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Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.

-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [28]
INVERSE TRIGONOMETRY FUNCTIONS
EXERCISE–I
Q 1. (i)
1
3
, (ii) 1, (iii)
5
6
π
, (iv)

π
3
, (v)
4
5
, (vi)
17
6
Q 2. (i)
1
2
, (ii) −1, (iii)

π
4
, (iv)
2
3
π
, (v)
4
5
, (vi) α
Q.3 (d) (–∞, sec 2) ∪ [1, ∞)
Q 4. (i) −1/3 ≤ x ≤ 1 (ii) {1, −1} (iii) 1 < x < 4
(iv) x ∈(−1/2 , 1/2), x ≠ 0 (v) (3/2

, 2]
(vi) {7/3, 25/9} (vii) (−2, 2) − {−1,

0,

1} (viii) {xx = 2n

π +

π
6
, n ∈ I}
Q5. (i) D : x ε R R : [π/4

,

π)
(ii) D: x ∈
|
¹
|

\
| π
+ π π
2
n , n

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ π
+ π =
4
n x x n ∈ I ; R :

π π π
3
2
3 2
,


(iii) D : x ∈ R R : 0
2
,
π

|
¹
|
(iv) D : x ∈ R R :

\
| π π

4
,
2
Q 6.
3
2
1 ,

Q 8.
π
3
Q.11 π
Q.12 (a) x =
1
2
3
7
(b) x = 3 (c) x = 0 ,
1
2
, −
1
2
(d) x =
3
10
(e) x =
2 3 −
or 3 (f) x =
1
2
, y = 1 (g) x =
a b
a b

+ 1
Q.13 57 Q.14 53 Q 19. x = 1 ; y = 2 & x = 2 ; y = 7 Q.20
2
17 1±
EXERCISE–II
Q 4. −

π Q5. 6 cos
2
x –
9
2
π
, so a = 6, b = –
9
2
Q 6. (a)
π
2
(b)
π
4
(c) arc cot
2 5 n
n
+

(d) arc tan (x + n) − arc tan x (e)
π
4
Q 7. (a) x = n² − n + 1 or x = n (b) x = ab (c) x =
4
3
Q 8. (α
2
+ β
2
) (α + β)
Q 9. K = 2 ; cos
4
2
π
,1 & cos
4
2
π
, −1 Q 10. 720 Q.11 X = Y= 3
2
− a
Q 12. k =
4
11
Q 14. (a) (cot

2 , ∞) ∪ (−

∞ , cot

3) (b)
2
2
1 ,
F
H
G
O
Q
P(c)
2
2
1 ,
|
\

|
¹
|
|
∪ − −
|
\

|
¹
|
|
1
2
2
,
Q15.
tan , cot
1
2
1
|
\

Q16. C
1
is a bijective function, C
2
is many to many correspondence, hence it is not a function
Q17. [e
π/6
, e
π
] Q 18.(a) D : [0, 1] , R : [0, π/2] (b)
− ≤ ≤
1
2
1
2
x
(c) D : [−

1, 1] , R : [0, 2]
Q.19
4

Q.20 x ∈ (–1, 1)
EXERCISE–III
Q.1 C Q.2 π Q.3 x ∈{−

1, 0, 1} Q.4 x =
1
3
Q.5 B Q.7 D Q.8 A
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [27]
Q.13

>
≤ <
=
1 x if x
1 x 0 if
x
1
) x ( g
2
2
Q.14 {–1, 1}
Q.15 (a)
e e
x x


2
; (b)
log
log
2
2
1
x
x −
; (c)
1
2
log
1
1
+

x
x
Q.16 x = 1
Q.17 (i) period of fog is π , period of gof is 2π ; (ii) range of fog is [−1

,

1] , range

of gof is [−tan1, tan1]
Q.18 (a) π/2 (b) π (c) π/2 (d) 70

π
Q.20 ±

1, ±

3, ±

5, ±

15
EXERCISE–II
Q 1. f
−1
(1) = y
Q.2 (a) – 3/4, (b) 64, (c) 30, (d) 102, (e) 5050
Q.3 (a)
1002
1
, (b) 1, (c) [0, 4), (d) – 5
Q 4. b can be any real number except
4
15
Q5. f (x) = 1 – x
2
, D = R x∈ ; range =(– ∞, 1]
Q.6 6016 Q 9. f

(x) = 2

x
2
Q 11. fog

(x) =
− + − ≤ ≤
− < ≤
( ) ,
,
1 1 0
1 0 2
x x
x x
; gof

(x) =
x x
x x
x x
x x
+ ≤ <
− ≤ ≤
− < ≤
− < ≤
1 0 1
3 1 2
1 2 3
5 3 4
,
,
,
,
;
fof

(x) =
x x
x x
,
,
0 1
4 3 4
≤ ≤
− ≤ ≤
; gog

(x) =
− − ≤ ≤
< ≤
− < ≤
x x
x x
x x
,
,
,
1 0
0 2
4 2 3
Q 12.

+ −
|
\

|
¹
|
|
3 1
2
1 3
2
,

3 1
2
3 1
2
− +
|
\

|
¹
|
|
,
Q.13 x = 0 or 5/3
Q.14 1002.5 Q.15 5049 Q.16 g (x) = 3 + 5 sin(nπ + 2x – 4), n ∈ I
Q.17 20 Q 18. (0

,

1) ∪ {1, 2, .....,

12} ∪ (12, 13) Q 19. f

(x) = sin x + x −
π
3
EXERCISE–III
Q.1 (hofog)(x) = h(x
2
) = x
2
for x ∈ R , Hence h is not an identity function , fog is not invertible
Q.2 (a) A, (b) B
Q.3 (fog)

(x) = e
3x − 2
; (gof)

(x) = 3

e
x


2 ;
Domain of (fog)
–1
= range of fog = (0, ∞); Domain of (gof)
–1
= range of gof = (−

2, ∞)
Q.4 B Q.5 D
Q.6 {(1, 1), (2, 3), (3, 4), (4, 2)} ; {(1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 2), (4, 3)} and {(1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 3), (4, 2)}
Q.7 (a) B, (b) A, (c) D, (d) A, (e) D Q.8 (a) D ; (b) A
Q.9 (a) D , (b) A Q.10 C Q.11 (a) A ; (b) D
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [26]
ANSWER KEY
FUNCTIONS
EXERCISE–I
Q 1. (i)

5
4
3
4
π π
,

π π
4 4
,

3
4
5
4
π π
,

(ii)
− −
|
\

|
¹
|
4
1
2
,
∪ (2, ∞) (iii) (– ∞ , – 3]
(iv) (– ∞, – 1) ∪ [0, ∞) (v) (3



2π < x < 3



π) U (3 < x ≤ 4) (vi)
|
¹
|

\
|
∪ |
¹
|

\
|
10
1
,
100
1
100
1
, 0
(vii) (−1 < x < −1/2) U (x > 1) (viii)
1 5
2
0
1 5
2

|
¹
|
|

+

|
¹
|
|
, , (ix) (−3, −1] U {0} U [ 1