. heavy crude oils have a greater propensity to emulsion formation than have lighter crudes. oily skimmings from a series of settling tanks being recirculated and the final water being treated in a plate or a foam coalescer before disposal. electrostatic precipitation may be necessary as a final last resort. j.
Metering of crude oil into a common carrier system requires particular care since volumes of mixing of crude oil of different crudes is not the sum of the volumes of the component crude oils.9 INJECTION WATER TREATMENT Water for injection may need to be highly purified before injection into a reservoir. Gas flow rates are usually metered by orifice meter.a positive displacement device which delivers a measured quantity through the meter. This itself is recalibrated by means of calibrated tanks. The turbine meters themselves are calibrated regularly by means of meter provers . The degree of solids removal necessary is a matter for experiment and experience. A biocide will be used at the pump intake sometimes by insitu electrolysis of sea water followed by a coarse filtration at the surface. Fine solid materials may plug formations. organic material or bacteria may generate slimes. and of the density of the material delivered. Tension leg platform Semisubmersible Tanker base system Fig. Offshore. depending on the degree of filtration needed. the water supply will usually be taken from a level where suspended solids and dissolved oxygen are low which will be an intermediate depth. The final treatment is likely to be a bactericide addition. with density being recorded simultaneously. will be followed by the addition of any oxygen scavenger (sodium sulphite) and further filtration. and in the North Sea both very fine filtration and virtually no filtration have both been adopted with success. Crude oil streams are metered by turbine meters for the most part. 13. and oxygen may promote bacterial growth and cause corrosion. . (c) polypropylene filter cartridges.13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTlON OPERATIONS 229 13. 13.14 Deeper water development alternatives. Only then can the production from a common carrier system be allocated equitably back to the contributors.10 CRUDE OIL METERING Metering of crude oil and gas streams is necessary for transfer and sales purposes. either by counterflow in a column or by vacuum deaeration. and for fiscal L purposes. and keep records of the overall compositions. although other types of meter are under study. This filtration. This requires that each contributor with a common pipeline system should maintain a record both of volume delivered. may be by means of: (a) sand andlor anthracite graded beds. (b) diatomaceous earthiasbestos filter cakes. The diatomaceous earth filters are capable of removing practically all solids down to one micron should this be necessary. Deaeration.
V. A field test and analytical study of intermittent gas lift. ~ k v e l o ~ m e oft a new high reliability downhole pumping system for large horsepowers. L A . 257. [6] Vogel.E. The density of air at 0°C and 1bar is 1. C. [2] Nind. T. and the GOR is 200 SCFlbarrel.1 (a) A well 6000 ft deep is flowing 2000 bid at a GOR of 200 SCF/barrel on a 4 in. M. Magnus subsea wells: design.) Petroleum Production Handbook Vol.S. Pet.133.V. B. [8] Patton. Elcrop. SPE 12973.250 r waterdepth).1205.I.P. [9] Boles. Europ. (Oct. [lo] Dawson. The maximum gas velocity in the separator is given in mls by References [I] Katz. Europ. 117. Europ. D. [4] Frick.D. The design ratio of diameter to length. Pet.R.H. Flowing and gaslift well performance. and Worley. (Oct. JPT (Jan. 1 (Mathematics and production equipment). McGraw Hill. seam to seam should be between 3 and 4 and the separator must be at least 3 m in length. W. (Oct. OGJ (Dec. Pet. and Grant. T.D. [7] Steele.83. The Vogel IPR relationship is assumed to apply. [I11 Patel.V. Conf. n Pet.C. 19841. Inflow performance relationships for solution gas drive wells. Series. (Oct. If the wellhead pressure is 400 psi. Campbell Pet. Proc. 1984). installation and early operational experience. J. Subsea production control (Beryl field). with a reservoir static pressure of 2600 psig.C. The well depth is 5500 ft deep. A. J. Example 13. The fundamental issues in future field development concepts (100 .230 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Examples Example 13. Norman (1977). SPE 12971. and Murray. what is the estimated flowing bhp? (b) A well 5000 ft deep has a flowing bhp of 1200 psi producing 3000 b/d at a GOR of 500 SCFibarrel. [3] Gilbert. A new concept in floating production systems. Conf. 1968). 107. Engineering and economics used to optimize artificial lift methods. SPE (1962). evaluate and comment on the performance of a 4 in.2 A drill stem test on a well indicates a flowing bottom hole pressure of 1500 psig at a rate of 3315 bid. Proc. 1984).75) at a pressure of 20 bar and a temperature of 40°C.E.3 Determine the size of a horizontal separator to separate 1000 m3/day of crude oil from its associated gas (SG = 0.49. Oilfield Water Systems.. What is the estimated wellhead pressure? Example 13. J. 126. Principles of Oil Well Production. SPEJ (Oct. Montgomery. 1976). JPT (June 1983). NY (1981).L. 1984). (ed. EUR 276. Con6 (Oct. SPE 12987. The oil has a density of 796 kg/m3 and a solution gasoil ratio of 95 m3/m3oil at 0°C and 1bar. M. [5] Vogel. API Drill. If a flowing wellhead pressure of 400 psig is needed on production. flow string for the well. flow string.275 kg/m3. Conf.L. M. A.502. 245. Proc. Europ. Conf. n Pet. Prod. 19741. TI31 Rvall. Proc. Overview of phase behaviour in oil and gas production. The oil residence time should be 3 min and the oilgas interface should be half way in the separator volume. SPE 12986. Proc.W.A. R. Practice (1954). 1982). M. C. [12] Wray.
Innovative engineering makes Maureen development a reality. [18] Beggs.W.D. 2). D. J. 511.G. and Stubbs. Simulation: a new tool in production operations. 711. Pet. (Oct. [23] Brown. 1271 Wachel. Conf. 607. EUR 330. G. EUR 190. J. Efficient operations in a mature oil and gas producing area. and Westby. T. . Europ. Vol. H. T. 1). Proc. EUR 231. 1982). 20 (1983). R. Conf. EUR 153. Conf. 1980). and Dukler. Phase behaviour and dense phase design concepts for application to the supercritical fluid pipeline system. Conf. R. G . [39] Mukierjee. 1980).A. and Roberts. M. 429 (Vol.W. Penwell Books. SPE 7797. 15.H. (March 1985) 69. [31] Nichols. 1980). Modelling flow pattern transitions for steady upward gasliquid flow in vertical tubes.A.. 1972). piperYfikld: Surface facilities operating performance and problems experienced. Europ. (Oct. Pet. Conf. Europ. [28] ~ a y l o r . Gregory. L A L A . (Oct. Pet. Can. .E. Petroleum Publishing Corp. 185 b . K. [30] ~on'es.. [20] Taitel. Int. 2). Europ. J.. 263 (Vol.W. (Oct. Symp. Inst. Europ. EUR 189. 1979). EUR 208. Min. Pet. (Oct. 1984) 73. (Oct. R.E. W. [25] DeMoss. T. 1). Europ. Separation of oil from water. J. Tulsa (1980). Gas Lift Theory and Practice. K. Proc. The Technology ofArtificia1 Lijt Methods. Proc. Design calculations for three phase flow behaviour in wells and flowlines and some problems in their application to .M. ~ .A. Conf. A. EUR 358.M. Conf. K.Planeix. 2). Conf. EUR 205. Europ.. K. Proc. K. E. Oil and Gas Cons. and Fogarasi. (1973). J. A study of two phase flow in inclined pipes. (Oct.M. D. Y. Proc. 1003. Tech. Conf. 2). 1978). Proc.C. (Oct.. J. and Brill. (Oct. 159 (Vol. 17 (Vol.P. JPT (May 1983).: ~ u y s s eA. 1. R. Proc. Pet. Conf. EUR 228. 73.Sept. Pet. M. Europ. Europ.E. K. 1982). and Nimitz. Conf. R. Artificial lift by electric submersible pumps in Forties. K.. Pet. [21] Brown.E. Monogr. andTiemann. 38. EUR 213.W. North Sea offshore compression . Water cl. London (1978). 1980). J. Conf. Porter. h 1331 McLeod. JPT (May 1973). r291 . Some rockmechanical aspects of oil and gas well completions. P. 345. P. EUR 278. 505. Pet. Prediction and control of natural gas hydrates. 1980). H. G.E. J. Tulsa (Feb.D. and Bristow. W. [19] Aziz. (1978). Production Operations (Vols 1and 2). Conf. Pet. Europ.R. [26] ROSS. Sp. Pet.. Europ. Conf. 449 (Vol. and Stewart. W. Pet. 1982). [36] Arnold. 43 (Vol.M. Liquid holdup correlations for inclined two phase flow. Can. 301. J.K. AIChEJ (May 1980).E. Pet. Conf. ' ~ . 437 (Vol. t 1321 kitEhiil. [17] Thambynayagam. M. Europ. Bornea. [37] Arnold. Prod. Proc. (Oct. [35] Aziz. EUR 38. 276. (Oct. Spencer.P. EUR 33. Eickmeier. and Brill. Met. Designing oil and gas producing systems. Proc.W. Pet. and Stephen. Europ. 1984) 87. (Oct.. 1983). (Oct.H. and Macduff. 1).ality aspects of ~ o r t Sea injection water. [I51 Hankinson. r241 Wottne. [34] Allen.E. D . Fogarasi. 1980). Vol. Proc. Proc. 559 (Val.Assuring the reliability of offshore gas compression systems. Modelling the Brents System production facilities. Europ. Pressure drop in wells producing oil and gas. EUR 331. 1). A. and Schmidt. K. J. [16] Simmons. T. (July . and Gradient Curves for Well Analysis and Design. Govier. L A (Vol. Europ. World 011. Design concepts for offshore produced water treating and disposal systems. 45 (Vol. 1980). (Nov.= the North Sea. 2).13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTION OPERATIONS 231 [I41 van Staa. Pet. R. 1). 1980). 1980). Pet.O. Proc.future needs. Proc. (Dec. Proc. r221 Nisbet. Proc. The characteristics of shuttle and buffer tankers for offshore fields. and Finch. Gas lift increases high volume production from Claymore field. (Oct.R. Pet. [38] Geertsma. Proc. 1982).M.C. JPT (Feb. EUR 116.D.
1983.W. OGCI (1984). S. 23. l 1421 Ashkuri. A. and Hayes. 1985). M. 1461 ElHattab.D. [48] Eissler.232 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [40] Goland. J. JPT (Oct 1985) 1751. V. [49] Giles. J. E. Occurrence and Recovery. M.C. Offshore production operations.I. Scale deposition in surface and subsurface production equipment in the Gulf of Suez. 1985). R.C.F.J. 1640. T. [47] Beggs. Production Engineering (1986) IHRDC. I411 Cox. Petroleum Review (Nov. K. Arun Field high pressure gas reinjection facilities. Gas Production Operations. A. 14. M. Nodal systems analysis of oil and gas wells. and Lea. Measurement of multiphase flows in crude oil production systems.J. [44] Jamieson. Butterworth (Ann Arbor Science Books). L > L J . Boston. 1985). JPT (April 1985) 583. Multiphase measurement problems and techniques for crude oil production systems. JPT (Sept. Petroleum Review (Nov. and Hill. [43] Baker. 1985) 18.L. JPT (April 1985) 701.E. Multiphase flow measurements at production platforms. R. et al. Petroleum Review (Nov. ~ a t i r aGas Hydrates: Properties. and McKee.E. [45] Brown.R. .
Depending on the definition of the problem and the availability of data. or complex (multidimensional. The application of reservoir models in field development and resource management is illustrated in the rest of the chapter. residual saturations and other parameters which may define boundary conditions and perhaps allow scaling to reservoir [ 6 . Mathematical models may be simple (tank models. multiphase. 7 . linear or radial onedimensional (1D) displacement). A n interactive analysis of geological models results from testing their predictions against new well data using fluid flow and vertical pressure gradients. Multidimensional. Mathematical models are designed to describe reservoir volumetrics and flow behaviour using the Darcy relationship and conservation of mass. the choice of approach lies with the petroleum engineer [I5]. In this sense it may be physical.Chapter 14 Concepts in Reservoir Modelling and Application to Development Planning In this chapter the principles of . 32 38. 891. The main types of conceptual models involved in reservoir modelling concern geological models [I2 26. L3O5 (1) The ability of the equations to represent . the former of which is more likely to be satisfied. In a predictive sense a geological conceptual model is used to guide the values attributed to reservoir properties away from direct well control. The numerical solution of these reservoir equations using high speed computers is known as reservoir simulation modelling. and emphasis is placed on reservoir description and displacement mechanisms. The su>cess of a numerical model depends on two particular conditions. cores and core plugs.1 MODELS In petroleum reservoir development a broad definition of modelling is adopted in which a model is any device by which a predictive understanding of reservoir performance andlor description can be obtained. 9 . together with empirical parametric relationships. 14. The objective in using physical models is to define physical behaviour. multiphase reservoir analysis requires definition of a reservoir in discrete regions with given properties and rules of flow.gg$&jgg using reservoir simulators are presented. 1 0 111 Conceptual models provide a basis for exploration of physical processes and are used to guide quantitative estimation. conceptual or mathematical. 14. 66 67 '. flow patterns. multicomponent) flow models. Revised geological models develop from consideration of reservoir performance data as well as from new geological evidence alone [I7]. which can be solved approximately 31 44 46 471 or finite element using finite difference mathematics [8q. Depositional and diagenetic history of sediments are presented to account for present day observations of facies character and petrophysical property distribution. The definition of such regions may be cells or nodes (Fig. 60. Physical models include sand packs. Hele Shaw models and micromodels.1) and leads to the formulation of relationships between saturation and pressure as nonlinear differential equations.
(2) the ability of cell or node properties to represent the true threedimensional (3D) reservoir description. The limit equation thus becomes 14.L.C. A n extension to three dimensions simply The equations presented here show that at any point in space there are at least six unknowns. In order to provide a . D. 14... So. S. The values of cell porosity and directional permeability are defined at the cell centre (Fig. Mass rate in .2 EQUATIONS OF MULTIPHASE FLOW These will be illustrated in a linear system for simplicity. For a conservation term in stock tank units (broadly equivalent to mass. 14. 14.I.. namely Po. 14.of flow and equilibrium in the reservoirlwell system. and identical if the API gravity is constant).mass rate out = mass rate of accumulation 4 Fig. P... P .1 Methodology. physics..I/. For the oil phase we have which in the limit becomes FWL \L For the water phase we have a similar equation: Fig.I1 I I I i J I /. we can write for the cell illustrated in Fig.3 I '\ I '. within a particular cell of dimensions D.2 Individual cell or grid block properties.3 Unit cell.C' l~.@ I .234 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE consists of adding terms in 2l2y and 3/22 and in accounting for gravity effects. 14. and midpoint depth E from a reference datum. 1.J. S.T Reservoir split into blocks Write equations for flow in and out of each block Mass rate in Fig.2). For the gas phase the equation must include both free gas and gas from solution in the oil (we could at this stage ignore gas dissolved in water). D.
grid arrangement and solution approach. 14. Selection is based on the nature and definitions of the task.3 SIMULATOR CLASSIFICATIONS General classification of reservoir simulators is by dimensionality. meaning IMplicit in Pressure. relative permeability.4 Flow into celli from neighbours in different geometries.Po PC. phases or components. 14.P. as at present any implicit treatment is excessive in computing time. The connection of well and operating constraints further serves to delineate different models. the selection process for a particular task falls to the reservoir engineer. 14. 14. For models involving large numbers of cells. availability and the economic value of the resultI''[ Analytical analyses of a simplified representation of the reservoir and its contents can provide an insight into proper selection of simulator tools and gives a basis for comparison of results. and the substance of the simulator is contained in subroutines. = 1 Pcg= Pg . Iteration procedures terminate when convergence criteria are satisfied. The effects of cell size and solution time step size are interlinked in the efficiency of solution algorithms. Tubing flow is usually considered explicitly in a time step. so+ s. Explicit in Saturation. as shown in Table 14.1 and in Fig. Algorithms for several iterative solutions have been published and treat pressure and saturation in all combinations from fully explicit (data knswn at start time level for the time step) to fully implicit (data known at end time level for the time step).~+ (q0)iI + (qo)i+~ A x + (qO)i+N. the direct solution method may involve excessive computer time. = Po . This should provide an indication of required cell sizes and time steps. One of the most important tests of reservoir simulation accuracy that can be made concerns numerical dispersion or the smearing of a saturation front across several cells.4 SIMULATOR APPLICATION As is clear from the number of simulator combinations available. For complex geometry systems there can be no analytical check on results . Examples of such sensitivity parameters may well be transmissibility [kAIL]. For discussion of these techniques the reader is directed to specialist texts The treatment of error in finite difference and finite element formulations is important in several applications. + s. phases or composition components. The solution of these equations may be approached by direct solution (Gaussian or matrix decomposition) or by a number of iterative algorithms. For the threedimensional system shown in Fig.+N.A ~ + (:q o ) z . Part of the smearing may result from the definition of an appropriate effective permeability solely at the boundary between two cells undergoing fluid exchange. Just about all the combinations suggested exist for finite difference simulators.5.14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING solution we therefore require three further linking equations defining saturation and capillary pressures of the oilwater and gasoil systems. Simulations are frequently conducted to provide information on the sensitivity of illdefined parameters in reservoir performance prediction.4 the rate of accumulation at cell is given by ( ~ o ) ~ . A particularly utilized method of arranging the differential equations in finite difference form results in a solution known as IMPES. 14. The problem is usually assessed by comparing the results of an analytical Buckley Leverett I[' frontal movement with that predicted by 1D.only comparison with gross simplified analytical estimates and reasonableness. the data . 14. 2phase (2P) simulation. The main program directs the calculation and reporting procedures. Finite element methods which should be superior in frontal saturation tracking are not common in a 3Dl3phase mode.6. The use of the effective permeability in the upstream cell only during a time step is widespread. irreducible saturations and . The arrangement of a simulator tends to be as shown in Fig. itNxtNy Fig. + (qo)i+N.
I away ond l w ~ c oh s l s i for slmuiator lterot~ve~lut~ons cho~ce1 2etc I Can b Logarithmic c e l l r a d ~ i from w e l l b o r e Output processor Organlsatlon of output record data from solut~on ~nterms well and of gathering centres Tmnsfer tosdlt fils for furthur analysis of eoch tome defined output recwd Edlt flle recad I Fleld data compar~son for hlstory mdch 360' Fig.llme on/offond bosls for ~ t coiculollon of rate Any s constra~nts terms of lhmltlng rates. In pressures. .direct soln .inert gas process . Fig. gas cuts etc from ~nd~viduol weilsor gathering dI ~ / ~ e l l Tublng flow ond pressure drop methods 3D: full 3dkmens~ong e o m e t r M a ~ programme n Solut~on o u t ~ n e r 0 1 motrlx doto for solvlnq 1 molerlal bolonceond flow eq~atlons incorporated lnto the non llnear dlfferentlol form Selects solver subroutine fromcha~ceselected . single cell m 1 Input processor/HCIIP Cefln~tlon dlmenslons and of spat~al positions of cells or with nodes and ossoc~at~on petrophysicol propertles and across bedding planes (vertical) 1 II along bedding planes (horizontal) of fluid d\strtbut~on hydro and carbon and water ~nplace 11 1 propert~es L H I ~ areal ~ .section f~ne l cross ~ ~ ~ ~ the reservotr~ I" ~ ~ ~ termsof locatlon. .. water cuts.6 Arrangement of simulator routines.miscible process . .gas condensate Zero: Material balance. . 14. ~ coarse or mesh R a d ~ a lg e o m e t r y . .implicit .explicit Conformal mapping 0D (material balance) 1D linear 1D vertical 2D crosssection 2D areal 3D sector 3D full field 3P bowg N component N pseudocomponents N compchemicalflood thermal process .5 Simulator types.volatile oil . 14.236 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 14..1 Classification of simulators Dimensions Phases/ composition 1P IP 2P 2P gas water black oilw black oilg Grid/node arrangement Cartesian (regular) Cartesian (irregular) Radial (vertical wells) Radial (horizontal wells) Nodal Options for solution Finite element Finite difference .IMPES Semi implicit .
reservoir zones/ poros~ty *Permeability dlstribution *Capillary pressure character~st~cs *Relative permeability characteristics [FLOW CHARACTERISTICS~ *Fluid properties *Rock compressibility Aqulfer size *Pressure dlstribution + IRESERVOIR ENERGY] Well locat~ons Production / lnjection constraints t 1 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE^ Fig. The reasons why reservoir simulation is so attractive are fairly obvious: since a real reservoir can be produced only once. Petrophysical Bulk Relative volume(rn3) volume 5 HETEROGENEOUS W e test 14x106 1014 Reservoir model g r i d 0 . a series of case studies using a simulator can e x ~ l o r euncertainties in data and resource management options. At such time a history match between reservoir model predicted performance and field observations can lead to improved confidence in future performance predictions. the single most important history match parameter is transmissibility. =Shape of reservoir . or condensatelvolatile oil reservoirs are modelled. None of these things necessarily provide a true answer. and to vertical restrictions to flow and which result from lithology and facies change in stratified units. The basis of a history match should include well rates for all fluids. as well as static and dynamic distributions of vertical and lateral pressure gradients.5 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION IN MODELLING Whether a complex or a simple reservoir model is being applied. 14.7.8 Relative scale of representation. . In addition. width t thickness distribution JGROSS ROCK VOLUME^ *Fluids and contacts .length. applied to faulted (but not sealing) reservoir intervals. The validation of a particular simulation in a reservoir cannot be approached until the reservoir has produced for some time (usually several years).14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING aquifer character. preferred well locations and completion intervals can be studied. Thermal processes and chemical flood matches require even more history match to provide confidence in performance predictions. 2 x106 1012 5m 7m g I Wireline log interval Core plug Geologicalthinsection 3 5x10~ 1 XIO~ lo8 200 1 Fig.Saturat~on distribution Non. only a comparison with some base case set of assumptions. The validity of the initialization reservoir model is largely dependent on the geological model and the flow performance is linked to reservoir and production engineering description. 14. In black oil modelling of North Sea reservoirs. 14. a number of steps in analysis and data requirements are common. + 14. then compositional matches with produced fluids are also needed. When miscible or partly miscible processes are being modelled.7 Steps needed to build a reservoir model. and are illustrated in Fig. The RFT pressure response of a new well in a producing field provides useful history match data.
9 Examples of sandbody continuity. and shale bodies (after il2'). (a)Rotliegendes/Zechstein (North Sea. 14. (c) conceptual arrangement of sands and shale in Cormorant reservoir (Ness unit) North Sea.238 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Top Zechstein N (b) Shales GR log Well location Sands I Isolated shale plug / Continuous shale I 1 Shale tongue Continuous shale Local shale lens Basal marker shale (b) lateral extent of sand Fig. .
Core data provides the single most important data base and. The recognition of sandbody type. a palaeogeographical reconstruction of the reservoir may be obtained. is of paramount importance in the development of conceptual geological models and in using them effectively in reservoir simulation. Since the vertical record of sediments in a well is related to the lateral processes of sediarentation occurring over a wide area at one time.k r A T. cores and log data. such reconstructions may be made . Deltaic models provide a good example of the influence of conceptual models in reservoir simulation. Continuity is usually represented between cells by modification of transmissibility in any dimension or direction (Fig. The simplest subdivision of gross deltaic environments is into delta top or delta plain. The extrapolation and correlation of reservoir sands can be severely interrupted by localized faulting subsequent to deposition. 14. The particular specialities needed by geologists working with engineers on the generation of the geological framework for reservoir simulation studies are in the fields of sedimentology and palynofacies.5. These may then be subdivided as shown in Fig.11.direction transmissibility) = ( L 1+ L 2 ) Fig. which can also show characteristic facies Flow f'\ I I 2 k H .841. This involves recognition of lithology and facies types. development geologists are finding improvements in their geological models result by incorporating pressure analysis data. In deltaic reservoir models.14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING analysis falls between the two since zonation and grid size scale effects must be rationalized and proper attention paid to porefilling minerals. active systems leads to an expectation of particular geometries in particular sedimentary forms. correlation between well control and matching with seismic profiles. Increasingly. and delta front. 14. through analysis. 14.9. 14. 14. using core data particularly.5. tically according to the depositional environment of individual sandbodies.2 Reservoir geometry and continuity The typical continuity of reservoir sands and shales is shown in Fig.this adopts the principles defined in Walther's law of facies [83. from geological hypotheses required to make correlations and from analysis of the pressure versus time behaviour of well tests. 14. Recognition of appropriate continuity models will allow significant control over recovery of hydrocarbons from reservoirs and influences the type of development scheme employed.8). The geological model(s) provide the main basis for predicting reservoir description away from direct well control and some discussion of their development and uncertainty is appropriate. rock type and saturation representation (Fig. The association by analogy of sedimentary processes in ancient systems with observations in modern. ( = x . Both these specialities are directed towards an understanding of the sedimentary processes by which a reservoir has formed and the subsequent diagenetic modification of pore space. continuity can vary drama Fig. which can place reservoir and nonreservoir units against each other. and some detailed petrophysical interpretation.10).11 Subdivision of the gross deltaic environment (after 1 . and will be used here. Higher delta plain distributary channels Lower delta plain ~nterdistributary lakes marshes and swamps Continuous shoreline sand 1 14. 14.1 Integration of geological and engineering data The development of a valid geological model is of necessity an interactive process. The particular information available for generating such models tends to be cuttings. The identification of faults may be apparent from geophysical surveys.10 Transmissibility in cell models. The aim is to define vertical and lateral distribution of reservoir and nonreservoir rock in the field (and perhaps in any associated aquifer).
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 14. crevasses splays) include much silt and clay. Zero thickness Fig. The sedimentary structures can be used to deduce the current as follows: (a) Plane bed without movement (b) Small ripples (c) Megaripples or dunes (d) Plane bed with sediment movement . In fluvial reservoir environments there is a characteristic sequence of sedimentary structures related to increasing current strength. .13 Delta top crosssection. plant remains. several tens of feet thick. INCREASING CURRENT DECREASING CURRENT Fig. miles.4 illustrate reservoir geometry and quality expectations from conceptual models.3 and 14. Dimensions Small areal extent: individual sands rarely more than few sq. Linear extent along channel for tens of miles.2. . There are complete gradations between the different divisions. coal. laminated. ~eservz potential Poor Natural levee Sand. . and at the upstream end the delta plain passes into a river valley flood plain. using deltaic systems as an example. few feet to tens of feet thick. silt. Very poor Marshiswamp Silt. Disturbed bedding. Overbank sediments (top of point bars. Few feet thick. . Tables 14. . current rippled. may show fining upward sequence. f4.. clay plant debris. . 14.2 Delta top characteristics  Character Crevasse splay Sandsilty sand interbeds. medium to fine grained sand coarsens downward with increased scale cross bedding. wood. May be a mile or more wide. levees. None Channel fill Fair to excellent depending on size Point bar Well sorted. Depends on size of the distributary. Slumps and contorted bedding. Sand is deposited in the lower partsof river channels. May be several square miles (time markers). Most extensive fluvial deposits occupy large areas in lower reaches of rivers and gradually grade into the upper deltaic plain. . Trough cross bedding. Thickness from few inches to tens of feet. 14.12 Crevasse splay. Few feet to hundreds of feet thick. Multiple point bars extend many miles. clay. (e) Antidunes Max~mum . Excellent associations for each subdivision. . Hundreds of feet to tens of miles along length.
. Excellent .. 14. Meandering channel Point Typically downstream part of flood plain... 1060' thick. up to 10 miles long. 3100' thick.. 1002000' wide. Fair to excellent depending on size Coalesced channels .3 Fluvial environments of flood plain and delta top Single channels Appearance Dimensions Reservoir potential Braided channel ~ bar h a d e3ry26" n n e e A  & _ + " Typically upstream part of flood plain. thickness up to 501... Vertical stacking (Map: belt) (Map: continuous sheet) Isolated stacking (Map: discontinuous sheet) .14 Delta progradation.width mile to 8 miles.......... . ....... multiple sands of meander belt may extend for many miles... Reservoir quality depends on size and stacking pattern. ....1 4 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING Sea level Fig... . length may be hundreds of miles. Excellent Sediment bar Straight channel += A Typically deltaic distributaries. . TABLE 14...
Thickness from few inches to tens of feet. Interdistributary bay Barrier beach Silt and shale with sand lenses and laminae. tens to hundreds of miles long.6 Grain size 0. Tens of feet thick. permeability and saturation. often burrowed. The resultant models often contain an expectation of vertical and lateral zonation of reservoir properties.17 the reservoir character of channel and bar sands are contrasted.16 for a deltaic system["]. Tens to hundreds of feet thick. Clean well sorted sand at top grading into silty sand at base. Figure 14.15 depicts graphically various bedforms and their relationship to grain size and stream power. Interaction with the geological observations based on Xray analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies often helps explain a basis for diagenetic change in pore character. a few grains start rolling and may produce horizontal laminations if sufficient sediment is available and the process continues for a certain length of time.0 Antidunes Upper regime (rapid flow) > 1. Plane bed L " 3 Lower regime (tranquil flow) 0 0.8 1. Few miles wide. sediment movement starts in a noncohesive bed. Tens of feet thick.4 0. The detailed shapes are based on energy for sorting sediments and result from consideration of depositional flow regimes.15 Bedforms in relation to grain size and stream power (after [8'.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 14. In Fig. 14. which can be applied as a function of .2 0. Possibly cut by tidal channels and forming associated ebbtide deltas. Well sorted sand Very poor Excellent Shore face Smooth seaward and irregular landward margins. May be hundreds of square miles. Length up to 15 miles in cases of progradational growth. Reservoir potential Good Distributary mouth bar Well sorted sand grading downwards and outwards into finer grained sediment. The validity of poroperm data from core analysis and porosity from log analysis depends very much on recognition of the effects of clay minerals in the pore space and lithological variations from the bulk reservoir properties. Sheetlike cover of area of delta lobe. Such a model is shown in Fig. parallel laminations and local lowangle cross beds. At low energy conditions. Possible direction in tidal channel permeability. Fair to good Basal marine sand Continuous marker shale association I None > " 4. 14.0. In this exercise the proposed geological zonation must be compared with petrophysical zonation based largely on porosity and permeability (poroperm).821). which are then related to quantitative estimates of porosity. Observation and correlation from wells can then lead to an expected.0 mm Fig. tidal range and current directions. May be smaller in shallower water. may prograde and so greatly increase width. consistent model to explain reservoir distribution at a given time or horizon.4 Delta front characteristics Character Dimensions Typically up to 80' thick and 2 miles wide. Under the influence of flowing water. Miles in length and width. 14.
I DELTA P L A I N Fig. 14.16 Palaeogeographic representation of complex environments (after .
hN).any extension to include areal geometry leads to greater complexity in effective transmissibility representation. A coarse grid model of this region (Fig. P CAPILLARITY Permeability S . 14. The upper diagram represents a sandy sequence containing a laterally discontinuous shale and a continuous thin micaceous stratum. For reasons of cost and computing time.1 10 50 * . 14. This model has the same fluid content and pore volume as the geological model and is used to study the sensitivity to reservoir description of dynamic saturation distributions. A fine grid model recognizes the boundaries between sand units which might control crossflow (Fig. The model again contains the same total fluid and pore volume as the geological model.18 (b)). but the boundary between sands 2 and 3 is retained. The sands are distinguishable from each other by sedimentary facies description but do not have dramatically different permeability contrast in the bedding plane direction. One of the most difficult stages in constructing a reservoir model is compromising scales of observation of geological and petrophysical properties with the scale of model grid cells (Fig. It should be expected that zones exhibiting diagenetic damage will have different irreducible saturations or relative permeabilities from other zones.1 10 7000 ' Lowest Lowest Best Highest Highest I Highest Large I 1 Best Deltaic sit 1 Feet bar d e ~ o1000s 0.a Grain size depth. The micaceous zone is removed from the pore volume of the model but its effect retained as a multiplication factor on the harmonic average vertical permeability calculated between sands 34 and 5. Lowest Highest Gamma ray Permeability 0. . .18 (c)) can be developed to reduce computer time in field performance prediction studies. PORE SPACE Porosity Pore size Lowest Very fine Highest Large PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Deltaic channel CONTINUITY Feet Deteriorates U '".Figure 14.8). A similar vertical transmissibility multiplyer approach is used between sands 1 and 2 to account for the shale wedge . Reservoir zones should represent regions of differing flow properties. The averaging of poroperm saturation data in volumetric calculation is of less significance thansthe representation of flow properties by pseudofunctions in stratified reservoir intervals for dynamic reservoir performance calculations. primarily dependent on net effective permeability thickness (k.. position or saturation in a reservoir model.18 indicates a progression in reservoir description within a region of a crosssection model . The boundary between sands 3 and 4 has been removed because permeability thickness contrast was less than a few times. 14. Fig. Pseudorelative permeability and capillary pressure functions of pore volume weighted . the minimization of the number of grid cells used to define a reservoir is often required. A reservoir simulation model must recognize the role of vertical communication between the sands in controlling saturation distribution and frontal movement under dynamic displacement conditions.a factor of zero indicates that the shale is sealing and unity indicates that crossflow is controlled by sandsand contact.244 TYPE Top TEXTURE Grain size Sorting Finest Best I I CHANNELS Bottom Coarsest Poorest Top 1 Coarsest Best . 14.17 Reservoir characteristics of channel and bar sands (after 1 9 7.
(c) coarse grid model. In the areal model. together with application of directional relative permeabilities and the representation of the flow of fluids across faults and partially displaced layers. 14. al models there is no concept of saturation pressure together with geophysicists as necessary. Increasingly the history match procedure well productivity index in reservoir models requires involves multidisciplinary teams of reservoir enmodification from analytical forms since in numeric. about 1%.gineers. net:gross variation and permeability. In an individual stratum.e'.19 Contrast in pressure representation in analytical and simulator calculations. (3) Coarse g r ~ d model saturation dlstr~but~on t ~ m e In The problems of crossflow and inflow to wellbores from stratified systems. The process is not. The minimization of uncertainty in reservoir simulation is time dependent and occurs as more reservoir average saturation. Brent fluids across intercell boundaries. A equidimensional (D. however. Figure 4.14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING (1) Geological representation I 245 75 Sand (2) Fine grid model I sand 4  I I . As has been shown by Archer [I7]. Well functions may also be tions are required that are reasonable and can be used to represent partial penetration and local radial defended on both geological and engineering flow coning character [331. petrophysicists and development geologists. reservoir mapping and (AX~.~ Fig. thickness. The characterization of a grounds. infor cells of different sizes a good approximation over volves use of conceptual models. 14. (a) Geological representation.20 gradient within a grid cell. Subsequent work has shown that porosity. well control exists in 7 cells of the total 760. where r. has been discussed in the context of reservoir simulation by Smith [j6'. The history matching demonstrate the same displacement behaviour. constant. Peaceman [351 has reservoir used in early development planning and shown that a semisteady state productivity index in controlled with data from seven exploration wells.3 Uncertainty in reservoir model description . (b) fine grid model. of a Middle Jurassic.5.Cell boundary Fig.) grid cells can be represented threedimensional model on this grid base would as follows: contain some 11400 cells. the validity of a range of values can be obtained from Ax = which emerge during reservoir production. h The conceptual model of the field provides the basis for inferring the properties of the other 99%. Potential gradients exist shows a crosssection and areal grid representation as step changes between cells and serve to move in the Statfjord field. generated from results of the simulation performance prediction is confirmed by fine grid model.18 Zonation in crosssection modelling. unique since several varimethod of Kyte and Berry [341 is most frequently ables could be modified to obtain a match. k . the mapping of reservoir characteristics. Modificaadopted for this purpose. = r. such as areal extent. are used in the coarse grid model to historical field measurement. 14.AX~)O.
crosssection interpretation can be varied even with a given control data set (Figs 14. The greatest uncertainties in black oil reservoir modelling tend to be in appropriate zonation. (d) permeability map 3.246 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 24'002500  f 2600 .21 and 14.22).21 Alternative petrophysical mapping. interzone transmissibility and in saturation dependent relative permeability terms.2584. 14. the results of which may point to the need for key well . (b) permeability map 1. Development planning calls for flexibility in design so that early key wells can be used to help differentiate between model possibilities.20 Early simulation cells for the Statfjord field study (Brent Sand) (after [I6]).lrn 0 Oil /water n LO 5 27002800  5 10 I 0 I 1 225krn ibd Fig. (a) Well location. 14. Fig. (c) permeability map 2. These uncertainties can be explored in terms of their impact on proposed development by sensitivity studies.
23 Results from preliminary history match at given well. (c) channel sands parallel to fault. 14. which are not unique. net pay volume. (Could vary: vertical permeability.24. (a) Extensive marine sand. In gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs the greatest uncertainties in addition to those mentioned for black oils are in valid fluid properties as functions of pressure and temperature. Schemes for enhanced oil recovery which involve miscible processes and chemical processes often have great uncertainty attached to the modelling of physical mechanisms for displacement. In many of these processes there is significant numerical dispersion which makes displacement front tracking difficult and which may cause uncertainty in performance predictions.23 and 14. data. relative permeabilities.22 Alternative sand models giving different performance predictions. Sampling in these reservoirs at bottomhole conditions is generally unreliable and in these particular circumstances recombined surface samples may be preferred.) . horizontal permeability. This is particularly true when multicontact or partial miscible processes are considered and for adsorption and microemulsion formation in surfactant processes. (b) channel sand at right angles to fault. 00* A A A Field measurements Model predictions A ! \ Pressure + Fig. are shown in Figs 14. Examples. History matching measured periormance (pressure distribution and producing fluid ratios) with reservoir simulation is the only way to validate a model. The interpretation of viscosity at proposed reservoir development conditions becomes a particular uncertainty. In heavy oil reservoirs fluid sampling is also difficult and the reservoir fluid may not flow composition may sometimes then be obtained from extracting core. 14.14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING (a) Extens~vemarine sand Coarsening upwards ( b ) Channel sand at r ~ g h tangles to fault Fin~ngupwards (c) Channel sands parallel to fault Fig.
1 Application Sequence Perhaps the sequence of field development considerations follows these steps: (6) (1) Exploration drilling location chosen on basis of potential structure. Petrophysical data used to define porosity and saturation vertical and lateral distribution. It should in general be cheaper than any offshore project of comparable reserves. trap and migration path. Define hydrocarbon in place level for simulation models. Assume a peak production rate for oil of.OIMD) PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE (KV=O. For gas wells consider plateau rate as fraction of reserve per annum according to typical contracts. Represent stratified reservoir character in permeability contrast distributions.248 (KV=O. Preliminary economic analysis based on notional cost estimates and value of products. 14. Define basis for net pay and rationalize geological and petrophysical definitions in zonation. Select crosssections of the reservoir (along dip .05 X recoverable reserve per year until 60% of the recoverable reserve has been produced. Facility requirements should be designed for day rate offtakes where SDC is the seller's delivery capacity . (2) Appraisal wells to delineate structure and establish fluid contacts. Fluid samples for PVT properties. for instance. for notional 20year life of reservoirs containing more than 1 TCF. 10% of recoverable reserve per annum and a plateau duration such that at least 3 0 4 0 % of the recoverable reserve are recovered at peak rate. (5) 14. Development of preliminary geological model. saturation and field area (limits) in probability distributions for each zone.4 (3) (4) Observed Simulated t Days Fig. reservoir rocks. Analytical methods used to define stability of displacement. Onshore development should proceed stepwise and is often unconstrained by development well locations. Pressure regime and aquifer contribution assessed. mature source rocks.6. tested and indication of commercial productivity index PI. Core to define sedimentology and provide basis for reservoir (7) (8) (9) recovery mechanisms. Preliminary estimation of recovery factors for potential recovery processes. Complete petrophysical analysis on standardized basis. Develop transmissibility modification factor maps for all interlayers. i. and decline is based on 1020% per annum (depends strongly on heterogeneity). Define uncertainties and represent net thickness.24 History match of water cut development in EtiveIRannoch sand system by assumption of vertical permeability between sands (after 14. Well drilled . Run Monte Carlo type volumetric analyses.discovery. Estimate well requirements based on semisteady state completion PI. Well testsicore log data rationalization. Assessment of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. Develop more detail in geological model and consider mapping and correlation options. Check zonation using capillary pressure character and irreducible saturations. assume peak rate ACQ (annual contract quantity) is 0. Develop relative permeability data for zones and regions in the field. Represent PVT data regionally if appropriate.a seasonal factor having a maximum value about 1. I_n this part of the chapter we shall concentrate on offshore field development as uncertainty in reservoir characteristics is more significant.e.I MD) CS 0. Reservoir engineering data added for volumetric and dynamic analyses. porosity.6 APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR MODELS IN FIELD DEVELOPMENT The decision base for reservoir development is both technical and economic[1201.7.
14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING
249
axes) to ensure gravity effects on flow represented properly. Represent layer nature transmissibility and reservoir permeabilitji as sensitivity parameters. Examine vertical sweep efficiency in analytical and reservoir simulation calculations for different recovery mechanisms and well locations/completion intervals. Determine character of pseudofunctions for use in coarser grid models. Check in 1D mode. (10) Run radial simulation models to evaluate coning potential or to calculate well functions in terms of saturation in some defined region. (11) Run threedimensional sector models to study both areal and vertical sweep efficiency and sensitivity of options to reservoir description uncertainties. (12) Extend to coarser grid full reservoir model in three dimensions for the recovery mechanism selected. Study effect of u7ell locations, rates, completion and recompletion intervals and productionloperation constraints. Production profiles and facility implications used in economic analyses are evaluated.
FC26
Dec 1976
(13) Refine field plan and consider effects of tubing flow constraints, pumps and separators and pass results to project management with recommendations. Define preferred well development sequence and design early data collection program. Plan for model updates and history matching. Represent recoverable reserves as probabilistic distribution. The use of a number of early 4evelopment wells and a decline in field pressure may allow development of refined correlations, such as shown in Fig. 14.25.
14.6.2 Recent Field Studies
The petroleum engineering literature contains many examples of field studies using reservoir models (see reference list). A particularly constructive example I' is the Stiles and Bobeck ' [ account of the Fulmer predevelopment simulation study in Blocks 30116 and 30111b in the UKCS North Sea. The Fulmer
FC63
Sept 1979
FC22
July 1979
FC44
May 1976
1
Nov 1977
Dec 1976
Fig. 14.25 Reservoir zonation in the Forties reservoir showing use of geological and petrophysical correlation enhanced with RFT and production logging data. (After r1221.)
250
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
field is a stratified Upper Jurassic shallow marine sandstone in a faulted anticlinal structure, and contains 41" API undersaturated oil. The datum depth and pressure is 10 000 ft SS and 5700 psi. The reported value of oil in place is 824 X lo6 STB. The field is situated in the central sector of the North Sea about 170 miles from Aberdeen and water depths are some 275 ft. The development plan preferred for the reservoir employs flank water injection and temporary gas storage in the crestal region. Reservoir studies were therefore directed at both gas and water displacement of oil and coning potential.
Crosssection and single well studies were used in addition to full field studies. An early production system was evaluated and installed. This employed four production wells drilled through a subsea template prior to installation of the main platform. The template well provided early information on which to improve the geological and reservoir engineering models. Figure 14.26 shows the structure map with west and north crosssections indicated, and Fig. 14.27 shows the general geological crosssection. Figure 14.28 shows the grid pattern for a gas coning model. Fig. 14.29 shows the north flank crosssection model and Fig. 14.30 the west flank
N
'IIItR
C
Wellhead jackel
1
2
3
8
5
6
1
~
9
~
Fig. 14.26 Fulmar structure map showing crosssection locations. (After [551.)
SW
WATER INdECTlON 1N RINGS I 0 b l i
Fig. 14.28 Fulmar gas coning radial model description.
NE
301167
7
FT4
a
12000L
Fig. 14.27 Fulmar geological crosssection. (After r551.)
14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING
Gas
injector
OWC
1000
2000
Distancefeet
3000
4000
Fig. 14.29 Fulmar north flank reservoir crosssection model. (After [551.)
GAS 6ACK.W GAS
INJECTOR INJECTOR
12,000
I
I
I
1000
2000
DISTANCE
3000
4000
I 5000

FEET
Fig. 14.30 Gas migration path predicted in west flank crosssection model. (After[551.)
The simulation and reservoir engineering study recognised that gravity forces would play an important role at planned reservoir withdrawal rates and that gas override and water underrun might be reduced. The apparent lack of restriction to vertical flow however gave concern about coning and resulted in recommendations about completion locations for wells. It also showed that long term gas
storage in the reservoir crest was not a good plan but that gas could be injected temporarily into the oil column where it should rapidly migrate upwards. The Petroleum Engineering literature contains numerous examples of reservoir simulation studies at all stages of field exploitation and the reader is referred to the reference list for further case studies.
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
References
[I] Craig, F.F. Reservoir Engineering Aspects of Waterflooding, SPE Monograph, Vol. 3 (1971). [2] Buckley, S.E. and Leverett, M.C. Mechanism of fluid displacements in sand, Trans. A I M E 146 (1942), 107. [3] Rapoport, L.A. and Leas, W.J. Properties of linear waterfloods, Trans. A I M E 189 (1953), 139. 141 Terwilliger, P.L. et al. An experimental and theoretical investigation of gravity drainage, Trans. A I M E 192 (1951). 285. 151 Levine, J.S. .. Displacement experiments in a consolidated porous system, Trans. A I M E 201 (1954), 55. [6] Johnson, E.F.,Bossler, D.P. and Naumann, V. 0 . Calculation of relative permeability from displacement experiments, Trans. A l M E 216 (1959), 370. [7] Croes, G.A. and Schwarz, N. Dimensionally scaled experiments and theories on the water drive process, Trans. A I M E 204 (1955), 35. [8] Engelberts, W.L. and Klinkenberg, L.J. Laboratory experiments on displacement of oil by water from rocks of granular materials, Proc. 3rd World Pet. Cong. I1 (1951), 544. [9] van Meurs, P. The use of transport three dimensional models for studying the mechanisms of flow processes in oil reservoirs, Trans. A I M E 210 (1957), 295. [lo] Egbogah, E.O. and Dawe, R.A. Microvisual studies of size distribution of oil droplets in porous media, Bull. Can. Pet. Geol. 28 (June 1980), 200. [ l l ] Bonnet, J. and Lenormand, R. Constructing micromodels for the study of multiphase flow in porous media, Rev. d. IFP 42 (1977), 477. [12] Archer, J.S. and Hancock, N. J. An appreciation of Middle Jurassic Brent sand reservoir features by analogy with Yorkshire coast outcrops, EUR 197, Proc. Europ. Pet. Conf. (1980), 501, Vol. 1. [13] Archer, J.S. and Wilson, D.C. Reservoir simulation in the development of North Sea oil fields, The Chemical Engineer (July 1978), 565. 1141 Archer, J.S. and Hurst. A.H.  The role of clay mineralogy on reservoir description in petroleum engineering, Proc. Clay Mineralogy Conf., Cambridge (1985). [15] Archer, J.S., Keith, D.R. and Letkeman, J.P. Application of reservoir simulation models in the development of North Sea reservoirs, SPE 5285, Proc. Europ. Svmu. SPE (1975). [16] Archer, J.S. and Wong, S.W. Interpretation of laboratory waterflood data by use of a reservoir simulator, SPEJ (Dec. 1973), 343. [17] Archer, J.S. Reservoir definition and characterisation for analysis and simulation, Proc. 11th World Pet. Cong., London (1983), PD 6 (1). [18] Ha"vena, D . Interpretation, averaging and use of the basic geological engineering data, J. Can. Pet. Tech. 6 (1967), 236. [I91 Bishop, K.A., Breit, V.S., Oreen, D. W. and McElhiney, J.C. The application of sensitivity analysis to reservoir simulation, SPE 6102, Proc. 51stAnn. Fall Mtg. (1976). [20] Killough, J.E. Reservoir simulation with history dependent saturation functions, Trans. A I M E 261 (1976). 37. [21] Slater, G.E. and Durrer, E.J. Adjustment of reservoir simulation models to match field performance, Trans. A I M E 251 (1971), 295. [22] Thomas, L.K., Lumpkin, W.B. and Reheis, G.M. Reservoir simulation of variable bubble point problems, SPEJ (1976), 10. [23] Toronyi, R.M. and Ali, S.M.F. Determining interblock transmissibility in reservoir simulators, JPT (1974), 77. [24] Wilson, D.C., Tan, T.C. and Casinader, P.C. Control of numerical dispersion in compositional simulation, Proc. 1st Europ. Symp. EOR, Bournemouth (1981), 425. [25] Mrosovsky, I., Wong, J.Y. and Lampe, H .W. Construction of a large field simulator on a vector computer, JPT (Dec. 1980), 2253.
2
14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING
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14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING
255
,
!
I
:
I
1
1
I
i
[78] Pryor, W.A. and Fulton, K. Geometry of reservoir type sand bodies and comparison with ancient reservoir analogs, SPE 7045, Proc. Symp. on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa (April 1978), 81. [79] Ruzyla, K. and Friedman, G.M. Geological heterogeneities important to future enhanced recovery in carbonate reservoirs; SPEDOE 9802, Proc. 2nd Jt. Symp. EOR, Tulsa (April 1981), 403. [80] Fisher, W.L., Brown, L.F., Scott, A.J. and McGowen, J.H. Delta systems in the exploration for oil and gas, Bur. Econ. Geol. (1969), Univ. Tex. Austin. [81] Simons, D.B., Richardson, E.V. and Nordin, C.F. Sedimentary structures generated by flow in alluvial channels, In Primary Sedimeaary Structures and their Hydrodynamic Interpretation (Middleton, G.V., ed.), Soc. Econ. Pet. Min. Spr. Pub. 12 (1965), 34. [82] Allen, J.R.L. Current Ripples, their Relations to Patterns of Water and Sediment Motion, North Holland Pub. Co., Amsterdam (1968). [83] Reading, H.G. (ed.) Sedimentary Environments and Facies, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford (1978). [84] Reineck, H.E. and Singh, I.B. Depositional Sedimentary Environment, Springer Verlag, Berlin (1973). 1851 Chauvin, A.L. etal. Development planning for the Statfjord field using 3D and areal reservoir simulation, SPE 8384, Proc. Ann. Fall Mtg. (1979). [86] Utseth, R.H. and Macdonald, R.C. Numerical simulation of gas injection in oil reservoirs, SPE 10118, Proc. Ann. Fall Mtg. (1981). [87] Addington, D .V. An approach to gas coning correlations for a large grid cell reservoir simulation, JPT (Nov. 1981), 2267. [88] Darlow, B.L., Ewing, R.E. and Wheeler, M.F. Mixed finite element method for miscible displacement problems in porous media, SPEJ (Aug. 1984), 391. [89] Haldorsen, H.H. and Lake, L.W. A new approach to shale management in fieldscale models, SPEJ (Aug. 1984), 447. [90] Craig, F.F., Willcox, P.J., Ballard, J.R. and Nation, W.R. Optimised recovery through continuing interdisciplinary cooperation, JPT (July 1977), 755. [91] Le Blanc, R.J. Distribution and continuity of sandstone reservoirs, JPT (July 1977), Pt 1,776, Pt 2,793. [92] Jardine, D., Andrews, D.P., Wishart, J.W. and Young, J.W. Distribution and continuity of carbonate reservoirs, JPT (July 1977), 873. [93] Harris, D.G. The role of geology in reservoir simulation studies, JPT (May 1975), 625. [94] Groult, J., Reiss, L.H. and Montadort, L. Reservoir inhomogeneities deduced from outcrop observations and production logging, JPT (July 1966), 883. [95] Campbell, C.V. Reservoir geometry of a fluvial sheet sandstone, Bull. AAPG (1976), 1009. [96] Davies, D.K., Ethridge, F.G. and Berg, R.R. Recognition of barrier environments, Bull. AAPG (1971), 550. [97] Barwis, J.H. and Makurath, J.H. Recognition of ancient tidal inlet sequences, Sedimentology 25 (1978), 61. [98] Budding, M.C. and Inglin, H.F. A reservoir geological model of the Brent sands in Southern Cormorant, In Petroleum Geology of the Continental ShelfN. W . Europe (eds Illing and Hobson), Inst. Pet. (1981). 326. [99] Craig, F.F. Effect of reservoir description on performance predictions, JPT (Oct. 1970), 1239. [loo] Yusun, J., Dingzeng, L. and Changyan, L. Development of Daqing oil field by waterflooding, JPT (Feb. 1985), 269. [loll Simlote, V.N., Ebanks, W.J., Eslinger, E.V. and Harpole, K.J. Synergistic evaluation of a complex conglomerate reservoir for EOR, Barrancas Formation, Argentina, JPT (Feb. 1985), 269. [I021 Hutchinson, C.A., Dodge, C.F. and Polasek, T.L. Identification, classification and prediction of reservoir inhomogeneities affecting production operations, JPT (March 1961), 223. [I031 Treiber, L.E., Archer, D.L. and Owens, W.W. Laboratory evaluation of the wettability of fifty oil producing reservoirs, SPEJ (Dec. 1972), 531.
[I141 ~ a l l e t t : ~ . L. Trondheim (December 1985). R. a n d ~ s a nP. P. R.H. Proc.J. W. SPE 10209. (1985). London (1978). 11091 Gretener. Can. [I051 Friend. Sea Res. 1870. North Sea. [I121 Bain.L.R. Sedimentology 21 (1974). Vertical and lateral building of river sandstone bodies. Proc.. Vol. (1980). The role of well logs in reservoir modelling. Can. Pet. (MayJune 1984). Application of the RFT in vertical and horizontal pulse testing in the Middle Jurassic Brent sands.M. Pet. Proc.. and Fowler. G. H.Sea. N.. Proc. Butler. Tech. ~ e o l o ~ y . and Williams. 1371.. [I161 McMichael. R. 11. SPE 9310. 275. Europ..M. T. 11. AAPG Pub. In Petroleum and the Continental Shelf of N. on Sedim. and Burgess. J. [I221 Carman.F. \ . J. Norway (May 1980). 55. JPT (Dec. L. Europ. [118] Dake. Conf.. Woodward). 1982). 55th Ann.A. EUR 89. Elsevior Applied Science. D. 38. London (1981).B. Reservoir geology of the Forties oilfield. M. Pet. [I081 Raymer. Europe (Ed. Europ.C. EUR 270. and Dimmock. K. N. Fall Mtg. Fall Mtg. and Young. A.A. Proc. and i c s 11101 Richardson. J. In Petroleum Geology of the Continental Shelf of N. Conf. Fall Mtg. Nor. ' ~ e o ~ h ~ sengineering: a case for synergism.T. W. [I131 Stewart.J. R.L. London (1981) 371. and Sanders. R. Soc. 243. Pet. Rocks. Pet. C. 9. Refinement of the geological model of the Thistle field. Eds. Nordberg. SPE (1981). EUR 98. Heyden. 11191 Coats. UK N. JPT (Oct.. Slater.M.W. C. Conf. A quarter century of progress in the application of reservoir engineering. K. Wittmann. [I151 Hancock. Well performance analysis: a synergetic approach to dynamic reservoir description. (1975). Vol. [ I l l ] Denison. Pet. I. ~. Use of reservoir simulation models in the development planning of the Statfjord field. In North Sea Oil and Gas Reservoirs. J.. Pet. L J L .E. 315. London (1978). J. In Petroleum Geology of the Continental Shelf of N. [I071 Delaney. 325. Cobb. 11981)). 11.P.G. J. J. Interpretation of log response in deltaic sediments. W. Geol. London (1978). M. Some aspects of reservoir description for reservoir modelling.. G. P. Computer reservoir continuity study at Judy Creek. [I061 Gilreath.S. 3D seismic applications in the interpretation of Dunlin field. Proc. Proc. London (1982). [I171 Hillier. Inti. Archer. and Stone. Europ. Viking gas field. R. Conf. [I211 Gray. London 136 (1979). Vol. J. Reservoir development planning for the Forties field. Graham & Trotman.. \ . 56th Ann. and Stephens. Inst.S. 55th Ann.J. Finding and Exploring Ancient Deltas in the Subsurface. Proc. . Europe. Proc. Geilo. Illing and Hobson). Inlet sequence: a vertical succession of sedimentary structures and textures created by the lateral migration of tidal inlets. (Jan.S. Palynological identification of facies in a deltaic environment. (Eds. SPE L .O. 39. G. J. and Lefevre. of N. Europe (eds Illing and Hobson).E. Conf. Pet. EUR 92. 491.Feb.L. M.P..A. Seminar. 1973). Simulation of gas condensate reservoir performance. London (1975) 241. Tech. and Kleppe. P. SPE 9342. and Hamilton.256 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [I041 Kumar.. Diagenetic modelling in the Middle Jurassic Brent sand of the N. London 1986.
1801.) Density lb mass per cubic foot * Reprinted from Journal of Petroleum Technology. subscripts and nomenclature are still MCF = thousands of cubic feet MMCF = millions of cubic feet in use and may be encountered. 1984.615 cubic ft Viscosity cubic metre = (35.) American mixed units to a large extent.Appendix I A SPE ~omenclature and Units* Standard letter symbols for reservoir engineering Gas volume and electric logging have been defined by the AIME cubic foot) measured at 1 atmosphere (Society of Petroleum Engineers).cubic metre) and 60°F standard terms. feet.miles. A n application of the SI metric system pounds force per square in (psi) is found in the Journal of Petroleum Engineerinng atmosphere (1985) in the issues for August (p. kilometres barrel well depths . g per cubic centimetre + . Temperature degrees Fahrenheit "F degrees Rankine O R = 460 "F UNITS degrees Kelvin K Volume Length acrefoot for large volumes pipelines . SPEAIME. No effective standardization or metrication of (The billion is the American billion = lo9. 22782323 by permission. and the industry uses the trillion is the American trillion = 1012. Some non. 1415) and October bar p.31) ft3 centipoise (Unless otherwise specified. units has yet occurred.feet or metres cubic ft cubic metre Diameters tubular diameters generally inches or centimetres Liquid volume feetimetres barrel = 5. 1984. an oil volume will be tank oil measured at 1 atmosphere and 60°F. kg mass per cubic metre pp. although some metric units mixed with American still may be Pressure encountered.
894757 1 x 10" 2.O 0.806650 x 10' 6.0 Recornnlendatiorl for rnetricatiorl and appropriate conver~ion Cactnrs for units are glven: Recommended units: conversions Quantity S I unit Industry unit mile metre foot inch sq.' 0.c.241933 x 1 0 .) per cubic metre tank oil Flow rate liquids . dynelsq. ft sq. in.198264~ 10' 1.' 9.4 Ibift') gases relative to air (0.2161 19 x 10.589873 x 10' 2. 0 l~ 2 o 9.' 9. s pm2 ~ m * Length m Area m2 Volume m3 Capacityilength Mass Temperature gradient Pressure m3/m kg Kim Pa Pressure gradient Density Volume rate Viscosity Permeability Palm kgim3 m3is Pa.258 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Specific gravity liquids relative to water (62.869233 x 1o .2271247 I 1o .s m2 Conversion factor .O 9. in. cm lbfisq. inch m3 acre foot barrel ft3 US gallon barrelslit it3/ft US gall.013250 x 1o2 1 .262059 x 10' 1. (industry .535924 x lo' 0.589873 x 10.~ .ift Ib mass short ton O~ / f t atmosphere bar kgfisq.601846 x lo' 1.~ . mile acre sq.0765 1b/ft3) AYI scale for tank oil Oil densities API gravity Gasuil ratio standard cubic feet of gas per stock t a l k barrel of oil cubic metrcs of gas (s.822689 1. bld US gall.046873 x 1o3 0.barrel per day (bid) cubic metre? per day (m'id) gases .qtandard cubic I t per day SCFid. ~ 3.O 1.9071847 1.589988 4.imin cP Darcy rnilliDarcy SPEpreferred unit km m m mm km2 km2 m2 mm2 m3 m3 r13 m3 m3 m3/m m3/m m3/m kg Mg Kim kPa kPa kPa kPa Pa kPa/m kg/m3 kgim3 m3/d m3/hr Pa. MCFid and MSCFDld. cm Ibfisq.233482 x 1o3 1./ft Ibm/ft3 Ibm/US gall.869233 x 10.4516 x 1o2 1.609344 1.831685 x 1 0 .0920304 6.~ 1.3048 25.preferred) 1. ~ 4.4 2.785412 x 1 5.02903404 x 1o . MMSCFD cubic lnctres per clay (mild) MSCFDid SG = specific gravity of water = 1.
and printed. time. since the . (2) C D. tion of additional standard symbols. in four different forms as follows: (2) Make available single and multiple subA . ~ S P~ S S P . B. . Symbols alphabetized by symbols. This flexibility in dimen. these Standards. traditional mathematical symbols such as log.pbh. Subscripts alphabetized by symbols. Symbols alphabetized by physical quantity. q). spontaneous potential For convenience in dimensional checking of equa(SP). . F. the International Organization for StandardizaThe 1984 Symbol Standards are a consolidation of tion (ISO) and the International Union of Pure the 1956 Standard and all later supplements. dimensionless or other). Subscripts alphabetized by physical quantity. tables or graphs are required in the SPE where further identifications may be needed. sions permits desirable shortening of the symbols avoiding symbols and subscripts for combinalist. Adopt the letter symbols of original or prior L. ISO. static SP (SSP). represents ratio (dimensions might be ~ ~ l m . (3) F (factor) when it or IUPAP (see A). phase. Principles of symbols selection Once the original reservoir Symbols Standard was established in 1956. present. Choose symbols that can be readily handwritten. Additional standard symbols etc. dimensions of each quantity in terms of mass. Where pertinent. temperature and electrical charge (m. for symbols and subscripts. This terminology perples C and D below. rules and guides for the writers of technical papers. minimizing conflicts Examples are symbols: (1) m for slope of a line (two with that Standard. Some and Applied Physics (IUPAP) in more than 20 of the crossgrouping and obsolete quantities have formal Standards adopted by them for letter been eliminated. Defining equations are given in a few cases rial.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS SPE SYMBOLS STANDARD Preface Objectives The primary objectives of the 1984 Symbols Standards are to combine prior standards and supplements into one publication so as to provide (1) consistency of usage and maximum ease of understanding of mathematical equations for the readers of technical papers. the pAnciples employed in the selection of additional symbols have been as follows: A . the existing SPE Standard. (1) Use single letters only for the main letter symbols. In The names or labels for the quantities are for and lim. For the Symbols Standards to have singleletter kernels. processes. minimize conflicts with m. hole pressure (BHP). length. mits maximum flexibility for quantities that may C.. have tions. and computer technology has necessitated the adop. typed. reciprocals. dimensionless or other). where not in conflict with princicolumn for several symbols. The term various also appears in this author usage. bottommeasurement is left to the user. special conditions.E . T. Multiple letters such as abbreviations are C. standardized by such authorities as ANSI. a column has been included giving the the following SPE Standard symbols: R. B. Limit the list principally to basic quantities. Additions resulted from requests from members and from editorial reviews of the numerous papers submitted to SPE for publication. scripts to the main letter symbols to the extent necessary for clarity. respectively. Adopt letter symbols consistent or parallel with require different dimensions in different problems. t. and (2) to codify symbols lists. which. adopt the symbols already for concentration (dimensions might be mi^^. The complete symbols list is given symbols employed in mathematical equations. This is the universal practice of the Structure of lists American National Standards Institute (ANSI). prohibited for use as the main symbol (kernel) for a quantity. the specification of units and conditions of Examples are: gasoil ratio (GOR). variables of any dimensions can be related). A few exceptions are some D . etc.G . original standards were published in 1956 following five years of intensive development. Use initial letters of materials. Thus quantities that are sometimes identification only and are not intended as definirepresented by abbreviations in textual matetions. tions. as being The extraordinary growth in all phases of petroleum suggestive and easily remembered.
One should not assign to a given symbol different meanings in such a manner as to make its interpretation in a given context anlbiguous. a writer should be careful in calling for separate symbols that in published form might be confuscd by the reader. point. a subscript may indicate: (I ) the place of a term in a sequence or matrix. the following guidcs were employed for the order of appearance o f the indiviclual letters in multiple subscripts in the syrnlx)ls list. an author may need synibols in addition to those already contained in standard lists. one should avoid attaching subscripts and superscripts to subscripts and superscripts. A conventional sign. Examples: K. One should try to keep at a minimum the cost of publishing symbols. B. Because of the many numerals. themselves standarclized. (2) No one work should use a great variety o f types and special characters. Multiple subscriptposition order. In the use of pirblishcd symbols. Subscripts and superscripts are widely used and for a variety of convcntional purposcs. Stundard.. (3) a unit.. Instead. the author should not introduce new syrnbols or depart from currently accepted notation. or (4) a tensor index. Except in brief reports. rnay be attached to in words and abbreviations. Easily ident@~d. 2. In such a case the author should be careful to select simple suggestive sylnbols that avoid conflict in the given field and in other closely related special fields.. the zero is easily mistaken for a capital 0. I11 particular: (1) Notations which call for handsetting of movable type should be rejected in favour o f forms adapted to inodcrn mechanical methods of composition. or a tensor index. should not be excessive. it should appear first in subscdpt order. For exalnplc. authors of technical works (including textbooks) are urged to adopt the symbols in this and other current standard lists and to conform to the principles stated here. part. Reference marks.  C. such as n~lnlbers distinctive type. a single nonconflicting letter to stand for such a complicated component. indicating the adopted unit rnay be attached to a letter syrnbol.260 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Principles of letter symbol standardization A. braces or brackets before an exponent is attached. Clear in reference. Secondary symbols. Conflicts must be avoided. A symbol with a superscript such as plime (') or second ("). The wide variety ancl complexity of suhject matter covered in the petroleum literature nlakc it impossible to avoid use of multiple subscripts with many syrnbols. a superscript may indicate: ( I ) the exponent for a power. To make such usage less confusing. Like~/isc. or else refer to a standard list as a source for symbols used but not explained. where possible. The intended sense must be clear i n each case. or systern of units. 2. in copy largely typewritten and to be reproduced in facsimile. When the sulxcript i for 'injection' or . (3) the constancy of one independent physical quantity among others on which a given quantity depends for its value.. For work in a specialized or developing field. Except in this situation.for example. (3) Handwriting of inserted symbols. The units should be indicated whenever necessary. Several subscripts or superscripts sometimes separated by colllnias may be attached to a single lettcr. or abbreviation. one may introduce locally. Often a listed alternative symbol or a modifying subscript is available and should he adopted. (2) a distinguishing label. Econonzicul in publicatiorz. When the subscript r for 'relative' is used. Use of the same rules is reconirnendcd when it becomes necessary t o establish a multiple subscript notation that has not ~ C C I Iincluded in this list. An explanatory definition should then appear in the immediate context. 1. shoi~ldbe e11closed in parentheses. any symbol not familiar to the reading public should have its meaning defined in the tcxt. many lettcrs in the Greek alphabet (lower case and capital) are practically indistinguishable from English letters. An author should give a table of the symbols used ancl their respective interpretations. as an exponent of a given basc. For example. 4. (2) a designated state. K. 01tirnc. Requirements for Pl~blished Quantity. or corres~mndingnu~ncral. So far as logical clarity permits. (4) Often :I complicated expressioll appears as a cornpo nelit part of a complex mathematical f o r n ~ ~ ~ l a for example. 3. Abbreviations. (4) a variable with respect to which the givcn quantity is a derivative. hut not to letter symbols. letters and signs that are similar in appearance. may appear among subscripts. Each published letter syrnbol should be: 1..
compressibility of injected gas. should be selfexplanatory. or script type. numerical subscripts should appear last in subscript order. Examples: qoD3. depleted. Only type faces with serifs are recommended. The symbol a is to be used in all other cases and is that preferred by ASA. are printed in italic (sloping) type. and letters or other alphabets used in mathematical expressions. p ~ 2reservoir pressure at time 2.). . 6. c. when applied to a symbol already subscripted. Except for Cases 1 and 2 above (and symbols Kh and L. Arabic numerals. u). B.or albc. or dimensional. Letter symbols for physical quantities. C2 for ethane. boldface type is to be preferred to German. while the few distinct letters used from other alphabets. it should appear first in subscript order (but after r for 'relative'). The symbol p is to be used in all other cases and is that preferred by ASA. letters that would be boldface in print may be indicated to be such by special underscoring. 3. the mobility ratio will be defined as the ratio of the displacing phase mobility to the displaced phase mobility. The product of two quantities is indicated by writing ab. They are derived by one of three procedures used in methods of similarity: integral. Cn for CnH2n+2. Examples: B. The letter C is retained for conductivity in well logging usage. phase. fl. Observe the following: 1.. individual component identification (i orQl other). ~ q .). When a special alphabet is required. formation volume factor of injected gas.. GLp. kinematic and dynamic similarity between two systems. The letter R is retained for electrical resistivity in well logging usage. differentiaI. from copy largely typewritten. Except for Cases 4 and 5 above. lower case and small capitals. initial or original oil formation volume factor.. the folloking subscripts should usually appear last in subscript order: regions such as bank. P s ~ .SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 'injected' or 'irreducible' is used. system subscripts should generally appear first in subscript order. E x c e ~ tfor Cases 4. initial or original gas formation volume factor. (qoD3)max 7. f. . Examples: p . 5. tion rate during time period 3. (iUl). and T = temperature. Abbreviated chemical formulas are used as subscripts for paraffin hydrocarbons: C1 for methane. 5 and 6 above.. parentheses must be inserted to remove any ambiguity. when appearing as lightface letters of the English alphabet. 3. Abbreviation subscripts (such as 'ext . 'lim'.. unburned (b. or in small capitals. are normally printed in vertical type. m = mass. b. C O for carbon monoxide. Thus: one may write (a/b)lc. Cg for propane .. Co2. alb or abI If more than one solidus is used in any algebraic term. 4. . subscript D for 'dimensionless' should usually appear last in subscript order. maximum air injection rate during time period 1. Examples: (. but not alblc. 6. initial or original total system formation volume factor. O2 for oxygen. Quantity symbols may be used in mathematical expressions in any way consistent with good mathematic51 usage. Dimensionless numbers are criteria for geometric. initial or original oxygen concentration. It is important to select a type face that has italic forms.Rsf. Complete chemical formulas are used as subscripts for other materials: C 0 2 for carbon dioxide. and clearly distinguished upper case.G. also F a . Examples of dimensionless numbers are Reynolds number (NRe) and Prandtl number (Np. Special notes. separation. 5. 7. composition and E. When the mobilities involved are on opposite sides of an interface. Except for Case 4 above. and other subscripts and superscripts.npf D. ~ . if carefully made. Remarks. density of solid particles making up exGFI.. d. q = electrical charge. perimental pack. Gothic.... Examples: Big. or the ratio of the upstream mobility to the downstream mobility. dimensionless oil produc. 2.s. swept. etc. Examples: EDb. Dimensions: L = length. i) enclosed in parentheses. B. The quotient may be indicated by writing a . lower case. burned. (Shr)mln. Typography. whether upper case. For a discussion of methods . In material to be reproduced in facsimile. front. 'max'... t = time. should appear last in subscript order and require that the basic symbol and its initial subscript(s) be first F. differential and flash (d. N2 for nitrogen. 'min').. 4.
B. the vital importance of these subscripts makes it necessary to establish a standard and require an author to define any deviations.or leftjustified to form a string of characters without blank positions. No binding rule is made for the notation of space and time subscripts. and therefore must be defined in the text or appendix as is appropriate. a shortened notation must be employed. 2. The computer subscript designation is placed irn~ncdiately to the right of the quantity symbol ficld with no intervening space. when ail are used in a single symbol. more characters may be used when necessary for designation of multiple mathematical lcttcr subscripts. additional subscripting occurs immediately to the right of thcsc defined notations. the combined notatiolis will not usually cxceed six characters. dilncnsionless average Ieservoir pressure would be denoted by PRSAVQ. For example. 1. The following sketch indicates the coordinate system used to denote special posi . indcxcs and exponents are being assigned computer symbols. (August. Tech. extrapolated or limiting valucs of a quantity are denoted respectively by AV. The third part of thc notation (clu~tntity symbol ficld) consisting of threc charactcrs. 8. 4. Though usually not rccluired. MN. 5. XDELC'MPPRD When any of the four parts are not uscd. In practice. the remaining characters are to be right. H appears in the first character positio~i. by R. When a heat quantity is dcnotetl. x. of LM in the first two subscript positions. Shortened symbols are no longer standard. MX. 1964) 877. Schilson. Pet. Principles of computer symbol standardization A. It is suggested that X be uscd for floating point variables and I for integers. This notation position should be used only if absolutely necessary. the order of subscripting should follow the rules given in the 'Multiple Subscripts . The computer symbols are structured tiom four possible parts rcprcscllting rcspectivcly arith~nctic mode. Example tencharacter notations are: XDELPRSTQQ. The part of the notation representing the Insic mathcmatical quantity (letter) symbol should be retained and the other parts of the notation shortcncd. and the computer language being used will not allow more than six.as exc~nplifiedby thermal conductivity HCN. XT. The first part of tllc notation consists of one position to define the arithmetic inode of the complete computer symbol. such as porosity exponent MXP. sincc the method of subscripting is oftcn dictated by the characteristics of a particular computer. However. the total length may he ten characters. Exponents are characterized by XP in the second and thild positions. The second part of the notation (operator field) consists of three characters and is ~ ~ s e d for mathematical operators. J. The notation should suggest the operation. exclusive of time and space designations. maximum. The quantity x can be modified to indicate an average or mean value by an overbar. Symbol Structure. mathematical operators. the preferred approach being the use of a declaration within the program. sce "Methods of Similarity". minimum. Thc three letter notation rn~lcn~onically denotes the quantity name as closely as possible. Indexes such as resistivity index are denoted by X in the third character position. In those cases where the complete colnpuier symhol does cxceecl six characters. Dimensionless numbers alc denoted by Q in thc last required subscript position. The system outlined below should be used when the subscripts are not implied by an array location or an index specified by the program logic. The fourth part of the notation (subscript field) is sect to represent the subscripts of the inatheinatical letter symbol and normally consists of one of the three character positions. Each of these parts has a dcfincd number of characters and. Fixed characters are utilized in this part of the notation when hcat quantities. 3. All three character positions must be employeci.Position Order'. basic cluantitics and subscripts. Average. is uscd to represent the basic inathematical quantity (letter) symbol. This part of the computer notation is thus of the naturc of ~un character abbreviation.262 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE of similarity and dinlensionless numbcrs. Other than in these cases. Computer symbol subscripts are nornlally designated by using thc mathematical letter subscripts of the SPE Syrnbols Standard.
these functions should be designated by the notations compatible with the computer system being employed. . 2. relational. The choice of units (Trans. Hence. The computer symbols must be constructed from the 26 English letters and 10 to position as viewed on maps as normally Arabic numerical characters. their usage should at the il/2 point would be referenced as be fully explained by comments in the program PRMIPlH(1 . . EliminaM2 present location minus 2 tion of a duplication may lead to a computer symbol that is at variance with the standard.. in most P2 present location plus 2 P3H present location plus 312 instances. i. K sequence would correspond D. they should be clearly defined If an array contains information correspondin the text or appendix. See below: sketch below. nonstandard. however. The rules for establishing Symbol Definition the computer symbols contained in this standard are such that quantities not covered can. No computer symbols to designate common or natural logarithms have been established. No computer symbols have been defined here for numerical quantities. functions. Nonstandard symbols. Named dimen tion in multidimensional arrays. Such additional computer symbols are. computer symbol must begin with a letter and K or J . .SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS measure. The computer symbols are always represented The space and time subscripts are conby vertical type in printed text. Use of the computer symbols is restricted to the description of programming for computers. the permeability When employed in programs.. Authors are urged to familiarize themselves with the SI System of units and use them as much as practical. Neither the complete computer symbol nor the mathematical letter symbol implies any specific units of . or logical operators. J. crosssections as normally used. page position of printed output obtained in a normal I. would be T . Some of these special cases are noted would be referenced as PRMIPlH(1). be given a notation that is compatible P1 present location plus 1 with it. The mathematical letter symbol in turn designates a physical quantity. Each complete used in petroleum engineering. indexed. English capital structed by placing a letter code (I. The notation used should be defined in the paper. Character set. K. Restriction to computer programs. P1H present location plus 112 by definition. 1. then the convention is to shift the plusdirection elements to the node being F.3. and that for the i+l/2 point text. J. I (I = 1. Similarly. NX) B. C.I). Special notes. As a consequence. Machine E. and arithmetic. Units. In the following example.e. Each complete computer symbol represents a mathematical letter symbol and its associated subscripts. indexed points. I. The computer symbol for dimensionless numbers in general (unnamed dimensionless numbers) is NUMQ. AIME 263 (1977) 1685) and their designation is. T) letters and Arabic numerals are used in hand or before the following symbols: typewritten material. and in ing to points halfway between the normally the program.2. the subscript for the present time t a notation that is nonstandard. and that for subscript t2 would be When nonstandard computer symbols occur in TM2. the computer symbols must not be used in works of portions of papers where programming is not discussed or as abbreviations in text or This convention was adopted so that the graphical material. a technical work. Rather. as is appropriate. M1H present location minus 112 Duplication of computer symbols for quantiMI present location minus 1 ties that can occur simultaneously in an equation present location minus 312 M3H or computer program must be avoided. K sequences would correspond to not a numeral. left to the author.
ynibol Subscript title CP Q QM 6 ext F lirn m rnux min  P EX XT FU LM FU MX MN PAV PRD RD TQ capillary dime~~sionless quantity dimensionless quantity at condilion m experiment cxtrapolated fuel limiting value fucl (mass ol) maximunl minimum Incan or average pressure pseudoreduced reduccd din~ensionless timc 3. Prandtl number could be designated as PRDQ. These changes are in accord with the Gencral Principles of Computer Symbol Standardization. They do not imply that changes in the form of the economics. subscripts or symbolsubscript combinations. per unit area) moles of vapour phase initial water in place in reservoir mole fraction of component in liq uicl phase molc fraction o f component in vapour phase mole fraction of component in mixturc MOLL NUMQ OlLTl VELV MOLV WTRTl MFRL MFRV MFRM 1. Permissible format changes. 3. Quantities represented by symbolsubscript combination in SPE Letter Symbol\ Standard but by a Conlputer Sy~nbol Notation only. See section G . designation in Computer Symbols Subscript List. Reynolds number is designated as REYQ. Symbolsubscript combinations of SPE Letter Symbols Standard represented by Computer SymbolSubscript Notation wherein subscript notations are not the same. Any dimensionless ilirmber not contained in this standard should be defined in the paper. Rather these changes are shown as a matter of record to prevent confusion and to prescnt examples of permissible format changes in the computcr symbols that may be followed when it bccomes iecessary to construct a computer notation not included in the list. Quantities represented by single symbol in SPE Letter Symbols Standard but by symbolsubscript combination in Computer Sy~nbols List. Similarly. SPE letter symbolsubscript co~nbi~lation kh Computer syn~bol Quantity title HCN thermal conductiv~ty 4. See section G. Combination subscripts that contain these items are also changed accordingly . Thus. . well logging and formation evaluation. Grashof number as GRSQ. (Only changes in the basic subscripts are shown.) 2. No computer subscript notations corresponding to these mathematical letter subscripts are established. Graetz number as GRTQ. or natural gas engineering letter symbols as contained elsewhere in this SPE Standard are authorized. 111 prcparing the computer symbols it becail~c necessary to modify the format of certain of the basic letter symbols. No mathematical letter subscripts correspond to these computer subscripts. Basic symbolic subscripts of SPE Lettcr Symbols Standard represented by different SPE letter Computer subscript s. 6. SPE letter symbol Quantity title total inital gas in place in reservoir moles of licli~id phase climensionless number in gcocral initial oil in place in reservoir volumetric vclocity (flow rate or flux. reservoir engineering. 4.264 PETROLEUMENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE sionless numbers have the mnemonic title designation in the field representing the quantity and a Q in the last subscript position employed.
or special values. The Society of Petroleum Engineers has adhered to the following descriptions: A. and electrical charge (m.(for use in textual matter. and oral discussions) . GLP) Reynolds (used with Reynolds number only. SPE provides a list of preferred abbreviations in its 'Style Guide' for authors.(for use in computer programs) . ATRe) solution in water (usually with gas solubility in water. I S 0 uses: Mass (M). letter symbols. Author preference for the reserve svmbols and subscripis does not justify their use. letter symbols. properly defined. abbreviations. Abbreviations are not acceptable in mathematical equations. Abbreviations . dimensions. subscripts of SPE Letter Symbols Standard not assigned Computer Subscript Notations as a result of actions noted in 4. being indicated by subscripts or superscripts. T . R." Letter symbols . cumulative (usually with condensate. temperature.a computer symbol is a letter or group of letters and numerals used to represent a specific quantity in the writing physical or mathematic~l and execution of computer programs. . and reserve symbolreserve subscript combinations is permitted. reserve symbols. One computer symbol may be employed to represent a group of quantities. computer symbols. L .SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 265 SPE letter symbolsubscript combination Computer Quantity symbol title GL G~~ N G LT l N G LP REYQ fie RTW GWRS initial condensate liquids in place in reservoir cumulative condensate liquids produced Reynolds number (dimensionless number) gas solubility in water B. 6.te'r programs. commonlv used notations and signs from the fields of maihematics. ' In making the choice as to which of two quantities should be given a reserve designation. tables. properly defined.a reserve symbol is a single letter. figures. dimensions. reserve subscripts. modified when appropriate by one or more subscripts or superscripts. To avoid conflicting designations in these cases. Time (T). o r other entity. computer symbols. unit. and descriptions of.. The same letter symbol should be used consistently for the same generic quantity. t. Computer Symbols . length. Reserve symbols . reserve symbols. A single letter may be employed to represent a group of quantities. Letter operatorsymbol combination of SPE Letter Symbols Standard represented by Computer Symbol Notation only.(for use in mathematical equations) . all SPE computer symbols employ capital letters and numerals.a letter symbol is a single letter. SPE letter symbol t Computer symbol quantity Title TA C interval transit time Distinctions between. Temperature ( 0 ) . Computer symbols are not acceptable as substitutes for letter symbols in the required mathematical ( e ~ u a t i o n al) developmentsAleadingup to comp. SPE employs the five basic dimensions of mass. L. used to represent a specific physical or mathematical quantity in a mathematical equation. Subscript title liquid produced. and chemistry. E. use of reserve symbols. These conflicts may result f r o q use of standard SPE symbols or subscript designations that are the same for two different quantities. At the present time. q). physics. SPE letter subscript C. Length (L). 5. Amount of substance (N) and Luminous intensity (J). unit abbreviations and units used in science and engineering. or use of SPE symbols that conflict with firmly established. modified when appropriate by one or more subscripts or superscripts. which can be used as an alternate when two quantities (occurring in some specialized works) have the same standard letter symbol.an abbreviation is a letter or group of letters that may be used in place of the full name of a quantity. * Electrical charge is current times time. unit abbreviations and units Confusion often arises as to the proper distinctions between abbreviations.dimensions identifv the vhvsical nature of or the general components making up a specific physical quantity. time. but only in of Jymbols conflict.) L~ Re sw D. Electric current (I). Dimensions .
which is a required part of each work. the lack of agreement between various ASA standards. 345 East 47th Strcct. N Y 10017. solution. F. however. The Society Board of Directors has approved the SPE 1984 Symbols Standards. Units . editors. and units * gasoil ratio. New York.       . The variations in notations result from the application of the SPE guidcs in choosing symbols as detailed herein. or in a few cases a special sign. units havc 'abbrcviations' but do not have 'letter symbols'. nor of units for irldiviclual quantities. Up to this time.units express the system of measurement used to quantify a specific physical quantity. Authors can materially aid themselves. SPE has not standardized a general systc~ii units. initial productivity index productivity index. The symbol nomenclature.266 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (fSO) and many other national and international bodies concerned with standardization emphasize the special character of these designations and rigidly prescribe the manner in which the unit abbreviations shall be developed and treated. Use of an unsubscripted reserve symbol for a quantity requires use of the satne reserve symbol designation when subscripting is rccluired. porosity. etc. producing gasoil ratio. it must be used consistently throughout a paper. The International Organization for Standardization Letter symbol for mathematical equations R Rs. cm for centimeter). and recommends them to the metnbership and to the industry. must contain each reserve notation that is used together with its definition. Texas and SchlumbergerDoll Research Ccntcr personnel in Ridgefield. United Engineering Center. specific * GOR initial solution GOR PI SPI none none IS J GOR GORSl PDX PDXS none none L4t/m ~ ~ t / m cu ft/BBL cu ft/BBL bldlpsi b/d/psi/ft J JS Examples only. Reversion to the standard SPE symbol or subscript is not permitted within a paper.a unit abbreviation is a letter or group of letters (for example. All authors must include Nomenclatures in any manuscript submitted to SPE for publication. Examples Abbrev. SPE has not standardized units. It is to be emphasized that the symbols contained in the SPE list are standard for use in petroleum engineering. Contrasting symbol usage SPE and certain American Standards Association. Once a reselve designation for a quantity is employed. tables. These ASA symbol standards are published by the Arncrican Society of Mechanical Engineers. Connecticut is gratefully acknowledged.). American National Standards Institute and International Organization for Standardization symbols lists do not use the same letter synibols to represent identical quantities. that may be used in place of the name of a unit. the ASA's policy of aliowing several sy~nbols repreto sent the same quantity in any list and the large number of quantities assigned sylnbols by the SPE. but the symbols of other disciplines as sanctioned by the American Standards Association should be used when working outside the area of petroleum production. the standard SPE symbol should be retained for the more basic item (temperature. Reserve symbol used only in case of symbols conflict an attempt should be made to retain the standard SPE symbol for the quantity appearing more frequently in the paper. In SPE usage. consistency within a chapter or section must be maintained. Acknowledgement The work done in sorting and combining the various standard lists by Schlumberger Well Scrvices Engineering personnel in Houston. Unit Abbreviations . figures. permeability. such as books. oral use Quantity Computer symbol for programs Dimensions Unit abbrev. SPE's practices showing the above distinctions are illustrated in the table of example quantities. for text. Manuscripts submitted to SPE are subjcct to review on these aspects before being accepted for publication. G. and readers by keeping the distinctions in mind when prcparing papers for SPE review. to join in a future natiol~al . effort to convert from the English to a metric system of units. pressure. it has signified willingness. otherwise. For larger works.
in laboratory experimental run. Symbols alphabetized by physical quantity Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol ARR PRM GRV MPDA VAC ACT FACAFU INJA AIR AIREX Quantity Dimensions Ma.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 267 A. unit. volumes of air per unit mass of pack AIRR air requirement. &a Pa. area swept in a model divided by total model reservoir area (see EP) C \ Lit various L3/t various L3/m various various various various . unit. "a P r . volumes of air per unit bulk volume of reservoir rock VISA air viscosity AMAK amortization (annual writeoff of unamortized investment at end of year k) AMP amplitude AMPC amplitude. compressional wave AMPR amplitude. in reservoir. shear wave ANG angle ANG angle ANGD angle of dip ANGC angle. over year k GMFAY '. relative AMPS amplitude. ARA area EFFA areal efficiency (used in describing results of model studies only).annulus geometrical factor (muliplier or fraction) TACA apparent interval transit time ECNA apparent conductivity DENA apparent density RADWA apparent or effective wellbore radius (includes effects of well damage or stimulation) PORA apparent porosity RESA apparent resistivity RESZ apparent resistivity of the conductive fluids in an invaded zone (due to fingering) APPR approximately equal to or is approximated bv (usuallv with functions) . ta script t c a Pa r wa fa. YZ Arrhenius reaction rate velocity constant absolute permeability (fluid flow) acceleration of gravity acoustic impedance acoustic velocity activity airlfuel ratio air injection rate air requirement air requirement. contact angular frequency COEANI anisotropy coefficient INCK annual operating cash income.
. gas FVFOB bubblepoint formation volulnc factor. s m curve (gas well). general PRSWS bottomhole pressure.qerve SPE letter symbol Computer letter sy~nhol ASYM PRSA ANM AWT COEA RTEAV AV PRSAV PRSAVR DAZ RAZ NGW CGW NGW Quantity Dimensions asylnptotically eclual to atnlospheric pressure atomic number atomic weight (atomic mass. logarithm BRGR bearing. oil PRSB bubblepoint (saturation) pressure RVFGB bubblepoint reciprocal gas formation volunle factor at bubblepoint conditions VOLBP bubblepoint prcssurc.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter syn~bol Re. relative THK bed thickness. volumc at GORSB bubblepoint solution gasoil ratio DELTIMWS buildup tirne. gas well backpressure curve (gas well). injection well PRSWS bottornhole pressure at ally time after shutin PRSW bottornhole pressure. shutin time) DENB bulk density BKM bulk modulus VOLB bulk volume VOLBEX bulk volume of pack burned in experimental tube run bulk (total) volumc. relative) attenuation coefficient average flow rate or production rate average or nlean (ovcrbar) average prcssure average reservoir pressure azimuth of dip azimuth of reference on sonde backpressure curve exponent. i~ljection well PRSIWS bottomholc static pressure. width. fraction of FRCVB VOLRR burned reservoir rock... or (primarily in fracturing) thickness PRSE boundary pressure. external FVFGB bubblepoint formation volulnc factor. coefficient of b ack pl. shutin time (time after well is shut in) (prcssurc buildup. volumc of VELB burningzonc advance raie (velocity of) L~ Llt . static PRSWW bottomhole (well) pressure in water phase TEMBH bottomholc temperature WTH breadth. external RADE boundary radius. individual PKSWF botto~nholc flowing pressure PRSBH bottomhole pressure PRSWF bottolnhole pressure flowing PRSI WF bottomhole flowing pressure. exponent of ~s c base a.
operating cash income.SPE NOMENCLATUREAND UNITS  269 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions ECQ CEXV CEXUT PRSCP INVI INVK INVT CFLPV CFL INCK INC INCA INCB PRSCF RSCS CEXV CEXUT MXP CHG COEANI COEA HTCC DFN COEC COER KSP CGW HTCU HTCI HEC COE SATL MOLPJ MOLJ MFRL MFRM MFRV NMBC EMFC EMFK CMP ZED Pcs Qv Q vt capacitance capacity. cumulative moles produced component j. over year k cash income. cation exchange. subsequent. diffusion coefficient. operating. attenuation coefficient. mole fraction of. electrokinetic compressibility compressibility factor (gas deviation factor. P per unit pore volume. total cementation (porosity) exponent (in an empirical relation between FR and +) charge (current times time) coefficient. z=PV/nRT) IiL ~3211~4n1~2n m/t3~ m/t3~ IiT various . electrochemical coefficient. base 10 component j. mole fraction of. operating. moles of component. convective heat transfer coefficient. initial capital investment. summation of all cash flow. number of component of the SP. before taxes casing pressure. ovefall coefficient. in mixture component. after taxes cash income. anisotropy coefficient. formation resistivity factor (FR@~) coefficient in the equation of the electrochemical component of the SP (spontaneous electromotive force) coefficient of gaswell backpressure curve coefficient heat transfer. flowing casing pressure. cation exchange. per unit pore volume capacity. static cation exchange capacity per unit pore volume cation exchange capacity per unit pore volume. heat transfer. annual operating. electrochemical component of the SP. discounted cash flow. in liquid phase component. in vapour phase components. undiscounted cash income. mole fraction of. total capillary pressure capital investment. in year k capital investments. thermal cubic expansion coefficient or multiplier combined total liquid saturation common logarithm. radiation coefficient.
fuel consamption of fuel in experirnental tube run consumption of fuel in experimental tube run (mass of fuel per mole of produced gas) consumption of fuel in reservoir contact angle content.5772 constantincome d~scount factor constant.etc. etc. universal gas (per mole) constant. cun~ulative condensate or natural gas liquids content conductivity (other than logging) conductivity (electrical logging) conductivity. 2 Lt2/m various various various various various LZ various various tq2/mL3 tq2/rnL' RRR WDC WDCL FCM FCMEX FCMEXG FCMR ANGC CNTL CNTWG HTCC constant. waterdrive. condensate or natural gas liquids content. formation or rock compressibility. at mean pressure compressibility. C Cc I CNCFU NGLP CNTL SIG ECN ECNA CNDFQ HCN ARR LAM DIC DSCC HPC compressibility factor or deviation factor foi gas.) conccntration. wetgas convective heat transfer cocfficient mL2/t'~ L4t2/m LJt2/m various m/L3 m various various m/t 'T . hyperbolic declinc . thermal (always with additional phase or system subscripts) constant.. initial condensate liquids produced. linear aquifer consumption. apparent conductivity. gas compressibility. pseudoreduced compressibility. dielectric constant.) indicated similarly. fracture. waterdrive constant. methane (concentration of other paraffin hydrocarbons would be indicated similarly. dimensionless conductivity.2rCC3. Euler'5 = 0. dccay ( 1 1 ~ ~ ) constant. water compressional wave amplitude concentration concentration. unit fuel (see sv~nbol m'l condensate liquids in place in reservoir. CCOZ. oil compressibility. Arrhenius rcaction rate velocity constant constant.270 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer Ietfer symbol ZEDPAV CMPF CMPG CMPO CMPPRD CMPW AMPC CNC CNCCl Quantity A. oxygen (concentration of other elements or compounds would be CN2. concentration. Cc.
SPE NOMENCLATUREAND UNITS 271 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions GRVC COR NMB NEUN NGR SATGC PRSC TEMC SATWC ARA XSTMAC XSTMIC XNL HEC NGLP GASFP GASE GAS1 GORP GASP MOLPJ OILE OILP FLUP WTRE WTRI FACWOP WTRP GASWGP i script i. nominal decrement degrees of freedom various . electric damage or stimulation radius'of well (skin) damage ratio or condition ratio (conditions relative to formation conditions unaffected by well operations) datum. effective decline factor. neutron count rate. and W. microscopic crosssection of a nucleus. neutron (neutron mean life) decline constant. i Rs Fd CUR RADS DMRS ZEL LAM TIMD TIMDN HPC conversion factor in Newton's second law of Motion correction term or correction factor * (either additive or multiplicative) count rate (general) count rate. microscopic cubic expansion coefficient. elevation referred to decay constant (llt. macroscopic crosssection. gamma ray critical gas saturation critical pressure critical temperature critical water saturation Crosssection (area) crosssection. are not applicable) cumulative water influx (encroachment) cumulative water injected cumulative wateroil ratio cumulative water produced cumulative wet gas produced curl current.) decay time. thermal cumulative condensate liquids produced cumulative free gas produced cumulative gas influx (encroachment) cumulative gas injected cumulative gasoil ratio cumulative gas produced cumulative moles of component j produced cumulative oil influx (encroachment) cumulative oil produced cumulative produced fluids (where N. hyperbolic [from equation lit lit lit IIL L2 IIT L3 L3 L3 L3 DECE DEC DCR DGF decline factor.) decay time (mean life) (111.
h e a r aquifer ENCTQQ dimenslonle\s fluld influx function at dimens~onle\s tiinc tL.272 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE  Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter synlbol Zd Co~nputer Quantity letter symbol Dimensions del (gradient operator) delay ti~iie del~verabillty g ~ well) ( s D dcns~ty Du d e m t y . oil 5 . I%6 DFN diffus~on coeft~uent DFS diffuslvlty. mean part~cle d~elcctr~c constant DIC DEL d~fference d~fference or oper'itor.ut~clcsinaklng up experiment'll pack Do DEN0 density. or x . RTEGQ d~mensionle\s ploductlon rate gas NUMO dlmenslonlcss uui~ibci general . s k ~ n (logging) Z ZED d e v ~ a t factor~(comprcss~b~hty ~o~ factor) for g~i4 = 1 VInR7') (Z ) z? ZEDPAV d e v ~ a t ~ factoi (compress~b~lity on fncto~) for g'ts. bulk Df density. N. water EDE deplctioil NI FUDR d c p o s ~ t ~ o n of fuel rdte EDP de prec~atlon Y.rmplc Reyriolds numbcr.. dens~ty.x. apparent I / ) . c r z p1 ENCLTQQ dlmenslonles\ f l u ~ d ~ t iriilux function. hole dl. ~nvndcd zone (clcctr~cally ec~ulvalcnt) DlAAVP diameter. density oi solid p. true 1)./t mi^' ml~' mlLi ml~? ml~' l lL7 mlL3 III/L~ ml~' 1JL' mlLi mlLZ mlLZ ml~' ~IL' m/LZt L L rnl~t~ L L L L q2t21m~' L'lt ~ ~ 4 l t . at mean pre\\uie ANGH deviation. fluid D dcns~ty. F5 SPG clensity. hole (clritt angle) f'd PRSD dewpoiut pressure D DIA d~a~neter d ~ . D. DENW dens~ty. relatlve (speclhc grav~ty) DT DENT density.?. fuel DY dens~tygas ..) . Dlr DIAH d~arncter. gra~n) n1' density (number) of neutiom I denvty of produced Ilquld.x .111 (always w ~ t h ~dent~fjring subscripts) (Ex. hydraulic ( k l r p c ~ hlcpc) or QLrZ. Cr\lDFQ dimenslonless fracture conductivity Q.H DPH depth Y5 SKD depth. weightweighted ~ v g D+. flushed zone n ! density (11ldicating 'number pcr unit volume') DF dens~ty. dcns~ty.) QoL ) RTEOQ d~incniionlc~s product~on 0x1 rate KO DEL TlMDY DLV DEN DENA DENB DFNF DENXO NMB DENFU DENG DENMA NMBN DENAVL DENSEX t ~. D L DIAI d~anieter.. filiitc (Ax = x . 1tr IX (iollds.
LI s.l)lj] discount rate discounted cash flow dispersion coefficient dispersion modulus (dispersion factor) displacement displacement efficiency from burned portion of in situ combustion pattern displacement efficiency from unburned portion of in situ combustion pattern displacement efficiency: volume of hydrocarbons (oil or gas) displaced from individual pores or small groups of pores divided by the volume of hydrocarbons in the same pores just prior to . f script 1 AR dimensionless pore volume dimensionless pressure dimensionless pressure function c at dimensionless time tD dimensionless production rate dimensionless quantity proportional to x dimensionless radius dimensionless time dimensionless time at condition m dimensionless water production rate dip. apparent azimuth of dip. constantincome discount factor. volume per unit volume of unburned reservoir rock displacement ratio.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 273 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions VOLPQ PRSQ PRSTQQ RTEQ RADQ TIMQ TIMMQ RTEWQ ANGD ANGDA DAZA DAZ DSCC DSC DSCSP DSCSPC RTED CFLPV DSP DSM DIS EFFDB EFFDU EFFD Fd Fdob F d ~ ~ DPR DPROB DPROU DPRWB DUW DLW LTH DELRAD Fdwb Ld. angle of dip. oil from burned volume. radial (increment along radius) L2/t L L L L L . azimuth of discount factor. displacement displacement ratio displacement ratio. apparent angle of dip.ore)'. sinolepayment [1/(1 t i ) k . or length of path distance. singlepayment (constant annual rate) [eIk(e' . length. general discount factor. water from burned volume. j = In (1+i)] discount factor. volume per unit volume of burned reservoir rock distance between adjacent rows of injection and production wells distance between like wells (injection or production) in a row distance. oil from unburned volume.L2 La. volume per unit volume of burned reservoir rock displacement ratio.
yinbol Computer Ietter syinbol Quantity Dimensions divergence RADD drainage radius L DELTIMWFdrawdown time (time after well is opened to t production) (pressure drawdown) ANGH drift angle. for buriled portion ollly. invasion (vertical): hydrocarbon pore space invaded (affected.) EFFDB efficiency. or discounted cash flow) SKN effcct. clisplacernent. contacted) by thc injection fluid or heat front divided by the hydrocarbon pore space enclosed in all laycrs behind the injectedfluid or heat front EFFR efficiency. hole (deviation) RORI earning power or rate of return (internal. skin DECE effective decline factor L RADWA effective or apparent wellbore radius (includes effects of well damagc or stirnulation) PRMG cffective permeability to gas L' PRMO effective permeability to oil L~ PRMW effective permeability to water L' PORE effective porosity EFF efficiency EFFA efficiency. rnodulus of (Young's modulus) m/Lt2 . pattern sweep (developed from areal efficiency by proper weighting for variations in net pay thickness. areal (used in describing results of model studies only): area swept in a model divided by total model reservoir area (sec E. true.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING:PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE Ietter s. displacement. tlisplacernent: volurne of hydrocarbons (oil or gas) displaced from individual pores or small groups of pores divided by the volumc of hydrocarbon in the same pores just prior to displacclnent EFFl efficiency. volumetric: product of pattern sweep and invasion efficiencies ELMY elasticity. from burned portion of in situ combustion pattern EFFDU efficiency. in situ combustion pattern EFFV efficiency. volunictric. overall reservoir recovery: volume of hydrocarbons recovered divided by volun~e of hydrocarbons in place at start of project (El<= EPEIEL) = E v EL)) EFFP efficiency. porosity and hydrocarbon saturation): hydrocarbon pore spacc enclosed behind the injectedfluid or heat front divided by total hydrocarbon pore space of the reservoir or project EFFVB efficiency. from unburned portion of it2 situ co~nbustion pattern EFFD cfficicncy.
cumulative DELGASE encroachment or influx. cumulative DELWTRE encroachment or influx. h ge Age fie Ane I Ig 10 e0 ew We Awe E H Hs h s 1. complementary Euler number Eulcr's constant = 0. i ZE. specific HER entropy. oil ENCW encroachment or influx rate. P i script i. oil.spE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity 275 Dimensions I R 't 2. n ez expZ electric current electric impedance electrical resistivity (other than logging) electrical resistivity (electrical logging) . electrical tortuosity electrically equivalent diameter of the invaded zone COEC electrochemical coefficient EMFC electrochemical component of the SP EMFK electrokinetic component of the SP EMF electromotive force ZEL elevation referred to datum GASE encroachment or influx. gas. gas well MXP exponent. oil.5772 HEC expansion coefficient. cumulative DELOILE encroachment or influx. during an Interval ENC encroachment or influx rate ENCG encroachment or influx rate. porosity (cementation) (in an empirical relation between FR and +) SXP exponent. specific HERS entropy. water WTRE encroachment or influx. thermal cubic POREX experimental pack porosity NGW exponent of backpressure curve. DI T~ Rwe erf erfc En I @E b n m f ~E E. gas ENCO encroachment or influx rate. WE Awe U I IS I o (Jt S >. Feq dr. gas during an interval OILE encroachment or influx.r R P. during an interval ENG energy HEN enthalpy (always with phase or system subscripts) HENS enthalpy (net) of steam or enthalpy above reservoir temperature HENS enthalpy. uater. dz. < K dl t~ k. Kec QC Qk dl Kc EC Ek E Z Ge Ace l\i. Dl . saturation EXP exponential functlon CUR MPDE RHO RES TORE DIAI q't mL2/tq2 m~~tq* mL3tqZ L mL2/t2q mL2/t2q mL2/t2q L L~ L3 L3 L3 L3/t L3/t L3/t L3lt L3 L3 mL21t2+ m ~ ~ l t ~ " mL2/t2 L2/t2 L2/t2~ mL2/t2~ L t mL3tq2 IIT . total GE equal to or larger than LE equal to or smaller than EQR equilibrium ratio (ylx) DIAI equivalent diameter (electrical) of the invaded zcne TIMP equivalent time well was on pzoduction prior to shutin (pseudotime) RWE equivalent water resistivity ERF error function ERFC error function. ANe? e eg V D. water. Mc.
nominal decline factor. gcomctrical (multiplicr) true (noninvaded zone) (clcctrical logging) factor in general. average flowing bottomhole pressure. friction factor. bottoinhole tlowing prcssure. discount factor. pcr unit area (volumetric velocity) flow rate or production rate flow rate or production ratc at mean pressure flow rate or production rate. geometrical (multiplier) flushed zone (elcctrical logging) factor.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter syntbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Conlpnter letter sjm?bol Quantity Dimensions cxponcntial integral CG Ei (x) t exponential integral. geometrical (multiplier) pseudo (elcctrical logging) factor. effective decline factor. casing flowing pressure. geometrical (multiplier) (electrical logging) factor. modified s ilt. (a numerical subscript to f indicates the value of K. tubing various .. formation resistivity. including ratios (always with identifying subscripts) factor. turbulence flow ratc. heat flow rate or flux. geometrical (multiplier) a ~ l n i ~ l (electrical logging) us factor.. conversion. geometrical (multiplier) mud (elcctrical logging) factor. compressibility (gas deviation factor z = PVlnXT) factor. mass flow rate. x positive PRSE RADE PRSXT ZED DSC DECE DEC GRVC FACHR FACF GMF GMFAN GMFI GMFP GMFXO GMFM G MFT FAC FACB M RT IIRT VELV RTE KTEPAV RTEAV PRSl WF PRSWF PRSCF PRSTF external boundary prcssure extcrnal boundary radius extrapolated pressure factor. geometrical (multiplier) invadcd zone (elcctrical logging) factor..IR. injection well flowing pressure.) factor. equals R. in Newton's second law of Motion factor.
oil FVFT formation volume factor.) COER formation resistivity factor coefficient (FRGrn) REST formation resistivity. and QltD script 1 FLUP Wpare not applicable) DENXO flushedzone density flushedzone resistivity (that part of the RESXO invaded zone closest to the wall of the hole. where flushing has been maximum) GMFXO flushedzone geometrical factor (fraction or multiplier) FLX flux VELV flux or flow rate. electromotive (voltage) PORR formation or reservoir porosity CMPF formation or rock compressibility FACHR formation resistivity factor . at dimensionless time tD QLiD script 1 ENCLTQQ fluid influx function. dimensionless. VACF fluid interval velocity ZEL fluid head or height or elevation referred to a datum T ACF fluid interval transit time DENF fluid density ENCTQQ fluid influx function. oil FVFG formation volume factor. dimensionless fluids. linear aquifer. total (twophase) FVF formation volume factor volume at reservoir conditions divided by volume at standard conditions FVFW formation volume factor.equals RoiR. gas FVFO formation volume factor. true RESZR formation resistivity when 100% saturated with water of resistivity R. gas FVFOB formation volume factor at bubblepoint Fob conditions. water FRC fraction (such as the fraction of a flow stream consisting of a particular phase) FRCG fraction gas various Lit L various Lit . (a numerical subscript to Findicates the value R. TEMF formation temperature FVFGB formation volume factor at bubblepoint conditions. cumulative produced (where N.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 277 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions  tf script t Pxo Rxo Bob DELTIMWF flowing time after well is opened to production (pressure drawdown) FLU fluid (generalized) . per unit area (volumetric velocity) FCE force. mechanical EMF force.
z = PVlnRT) (deviation factor) gas.) free producing gasoil ratio (freegas voluniel oil volume) frequency friction factor front or interface pressure fuel concentration. F g o ~ GORF g~*p SFL FRO v GASFP GASFI GORF FQN FACF PRSF CNCFU FCM FCMEX FCMEXG FCMR DENFU FUDR FUG NGR GRY GAS SATOG SATWG CM PG ZED RRR DENG ZEDPAV ZED PRMG FVFG ( I .J script 1 FRCL VI].. initial reservoir (=mNB.T~7 FIGSH @idw FIGW x/ zfiIl. z p Z K~ Fg .i~ F CNDFQ LTHFH FRX GFE i.. FRCVB @Kj. universal (per mole) gas density gas deviation factor (compressibility factor) at mean pressure gas deviation factor (compressibility factor. including air) always with identifying subscripts gascap interstitialoil saturation gascap interstitialwatcr saturation gas co~npressibility gas compressibility factor (dcviation Factor) ( z = PVlaRT) gas constant.iKJog Pwg> 'TI<% kg> Kg Z fraction liquid fraction of bulk (total) volume fraction of intergranular space ('porosity') occupied by ali shales fraction of intelgranular space ('porosity') occupied by water fraction of intermatrix space ('porosity') occupied by ilollstructural dispersed shale fracture conductivity. FFX F g ~ . effcctivc permeability to gas formation volurnc factor mi~t" various various m / ~ m n1/~? ~ mlL3 ml~'t mlLt2 Ilt various various L. Computer letter suvnlbol Quantity Dimensions F. cumulative frccgas volume. ./. dimensionless fracture halflength (specify 'in the direction of' when using xI) fracture index free encrgy (Gibbs function) frec fluid index free gasoil ratio. cc g P.. producing (freegas volumeloil volume) free gas produced. unit (see synibol rn) fuel consuniption fuel consumption in experimental tube run fucl consumption in experimental tube run (mass of fuel per Inole of produced gas) fuel consumption in rcscrvoir fuel density fuel deposition rate fugacity gamma ray count rate gamma ray [usually with identifying subscript(s)] gas (any gas..PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE Letter svmbol Reserve SPE letter syrnbol fvh. rlrn 'n " f FF FIL Fr LX FIX DF N1: N.
or condensate content MOBG gas mobility FRCG gas. free producing (freegas volume1 oil volume) GOR gasoil ratio. solution. cumulative DELGASI gas injected during an interval INJG gas injection rate CNTL gas liquids.~L F g F g CL A. solution at bubblepoint conditions GORS gasoil ratio. ultimate PRMRG gas. cumulative DELGASE gas influx (encroachment) during an interval ENCG gas influx (encroachment) rate GAS1 gas injected. critical SATGR gas saturation. exponent of NGW DLV gaswell deliverability GASWGP gas. fraction MFRTV PRMGO GORP GORF gas mole fraction gasoil permeability ratio FVFGB L3 L' L' ~ " t L~ L' L3/t various ~ ~ t l m kg1k0 KgIKo gasoil ratio. natural. G1 AGI I g g ge 48. produced. SATG gas saturation SATGC gas saturation. total initial GASE gas influx (encroachment). fg fg gas formation volume factor at bubblepoint conditions FRCG gas fraction GASTI gas in place in reservoir. cumulative gasoil ratio. dimensionless RVFG gas reciprocal formation volume factor RVFGB gas reciprocal formation volume factor at bubblepoint conditions GASPUL gas recovery. Lg F g g~ Agl CL. solution (gas solubility in oil) GORSI gaqoil ratio. producing GORSB gasoil ratio. coefficient of gaswell backpressure curve. cumulative DELGASP gas produced during an interval GASPEX gas produced from experimental tube run RTEG gas production rate RTEGQ gas production rate. wet. cumulative THK general and individual bed thickness NUMQ general dimensionless number (always uith identifying subscripts) L3 L' L3 L31t L3 mILt mILt ~32n~4n/~2n .SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 279 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Fgb Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions Bgb 5 eg Ge AG. relative permeability to . initial GASP gas produced. residual GORS gas solubility in oil (solution gasoil ratio) GWRS gas solubility in water SPGG gas specific gravity VISG gas viscosity VISGA gas viscosity at 1 atm CGW gaswell backpressure curve.
specific (always with phase or system subscripts) heat transfer coefficient. geothermal gradient operator gradient. true (noninvaded zonc) (electrical logging) geometrical factor (multiplier). specific. total half life heat flow ratc heat of vaporization.280 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer lefter sy~nbol GMF GMFAN GMFXO Quantity GMFM GMFT GMFP GMFT GRD GRDGT GRDT DENMA GRV SPG SPGG SPGO SPGW THKT GRRU GRRT TIM H HRT HLTV HTD HSP HTCC HTCU HTC 1 ZEL ZMT HWF HOL ANGH DIAH DFS geometrical factor (multiplier) (electrical logging) geometrical factor (multiplier). annulus (electrical logging) geometrical factor (multiplier). specific. gas gravity. is oil holdup. flushed zone (electrical logging) geometrical factor (multiplier). acceleration of gravity. temperature grain (matrix. radiation height. relative density gravity. drift angle hole diameter hydraulic diffusivity (kI@ p or h+c) various T . water gross (total) pay thickness gross revenue ('value') per unit produced gross revenue ('value'). solids) density gravity. specific. convective heat transfer coefficient. or fluid head or elcvation referred to a datum height (other than elevation) Helmholtz function (work function) holdup (fraction of the pipe volume filled by a given fluid: y . invaded zoned (clcctrical logging) geometrical factor (multiplier). mud (electrical logging) geometrical factor. specific. is water holdup Cof all holdups at a given level is one) hole deviation. overall hcat transfer coefficient. latent hcat or thermal diffusivity heat. (multiplier). pseudo (electrical logging) geometrical factor (multiplier). true (electrical logging) gradient gradient. oil gravity. y .
cumulative. linear aquifer. shaliness gammaray (Ylog various m/L2t mL2/tq2 'script 1 ENCTQQ ENC ENCG ENCO ENCW NGLTI INVI index. s~ecific iniectivitv index.ity individual bed thickness influx (encroachment). water influx (encroachment) during an interval. residual hydrogen index hyperbolic decline constant (from equation) L g ( z ) script I z MPD MPDA MPDE 3 FRX FFX HYX IJX RFX PRX PRXPR PDX RXSH PRXSE SHXGR IJXS PDXS THK GASE OILE WTRE DELGASE DELOILE DELWTRE ENCLTQQ QhD imaginary part of complex number z impedance impedance.oducti. electric index (use subscripts as needed) index. water initial condensate liquids in place in reservoir initial capital investment . (hydrocarbon) resistivity RiRo index. fluid. cumulative.SPE NOMENCLATUREAND UNITS 281 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions RH RADHL TORHL PORH RSXH SATHR HYX HPC hydraulic radius hydraulic tortuosity hydrocarbonfilled porosity. cumujative. acoustic impedance. fluid. productivity index. porosity index.iRo hydrocarbon saturation. water influx function. gas influx (encroachment) during an interval.~ c n ) i ( ~ s h' ~ c n )  L3t/m L L3 L~ L~ L3 L3 L3 L3/t Lyt L3it L3it L~ M . specific p. gas influx (encroachment). dimensionless (at dimensionless time tD) influx (encroachment) rate influx (encroachment) rate. fraction or percent of rock bulk volume occupied by hydrocarbons hydrocarbon resistivity index R. free fluid index. fracture index. oil influx (encroachment) during an interval. primary porosity index. secondary porosity index. injectivity index of refraction index. gas influx (encroachment) rate. dimensionless influx function. oil influx (encroachment) rate. hydrogen index. oil influx (encroachment).
[ i$ r 111 11 (il+ @ dt].symbol Cor~~puter qua at it. )/V. cumulative DELGASI injected gas during an interval WTRl injected water. E :. internal energy interstitialoil saturation in gas cap .. surface tension PORIG intergranular 'porosity' (space) ( v. effective compound (usually annual) IRPE interest rate.^ letter sy~nbol Dimensions N n P i GF. E. w PwrJS1~.. rs Sr.282 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol  Reserve SPE letter .~~. integral.)(=GBgi) GORSI initial solution gasoil ratio WTRTI initial water in place in reservoir SATWI initial water saturation GAS1 injected gas. fraction occupied by all shales intergranular space (porosity). modified rlt.s I GL G N W Fbvo b i PLl4.h $ids/i @& iw FIGSH FIGW FIMSHD PORIM INE SATOG f<b~ fil. initial WTRTI inplace water in reservoir. initial FACWO instantaneous producing wateroil ratio ICP intercept lRCE interest rate. I).. specific NGLTl inplace condensate liquids in reservoir.~hd frmZ3 ELr. air INJG injection rate.v.V~. x .<..T L 1.i W Srv. exponential. static IJX injectivity index IJXS injectivity index.x positive fcil. exponentla1 ? L 0ILTl PRSI GASFI L' m/Lt2 L' ~ / L~ t ~ L" ~3 L3 ~3 pit L3lt L3/t L'lt m/Lt2 rnl~t~ ~ ~ t l m ~%/m L' L' L3 L' various MIL^^ m/t2 Ei (x) x positive t integral. tS II w Y Y i~ j Pf (r pf Y 7Y 4% Ei(x) frg. initial GASTI inplace gas in reservoir. OnR' SoR U ~s~~~ intergranular space (porosity). gas INJW injection rate. total initial OILTI inplace oil in reservoir. initial oil i n place in reservoir initial pressure initial reservoir freegas volume (=ITINR. culnul a t'ive DELWTRl injected water during an interval INJ injection rate INJA injection rate. water PRSIWF injection wcll bottomhole pressure. Rsi P i g~i FgS. Wi Awj i iu I s 2 M.V. per period IRA interest rate. effective.5hd $I..)/V.. fraction o c c u ~ i c d nonstluctural d i s ~ e r s e d bv shale intermatrix 'porosity' (space) (Vb . Gi AGL AW j wi Si AS.. . nominal annual PRSF interface or front pressure SFT interfacial.J Pibc.. flowing PRSIWS injection well bottomhole pressure.Z $i. fraction occupied by water intermatrix space (porosity).f Piw..
matrix interval transit time..$ script 1 FRCL FL. natural. fraction mlqt . electrically equivalent invaded zone geometrical factor (multiplier) (electrical logging) invaded zone resistivity invasion (vertical) efficiency: hydrocarbon pore space invaded (affected. base e macroscopic cross section macroscopic cross section of a nucleus magnetic permeability magnetic susceptibility magnetization magnetization. base a logarithm. or distance lifetime. average (mean life) limit linear aquifer waterdrive constant liquid fraction ) liquid mole fraction LI(L + V liquid phase. moles of liquid saturation. mole fraction of component in liquid phase. in place in reservoir. condensate. combined total liquids. condensate. common. contacted) by the injectedfluid or heat front divided by the hydrocarbon pore space enclosed in all layers behind the injectedfluid or heat front irreducible water saturation kinematic viscosity kinetic energy Laplace transform of y 7 0 y ( r ) e''dt S > t V GT HLTV LTH TIMAV LM WDCL FL. initial liquids. base 10 logarithm. script t tshscript t di G i VI>~I RESI EFFI Ek SATIW VSK ENGK 3 ( y ) script L interstitialwater saturation in gas cap interstitialwater saturation in oil band interval transit time interval transit time. shale invaded zone diameter. path length. produced cumulative logarithm. apparent a interval transit timedensity slope (absolute value) interval transit time.SPE NOMENCLATUREAND UNITS 283 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions t script t SATWG SATWO TAC TACA SAD TACF TACMA TACSH DIAI GMFI Pit Ti tf script t t. fluid interval transit time.fi script 1 MFRTL MFRL MOLL SATL NGLTI NGLP L" L lm i XSTMAC XNL PRMM SUSM MAG MAGF Laplace transform variable Laplacian operator larger than latent heat of vaporization length.
n VOLM F~ MFKTV FL.i(h. 'swept' and 'unswept' rcfer to invaded and uninvaded regions bellincl and ahead of leading edgc of displacement front mobility. shear niodul us of elasticity (Young's modulus) ~nolal volume (volume pcr mole) molc fraction gas VI(L V) mole fraction liquid L/(L V) mole f r a c t i o ~ ~a component in liquid phase of mole fraction of a component in mixture + + + + .J. script 1 MFRTL MFRL MFRM mass mass flow rate nlatrix interval transit tinlc matrix (solids.f. displac~ng. (h. .c lhrli.) . [(h0.) mobility.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter suvmbol Reserve SPE letfer symbol rn Computer letter syn~ bol MAS MRT TACMA DENMA VOLMA TIMAV TlMD PRSAV AV MEN DIAAVP MENES FCE CNCCl XSTMIC M FRM MOB MOBG MOB0 MBR MBKSAV Quantify Dimensions rn MI tmti SCY~P~ AtPrliz Olnn n7. water modulus.. mole fraction of component mobility (kip) mobility. Lo M Mi Fh M I M M.. e.. total. estimated mechanical force methane concentration (concentration of various other paraffin hydrocarbons would be indicated similarly C. MBR MBRT FA. sharpfront approximation (h"kd) mobility ratio.l~l.i... C .. h. u z h A.. bulk modulus. diffusefront approximation + ?il)\9c.) microscopic cross scctioi mixturc. general (h. of all fluids in a particular region of the rcscrvoir.\\\CPt] signifies . x. .7 ~'T~ILI Vmo  t t P D. e +. mobilities d are evaluated at averagc saturation conditions bchind ancl ahead of front mobility ratio.. (dispersion factor) modulus.. grain) density matrix (framework) volume (volume of all formation solids exccpt clispcrsed clay or shalc) mean life (averagc lifctirnc) mean life (decay tirne) (lit) mean or avcrage pressure mean or average (overbar) mcan value of a random variable mean particlc diameter mean valuc of a random variable. A MOBT MOBW Kb BKM DSM E. ELMS Y ELMY V. etc.71i(hd).$..g.IiLicd) mobility ratio.r. I. dispersion. FI.. total. .8. significs displaced.... oil mobility ratio. gas mobility.
cumulative MOLL moles of liquid phase moles of vapor phase MOLV moles. " moleweighted average NMBM moles. f ~ a n ~ G X O f ~ i f ~ m ~ G P fct G~ Gt K In hn NN n~ t. density (number) of NFL neutron lifetime SND neutron porositydensity slope (absolute value) NEU neutron [usually with identifying subscript(s)J GRVC Newton's Second Law of Motion. geometrical. conversion factor in DEC nominal decline factor XNL nucleus cross section. f l ~ CL Nn. &I ~+. em.. invaded zone (electrical logging) GMFM multiplier (factor). in general (always with identifying subscripts) MFRV MRF MWT MWTAVL L3 m m various various L I/t lit L3/m various L2 . Nt p. r. number of. relative) molecular weight of produced liquids. dimensionless. geometrical. annulus (electrical logging) GMFXO multiplier (factor).. number of moles of component j MOLJ MOLPJ moles of component j produced. atomic NUMQ number.rmf f ~ m hm~ Rmf Gni Rm G Gan Gxo GZ Gm f~ Pm. mud (electrical logging) GMFP multiplier (factor). microscopic ANM number.w M CL. geometrical. pmf.vD N N gc a o s Z N mole fraction of a component in vapor phase molecular refraction molecular weight (mass. flushed zone (electrical logging) GMFI multiplier (factor). true (electrical logging) COE multiplier or coefficient CNTL natural gas liquids or condensite content natural logarithm. pseudo (electrical logging) GMFT multiplier (factor. geometrical. total NMBMT MWTAVL moleweighted average molecular weight m of produced liquids mudcake resistivity RESMC mudcake thickness THKMC RESMF mudfiltrate resistivity GMFM mud geometrical factor (multiplier) (electrical logging) mud resistivity RESM GMF multiplier (factor). geometrical. base e THKN net pay thickness NEUN neutron count rate NMBN neutrons.CK z1v. geometrical (electrical logging) GMFAN multiplier (factor)?geometrical. 7 . dm..SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 285 Letter symbol Heserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantify Dimensions Y R M ML n ni N N Ni V n r ML %LC 't N~ n~ n.
relative permeability to oil saturation oil saturation in gas cap.. E D ) various mILt M M M various MIL' . A Nc. so. = E. residual oil specific gravity oil viscosity operating cash income operating cash income. e. interstitial oil saturation. Foh PRMO FVFO FVFOB GORS N N.F0. Laplacian overall heat transfer coefficient overall reservoir recovery efficiency: volume of hydrocarbons recovered divided by volume of hydrocarbons in placc at start of project (ER = EVE. Reynolds (dimensionless number) oil (always with identifying subscripts) oil band interstitialwatcr saturation oil compressibility oil density oil displaced from burned volume..S v. NP AN.E. or components. number (of variables. volume per unit volume of unburned reservoir rock oil. S o Pog. effective permeability to oil formation volume factor oil formation volume factor at buhblc point conditions oil. Sog POI?S O I . gas solubility in (solution gasoil ratio) oil in place in rcservoir. befcire taxes operating expensc operating expense per unit pr:)duced operator. or steps. total number. ultimate oil. initial oil influx (encroachment) cumulative oil influx (encroachment) during an interval oil influx (encroachment) rate oil mobility oil produced. after taxes operating cash income. or incremcnts. 90 Yon 60 Po. etc. cumulative oil produced during an interval oil production rate oil production ratc.) number (quantity) number of compounding periods (ucually per year) number of components number of moles.286 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE Letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity NMB NMB NMBCP NMBC NMBM REYQ OIL SATWO CMPO DEN0 DPROB DPROU Kc! F... volu~ne per unit volume of burned reservoir rock oil displaced from unburned volurne. dirncnsionless oil reciprocal formation volume factor (shrinkage factor) oil recovery. OILTI OILE DELOILE ENCO MOB0 OlLP DELOILP RTEO RTEOQ RVFO OILPUL PRMRO SAT0 SATOG SATOR SPGO VISO INC INCA INCB XPO XPOU HTCU EFFR A.
gasoil permeability ratio.VmalVb) porosity of experimental pack porosity of reservoir or formation porosity. effective. length. net period permeability. dimensionless porosity (Vb . to water phases. to oil permeability. f a . magnetic permeability ratio.V. effective.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 287 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol C ~ 2 Computer letter symbol CNC02 UTL02 DIAAVP LTH EFFP Quantity Dimensions Co2 s. relative. absolute (fluid flow) permeability. Ee POR PORA PORE MXP PORH PRX PRXPR PRXSE PORNE PORIG PORIM POREX PORR PORT 4. THKT THKN PER PRM PRMG PRMO PRMW PRMM PRMGO PRMWO PRMRG PRMRO PRMRW NMBP PSN VOLP VOLPQ FLUIQ f. s C~02. secondary porosity.Vgr)lVb) 'porosity' (space). pore volume. relative.ig Oim 4 . Ea fe. wateroil permeability. intermatrix (Vb . dimensionless pore volumes of injected fluid. relative.R 4.) porosity. to water permeability.Vs)/Vb porosity. effective (Vpe/Vb) porosity exponent (cementation) (in an empirical relation between FR and 4. apparent porosity.f oxygen concentration (concentration of other various elements or c o m ~ o u n dwould be indicated as. cumulative. to gas permeability. total ip . mean L path length.1 oxygen utilization particle diameter. hydrocarbonfilled. to oil permeability. ~ 4. number of Poisson's ratio pore volume Vb . or distance L pattern sweep efficiency (developed from areal efficiency by proper weighting for variations in net pay thickness. fraction or percent of rock bulk volume occupied by hydrocarbons porosity index porosity index. noneffective (Vpne/Vb) 'porosity' (space). intergranular (Vb . to gas permeability. primary porosity index.Cii~.rscript 1 % ep D~ Eo. effective. gross (total) pay thickness. porosity and hydrocarbon saturation: hydrocarbon pore space enclosed behind the injectedfluid or heat front divided by total hydrocarbon pore space of the reservoir or project pay thickness. etc.
reservoir prcssure. initial pressure. front or interface pressure function. bottomhole static pressure. static bottomhole pressure. tubing flowing PRSTS prcssure. static tubing PRSTF pressurc. bubblepoint (saturation) pressure. are not applicable) produced frcc gas. bottomhole static. reservoir average PRSSP pressure. extrapolated pressure. dimensionless pressurc. dimensionless. bottomhole general prcssure. and W. injection well pressure. external boundary pressure. injection well pressure. bottomhole pressure pressure. in water phase pressure. critical pressure. flowing bottomhole pressurc. cumulative gas DELGASP prod~~cecl during an interval . PRSI pressurc. bottomhole. separator PRSSC pressure. pseudocritical PRSPC PRS PRD pressure. flowing casing pressure. standard conditions PRSWS pressure. reduced PRSAVR pressure.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter synlbol POT VLT ENGP PRSBH PRS PRSA PRSAV PRSAVR PRSWS PRSWF PRSIWF PRSW PRSWS PRSWW PRSIWS PRS B PRSCP PRSCF PRSCS PRSC PRSD PRSQ PRSE PRSXT PRS WF PRSCF PRSTF PRSF PRSTQQ Q~~anfify Dimensions potential or potential function various potential difference (clectric) potential encrgy pressure. average or mean pressure. dewpoint pressure. average. bottomhole flowing. capillary pressure. static casing PRSCS PRSTS pressure. bottomholc flowing pressure. at dimensionless time t . at any time after shutin prcssure. pseudoreduced PRSRD pressure. cu~nulative (where NI. bottomhole (well). atmospheric pressure. casing static pressure. curnulative GASFP GASP produced gas. casing flowing pressure. flowing tubing prcssure.. tubing static PRXPR primary porosity index NGLP produced coildensate liquidst curnulative FLUP produced fluids.
water RTEWQ production rate. dimensionless RTEO production rate.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol ~ P E & P Computer letter symbol GASPEX GASWGP DENAVL MOLPJ OILP DELOILP WTRP DELWTRP GASWGP GOR GORF Quantity Dimensions G~~ G . oil RTEOQ production rate. dimensionless RTE production rate or flow rate production rate or flow rate at mean pressure RTEPAV RTEAV production rate or flow rate. prior to shutin (pseudotime) PDX productivity index PRAK profit. free (freegas volume/oil volume) FACWO producing wateroil ratio. total proportional to PDXS productivity index.WP PL D produced gas from experimental tube run produced gas. over year k. fraction of unamortized investment PRFT profit. water. cumulative produced oil. dimensionless RTEG production rate. specific TEMPC pseudocritical temperature PRSPC pseudocritical pressure GMFP pseudogeometrical factor (multiplier) (electrical logging) CMPPRD pseudoreduced compressibility PRSPRD pseudoreduced pressure EMFP pseudoSP TEMPRD pseudoreduced temperature TIMP pseudotime (equivalent time well was on production prior to shutin) QLTS quality (usually of steam) 1 . weightweighted average 8 produced moles of component j. cumulative produced oil during an interval produced water. cumulative producedliquid density. gas. annual net. cumulative producing gasoil ratio producing gasoil ratio. dimensionless DELTIMWFproduction time after well is opened to production (presure drawdown) TIMP production time of well. gas RTEGQ production rate. equivalent. wet. over year k PRAPK profit. instantaneous RTEI production rate at beginning of period RTEA production rate at economic abandonment RTEQ production rate. annual. cumulative produced water during an interval produced wet gas. oil. average RTEW production rate.
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter synlbol Reserve SPE letter syn~bol Computer letter symbol Quantity DELRAD HCTJ RAD RADWA RADQ RADE RADHL RADD RADWA RADS RADW INJA RTE RTE NGR ENCG INJG RTEG RTEGQ ENC MENES INJ 1 RCE IRPE IRA M RT VELV HRT RORI ENCO RTEO VELV RTEOQ RTE RTEPAV RTEAV RTEQ RTES SRT VELB ENCW INJW radial distance (increment along radius) radiation heat transfer cocfficient radius radius. apparent or effective (includes effects of well damage or stimulation) radius of well damage or stimulation (skin) radius. interest. oil influx (encroachment) ratc. estimated late. ctc. effective profit. air injection ratc: discount. production. intcrest. true. segregation ( ~ gravity drainage) n rate. oil production. oil production rate per unit area. gamma ray count rate. at mean pressure ratc. per unit area (volumetric velocity) rate of heat flow rate of return (internal. of wellbore (includes cffects of well damage or stimulation) radius. effective con~pound (usually annual) ratc. gas production. of return. nominal annual rate. dimensionless rate. influx (encroachrncnt) random variable. reinvestment. water influx (encroachment) rate. dimensionless radius. hydraulic radius of drainage radius of wellbore. gas production rate. apparent or effective. gas injection rate. dimensionless rate. flow (volumctric velocity) rate. average late. shear rate (veloc~ty) burningzone advance of ratc. mass flow rate of flow or flux. extcrnal boundary radius. gas influx (encroachment) rate. production. water injection it lit it L3/t L3/t m/t Lit ~ " t lit Lit ~ ~ / t L3it . mean value of x. per period rate. or discounted cash flow) or earning power rate. effectivc. production or flow rate. well rate. use symbol i with suitable subscripts rate. injection ratc. flow or production rate. intercst. production. dimensionless rate.
volume per unit volume of burned reservoir rock ratio. mobility.we. Fgos Fgsi ratio. waterfuel ratio. solution gasoil. displacement ratio. mobility. solution gasoil. permeability. initial solution ratio.). at bubblepoint conditions ratio. gasoil. diffusefront a ~ ~ r o x i m a t i o n [(hD + 4). volume per unit volume of burned reservoir rock ratio. volume per unit volume of unburned reservoir rock ratio.l . D signifies displacing. wateroil ratio. oil from burned volume. gasoil ratio. (hdlsplaclnglhdlsplaced) Fi MBR MB~RT Fir F@.J(h. gasoil permeability ratio. airfuel various ratio. gasoil. cumulative ratio. water from burned volume. 1. cumulative L L various . Fgo Fgrb Fgs.Mru GORP GORSI PRMGO GOR GORSB GORS MBR MBRSAV rate. d signifies displaced. mobilitv. Fgo MGO FAC PRMGO GOR PRMWO GORSB GORS GORSI FACWFU FACWOP Fgs b Fgs.l(~d)"n.. sharpfront approximation (LDlhd) ratio.. producing gasoil ratio. initial ratio. solution.%. mobility. gasoil. free producing gasoil (freegas volumeloil volume) ratio. FgoP Fgsi Kg!ko sou Fg. gasoil producing ratio. water production ~ ~ ! t rate. displacement. solution gasoil (gas solubility in oil) ratio. . MDd. Fox F?. water production. . 'swept' and 'unswept' refef to invaded and uninvaded regions behind and ahead of leading edge of a displacement front ratio of initial reservoir freegas volume to initial reservoir oil volume ratio or factor in general (always with identifying subscripts) ratio. total [(A. solution (gas solubility in oil) ratio. wateroil. gasoil. at bubblepoint conditions ratio.) . damage ('skin' conditions relative to formation conditions unaffected by well operations) ratio. dimensionless ratio.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 291 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions RTEW RTEWQ FACAFU DMRS DPR DPROB DPROU DPRWB EQR GORF Fsp. equilibrium (yix) ratio. general .. permeability.. oil from unburned volume. . displacement. mobilities are evaluated at average saturation conditions behind and ahead of Gent ratio.. displacement..
instantaneous reactance reaction ratc constant real part of complex number z reciprocal formation volu~ne factor. volume of ~ Llt ~ ~ . volume at standard conditions divided by volume at reservoir conditions (shrinkage factor) reciprocal gas formation volurnc factor reciprocal gas formation volume factor at bubblepoint conditions reciprocal permeability reciprocal oil formation volume fator (shrinkage factor) rccovery efficiency. averagc resel voir recovery efficiency. producing. reduced teniperature reduction ratio or reduction tcrrn reduction. volumes of air per unit bulk volume of reservoir rock reservoir initial freegas volume (=mNB. air requirement. volume of hydrocarbons recovered divided by volu~nc of hydrocarbons in place at start of project. overall.x reservoir rock burned. ED) .. = [s] = E . SP (general) clue to shaliness rcfraction.i PRMWO FACWO XEL RRC RVF RVFG RVFGB RVFO EFFR b . 1' 'I llless relative amplitude relative atomic mass (atomic weight) relative molecular weight (molecular weight) relative bearing relative density (spccific gravity) relative permeability to gas relative permeability to oil relative permeability to water relaxation time. due to sh. unit air. in reservoir. volume of hydrocarbon? recovcred divided hy volume of hydrocarbons in placc at start of project ( E . wateroil permeability ratio.) reservoir or formation porosity re\ervoir pressure. molccular refraction index reduction ratio. reservoir overall.f. unit air. proton thermal requirement. ult~niate gas reduced pressure . freeprecession decay relaxation time..292 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions  k d (z) script R r. volumes or air per unit mass of pack requireincnt. F GASPUL PKSRD TEMRD RED REDSP MRF RFX REDSH AMPR AWT MWT BRGR SPG PRMRG PRMRO PRMKW TlMAV TIMRP AIR AIREX AIRR GASFI PORR PRSAVR EFFR VOLRB ratio. in laboratory experimental run. SP. wateroil. (ER = E ~ E I E L I E J U ) = recovery.
r R Ran RU Rz KR FR RSO Pgr. ra Pz. mud resistivity. apparent. residual L3 T ML*/~~' mL3tq mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 m~~tq' mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 MIL3 M Lt2/m various . annulus resistivity. formation (FR(Drn) resistivity factor. critical saturation. S. true resistivity index (hydrocarbon) equals RilRo resistivity.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 293 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol VRU Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions V R ~ TR sgr e~ Shr SO. total' Reynolds number (dimensionless number) rock or formation compressibility salinity saturation saturation exponent saturation. oil. of the conductive fluids in an invaded zone (due to fingering) resistivity factor coefficient. ~f c. run Pa.71 Pm. residual saturation. invaded zone resistivity.s psj Ss P ~ cS. shale resistivity. V . rt ZR RESZR REST RSXH RESI RESM RESMC RESMF RESSH RESS RESW GRRU GRRT REYQ CMPF CNC SAT SXP SATG SATGC SATGR SATOG SATWG SATH SATHR SAT0 SATOR vu V N ~ e PI. volume of reservoir temperature residual gas saturation residual hydrocarbon saturation L residual oil saturation residual water saturation resistance resistivity (electrical) resistivity. ~ X O RESXO Ro Rt IR R. C VOLRU TEMR SATGR SATHR SATOR SATWR RST RES RESAN RESA RESZ COER FACHR PSO. mudfiltrate resistivity. surrounding formation resistivity. rz MR. oil saturation. R . Rm R ~ c Rmf Rs~ Rs Rw PoJ"' PC. where flushing has been the maximum) resistivity. resistivity. mudcake resistivity.rmf P s ~r.Sh Phn Shr POJO PorJSor SO Sor reservoir rock unburned. r Pan. water revenue. formation. hydrocarbon saturation. interstitialwater. YW Ru R. ~ C Pgrd'gr P o p SO^ p. Cf C S n sg sgc sgr so. gas saturation. gas. in gas cap saturation. in gas cap saturation.s.a. ~ h Ps. a P. sgr Phrj Shr Port Sor PwrJSwr R P. residual hydrocarbon saturation. gross ('value'). equals RdR. formation. "m Pmo rmc pmf. formation 100% saturated with water of resistivity R.g s h shr kf. resistivity flushed zone (that part of the invaded zone closest to the wall of the borehole. SW. Ph. gross ('value'). per unit produced revenue. apparent resistivity. gas. interstitialoil. YS Pw. a numerical subscript to F indicates the R.
gas in oil (solution gasoil ratio) GWRS solubility. electrokinetic colnponent of EMFSP SP (measured SP) (Self Potential) EMFPSP SP. neutron porosity vs density (absolute valuc) LT srnaller than DENSEX solid particles density of cxperimental rock VOLS solid(s) volume (volume of all formation solids) DENMA solids (matrix.. gas rn/~t~ lit various L various L various t~'/m .) ELMS shear modulus SRT shcar rate AMPS shear wave amplitude RVFO shrinkage factor (reciprocal oil formation volume factor) PRSWS shutin bottomhole pressure. F.si @k @sl. pseudo EMFSSP SP. < . critical saturation.F. ~cn)/(~slr ~ . grain) density G O RS solubility. water saturation. water. gas in water GORSB solution gasoil ratio at bubblepoint conditions GORS solution gasoil ratio (gas solubility in oil) GORSl solution gasoil ratio.SP s. J t GI< sr F@f> Fgs. interval transit time vs density (absolute value) SND slope.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Comynter letter symbol PRSB SATL SATW SATWC SATWI SATIW SATWR PRXSE RTES PRSSP TACSH RESSH SHXGR Quantity Dimensions 4s J' \P fsh script t RSJ.YCI. ( script 1 . total (combined) liquid saturation. at any time DELTIMWS shutin timc (time after well is shut in) (pressure buildup) DSCSP single payment tiiscount factor DSCSPC single payment discount factor (constant annual rate) SKD skin depth (logging) SKN skin effect RADS skin radius (radius of well damage or stimulation) SLP slope SAD slope. 3 . water. residual secondary porosity index segregation rate (in gravity drainage) separator pressure shale interval transit time shale resistivity shaliness gammarav index ( Y . initiai EMFC SP.Fps Fq. saturation or bubblepoint pressure saturation. initial saturation. 0 s.. water. watcr irreducible saturation. electrochemical component of EMFK SP. static (SSP) LENS spacing (electrical logging) HERS specific entropy SPG specific gravity (relative density) SPGG specific gravity. Qpsp @S.
water specific heat capacity (always with phase 2r system subscripts) specific heat capacity ratio specific injectivity index specific productivity index specific volume specific weight SSP (static SP) stabilization time of a well standard deviation of a random variable standard deviation of a random variable. magnetic temperature ' temperature. 8. oil specific gravity. use appropriate phase subscripts) surface production rate surface tension. interfacial surrounding formation resistivity susceptibility. gross pay (total) various mILt2 m/Lt2 L3/t m/t2 mL3ttq2 mL/q T T T T TIL T T T T T m/t2 . estimated static bottomhole pressure. volume stream function stress. reservoir temperature. bottomhole. shear strain. Qsc Js v Fwv Essp ts 0 S Piws Pws Pcs ts 7s E P Y 8 Y 0 T C U L'?Y Ps. standard conditions tension. shear summation (operator) superficial phase velocity (flux rate of a particular fluid phase flowing in pipe. rs K 8 ~ B H ec Of gh 8PC 8r . bottomhole temperature. normal and general strain. formation temperature gradient temperature. pseudocritical temperature. injection well static pressure. critical temperature. @R 8sc Y>Y RTESC SFT RESS SUSM TEM TEMBH TEMC TEMF GRDT TEMPC TEMPRD TEMRD TEMR TEMSC SFT HCN HEC HTD THK THKT specific gravity. tubing stimulation or damage radius of well (skin) strain. surface (interfacial) tensor of x thermal conductivity (always with additional phase or system subscripts) thermal cubic expansion coefficient thermal or heat diffusivity thickness (general and individual bed) thickness. normal and general stress. at any time after shutin static pressure. casing static pressure. reduced temperature.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 295 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions SPGO SPGW HSP HSPR IJXS PDXS SPV WGTS EMFSSP TIMS SDV SDVES PRSIWS PRSWS PRSCS PRSTS RADS STN STNS STNV STR STS STSS SUM VELV 40. pseudoreduced temperature.
h U I r script t /. dimensionless at condition rn TIMS time for stabilization of a well TAC time. Laplace of y (J) script L . e.. electric TORHL tortuosity.z script t 7 j script t script t I. hydraulic SATL total (combined) liquid saturation HER total entropy MOBT total mobility of all fluids in a particular region of the reservoir. interval TACA transit time.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter sym b01 Quantity Dimensions tt1 lnnr f5 rscript t i. payout (payoff. script t Y TIHKMC thickness. fluid TACMA time. + h. shale TIMDN time. interval transit.. matrix TACSIl time. heat. dimensioi~less TIMMQ timc. equivalent (pseudotime) TOR tortuosity TORE tortuosity.. matrix interval TACSH transit tirne. payback) DELTIM time period or interval.c.7J(hl) 1. heat. apparent. overall HTCI transfer coefficient. convectivc heat HTCU transfer coefficient. (h. apparent TACF time. .g. gross (total) THKN thickness. mudcake THKT thickness. neutron decay (neutron mean life) TIMPO time. interval transit.. net pay TIM time DELTIMWF time after well is opened to production (pressure drawdown) DELTIMWS time after well is shut in (pressure buildup) TIMC time constant TTMD time.) MB R T total mobility ratio [(hc)s. pay. 'swept' and 'unswept' refer to invaded and uninvaded regions behind and ahcad of leading edge of a displacement front THKT total (gross) pay thickness GRRT total gross revenue ('value') GASTI total initial gas in placc in reservoir NMBM total moles PORT total porosity FVFT total (twophase) formation volume factor HTCC transfer coefficient. fixcd length) TIMQ time. script t qscript t . interval transit TACA time. + h. dclay DELTIM time difference (time period or interval. decay (mean life) (11 h) TIMD time.~. interval transit. fixed length TIMP time well was on production prior to shutin./ script t /. shale interval transform. v G n W1 B.. .h script t t d ~ h. fluid interval TACMA transit timc. illtcrval TACF transit time. radiation TAC transit timc. interval transit.
mole fraction of component vapour phase. variable transmissivity. gas viscosity. moles of vaporization. estimated vector of x velocity velocity. volume of unit air requirement in laboratory experimental run. oxygen valence vapour phase. shale acoustic velocity (rate) of burningzone advance vertical (invasion) efficiency: hydrocarbon pore space invaded (affected. water volume volume at bubblepoint pressure volume. acoustic apparent (measured) velocity. flowing tubing pressure. transmissibility true density true formation resistivity z true geometrical factor (multiplier) (noninvaded zone) (electrical logging) tubing pressure. dynamic viscosity. acoustic fluid velocity.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 297 Letter symbol Reserve SPE ktter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions TRM DENT REST GMFT PRSTF PRSTS FACB FVFT GASPUL INVUK VOLRU AIREX AIRR CNCFU RRR UTL02 VAL MFRV MOLV HLTV VAR VARES VEL VAC VACA VACF VACMA VACSH VELB EFFI VISA VISPAV VIS VISG VISGA VSK VISO VISW VOL VOLBP VOLB transform. latent heat of variance of a random variable variance of a random variable. oil viscosity. Laplace. air viscosity at mean pressure viscosity. matrix acoustic velocity. static turbulence factor twophase or total formation volume factor ultimate gas recovery unamortized investment over year k undiscounted cash flow unburned reservoir rock. contacted) by the injectedfluid or heat front divided by the hydrocarbon pore space enclosed in all layers behind the injectedfluid or heat front viscosity. at 1atm viscosity. acoustic velocity. volumes of air per unit mass of pack unit air requirement in reservoir. kinematic viscosity. gas. volumes of air per bulk volume of reservoir rock unit fuel concentration (see symbol m) universal gas constant (per mole) utilization. bulk various m / ~ ~ mL3tq2 various mL2/t2~ Lit Lit Lit Lit Lit Lit Lit miLt m/Lt miLt miLt miLt i it m/Lt miLt .
of pack burned in experiment.) volume. shale. v. shale. noneffective pore (V. consists of fluids and all shales) ( Vb .. intergranular (volumc between grains.V g r ) volume. ~script l . initial reservoir (=rnNl. . dimensionless volume. in situ cornbustion pattern volumetric efficiency: product of pattern sweep and invasion efficiencies volumetric flow rate volun~etric flow rate downhole volumetric flow rate. matrix (framework) (volume of all formation solids except dispersed shale) volumc. pore.298 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter sy~ii bol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol VOLBEX VOLG VLF Quantity  GASFI VOLGR VOLIG VOLTM VOLMA VR. freegas.) volume. note that bulk volume fraction is unity and pore volulne fractions are $1) volume..) volume.) volume of reservoir rock burned volume of reservoir rock unburned volume per mole (molal volume) volume. structural volurne. per unit area) water (always with identifying subscripts) water compressibility water density water displaced from burned volume. specific volumetric efficiency for burned portion only. ~ntermatrix (consists of fluids and dispersed shale) (V!.V.. "S/L> V. bulk. . volume per unit volume of burned reservoir rock waterdrive constant waterdrive constant. pore (VI. grain (volume of all formation solids except shales) volume. shale.'i I run volume. effective permeability to L3 various ~'lt ~'/t L3lt m/Lt2~ Lit various Lt2/m m/L3 ..w V P vp n Vh Fd Vshl script 1 Vrhr VAL "P V[.Sh VOLNE VOLRB VOLRU VOLM VOLP VOLPQ VOLSHD VSHLAM VOLSHS VOLSH VOLS SPV EFFVB EFFV RTE RTEDH RTESC HSPV VELV WTR CMPW DENW DPRWB WDC WDCL PRMW volume. effective pore volume fraction or ratio (as needed. use same subscripted symbols as for 'volumes'. laminated volume.<u V.V. dispersed volume.V. . linear aquifer water...D vslrd v . surface conditions volumetric heat capacity volumetric velocity (flow rate or flux. shale(s) (volume of all shales: structural and dispersed) volume. solid(s) (volume of all formation solids) volume.
invaded various various L3 . relative permeability to water resistivity water saturation water saturation. initial water saturation (interstitial) in oil band water saturation in gas cap. instantaneous water produced. breadth. critical water saturation. molecular well radius well radius of damage or stimulation (skin) well stabilization time wellbore radius. cumulative width. irreducible water saturation. producing. gas solubility in c water in place in reservoir. invaded. or (primarily in fracturing) thickness work Young's modulus (modulus of elasticity) zone diameter. effective or apparent (includes effects of well damage or stimulation wetgas content wet gas produced. dimensionless water. cumulative water produced during an interval water production rate water production rate. residual water specific gravity water viscosity wave length (110) wave number (lih) weight (gravitational) weightweighted average density of produced liquid L weight. electrically equivalent zone resistivity. atomic weight. cumulative water influx (encroachment) during an interval water influx (encroachment) rate water injected.SPE NOMENCLATUREAND UNITS 299 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions FVFW FACWFU GWRS WTRTI WTRE DELWTRE ENCW WTRI DELWTRI INJW MOBW PRMWO FACWOP FACWO WTRP DELWTRP RTEW RTEWQ PRMRW RESW SATW SATWC SATWI SATWO SATWG SATIW SATWR SPGW VISW WVL WVN WGT DENAVL AWT MWT RADW RADS TIMS RADWA CNTWG GASWGP WTH W Y D i Pi. interstitial water saturation."i WRK ELMY DIAI RESI water formation volume factor waterfuel ratio water. cumulative wateroil ratio. cumulative water injected during an interval water injection rate water mobility wateroil permeability ratio wateroil ratio. initial water influx (encroachment).
solution at (usually with gasoil ratio. volumetric of (usually with efficiency. neutron NA active. Subscripts alphabetized by physical quantity Subscript definitio~~ Letter subscript Reserve SPE subscript Computer letter subscript A A NA A A A AFU A A THE AH AN1 AN A WA A A PAV SAV B B B B CB TV BH WF WS E BT B OB abandonment a acoustic a activation log. B.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE B. or angular coordinate 6' theta anhydrite anh anisotropic ani annulus apparent (from log readings. ED. activity. atmospheric average or mean pressure average or mean saturation band or oil band bank or bank region base before taxes bond log... external breakthrough bubble bubblepoint conditions.. cement borehole tcleviewer log bottom hole bottomhole. oil at (usually with formation volume factor. Evb) burned reservoir rock  s.) burned in experimental tube run (usually with volume.) burned portion of in situ combustion pattern. flowing (usually with pressure or time) bottomhole. displacement from (usually with efficiency. use tool description subscripts) apparcnt (general) apparent wellbore (usually with wellbore radius) areal atmosphere.BH B BEX . fl beta B cb tv w.) bubble point (saturation) bubblepoint or saturation (usually with volumc. VbC) burned or burning burned portion of in situ combustion pattern.) bubblepoint conditions... or acting a after taxes a air a airfuel uF altered a amplitude log A angle. static (usually with pressure or time) boundary conditions. Vbp) bulk (usually w ~ t h volume V!. p rho B r. angular. R.
static (usually with pressure) cement bond log chemical chlorine log clay clean coil compaction compensated density log compensated neutron log component(s) component j component j produced (usually with moles.. 6.) contact log. n. GLp) damage or damaged (includes 'skin' conditions) decay deep induction log deep laterolog delay cl cla cln C C INF C INF C C z C COY C C e I COR CR E S d ID LLD d id &d script 11 6 delta S D ID LLD D . g. oil from (usually with displacement ratio. 0. microlog. minilog convective conversion (usually with conversion factor in Newton's law of motion.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 301 Subscript definition Letter subscript Reserve SPE subscript Computer letter subscript burned volume.) calculated caliper log capillary (usually with capillary pressure.) core corrected critical cumulative influx (encroachment) cumulative injected cumulative produced cumulative produced free value (usually with gas. PC) capture carbon dioxide carbon monoxide casing or casinghead casing.) compressional wave conditions for infinite dimensions conductive liquids in invaded zone constant contact (usually with contact angle. GFp) cumulative produced liquid (usually with condensate.. bob) burned volume water from (usually with displacement ratio. flowing (usually with pressure) casing.
Eo. a.D DH di d///scriyt11 E E ec e ek el. depletion dewpoint differential separation differential temperature log diffusivity dimensionless pore value (usually with volume V. compensated density log depleted region. ES . cumulative entry epithcrmal neutron log eqivalent estimated ethane experimental CD D d d d DT rl eta PD D Dnz tD wD d DM DR dy PV d K d Db Du D do1 dh d DI DLL e e e C cd d 6 delta dt RHO CD D D D D DT ETA PQ Q QM TQ WQ D DM DR DY PV D K DD DB DU s...scripf Computer letter subscript density density log. electrical survey electromagnetic pipe inspection log electron empirical encroachment (influx).J displacing or displacement (efficiency) dolomite downhole drainage (usually with drainagc radius. clcctrical log. present worth. shaly) discounted value.302 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Subscript definition Letter srrbscript p rho Reserve SPE sub..) displacement from ilnburned portion of in silu combustion pattern (usually with efficiency. Enr.) din~ensionless quantity dimensionless quantity at condition m dimensionless time dimensionless watcr dip (usually with angle.) diplog. o sigma dm dr dty Pv D d s. or present value disperscd dispersion displaced displacement frorn burncd portion of in sitr~ combustion pattern (usually with efficiency. electrical electrochemical electrode electrokinetic electrolog. rd) dual induction log dual latervlog earth effective (or equivalent) clcctric../ E k EL EP el E C DN DL DH D D1 DLL E E E C E K EL e NE eq E c 2 script el EM i E r1e EV eSt el' E EX EP E EM E E NE EV ES C2 EX . dipmeter directional survey dirty (clayey.
dimensionless gasoil.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS Subscript definition Letter subscript Reserve SPE subscript Computer letter subscript experimental value per mole of produced gas (usually with fuel consumption.) geometrical geothermal grain grain (matrix. initial (usually with gas.. oil in (usually with saturation. mE. fractured or fracturing free (usually with gas or gasoil ratio quantities) free fluid free value. solution (usually with gasoil ratios) gaswater. GFp) free value. gas. surrounding fraction or fractional fracture. front region. mass of (usually with fuel concentration.) external.) fuel (usually with fuel properties. C. water in (usually with saturation. injection well (usually with pressure. (usually with gas. outer boundary conditions extrapolated fast neutron log fillup finger or fingering flash separation flowing bottomhole (usually with pressure or time) flowing casing (usually with pressure) flowing conditions. S) . GFz) front. R. plYf) flowing conditions. solution (usually with gas solubility in water. or interface fuel.) gas cap. conductive flushed zone formation 100% saturated with water (used in Ro only) formation (rock) formation. well (usually with time) flowing tubing (usually with pressure) fluid fluids in an invaded zone. So. solids) gravity meter log gross (total) guard log gypsum half Eg e o EXG E XT NF ext NF F f f wf cf 1 ' F F L F F F WF IWF if w CF f Z t f ~f f P WF TF F xo 0 zero z xo 7ZR . such as pF) gammagamma ray log gamma ray log gas gas at atmospheric conditions gas at bubblepoint conditions gas cap. cumulative produced.
cumulative injection. script i id i di i m i i Fi si I i i iwl iws I inj inncr or interior interface. rcsidual hydrogen sulphide imbibition induction log. GFi) initial solution (usually with gasoil ratio.s lim . dual lifetime log. injection wcll.s) pi. t iota. lamination lateral (resistivity) log latcrolog (add further tool configur a t'lon subscripts as needed) laterolog. 8 theta h~ Cornputer letter subscript HT HP H H HL H HY HR H2S I ID I D1 IM INF E I FI S1 I 1 I IWF IWS heat or thermal heavy phase hole horizontal hydraulic hydrocarbon hydrogen nuclei or atoms hydrocarbon. dual induction log. ~irt. EI) irreducible jth component jth component. flowing conditions (usually with pressure. conditions for influx (encroachment). deep investigation induction log induction log. script i L i im i in t i z iota. medium investigation infinite diincnsions. script i I I I I?/ j /script l ('script L L LL I Z 1 I ir.vj) HP 1 1 H h N H h H hr H2S I ID I DI IM cc P H . Rsi) initial value or conditions injected. produced junction larnillar laminated. T D T light phase limestone limiting value i. neutron.. script i F i. front region. script i I R J PJ J L LAM L LAM / script 1 L n script 1 1 LL d #'script II n . injected or injecting injection well. conductivc liquids i11an invasion (usually with invasion efficiency. static coilditions (usnally with pressure.. or front interference intergranular intcrmatrix internal intrinsic invaded invaded zone invaded zone.304 Subscript definition PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter subscript 12 Reserve SPE subscript T. cumulative initial conditions or value initial free value (usually with gas.script 1 / j r script 1 1st DLL PNL LP LS LM I I I F I IG IM I I I DLL PNL LP 1. . 1 I is iota..
variable density log minimum mixture mobility molal (usually with volume. minilog.3. cumulative (usually with condensate GLp) location subscripts. CnJ matrlx (solids. conductive. epithermal neutron log. invaded zone liquid produced. payment.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS Subscript definition Letter subscript Reserve SPE subscript t script 1 d script 1 305 linear. usage is secondary to that for representing times or time periods 1% lower magnetism log. period. or unit nuclear magnetism log L L z Computer lltter subscript L L Z LP z 1. lineal liquid or liquid phase liquids.lambda M M M m m mc mf n N n NA nu PNL . compensated neutron log neutron log. ?. LOG tscript 1 NM m ma ma max P 1% L nm L L NM FU MA MA MX PAV SAV IM C1 MLL ML VD MN M LAM S 7. contact log microseismogram log. N16) normalized (fractional or relative) nth year. ngscript 1 CN cn N M NE ne NF nf SN sn NT nt N2 M M M MC MF N N NA PNL CN ne nw n N n n NIV NW n r. TDT neutron log.2. e.. etc. VAW) Mth period or interval mud mud cake mud filtrate net neutron neutron activation log neutron lifetime log. income. except (nonstructural) clay or shale] maximum mean or average pressure mean or average saturation medium investigation induction log methane microlaterolog microlog. fast neutron log.g. thermal nitrogen noneffective nonwetting normal normal (resistivity) log (add numerical spacing to subscript to N. signature log. nuclear mass of fuel (usually with fuel concentration. sidewall neutron log. grain) matrix [solids. p rho IM CI MLL ML VD im mflscript 1 1 miscript 1 vd min M 2. R N nm N NE NF SN NT N2 NE NW N N N N NM .
dimensionless oil oil from burned volume (usually with displacement ratio. E epsilon f .) P 1c K Po K C P P P P k P EP I' 17n porosity porosity data pressure.unamortized invcstmcnt proximity log pseudo pseudocri tical pseudodimensionless pseudorcduccd pseudoSP radial radius.) profit .) payout. element.) production period (usually will2 time... 1. or radial distance rate of return '//. Reserve SPE subscript Co~npnter letter subscript numericnl subscripts (intended primarily lo represent times or time periods.. r~. E..306 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Subscript defi~litio~l Letter subscript 1. etc. FM.. mean or average primary produccd produced component j (usually with moles. G.. cumulative (usually with gas.3.) produced wateroil (cumulative) (usually with cumulative wateroil ratio. OB oh OB OB o n o ob ou N. purticular period. payoff.2. cumul at' v e ~ (usually with condensate.. elcctrornagnetic pore (usually with volume. n OQ 0 OB OU o oS e 0 2 4. V. radial. cumulative produced free value. sol. S. pri P I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I PE LP IY 01) PEX WOP I I i I P Plc P P I'C P 1) PD Pr pSP r r r P PK P P PC PQ PRD PSP R R R I I I ! i . or payback permeability phase or phases pipe inspection log. E cpsilon 11. or intervril pattern (usually with pattern efficiency. Bob) oil.) oil from unburned volume (usually with displacement ratio.) pore value... GFp) produced in experimciit produced liquid.) oil in gas cap (usually with saturation.. available secondarily as location subscripts or for other purposes) observed oil at bubblepoint conditions (usually with formation volume factor..) produced.) outer (external) oxygc11 particle (usually with diameter.s> OG E 02 P K P PO K P EP P PQ PHI P PAV PR P PJ P FP I \ 1 i I i 1i P 1 one P PI P F ~ j 4 phi 4 phi  f . dimensionless (usually with volumc. S.
mean or average saturation or bubble point saturation or bubble point (usually with volume.) separator conditions shale shallow laterolog shear shear wave sidewall sidewall neutron log signature log. burned reservoir rock.) rock (formation) sand sandstone saturation. unburned residual residual hydrocarbon resistivity resistivity log Reynolds (used with Reynolds number only.m o sigma SP SH LLS SL SP S S M S SEX MA SB . scattering secondary segregation (usually with segregation rate. rho S F SD SS SAV B BP SC 2 two S s. p rho R r c r. R. tool sonic velocity log b. Rsb) solution in water (usually with gas solubility in water. 9.. initial (usually with gasoil ratio.) solution.) solution (usually with gasoil ratios) sonde. o sigma sha a s script 1 1 t tau T tau SJV sn vd slt S o sigma 2. p rho fm sa sst 7. grain) solution at bubblepoint conditions (usually with gasoil ratio. variable density log silt single payment skin (stimulation or damage) slip or slippage slurry ('mixture') solid(s) (all formation solids) solids in experiment solids (matrix. ER) reduced reference relative reservoir reservoir rock.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 307 Subscript definition Letter subscript Reserve SPE subscript Computer letter subscript recovery (usually with recovery efficiency. Vbp) scattered. NR. R. microseismogram log.sec S..
borellolc temperature ternperaturc log temperature log.h dt T. a sigma ts ws s .3. T ti t T T t T.F st S t. t t T t I tau tr 4 1 & ul U ts B 11 LL u DM Ru T TI T T T T T TF T TS B UL U U DU RU . dimensionless times or time periods tooldescription subscripts: see individual entries SLICII as 'amplitude log'. 8 theta t.SPE subscript SP Computer letter subscripf SP L S SSP S SC WS CS IWS WS TS WS S S ST S EPS ST S S S S PNL TV T T DT HT PNL NT TQ SP spacing specific (usual1y with J and 4 SSP stabilization (usually with time) standard collditions static bottomhole (usually with pressure or time) static casing (usually with pressure) static conditions. injection well (usually with pressure) static or shutin conditions (usually with time) static tubing (usually with pressure) static well conditions (usually with time) steam or steam zone stimulation (includes 'skin' conditions) stocktank conditions storage or storage capacity strain structural surface surrounding formation swept or swept region system T D T log.epsilon e s st s o sigma S.3) ultimate unamortized unburned unburned portion of in situ colllbustion pattern displacement from (usually with efficiency. etc. ED. static (usually with pressure) turbulence (used with F only. differential thermal (heat) thermal decay time (TDT) log thermal neutron log time.308 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Subscript definition Letter subscript SF' s s Reserve . 'neutron log.2.s s S S s. 8 theta pnrscript 1 nt s s s PNL TV T T DT h PNL NT tD 1.L) unburned reservoir rock SSP s S sc ws cs o sigma iws ws . etc.. o sigma a sigma pn/ script 1 tv h. F.'. sonde total initial in place in reservoir total (gross) total. total system transinissibility treatment or treating true (opposed to apparent) tubing flowing (usually with pressure) tubing or tubinghead tubing. tool. neutron lifetime log televiewer log.
. apparent (usually with wellbore radius.) wateroil produced (cumulative) . oil from (usually with displacement ratio. r. vapour.. signature log velocity velocity.) watersaturated formation. dimensionless water from burned volume (usually with displacement ratio. invaded WgP w Y 0 zero z W zr xo i I .. static conditions (usually with pressure p. S. Ebb) volume or volumetric water water. static conditions (usually with time) wellbore.) wateroil (usually with instantaneous producing wateroil ratio. flushed zone.) unit unswept or unswept region upper vaporization... gwb) waterfuel water in gas cap (usually with saturation. refers to zero hydrocarbon saturation zone. F. injection. F) water.SPE NOMENCLATUREAND UNITS 309 Subscript definition Letfer subscript Reserve SPE subscript Computer letter subscript unburned volume.> ou OU u u U U U U * v V vd VD v SV U U U V VD V SV V VB V sv v v W V Vb V w WD wb wF Wg V W WQ WB WFU WG WO WOP SW wo WOP sw 0 zero W w wf ws iwf iws ws c zr w f s ZR W W WF WS IWF IWS WS WA wa wh Wg t h WH WG WGP W Y ZR Z XO I wet gas produced wetting Young's modulus. 100% weight well conditions well. flowing conditions (usually with time) well. microseismogram log.) wellhead wet gas (usually with composition or content.) well. flowing conditions (usually with pressurepLWf) well.. 6. sonic or acoustic log vertical volumetric of burned portion of in st combustion iu pattern (usually with efficiency. R. conductive fluids in an invaded zone. (usually with cumulative wateroil ratio. solution in (usually with gas solubility in water. injection.. static conditions (usually with time) well. or vapour phase variable density log. cw.
.) (N.1 Casing Design Example (a) The buoyancy factor (BF) is glven by SGsreel.35 = 5.085 X 4500 x 12 X 10%' = 2.: 011 co~~verted s o u ~ c rock for c Trapl?ed o ~ ( = OIP) l = 5 x 4500 x 12 x 10"mi = 0. i. Thc UK Government's 1983 'Brown Book' indicates a probable rangcof techllically recoverable reserves between 11 and 23 x 10" STB.4rm'lsm'.l For the external system: and for the internal fluid system: . We will assume that the combination of oil expellcd from source rocks and trapped in potential structures represents some 8% of the collverted source rocks.4 rm3/sm3this yields a stock tank oil in place of 1.) Chapter 3 Solution 3..B.54 x 10"' x 0.54 X 10"' sm3. will be calculated it dctcr~ninistically..SCJtluld BF = SG. I6 x 10"' mi Assuming an average formation volu~ne factor of 1.35 this yields 21 recoverable reserve of 1.1 Although this problem should place probabilistic rangcs on the given data and assu~nptions. For an assumed overall technical recovery factor of 0.c. assuming an oil formation volu~lle factor of 1.Appendix 2 Solutions to Examples Chapter 2 Solution 2.4 x lo9 sm3 (This is ecluivalcnt to 34 X lo9 STB.
0. (b) For the design weight of casing (CWT) we have CWT = weight in air x BR where the buoyancy ratio BR is given by BF for outside mud system 0. tension is not a problem so a n h ~ joint with long threads is sufficient.11520) = 1480 ft .831 11630 .755 BR = .433 = 0.1). and 0.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES point (NP) is thus the depth at which the string above is in tension and below in compression. 8000 + (internal fluid head) .8311 = 4164psi As burst pressure of 23 ppf casing is given as 11780 psi no problem arlses.831 Rounding off.0.885 BF for internal fluid system 0.0. 20 ppf and can be set below the neutral point (see Table A3.(external fluid head) Internal pressure gradient = (SG x 0. 23 ppf has the next highest collapse pressure to P110.14000 ft for 23 ppf casing 0.831 psilft The collapse limit of the P110 casing of the various weights is given from Table A3.1 as  9570 .755 = 9820 ft This is rounded off to 9800 ft.8311 = 4647 psi no problem arises.498 .498 .885 = 30125 lbs.10 070 = 1450 ft (ii) Burst check 8000 10 070 [0.92 X 0.15 X 0.853 (c) In the lower section we can check criteria: (i) Collapse The external mud gradient is SG x 0.433) = 1.433 psi!ft = 1.10072 ft 0. The ~p = 13000 X BF = 13000 X 0. that is (13000 . internal differential is: (max surface pressure) . we can propose a section length of 11 520 .'.498 psiift + 11520 [0. (iii) Joint strength calculation check Since the entire section is below2the neutral point. At 11 520 ft.433 = 0. 8370 (i) Collapse limit = .11520 ft for 20 ppf casing.831 : Use 23 ppf casing from bottom to 11520 ft. + .. (NB no tension problem since neutral point is at 9800 ft.) (ii) Burst check Since a more dense mud is used outside the casing then the greatest interna1:external pressure difference is at the top of each section. 1 (iv) Design weight for the section (CWT) CWT = Design length x wt per foot x BR = 1480 x 23 x 0. (d) For the next section N80.
.0..8311 = 5369 psi This is w~thin tolerance ot both 20 and 23 ppf N80 the (iii) Joint strength clicck Section design weight = (2170 x 20 x 885) Total design weight = 38 109 54 920 = 93 329 lb +  38 409 Ih We can see that the joint strengths of 20 and 23 ppf N80 casing are both greater than the design weights (Table A3.83 Collapse limit is 0.1) to obtain the percent of full collapse pressure that is appropriate.0815 is 0. a depth can bc rcachcd where either collapse or burst may control.831 . It is considered more econon~ical design for N80.1): 23 ppf : 251 000 Ib 20 ppf : 2 14 000 I h (f) In abnormal pressure wells.For the minimum yield strength (Y. A design t r ~ afor the l next section is made using 17 ppf N80. to 6930 = (i) Collapse limit = .312 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (iii) As we are below the neutral point no joint strength problem weight for this section (iv) Des~gn 1450 x 20 x 0. giving 2170 feet of caslng requ~red between Wc could converge a little Ilctter hut m~ght 7900 and 10 070 ft (11)B u s t check for ~ntcrnal d~tferentinl 7900 ft at = 8000 + 7900 [0. We calculate the ratio (R) for unit tensile stress to mininiuni yield strength using the ellipsc of biaxial yield stress curve (Fig. round to 8340 ft 0.83 1 This is above the neutral point and therefore subject to the weight of casing above.828) We have to choose D such that the reduction factor (FK) currclated with R to obtain thc cffcctive collapse depth is consistent: This is solved by trial and we might choose D to be 7900 ft Froin Fig. A Assume casing above neutial point is 20 ppf 20 (9800 .1 the plain end area (A) of 20 ppf N80 is 5. From Table A3.956 x .D) R = 80 000 (5. A3.7972 ft accept 7900 tt a\ a 5ultahlc depth.855 = 24 795 lb Total weight calculated so far = (30 125 + 24 795) = 54 920 Ib.1 the value o f FRcorresponding to 0.) of 80000 psi we have: weight in air of casing above neutral point R= Y .956% 6930 0. (e) In the next section we might consider [he use of P11017 ppf but only a rclatively short section could be used.8339 ft.498 .20 ppf. . 5240 (i) Collapse check = 6305 ft 0. A3.828 inL.
1800) = 6080 ft (iii) Joint strength check Design weight for section is (6080 X 20 Total weight is 107 616 93329 = 200 945 Ib + X 0. i.831 .498 The depth that 17 ppf N80 will withstand the internal pressure differential is below its allowable collapse depth and this grade cannot be used in this part of the design.498 .831 . giving FR = 0.962 (80 000) + and a collapse limit of 5573 ft which is in tolerance The possible length of this section is thus (7900 .5430) = 0.7400 Depth = = 1802 ft.202.6180 = 5466 ft Depth = 0.0.5430) = 2470 ft (ii) Burst check Internal differential at 5430 ft = 8000 (5430 [0.8311) = 6192 psi + The burst strength of 17 ppf N80 is quoted in Table A3. 8000 .7900) 17(7900 . . The burst strength for this is 7400 psi.17 ppf grade casing.498 This means that we could design a section of length (7900 .885) = 107 616 lb The joint strength for 20 ppf N80 is given in Table A3.Of full collopse pressure We can converge on a reduced setting depth of 5430 feet.0. the depth equivalent to a burst stiength of 6180 psi. 20(9800 . round up to 1820 ft 0. We have so far designed 11 180 ft of the total well depth of 13000 ft.1 as 6180 psi. 8000 .884 R= 4.0.e. The remaining 1820 ft are considered using P110.1 as 214000 lb. We must check the depth at which burst governs. We must therefore consider using 20 ppf N80 as we know that this is collapse designed down to 7900 ft.
1 gives burst rating as 8500 psi. Bu/:c. (11) We can summarize the design as follows: + Length jfr) 1820 8250 1450 1480 Caring Grude 17 ppfP1 10 L 20 ppt N80 L 23 ppt N80 L 23 ppf P110 L It should he cmphasizcd that this design is one of many combinations which may he acceptable and optimization in terms of cco~~omicspossible. we have Minirnum setting depth is 13 000  6407 = 6593 A. = Pi.) = 80 = 000 p s ~ N80 for 110 000 psi for P110 . F. S.1 Casing data for example (Grade N80L/P110L 5. S. above 13 000 fcct. (iii) Joint strength check Design weight of section added = 1820 x 17 x 0.885 = 27382 Ih Sectiotz Surface .11 520 11 520 13 000  Total string weight = 27 382 200 945 Joint strength of P.. = 5915 .8 X D ' ) Sctting P.I10 L = 247 000 Ib design is acceptable.831 a proposed setting at 1820 ft is acceptable.) W(111thickiiess Collapse incl.2 The average gradients give a p o x pressure at 13 000 ft of 13 000 X 0. OD. is Solution 3. Wright (Il~lji) TABLE A3. the gas and fracture gradients to a common pressure.1820 1820 10 070 10 070 . wk.(0.) psi Section ~lreu (in2) Minimurn yield strength (Y. (ii) Burst check Internal difference at top of string is 8000 psi (max) and Table A3.tstrength Joint .F.) ZOOOlh (PS~ (incl. press (incl.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (g) (i) Collapse check Setting depth = 7000 (0.78) = 6570 ft 0.1 X D ' ) Pi. = 10 400 . therefore design is acceptahle.455 = 5915 psi and a fractu~e pressure at 13 000 ft of 13 000 X 0 80 = 10 400 pv 'Hie minimum setting depth is givcn by equating..strength (in) safety factor irzl.(0. If the distance abovc 13 000 ft is 1)' tlicn I'.5 in.
5 11.38 (b) Specific gravity = . inverse scale.0 (c) 1= 670.32 1. 4. ul = 0.0485 psi ftI = 6.90 0.825 (fig 4.0. API = 10.16 = 18. Water SG = 1.5 MW 18.3 (Fig.7 35.235 BBLIMSCF I" (h) From graphs.7 Gas density = .38 X 14.3 1= 371.7 27.1 NB API gravity is nonlinear.825 x 10.6 = 2.615 = 1.8 x 10.977 Gas gradient = lad psilft = 0.38 673 708 617 55 1 605.8) and Ratio .732 x 595 6.03 0.28.38 X 2000 (f) Density = = = 6.6 343 550 666 765 (c) 308.0116 (Fig.05 0.4 1.977 lbft3 zRT 0.97 .= 1.9 X 5.015 cp .02 16 30 44 58 (a) 14.5 19.. Solution 4.634 28.97 m MP 18.= 0.5 1.' lbft3 V RT 10.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Chapter 4 Solution 4.9) Po Y Therefore y = 0. 4..= = = 4.7) * MP 18.98 (e) From graphs z = 0. = 2000 670.9 15.4 18.732 x 520 (d) At 2000 psia and 595"R P.2 C1 C2 C3 C4 0.
3 c.44 x 4100 = 1804 psi Since gas has a srnaller density than water. thus thc tlcnsity takes the value calculated in (f). it will lie above water. and pressure is 4600 x 0. + coSu + cWSM.5 psi Assuming the mud to he incornpressible.0485 x 1000 = 48. C'~..977 Ib ft" (or gradient 0.44 = 2024 psi Assuming the gas density relnains constant fol.0485 psi ftI).58 Solution 4.5 psi 144 Therefore p = 99. Assume too that density of gas is a constant over the distances concerned.5 = 1975.0 Ibslcu tt 1.5psi Therefore pressurc of mud at this point will be = 1975.7) of z VS.1000 ft.48. specific gravity of mud = 1. 4. 6. and that the reservoir tcmperatule is 135"F.. prcssures are equal. gaswatcr contact is a1 4600 ft SS. From the given data clearly this gaswater contact will bc below 4100 ft. let density of lnud =p lbslcu ft P Prcssure cxcrtcd by mucl at 3600 ft = x 3600 = 2475. by graphical differentiatio:~ ( i ) At 4100 ft SS aqmlcr pressure would be 0. pressure due to gas = 0.S~ + .e.5 + 500 = 2475. = c. = .5 psi Thcrclorc pressure at crest of structure = 2024 . = 11 1' = 111923 = 520 x 10"psi' (b) Effective hydrocarbon complessibility (a) Total compressibility c. 1 p ldz zdP from grapll (Fig.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (i) Compressibility c. Let this extra distance be x ft. reduced properties. Pressure balance at gaswater contact: Theretore gaswater contact depth = 4600 tt S S (k) From (j). At gaswater contact.
4) x 0. GOC = 7000 . 310 Tpr = 1220 .002. pressure at top :.4 The reservoir oil gradient is therefore 0. BBL [292. Volume of 1STB oil at reservoir conditions = B.4 x 0.615 x 62.5 t 38 weight of oil and gas in solution (b) Density of reservoir oil = volume of oil reservoir cond~tions i UOLECVLhR WEIOW Fig.002 Since CR = co.05345 R.'.834 specific gravity of tank oil = 131.293 :. 4. T = 175°F.433 psilft where 0. A4. The bubble point pressure is the pressure of oil saturated with gas in equilibrium at the gasoil contact of oil column = 2800 psi.0534451 .52 and P.21. and yg = 0. 8255 .1550 = 5450 ft SS For a molecular weight of 180 and 38" API oil the liquid critical temperature is 1220°R and the liquid critical pressure is 310 psia (460 + 175) 4000 = 0. PCthen c = .433 is the fresh water gradient .22) or correlation equations for API = 38".5 = 0.97 lbs = 0.4 RB!STB 141. = = 12.4 (a) From graphs (Fig..4 pounds (density of fresh water is 62. The molecular weight of gas is the gas gravity x molecular weight of air :.615 cu ft = 1 barrel}.2 lb.465 = 3255 psi.4 cu ft at 60°F and 14. : weight of gas which will dissolve in 1 STB of tank oil is given by the number of moles of gas times its molecular weight .1 Pseudo critical properties of hydrocarbon liquids Weight of one barrel of water = 5.lbs.4.400 density at reservoir conditions . Density of reservoir condition oil = lbs1BBL 1.: SG = = 0.4 = 350. weight of one barrel of oil is 350.293 psilft. From specific gravity of tank oil.677 X 0. 0.677 350.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Solution 4.7 x 28. GOR = 750.9 . : For an oilwater contact of 7000 ft SS the hydrostatic pressure is 7000 X 0. height of oil zone = = 1550 ft 0.2] + [750 X 0.6 x . P.1) is given at this T. A4.7: bubble point pressure = 2800 psia formation volume factor = 1.7 psia.834 = 292. Avogadro's law states that 1 lbmole of any ideal gas occupies 379. The reduced compressibility from charts (Fig. condition as c~ = 0. psial 310 From a constant oil compressibility between 2800 and 4000 psia .4 lb/ft3 and 5. oil gradient = 0. weight of gasiSTB = (RJ379.2800 For constant oil gradient.
(R... 295 295 .3000 = ..4 cP . = .)   (1 457 1 3 15)(295) .6 X 1. the Liquid volun~c standard conditions = 295 ml. = 295 X 10 ' Bg = H .04 x 10 vl\ =7 (26 275 .C.40 1.6 cP..1 Plot either on log : log scales.= 1. : Solution 4.].= 1.= 1. viscosity of reservoir crudc = 0. 01 log F : log cp on coordinate scales . =  $gIT P (0 '" (4000 .383 RBISTB psia 410 Bo250(1 = . .0 .06 vlv = 89.06 (5 615) = 500 SCFISTB At 2000 psia 388 430 B. viscosity of dead oil a t reservoir conditions 1. B.8 x 10"si' 8.390 RBISTB psia 295 26.5 Fro111graph of systcn~ pressure vs.615 = 400 SCFISTB R.AP) 1.. B. R.457 RBISTB .389 RBISTB = = = i (4000 .21 0)lO'  Chapter 5 Solution 5.318 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING:PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE = B.2500) = 408 295 (404 .315 RBISTB . = .275 .2800)) From graphs.410) 1 ' 408 = 9. ( 1 . L1 x 5.= 1. B. system volun~e bubble point is estimated by inflexion at 2500 psi. at At 3000 psia liquid compressibility c. = 293 (10 ) = x 2000 1500 400 420 440 System volume 89.R.
O Intercept at + =I = 1.268 5. Check Calculate @ F 0.205 8.1.53 a = 0. @ From plot m = .092 29.056 If{= Sw " where exp n = 2 11.04 R 0.120 19.84 then I = = 9.18 1..7 0.1 Fvs.2 0. A5.53 Fig. 1.8 0.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Slope le?gih F oxis _ 1795 m=length + ax!s 11.80 If the true resistivity is 1.29 F==.29 .774 Substitute back into laboratory data to calculate check values of F.7 ' \ .8 0.23.29 Qm and water resistivity is 0.056 Qm then R.165 12.
5 20.00 0.67 2.25 I Bulk denstt Fig.2.39 0.2 S H ~ .1 .00 0.63 0.20 SNP 29. Data values Calculated values ~ o values g Shnlc Zone A B C GR 102 52 72 20 FDC 2.26 0.22 2. ~PD/N V ~ 1 00 1. A5.52 2.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Solution 5 2 .37 2.0 C~~~ 1100 150 350 4650 R ~ ~ 0.86 0.00 0.0 22.91 6.215 ~ i Vs~C.31 0.00 0.14 0..5 21.
I S~dewallneutron apparent limestone porosity (%) .3 DensityISNP crossplot.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Radotlon ~ntens~ry ~ncreases 011bare mud 8 Sha!e 1100 2 0 p . A5.2. '1 og/cc 2 2 4 0 m . p 24 Fig.
DSH .VSH@NSFI.2 . Assuming C to be water bearing R. @ = @ D .W Solving the equations for unknown VLsH 24.2.YH = 7.5 .} R .qYn = 32.25. gN = 24. ? + ~ . The porosity is given by point Yon the clean sandstone line where BY is parallel to the matrix shale line. Q.215 = 0.31. cP = @N . Prcs~~mahly are radioactive rninerals in B there shale content.) (c) Shale values arc listed above. .0145 (takingRILdas R.322 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (b) For zone C.31 aN (g) Saturation calculations Level A all equations rcduce to Archic (V.@D v ..yl. S.14. FRIu] L ~ w 2 + RSII . = Q. A5. = FRw = 11a2.082 = Modified Simandoux !=[' R. Only level I shows a signiticant displacement from clean line. More rigorously convert density and neutron values to sandstone matrix SD = 16. Graphically Vqhfor 3 zone B = XBIXS = 1.327. @.262 X 0. VAlrCR values calculated are tabulated above (e) See Fig. the sands (such as feldspar) so the GR overesti~llates As above graphically for level B. {R.5 = 0.'R. : ~ l ~ ~ ' ~ [5] 1 Solving quadratic + vc root ollly .3 for shale point. Thc graphical construction is complicated by the curve on the sandstone line. i.3 1. ~ 5 = . 0 .V~SH @LI.e. @I). 3 5 2 S . = @NSIIQ. .= 0) Archie Simandoux \ 1 \ 1 : .. (f) Taking the minimum shale i~ldication (from DIN) gives o~ily as shaly. = 0. i S w : .2514 = 0.2.5. = 0.5. point plots close to clean sandstone line with @ = 0.0. Vxh= 0.16.
3 mho.0933S.) .26~ : 0.79 R . = 5 110. = 0.676 sW2 0.3 Waxman and Thomas equation with a = 1 .0138 = 1.~.'s which are less than the Archie S. The shale conductance in the basic Simandoux is already near to the measured conductance so the solution gives an unlikely optimistic value for a shaly sand. SW fl' .cm2. Solution 5.676~.' m'l F = 1 1 = ~ ~ = 14.0138 mho = 100 cm' or ohm'' cmI x 0.meq1.38 S.38 ohm.V R R.SOLUf IONS TO EXAMPLES  Poupon and Leveaux (Indonesia) 1 1 vSH(1V""/Z) .~+0.046 x 0.2 = 0. S. + flSH where 1 1 1 Thus the modified Simandoux and Indonesia equations give similar S..meqlcc = 0. + = 0.544) Comparing with the Waxman Thomas equation .0. n = 2 n BQ.0676 (10 SW2 1. r = 2 .0933 S.0. + : 0. (see Archie solution.2=0 . = Modified Simandoux model .
s.4 (a) Prove From Darcy's law: kA DP 4 = . / PHWC :..45 psilft (0. = qP and Po = 1 atm Hence: Q.0676 0. t .. . A_ *..433 x 1.127 X 1. /  .5ohmm to get the samc result as the Waxman Thomas eauation VSIT 0.. static pressurc at the outcrop is: P5250= 0.e.1 1  Pautcrop at HWC datum . : 0... ..5 Thc problem requires correction of pressure so that the lincar Darcy law call be used. P. * _ ..0 rn~les . In ficld units: kA AP q = 1. R.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE i.5 1450) Hence..5 BBLld '  .5 psi But prccsure = 1450 psi at 5250 750 X 3000 X 65 (2362. FR. . kA = w kA P : dP PLY  PL2 or Q.? . . Rsi r 0..0 " v L BBL1d Assu~niiig average water gradicnt of 0. it would take 14% shale with resistivity 1. q = 1.038) and referring to a HWC datum of 5250 f t SS. = F 2L Solution 5.2 = sW2 .. .& k Assuming Boylc's law: Q. _A . .5 + + Solution 5. .45 X 5250 = 2362.1 1.127 x 10 x X 1 52 800 q = 2848.14 1 1 Basic Si~nancloux = .
3472 psiift .02 mD Sc for rate 3 = 5.0068 D = 6. 1 X 2 X lo6 log...= t h WL log.5 Hence k = 1. for rate 2 = 6. gives kL as l/P. . so: kA pgh dh dt ho kpg' or loge .7 Assume crosssectional area A.84 . 15.144 (a) Correct well pressures to 5750 ft = 1750 + 0.log.0 mD This is because of the Klinkenberg effect..8 mD S. dh q = A where q is flow rate and h is current height measured from bottom of core plug.log. Plotting k against liP. + 0 as 3 mD. Solution 5.. for rate 1 = 0.6 Using the equation: S.02 x 981 4500 hTote: a plot of log. dt Flow across core is: kA AP q= I J L But A P = datum correction pressure difference..4 psi (b) Flowing gradient = 94 psi .SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Solution 5..8 50 poi. ho ho pL A [log (ho/h)] = pL sok=pg' Note: pg' has to be in units such that pg' h = atm.h against t would be best Solution 5. = 50 lbift3 = psi/ft = 0..3472 x 750 = 2010.
. . then 3000 x 1000 x 150 x 4 = 93.5 x lo9x @ft3 pvuqulfrr = (2104. crosssections and viscosities are equal in all beds + (c) R u d i a l ~ o ~ . = q .4 .~ (a) Linear beds parullel flow Q = q1 + q 2 + q 3 Assume infinitely thin harriers between layels where k' is the apparent permeability and A the total arca Hcncc k'A = k l A l + k2 A2 + .+q2.. 2nkh ( P ..) e ..)+(P.for noncornpiessihleflow A y d..Irw. h. =i I = .P. 4 + 9 4 = 2 1 0 4 .500) 3 x 10 Solution 5.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE S o .9 Q k dP Darcy's cquation . Ak. = 2 0 1 0 . AP. C k . 4 p s i PV. it is noted thal tlic same terms appear in thc radial flow network as in the linear system.P2)+(P2P.internal boundary Q= . Sincc flow ratcs. NOWPIPd=(P. h r (b) Series yo w Assume equal arcas P. . .external boundary w . = 3000 x 1000 x 150 x q Equating production Vp= V2F. CkA. p n r u l l e l From thc figure.= .. Ak Ak.. U__] Ll U5ing D a ~ c y ' s law LL E LIP L2P qt. P. . Thcrcforc k' 01 if bccls all same width =.. P .) EL 111 (r.P4).
Linear flow in parallel 250 x 25 + 250 x 50 k' = Radial flowin parallel + 500 x 100 + 1000 x 200 = 134.) k' = ln (rjlrj. (d) Radial flow series By same reasoning as in the linear case In (r. C k . h1 Therefore k t = h. All these terms are the same in each case.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES The only difference in the two systems is the manner of expressing the length over which the pressure drop occurs.l) . wellbore = 6 .Ir. and radial flow . Linear flow .4 mD 2000 .=I kj Bed Depth1 Length of bed Horizontal permeability. mD For radial systems. and radius of effective drainage 2000' and bed 1is adjacent to wellbore. take data lengths as bed depths and bed lengths and radii to be equal.parallel.parallel.
5 I I I I 0.1 Saturation distribution. .2 I 0.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Linear $0 w in series 2000 2000 Radialflow irz series i.1 L 0.4 I 0.1 I 0.9 I 1.3 I 0.0 Sw (fraction) + Fig.8 0.e. A6.6 0. permeability near wellborc most inlportant Chapter 6 Solution 6.7 0.
. = 0.8 264. At 100 ft above OR7C.445 Solution 6.+)= a 0.4 4. dh Sw = h fro^ area under S .= 2 ft above the FWL 0.984 0.104 Using the threshold value of PC(swi PC.o 0.37 Solution 6.6 82.) vs S. relationship is calculated..4 1847..0 880.5 ft above the FWL HTTz =  . = 0.7 232.0 140.31 (135 ft relative) IS.2 43.w.4 65.1 1534.3 78.862 0.5 4.341 0.968 0.1 5.8 2.7 2.e8 = (.4 5.363 PC(Sw)lab ' = 26.451 0.0 0 1. J (Sw) = 0.9 1954.v.46.0.5 155.) o COS 0 for o cos 0 = 26 and f @ l = 44.0 12209.0 29.1 32.2 15.3 d$  with a cos 0 = 7 2 dynelcm the Sw J(sw) 1.72 PC = 0..2 8.0 0.22) Ji. (PC)~g f ( J ) = PC (Pc)Hp 5 100 0 0 0 0 100 4.9 60.7 191.11 and using J(S. then (= 0.4 110.4 3662.2 Sw (PC).581 J (S..8 35.13 For the laboratory data V%@e = (15010. not at PC=O.7 90.4 for 25 m D and 0 = 0.3 5.7 10.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Kote that the oilwater contact is at S.9 133.4 5477.)as the observed oil water contact.2 36.= .0 7.6 112.363 0. = 1.3 82.0 518.9 1.104 4.211 How. H = P.) and the reservoir condition PCcurve is therefore calculated as rn@ For the reservoir specific gravity of oil and water given The relationship between capillarypressure and height H above FWL is. against h curve: S ..176 0.27 At reservoir conditions Pc(s.6 3.re9 J(. in the units required.7 395.85 .433 H A p .901 0. = 0.S .5 2651.
0) For oil K... Assuniing zcro capillary pressure ( P .330 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Chapter 7 Solution 7.1 ~ Fig.r) = A AP. L 9 1 Ll. (md) = P. L 1. KO (s) = and K . = 0 = Po atmospheres for AP... K. .. A AP. then: K . A7. = 4. KO =and K.) so AP.) Thcsc data are plottcd in F I A 7. and using Dalcy units of ccls for rate end 4P AP 4.1 Steadystate relative permeability. K~IC<. = AP.. = I (4) (9) (1000) JC (3.. = AP. (..ic!.14) AP qw For water K.2)' 3600 1 I For K.= (5.......1 From Darcy's law modified for effective permeability in horizontal linear flow qo Y.) (9.
+. .295 0. . = 0.7 at So.35 The ratio his then calculated from the given end point mobility ratio of 2.'  0.28 The fractional flow curve can now be calculated for the horizontal reservoir: fw 0 0.SOLUTIONSTO EXAMPLES Solution 7. = S.778. A t this saturation (S.28 gives the tangent at Swf= 0. kro p krw' M' k. = 0.). the oil rate in RBiD is 10 000 x 1. = 0.615) (4.. = 1at S.ldS. f..' K...[dfw~dS.]sw~s 4.25) Xda '   1 The tangent of gradient 3. = 0. The average saturation remaining in the reservoir is given by the Welge equation as: foe S.28 = 0.505.4 (.7 2. dS..44) = 4.984 1.082 0.82 ftlday (5280) (50) (0. The gradient of this tangent [df. = 0.2 For pressure maintenance.lswe The recovery factor is thus:  . From BuckleyLeverett tbeory ihe constant rate frontal advance of the 40% saturation front is: (12 765) (5.= 0. breakthrough therefore occurs in 1095 days (= 3 years) At year 4 the pore volume injected is 4 (365) (12 765) (5.25) For a system length of 5280 ft.71.535) and the intercept f with f.33 to the fractional flow curve at saturations greater than frontal occurs at S.= 0.9) = 0.3 PV (5280) (50) (5280) (0.615) = 0.' = 0..778 (0.9 at Sw. the reservoir condition water cut.44.2765 = 12 765 RB!D The end points of the relative permeability curve are K.).45 dfw (from a plot of vs S. + .931 0.00 A line tangential to the fractional flow curve from S ..708 0.then=1 1 . PO k7wi Po Since M' = .
4 40 80 120 160 200 240 Fig.71  1) (7.580 MMSCFID Thc rate of injection proposed (15 MMSCFID) is less than the critical rate and might almost lead to a stable displacement.332 PETROLEUM ENGfNEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Solution 7. The oil rate cxpccted prior to breakthiough is theretore: 15 X I O h X 7. k.127 X 10"  0.1736) qcr1t = (0.9 x k krgfA (yg . I+. = 276 mD @ = 0. B ( M .028) (35.2 Saturation distributions X+ From the givcn data the saturation is plotted as shown in Fig..4335 Ay sina ..5 X 1 0 " = 10 MSTBID 12.y.5) (8000) (100) (0 4968) (0. .125 Solution 7. = 9434 rbld /I = 100' w = 8000' Ay = 0..83 cp .04 Dip = 6" 1.3 The critical injcction rate for gas is given in field units of SCFID as: 4.5 X 10') = 18. The density difference in terms of specific gravity is: sin (. A7.. p = 0.1736 4 9 X 10 (800) (0. 1+ 1. = 1. The fractional flow curve is calculated as follows: I f. = P.215 A = 800 000 ft2 p. is in units of RBISCF and a is negative for updip injection.51 cp .) sin a q SCFtD = p.LO") = 0. = 1.. A 7.1) where B.2 q.
4Slopes of fractional flow curve. A7.5 1. A 7. t (yrs) 0 0.0  For S . 0 = 85 12 + 146 = 158 X 15 ft 15 + 56. A7.0 X 10 ft 10 + 23.7 t (yrs) 0 0. = 0. The slope of the fractional flow curve as a function of saturation is plotted in Fig. Since there is no uniform sgturation distribution jnitialJy a material balance solution is used: Sw Fig.4 = 127.75 t (yrs) 0 0.0 2.5 1 2 + 7 3 .4 15 225 = 240 + .3 Fractional flow curve.0 2.2 15 + 112.4.0 2.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES The results are shown in Fig. A 7. Selecting saturations For S.5 10 + 47 = 57 10 + 94 = 104 X 12 ft 12 + 36.79 For S.3 Sw Therefore: Fig.5 1.5 = 48. = 0.5 = 33.5 1.0 = 0.2 = 71.
68 55. bottom to top I" 5 0.22  59.n ) Sw.15 ( 5 .6 ft from OWC Solution 7.56 = 161.7n 0. numbering layers n . from n = 0 to n = N = 5.56 55.5 For the particulal examplc the problem reduces to the tollowing tab~il~rtion.n vs and tirolz . = 5 + where: I k ...334 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Interpolation .' X = 160 f + 10 56. = 50 + 500 + 1500 + 2000 + 500 = 4550 m D    The resultant pseudorelative permeability is plotted as SWn rc.
1 shows the plot of water saturation and porosity as a function of depth.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Chapter 8 Solution 8. Fig.3360 349 0. Assign . .8 1. appropriate value of cp and S for each interval (lcm square = 2500 acreft). Count squares to determine volume for each interval.33 0.5211 175 0.55 Fig.70 0.2 shows the plot of isopach value vs area contained within the contour.7586 77 0.0265 20.1 Using the relationship h f 139 = 164/sinh x the saturation vs height relation is calculated as follows: X (frac) sinh x h (£9 0.2 0.1 S and q~vs.80 0.0 1. A.60 0.4108 260. Take 50 ft intervals from base to crest. A 8. Porosity ( $1 + Water saturation ( S w ) + Fig.6367 118 0.8881 45 z 0.1752 0. In the absence of a planimeter to measure area use metric graph paper in a simplified approach.40 0. A8.90 1.50 0. depth. 8. .
of square9 Gross rock volume (l@ucrejt) Saturat~on (Sw) Por oszty (Q) Hydrocurbon (volume x lo6 I Hydrocarbon In place = 230 326 250 BBL\ = 170 x 10"BLs rescrvoir oil stock tankloil Solution 8..PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Area w ~ t h ~contour (acres) n lntervul No. 'most likely'. Deterministically. where N is in STB A is in acres h is in feet $Sois a fraction B.2 The oil in place at stock tank conditions is evaluated using the relationship 7758 Ah$ So N= R. (RF) where R F is the recovcry factor (fraction). and maximum values are calculated as: minimuln 'most likely' maximum 43 x J O ~ S T B 116 X 10"STB 274 x 1 0 " ~ ~ . the minimum. is in RBISTB The recoverable rescrve is N..
.3. 50% and 10% levels are as follows: at 90% the recoverable reserve is at least 72 x lo6 STB at 50% the recoverable reserve is at least 120 x lo6 STB at 10% the recoverable reserve is at least 185 x lo6 STB  0 1 22 1 24 1 26 0 0 125 0 135 0 145 Fig. The values associated with the 90%. A 8. These data are interrogated randomly using a Monte Carlo approach in the recoverable reserve calculation. A8.3 Distribution functions. A 8. The resulting cumulative frequency greater than a given value plot is shown in Fig.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES 337 The distribution functions of the reservoir parameters are shown in Fig.4.
49 Frorn giaph .1 For (a) x = 4K.E.55 Hence A P = 64 atmospheres .72 atmospliercs Fur (b) .875 atmospheres For (c) x = 0.895 Hence A P = 22.x = 4. = +PC? with (a) tn = 1181 (b) t. = 14815 (c) tn = 7. (x) =  0. Chapter 9 tl.4375 From graph  E. (x) = 0. as x i s small  Qwl'  4.5772 .4 X lW3 K. (x) = 0.62 Hence AT' = 2.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE lo6 STBt Fig.u = 0.2 x lo' E. A8.. Solution 9.log.4 Recoverable reserves distribution.
A9.1 Pdvs loglot.5) (1. the slope is determined as For a reservoir rate q of 500 (1.3800 mD.6 (500) (0.1.454) rbid (= 727 rbid) Then.6qb For h = 120 ft then KO= 32 mD. The value of PJh.ft rn 162.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Solution 9. of P.7535) Then Kh = 18 Fig. ( log At t+At ) with h e points in the table calculated. A 9. kh = .fvs loglot rn = 18 psifcycle 162.4 From a graph of P v s 21.3 From the plot shown in Fig. Solution 9.16 is 4961 psi .corresponding to a Horner time function of 3.7 psilcycle (= rn)..
+S.l(c.6 Rate 1 2 3 4 Q (MSCFlD) 7 290 16 737 25 724 35 522 ( A P ) total 42 181 126 120 237 162 391 616 Slope = 7 psilcycle from Horner plot 162.S.).2430 P 2509.B.340 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE = 0. then Solution 9.= N. n .3274 0.) 4981 ..4728 AP.606 r .5 2 2..5 Examination of the data shows that: APIday = 3 psi Assuming I . Tzme smce hut m  loglot+At At 0.132 Efficiency = = 0.4728 .5 hours: Now P.87 m S = 132 psi 4981 ..0 25 13. = 500 bid.~ = Kh In 0.5119 0.7 = 21.) p Hence Kh = m Assume t. = 15 x 10'10..3 251 1.7 We have NB.. = 0. For B. / r .4472 0.2 1 1 .6201 0.1 Solution 9. = B. prior to build up is 4. P vs or At t = 60 x 24 = 1440 hours t+At a plot of p vs log ..7404 0.on linear scales are as fo~lows: ' .. Data points for Horner plot on setnilog paper.3979 0.' and N.7 2510.5 3 4 5 6 ~ate S.2788 0.).6 (q B.7 2512 1 2512.4 x 10..5 2513.7 2511.'  P..5 (approx. AP and (c.
calculated from B as follows: 3. ~ t (~P')total . as ~ ~ Rate 1 2 3 4 Q (MsCFiD) 7 290 16 737 25 724 35 522 ( ~ ~ ~ ) ~ ~ . . 3 2 1 0 ~ ~ s i ~ ) AP~(PSI~) Fig. and that in this case only the inertial drop is close to the total drop of the previous rate. .l 9 851 42 181 126 120 51 928 122 665 237 162 233 906 391 616 Comparison between the numbers shows that at high rates the inertial drop is over half the total drop.16 ~ l o . : ~ then QAoF = 220 x lo6 SCFid The AOF plot is shown in Fig.2 and when AP2 is equal to P ( 6 . A 9. = 0..000185 Hence ( A P ~ ) ~ . T z P B= h2 r. ~is .2 AOF determination. . A9.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES This is order of magnitude agreement. is~ ~ follows: . . ~ ~ The inertial pressure term A P ~ ~ .~ ~ y .
94 Solution 10. = 0.  v. Ye log... Radial flow of gas q. and .6 T. h AP.ft Volume of reservoir available for fluid = ( I .* l and if the capillary pressure gr. Therefore recoverable gas = =0.6 x 1 0 ' ~ SCF (1) Assume no water influx. z.2 2nk.7 psi and 60°F: 1 v" 2000 v.S. ..) @V= V .12 x V Volume of gas at standard conditions of 14. pressure P.1 p i zj p..1 Volume of reservorr = V = LOO X (5280)' x 500 cu. 520  14.. the pressure drop over the same radii are cons~dered. 8.825595 15.h AP. = Po B.  2nk.=I....T. At 500 p s ~~cduced .P.65 x 0.. log'!  re ". T.7 0.75 500 679.h z=0. . Er.342 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE I Chapter 10 Solution 10. r. Radial flow of oil q.rdlcnt Ir negl~g~blc.
66 X 4.3631 = 4.615 Since bubblepoint is 1850 psi.594 .198 x lo9 STB 1.3 1.76 9 = 4.5 X 106[1.375 X lo6 (from trend) Solution 10.54 X lo9 B B L = TI 3 ( 5 2 8 0 ) ~ 5.= r$h2 h$ \ i Therefore.4 Total hydrocarbon in place = $x ?h@ ( 1 .B .) + ( W e . Bg(Rp .Boi c  (i) A t cumulative 1.1.715 = X lo6)[1.363 .875 X lo6 (ii) At cumulative 3.5 [1. W.715 x lo6 BBL ( P = 1600) Wel = (1.0019(996 690)l . BB.43 x lo6B B L ( P = 1300) W e .R. oil in place = 0.17 x 0.) B . The total measured gasoil ratio will then be: For the figures given: Solution 10.S.229 = 521 ft r h h: ( 2 ) 50' = 0.0015(878 .690)]  14. this must be pressure at any gasoil contact Elevation of gasoil contact above oilwater contact is: This is less than hydrocarbon column so gasoil contact exists at 4031 ft SS Height of gas zone = 750 .437 .) 750 x 0.34 Ratio gasltotal = = . N = A. = (3.54 X lo9 = 2.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES To this must be added the gas evolved from solution in the oil.43 X lo6) [1.1.14..594 + 0.112 X lo6 A t P = 1000 estimated water influx = 6.437 + 0.3631 1.
.
U = 1.2302 (b) E.0887 3. + Eo + Efh RBISTB 0.18 x 200 x (7 x U = 22 841 BBLIpsi x (9000)* From tables or charts for dimensionless influx at reD = 9 we have: t~ 40 80 WD(~D) 21 29 .0960 8.PI 2.1.0065 (e) ET = mE.0420 0. 1.28 0. is calculated as G.309 k t (years) 2. lo6 RB 30.SpE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS From production data the value of R.) + (RSZ Rs) Bg  RBISTB RBISTB RBISTB 0.+ E./N.06 (f) We = F .(SCEISTB) 500 Using the relationship F = N(ET)+ We + WinjBWinj following is calculated where: the L E T = mE.40t (pzp r"0 (0.4310 = 780 psi AP1 = 22 PI . Units (a) F = N.Bwini lo6 BBL Solution 10.R.5020 The aquifer constant is: U = 1.3850 = 585 psi AP2 = 22 APo =  5870 .P3 5020 . . Time 1.(l@ 0 BBL) ~ ~ ( 1 STB) 06 0 R..18)(7~10~~)(0.2131 62.0061 0. to give the following table. = (B. .1.+ E f .41 0.B.N ( E T ).81 1.4)(9000)~ The instantaneous pressure drops which at the start of each year are equivalent to the continuous pressure declines are: Pi..Win.67 0.1.119f(phfrt.= 425 psi 2 Pi P2 .5870 .309 (707t) tD = .119 x 1 x 0.)B. B.6 The dimensionless radius ratio is: r aquifer 81 000 yeD=9 r oil zone 9000 The dimensionless time tDis related to real time by: 2.0435 0.(SCF/STB) 0 R.82 + (R.80 P(psi) 5000 1wi.
= 22 841 [425 (21)] = 203. Vn..I For r.3 Use is made ol Lhc plot in Fig.0. = 0.3 X 10' BBL Chapter II Solution 11. in reservoir barrcls.4 which correlates areal sweep efficiency EA as a function of e ~ point mobility ration ~ d ( h l ' ) for different fractional injection volutnes.85 The volu~ne olinjccted fluid.. = 22 841 [425 (20) + 780 (21)] = 655.005 = 1.945 x 10%~ . = 1500 ft r . 11.. aftcr 10 ycars is: 10 X 365.4 3.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE W.. K.4 p V K O 0.7 x 10hBBL W.9 x 10' BBL W.5 It S = +4 K..' M!=.6 h = 100 ft k = I325 ruD 50 PI= Po Solution 112 The injectivity inclcx is given in field units by: Assuming all other factors cqual then Solution 11.25 X 53 000 X 1. = 22 841 (425 (34) + 780 (29) + 585 (21)] = 1127.4 0.!5 . = 0.
s.4 For stable cone formation A@' = g' ( P . .~)) given in reservoir barrels as follows: is From Fig.4 the value of EA corresponding to M' = 4 and V D= 1is 0. A12. and cone height X (in feet) and density difference as specific gravities then x = 4.25 (4000) U= = 0.Ps) kh (a) Solvent Oil I Regions l and I l * Region I Reglon I1 Region I i 7 I Slngle grav~ty overnde tongue Slngle tongue but sweepout Independent of RVG for given M Solvent Reglonm Translt~on reglon w ~ t h secondary fingers below maln tongue RegionE: Multlple flngers with sweepout ~ndependent RVG for glven M of Region T J J Fig.7 Solution 11.PO) For A@' (in psi).0476 BID . L R".SOLUTIONSTO EXAMPLES The disp1aceabIe pore volume (= PV (1so.ft3 70 (1500) The viscousgravity force ratio is calculated from 2050 Up. .1 Displacement reglmes. . 11.1 (a) In field units 1.33 psi Chapter 12 Solution 12.g = (PO .
M represented by y.L (B/DFT~)(cP)(FT) A.73md For a rnobility ratio of M (w&. (Fig A 12. (b) The point with the composition 4% surfactant and 77% oil is given on Figure A12. 10% surfactant.2 The tic lines for the system join the equilibrium con~positior~s systems A and B in the two phase region. From the slope of tie lines in this region thc equilibri~~m phasc compositions are A . 2x1 surfact. Solution 12. = 0.1 and A 12. 12% brine.1) (b) In field units 1. A12.55). 21 % surfactant. and A? with weight percents estimated as: A. 154 g oil.2 show a breakthrough sweepout efficiency of around 50% and a flow dominated by viscous fingering.348 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE For a mobility ratio. 10% oil.nit. 38 g brine g .2 Breakthroughsweep efficiency.ft" The viscous gravity force ratio requires an approximation of pcrrneability as: i=: . f ~ e l d force un~ts. ZO~OU~. wt%.3610.3 as point A. Figures A 12.25 ( I 000) U= 30 (2000) = 0.kh ' ( c/crn3) (rnd) ( F T ) Fig.055 = 6. Figure A 12. The of compositions are plotted in Figure A12. 80% brine AZ 97% oil. Then k = ((1) (3))" ' = 1./lr.2 shows a breakthrough sweep efficiency of about 15% and a flow dominated by gravity tonguing. (= 25). 1%) brine For an original 200 g mixture containing X surfactant. 675%oil. VISCOUSgrav~ty ratlo (RVG).3 (a) The critical point (CP) is estimated where the limiting tie line becomes tangential to the phase envelope and has the composition.0208 BID .
3 the composition 20% oil and 80% brine is shown at location B. surfactant 17.5% surfactant (146 g total) D: 94% oil. It is shown as location 6.3. and 43% brine. having a composition oil 16.8 g brine : Composition of A2 = 149.5% oil. 40% surfactant and location 2 is 50% oil. They are in a single phase region and the resulting mixture contains 30% oil. 5% surfactant.0 g surfactant 1.6 g oil 4.tOO Brine Surfactant / 100% 10 Brine Wt % Oil  100% Oil Fig.5 g oil . Composition of Al = 4. 16% surfactant. location 1 is 10% oil.825) = 21.5% of the mi. (d) On Figure A 12. The mixture is in the two phase region and equilibriates to compositions C and D on the equilibrium tie line through location 6.3. The oil + brine weight is 100 g and would constitute 82. 40% surfactant.5 g brine (c) On Figure A 12.5%.3 Ternary diagram. The tie line ratios give: wt of Al phase 3113 x 200 = 46 g wt of A2 phase 10113 X 200 = 154 g :.2 g. 5% oil and location 5 is 20% surfactant. 21. brine 66%. 77% oil The mixture weight is 200 g and contains 41% oil. The compositions are: C: 58% brine. 40% surfactant and 30% brine.175 (10010. (e) On Figure A 12. A line from B to the 100% surfactant point leaves the two phase region at location R ' . A12. 20. as denoted by position 3.ture. location 4 is 12% surfactant. 3. 1 % brine (54 g total) ..5%. so surfactant needed is 0.6 g surfactant 36.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES 1 0 0 % Surfactant 0.
fl.1 474..3 For co~~ventional production q.64 0 59 0. T o determine the steady state productioniinjection time at which such rates will lead to 50% of the pattern volurne being occupied by steam we can conduct the following analysis: The cumulative heat injccted into the reservoir..5 913. 3221 18 Btu .5 0. Ehs..j  700  (0. . at different values of dimensionless time...9 730. using the mass rate of injection W..5 t (days) 365. The valucs of l D are givcn from: = 0..5 2.8 The volulne of a steam zonc..75 1.0 1..25 E.0 1. = t .8 323 3 409.. is in general givcn by: .89 The following tablc nlay now bc constructed usingSi.003541 (1000)(60)) . t 233.100°F is given by: : Q. V. t (yr) 1.. tl.>= I+ { A T ) = fxth L v d h { I + 0.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE Solution 12. can be calculated from heat injection rate.25 547. over the temperature range 380 .964 l o ... C.4 can now be used to cstimate the thermal efticiency of the steam zonc.1 t~) on Fig A 12.. The average spcclfic hcat.0 2..4 El. 0..75 (845) Figure A 12..56 0. [n 1 = 161 rbid For 9 acre spacing and a 200 psi differential For thermal sti1nulatio1r steam injection a 5 fold improvement in flow resistance hetween producers and i~ljectors and would lead to rates nrounrl 800 hid..00138i days or 0.is calculated from: j. q . Q.52 0.504 t years = 00.0. The ratio of latent heat to total energy injccted.
= . we obtain the relationship 0. 5 A h = Equating values of Q.75)] 300 Bgi .4 Thermal efficiency For the case of 50% steam volume in the pattern of area A acres then 43560 M R AT Qi 0 .[n(3x 5280)~ (0. A12.j . Solution 12.l In terms of standard cubic feet this is: 1 V..5 . These data may be further evaluated in terms of steam injection equipment capacity and project economics.] =Ehs t 357817.4 The wet condensate gas volume is obtained from the volumetric calculation: A hn @ ($) Vsc = '3. The injection rates needed to provide 50% pattern volume of steam at the following times are therefore as shown in the following table.or Dimensionless t ~ m e t D . t = Ehs where t is in days That is q.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES 1 .5 (9) (60) (43560) (35)(280) 322118 qi..18) (0. Fig.
1 937 X 10" = 3. PI.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE v.1937 X 10"' Rgz SCF In order to find B. = 465 From reservoir datum conditions 'Thc clry gas volume So.4) (0. = 620 and T.8962 X 10 ' ~O'~SCF N = 1.925 Thcn: (0.75) (5.197 x 10 RCFISCF 3. we need the super compressibility factor z which can be obtained from Fig 4. frorn Fig 4.7 z = 0. = G = 7.925) (670) 4500 B.6 15) n= 379. The oil molecular weight is given by 44.7 using the reservoit condition molecular weight or gas gravity..8962 x '".4 + 1 19 From Fig 4. = 8.019 x 10'' SCF Similarly the oil volume = 3. = 3.PL) The weight associated with a stock tank barrel of liquid is given by: The number of rnolcs associated with this weight is 5000 (62...639 x lo9 STB . Mo = (1..02829) (0.3 p .03 .7...
therefore. (b) From Fig.e.ellis Pressure In 1 0 0 PSIG 12 16 20 24 1 l l l ' ' I l i l Pressure In 1 0 0 PSIG 12 16 20 l ~ ~ ~ " oO h 4 l l 1 8 28 ' oO k 4 ~ l 8 24 ' 28 l ' l ' Vertical flowing pressure gradients (all 011) 4in. q.1 Fig.. ! = . can be evaluated using the Vogel relationship. The well head pressure is read from the graph at 3900 ft as 360 psi. A13.eli = 600Q ft then D T = 9700 ft. then: D T = Dwhp + Dwell (a) From Fig.2 at the bottom hole pressure of 1200 psi and GOR of 500 scffstb the depth equivalent DT..619 .l. i. is 8900 ft.2 Solution 13. A 13.2 The maximum production rate q. the static pressure. Since D.5355 bd 3315 0. Since Dw. is read as 5000 ft then Dwhp 3900 ft. A13. At the GOR of 200 scflstb the pressure at a depth equivalent of6700 ft is read as 2400 psi.1 at a well head pressure of 400 psi then Dwh = 3700 ft. withp.65 Average Flowing Temp 140°F 0 6 5b Fig.1 Using the relationship that the depth equivalent of the total head is equal to the sum of the depth equivalents of the well head pressure and the well depth. A 13.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Chapter 13 Solution 1'3.D Producing Rate 2 0 0 0 Bbls/day Oil API Grav~ty 35'API Gas Spec~ficGrav~ty 0.
A13.4 Pressure In 100 PSlG 1 23+ Vert~calflow~ng. A13.pressuregrad~ents(all 0111 Tublhg Slze 4tn I D Producing Rate 5 0 0 0 Bbls/day 011 API Grav~ty 35OAPI Gas Spec~flcGrav~ty 065 140°F Average Flowtng Temp a' 0 0 m 4 0 Fig.3 Fig.5 .354 Pressure In 100 PSlG PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Pressure in 100 PSlG Tublng Slze 41r1l D 35OAPI Average Flowing Temp 140°F Fig. A13.
.8544 Total volume of the separator is thus twice the oil volume for an interface half way up the separator : .099 . tubing and a GOR of 200 SCFJSTB.06303 m3is /g= t (24) (60) (60) (273.0.15) (20) At separator conditions the gas density p is given by .5 the different vertical flowing pressure gradient curves at different rates are found for 4 in. ~t can be seen that the bottom hole pressure is essentially independent of rate at this condition and is 2200 psi.f the well depth and the depth equivalent to a tubing head pressure of 400 psig. the volume of oil in the separator will be: At 40°C and 20 bar the volumetric rate of associated gas will be (1000) (95) (313.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES 355 From Fig. The flowing bottom hole pressure equlyalent to the total head depth is recorded as a function of flow rate.3 For a residence time of 3 min. and L = 4.15) (1) . = 1. . A 13.. V3ep = 2 O V = 4.166) (4) 3D=L= 5cD2 : D .166) (4) D3 = 4c 5 : D = 1. Solution 13. % .166 m3 Design length for LID = 3 gives (4. The maximum velocity equation is then used: Since crosssectional area = volume ratelvelocity then for an interface half way up the separator we have: jc D* 0.396 m In practice the separator design would be based on a standard size selected to be nearest the size calculated.627 m Design length for LID = 4 gives (4.1 to A 13. . The total head depth is obtained as the sum 0.06303 (2) (4) 0.209 m and L = 3.
.
163.245 condensate analysis 208 condensate reservoirs and liquid d r o p o u t 208 condensate systems 42 condensing gas drive 1945 cone height.71 .25. 5 6 7 160. gram size and stream power 242 blocides and Injection water 229 biopolymers 197 black oil reservoir modelling.51.220. 5 4 5 .221 bubblepo~nt pressure 5 2 . uncertainties In 2467 black 011 systems 42 blowout 35 blowout preventers 3 4 5 blowdown 210 Boltzmann transformation 134 bond number 191 BOPSsee blowout prekenters bottlenecks 219 bottomhole sampling 52 Boyle's law method and grain volume 73 Brent Sand reservoirs 10.148 API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity and 011 density 14 aquifer characteristics correlation with model 167 determination of 1656 aquifers and pressure change 165 areal sweep efficiency 176.193 capillary pressure 93 and residual fluids 11112 defined 92 capillary pressure data (given rock type. normal) 36 composite cores 111 compressibility 423. 11 brine d~sposal 186 bubblepolnt 41.26.159. critical 182 coning 1812 core analysis and permeability distribution 834 routine 6971.~'suction pressure see imbibition wetting phase threshold pressure carbon dioxide in miscible displacement 195. correlation 99 ca~illarv Dressure hvsteresis 978 capillar.109 Footnote: Numbers in italic indicate figures.Index Abandonment pressure 159 absolute permeability 102 AFE (authorisation for expenditure) document 23.53.196 casing a well. 1823 Back pressure equatlon 1434.28 caustic solutions 196 cementation problems 356 chemical flood processes 196200 choke assembly 146 Christmas tree 36 coalescer 227 r Coates and ~ u m a n b i equation 86 combination drive material balance equation 166 compaction drive 161 complete voidage replacement 173 completion 28.221 In volatlle oil reservoirs 211 BucklesLeverett theory 105 BuckleqLeverettNVelge technique 107. reasons for 25 casing eccentricity 356 casing selection 27 ~nain design criteria 28 casings 23.221 barrel 14 bedforms.245 Amerada gauge 147.29 completion for production (permanent.55. 55 Compton scattering 76 conceptual models 233. Numbers in bold indicate tables Capillary number 191.54.81 presentation of results 70.
223 rnctering of 229 processing 22&8 cushiori 147 cuttings logs 31 cyclic steam stimulation 205 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE displacement principles 1735 drawdown testing 138 drill bits 22.242 deltaic models. s Faults. distribution of. 65.) 79 Darcy's equation 79 data acquisition during drilling 3&1 datum correction 7980 deltaic environments. injection water treatment 229 523 flash liberation at rescrvoir tc~nperat~irc flash separation tests 534 flooding efficiency ratio 110 flow equations.244 demulsificrs and heavy oil processing 228 depositional processes and reservoir rocks 7 tlcwpoint 41 dewpoint locus 42 diamond coring 33 differential liberation at resevvoir temuerature 53 displacement calculations. Early (transient) tirne solution 138 rates 180 economic factors and oil productioi~ effective pelmeability 102 and wettability 108 and enhanced oil Iecoverysche~ncs unccrtainty 247 equity.358 coledata and palaeogeog~. 177 free water level (FWL) 12. compaction corrected 131 core preservation 678 core recovery. linear and radial 801 flow string 145 fluid contacts 1213 multiplc 12 fluid flow in porous media 789 fluid pairs 93 fluid pressure and overburdcn load 1312 fluid pressures.12I 3 fluid saturation. 68 care length and imbibition processes 11&I 1 core log 64. division of 238.aphical recolistructio112378 and recognition of sand body type 238 corederived data 68 core floods acid surfactant testing 200 core for special core analysis 67. laboratory incasurernents and relationship with reservoir systems 936 fluids. validation of relative permeability data for 113ll . identification of 238 faults (inreservoir).47 Cricondcnhar 41. use of 23843 dcltaic systcin modcl242. fluids for 31 Coregalnlna surface logger 68 cores 62 colnpositc 111 correlation with wireline logs 63.95 Darcy (def . law of 445.25 drilling fluid see drilling inud drilling logs 30 " drilling rnutl pressure. 241.ltion69 coring the case for 65 conventional and oriented 66 of development wells 656 of exploration wells 65 coring decisions (146 coring mud systems 6 6 7 corresponding states. spcciz~l pressure control and well kicks 3 4 5 stuck pipe and fishing 3 3 4 drillstriiig 23 drive mechanisrrls 159 dry gas reservoirs 412 dual porosity systems 71.42 Cricondentherm 41 rate critical displace~~ient 177 critical displacement ratio 112 critical gas (equilibrium) saturation 159 critical production rate (coning) 182 crude oil flow of in wellbore 221.73 and gravity drainage 1645 L. excessivc 29 drilling muds 223 control of 289 main constituents 67 drilling muds and cements. concern ovcr laboratoryderivcd data 11314 core plugs 68 analysis on 65 and effective permeability 109 and fluid saturation 934 and oil saturation 193 and permeability 81 and porosity 72 and residwal saturation 174 core porosity. 323 drill coHars 23 drill stem testing 145 testing tools and assetnblics 1457 drilling. turbine versus rotary 33 drilling costs 23.75 data obtainable from 6.7 divcrsity of inLonnation availahlc 64 and geological studics 689 and heavy oil reservoirs 202 residual fluid saturation deter~nin.240. hydrocarbon zone.24.68 core plug experi~ncnts. rbeology of 2930 drilling optitnization 323 problems in cementation problems 3 5 4 drilling.55 twophase 556 factors B 4 9 4 1 formation volu~lle folmutionwaters 14 fractional flow 1046 analysis mettlods 1056 effect of dip angle and wettahility 175. recovcry of by depletion 211 Forcheimcr equation 143 formation breakdown pressure 30 forination density logs and interpretation of porosity 2023 formation density tool response 756 formation factor see formation resistivityfactor formation interval tester (FIT) 148 formation resistivity factor 74 formation testcr (FT) 148 formation volume factor 14. petroleurr~reservoirs 13&1 exploration well drilling 7 . effect on injectiori/production well locations 180 field processing 224 filtration.
13 low interfacial tension (IFT) systems 193 Material balance. migration of (modelled) 934 hydrocarbons (commercial reservoirs). 47 gas expansion during production 157 gas flow and gradient 159 gas flow and permeability 81 gas flow rate. : Gas cap expansion drive 1 6 3 4 gas compressibilities 489 gas condensate.INDEX . 4950 gas properties 45 gas recycling. recovery from 1579 gas viscosities 478 gaskicks 12 gasoil ratio 14. improved 191211 hydrocarbon reservoir fluids 15 hydrocarbon systems volumetric and phase behaviour 4C1 applications to field systems 412 hydrocarbon volume in place calculations 1278 hydrocarbons. development of 2378 geothermal gradient and hydrocarbon generation 7. uncertainties in 247 gas condensate reservoirs 20711 production methods for 20911 gas deviation factor Z 46. regional 1011 Ideal gas law (and modification) 43 imbibition processes and core length 11011 C liquid 104 imbibition wetting phase threshold pressure 97 inplace volume if2 inflow performance relationship. behaviour of 434 gases. 9 hydrocarbon pore thickness (HPT) 1267 hydrocarbon pore volume maps 1267 hydrocarbon properties 47 hydrocarbon recovery. reservoirs with water encroachment or water injection 1658 material balance calculations generation of data 52 sources of error 1689 material balance equation 158 combination drive 166 gas cap expansion drive 1 6 3 4 solution gas drive 1613 material balance residual oil saturation 174 mathematical models 2334 . measurement of 150. flow of in wellbore 221 geological model. compatibility with reservoir fluids 1834 injection fluids. quality of 1836 injection water. viscosity of 184 injection water treatment 229 injectivity index 174 insert bits 33 isobaric thermal expansion coefficient 43 isocapacity maps 126 isochores 124 isochronal testing 144 isoliths 124 isopachs 124 isoporosity maps 125 isosaturation lines 99 isosaturation maps 126 isothermal compressibility 43 isothermal retrograde condensation 42  Kay's rule 45 kelly 23 kick 345 Kimmeridge Clay 7 . 220 dimensionless.82 KolmogorovSmirnoff test 84 Lasater correlation (bubblepoint pressure) 55 leak off tests 30 Leverett Jfunction correlation 99 light oil processing 226 foaming problems 2278 separator design sonsiderations 227 wax problems 228 line source solution (fluid flowing in a porous medium) 1345 development of 1356 liquid drop out 208 liquids systems.512.for oil wells 2201 for gas wells 221 injection fluids. 13 homogeneous reservoirs and coning 1812 Horner analysis 13 hydrates 224 hydrocarbon accumulation and sedimentary basins 7 hydrocarbon accumulations and formation waters 14 hydrocarbon exploitation. generalized correlations 548 lithofacies representation 125 LKO (lowest known oil) 12. geological characteristics 62 hydrostatic gradient.229 gas formation volume factor 157 gas formation volume factor B.54. 9 Klinkenberg correction 81. types of interactions 16 hydrocarbon field 7 hydrocarbon generation and geothermal gradient 7 . critical properties of 210 gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs.9 geothermal gradient and reservoir temperature 13 GOR see gasoil ratio grain density 71 grain volume and Boyle's law method 73 gravity drainage and dual porosity systems 1645 gravity segregation and recovery efficiencies 1645 gravity stabilization and reservoir dip 175 Head loss in wellbores 221 heavy crude oil characteristics of UKCS heavy crude oils 201 general classification 200 Yen classification 200.201 heavy oil processing 228 heavy oil recovery 2002 heavy oil reservoirs examples of 201 permeability increase and production improvement 20 production characteristics of 2034 properties of 2023 and thermal energy 2047 and uncertainty 247 heavy oil systems and thermal energy addition 204 HKW (highest known water) 12. gas condensate reservoirs 210 gas reinjection 186 gas reservoirs. 159 gasoil systems and relative permeability 1 0 3 4 gas well testing 1435 gases.
stratified reservoirs 1078 planimeter 124.245.124. validity of 242 porosity 7. static system 12 pressure gauges 137. ch.246 Thistlc oil reservoir 122. phase inversion tempcraturc (PIT) 198 physical models 233 piston disp!acernent. rccerlt 5 6 8 Nortli Sea. 127 Statfjortl field 106.186 offshore system 21 oil bank formation 195 oil density 14 oil tlow rate. 196 nonwetting phase fluid 94 nonwetting phase saturation 102 North Sea. 199 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE oil saturation. bland (unreactivc) arld core recovery 312.67 niulticon~ponentsystems. oil reservoirs 15964 ODT (oil down to) 13 offshore productioniilljection systcltt.97 meters 229 microemulsion 198 ~niddle (late transient) time solution 139 miscible displacement mecltanisms 1945 miscible displacement processes 193 miscible floods 194 applications 1956 exan~ples 196 miscibl~lluids.12 Packcr 146 Pcng and Rohinson equation 44 pcrmeabilities. oil correlations.718 and permeability. 127 polyacrylamidcs I97 polymer tluids 193 polymer systems and adsorption 197 pool see rescrvoir pore fluid pressures 11 pore pressure. 178 Forties field 249 Fulmar field 24951 Magnus fieltl 184 Maureen field IN7 Montrose reservoir (RFT data) 151 Murchison field I25 Rough gas field 123. rates of 137 pressure depletion 21 0 pressure drawdown and reservoir limit testing 1423 pressure equilibrium. probabilistic estimation 127 technique and recoverable reserves estimate 130 movable hydrocarbon fortnula (MHV) 130 mud cake 36 mud circulation system 22. principle components of 184.360 rnercury injection and porosimetry 73. hytlrocarhonfields Beryl field 196 Brent field I96 Buchan field 37 Dunlin field 131. analysis of 1435 mnltiphase flow. relationship between 846 cutoff 124 distributions 778 logs 757 main logging tools for 75 measurement of 723 potential gradient 174 pressure (abnormal) and (1cxponent256 pressure buildup analysis 13940 pressure buildup (tcsting) 149 pressure control and well kicks 345 pressurc decline.96. reservoirs and surfactants 198. Iocd.) 1 1 . significance in drilling and well completion 26.175. 23 mud composition. general limitations on 67 mud logging 301 mud systems.176 and polymers 197 modelling of reservoirs1301 models 2334 mole (dcf. fluid choicc for miscible displaccrnent 196 North Sea. reservoirs.125 North Sea. 123. 126. effects of 1068 permeameter 81 petroleurn migration of 910 origin and formation of 7 recovery 5 petroleum engineering function of 1 proble~n solving in 3 phase (def. heavy oil rescrvoils202 North Sea. properties of 195 rnobility ratio 1045.9K9 oilwater systems and relative permeability 1023 openhole tests 145 optimal salinity 198 orifice meters 229 overpressure 11. abnormal 1112 primary rccovery. equations of 2345 Natural gas calorific value 226 dehydration 2245 onshore processing 22. influences on 191 oil viscosity 56 oilwater contact (OWC) 96.56 salcs specification 224 swcete~lirlg 225 ~ ~ a t u rgab processing 2246 al nitrogen in miscible displacement 195.) 44 Monte Carlo approach. phase behaviour 41 multirnodal porosity 78 niultirate data. averaging of 83 permeability 7. 51 .28 pore size distribution 9 G 7 pore space characteristics and equilibrium saturation distrihrltion 921 pore volurue compressibility 160 of rcservoir rocks 203 poroperm data.107. 147 (downhole).185. measurement of 150 oil formation factor B.iracteristics o 136 L pressure gradients and heterogeneity of rescrvoir pore space 129 pressure maintenance 173 pressure regimcs.7<%46 and critical displacement ratio 112 anistropy 823 distributions 834 i~~~provement 1934 laboratory detennination of 812 ratios 1045 variation.
and well performance 2201 ~roducrion engineering described 218 hroduction op&ations. 130 produced fluids and offshore processing 1846 produced water treatment 228 producing rates (well inflow equations/pressure loss calculations) 1745 nroduction costs.probabilistic estimation 1278. 4 reservoir dip angle 175.influencing factors 21829 production rate effects 1802 production rates.129. phase behaviour 401 skin effect 1402 negative factors 142 skin zone 194 slabbing 68 solution gas drive. characteristics of 6286 pore volume compressibility 203 reservoir simulation modelling 2337 reservoir simulation and vertical communication 243.23845 reservoir heterogeneity 17780 reservoir mapping and crosssection interpretation 2456. sources 1415.236 single component systems.55 StandingKatz correlations 46. significance of 1 .207 steamdrive analysis.178. analysis by material balance 15963 solution gasoil ratio 53. 1067 effect of temperature 204 relative permeability data. measurement and prediction of 439 reservoir fluids and compressibility 423 nature of 14 properties of 4058 reservoir geometry and continuity 180. example data requirements 207 Stiles technique 1078 stock tank oil 54 and retrograde condensation 208 stock tank oil in place and equity .247 reservoir modelling analysis and data requirements 237 application in field development 24851 concepts in 23348 reservoir performance analysis 15768 reservoir pore volume and change in fluid pressure 423 reservoir pressures 1C12 reservoir rocks. single and multicomponent systems 401 Radial equations in practical units 136 radial flow in a simple system 1345.245 reservoir temperatures 13 reservoirs 718 areal extent of 1224 residual oil 53.) 7 reservoir description in modelling 23745 uncertainty in 2457 reservoir development.17 reservoir (def. costs of 3 .137 recombination sampling 52 recovery efficiency.54. heavy oil reservoirs 204 relative spreading concept 93 repeat formation tester (RFT) 14850 reservoir behaviour in production engineering 2201 reservoir condition material balance techniques 160 volumetric balance techniques 1601 reservoir data.ing. laboratory determination of 10911 fiom correlations 11213 improvement. 3 production enginee. water reservoirs 168 recovery factors and reserves 12830 recovery string 34 recovery targets 191 RedlichKwong equation 44 relative permeability 1024.23940 sand body type effect on injected water and oil displacement 17880 recognition of 238 saturation distributions in reservoir intervals 989 saturation gradients 164 saturation pressure see bubblepoint pressure scribe shoe 66 sea water as injection water 184 seawater floods (continuous) and low surfactant concentration 199200 secondary recovery and pressure maintenance 17386 secondarv recoverv techniques 173 sedimentary basins and hydrocarbon accumulation 7 origin of 7 worldwide 2 segregated displacement i 77 sensitivity studies 2467 shaliness. technical and economic factors 219 production system 21819 production testing 1501 productivity index (PI) 245 220 and inflow ~erformance pseudocritical temperatures and pressures 457 pseudorelative oermeabilitv in dvnamic svstems 115 pseud+relative permeability functions 177.245 static 11516 pseudorelative permeability relationships and thicker sands 107 PVT analysis 524 PVT relationships. effect of 181 reservoir fluid properties.192 residual saturations 111112 resistivity factor see formation resistivity factor resistivity index 74 retrograde condensation 208 reverse circulating sub 146 rotary table 23 Safety joints and jars 147 salinity and water viscosity 56 samplers 147 sand body continuity 180 importance of 238. effect of 13 Shinoda diagrams 198 simulators applications 235 classification of 235.193 residual oil saturation 192 i average 174 and material balance 174 measurement of 191. 191 influence of recovery mechanism 191. 243.47 Standing's data (bubblepoint correlation) 55 STB (stock tank barrel) 14 steady state permeability tests 110 steam flooding205 steam properties 206.177 reservoir flow rate.
altered zone 141 well bore flow 22 13 wellbore inflow equations 174 wellsite controls and core recovery 68 wettability 175 change in 67.197 vapour phase 42 vcrtical bed rtisolution 76 vertical permeahility variation and fractiontll flow curvc 177 verlical PIessure logging 14850 Viking GIaben area (N North Sca) 10 Vogel cli~nerisionless1PR 2 2 6 1 volatile oil Icservoirs21 1 volatile oil systems 42 volutnetric balance techniques 160 vugular carboliates and u~hole core analysis 69 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRlNCfPLESAND PRACTICE Walther's law of facics 238 water drive and gas condensate reservoirs 209. radial flour an. dipping reservoirs 181 20 well classif~cation well clescription log 31. i r situ 112 wettability effects 108 wetlability preference 93 wetting phase fluid 93 wetting phase saturation 94 wetting preference 175 wireline logs. 180 Welge analysis 106 Welge's cquatiol~s 174 well arrangements.210 water drive reservoirs 167 recovery efficiency of 168 water forrnation factor B.75 wilcline testing 1 4 W 0 WUT (water up to) 13 Xanthan gums 197 Zonation 99.196 degree of 93 ~ wettability control.243.alysisof 13451 well productivity improvement 1934 well test methods. values of43 unsteady state relative permeability tcsts 10910 USA.245 Forties Iescrvoir 249 and geological core atudq 689 and histogram an2rlysis 84 and permeability distributions 84 . 65.362 determination 130 stock tank units 14 stock tank volume 53 Stratapax bits 33 stratified reservoir analysis 306 stripping 191 structure contour maps 122 stuck pipe ancl fishing 3 3 3 summation of fluids and porosity 723.166 water influx. applications of analytical solutions 1369 well test procedures 14550 data analysis 1478 well testing and pressure analysis lS(b1 well!reservoir rcsponses. natural gas 225 Tester valvc 146 thermal enelgy 2047 thernlal injection processes 2 0 4 6 thickness maps 124 threshold capillary prcssurc (reselvoir rocks) 95 threshold pressure 94 traps (structural and stratigraphic) 10 triconc bits 32.32 well drilling operations 203 well locations and patterns 1823 well performance. heavy oil resourcc distribution 202 Van der Laan method (volume in place) 128 vaporizinggas drive 194. holnoge~~cous water viscosity 56 waterflooding 178. 33 trip gas 34 turbinc mcters 229 Ultimate recovery formula see movable hydrocarbon formola uncertainty in rcselvoinrnoclel description 2458 unitization 13C1 universal gas constant. 501 water influx 165.178 Iescvvoir96 water saturation tlistribution.242. corrclatio~i with cores 63. 74 superposition technique 140 surfactant concentration (low) and co~itiliuous seawater floods 199200 surfactant flooding 198200 surfactant phase spstenls 1978 surfactant processes 197200 surfactants 193 synthetic 199 sweetening. different reservoir systems I39 wellbore. 179.131. gas reservoir 15&Y water injection 166.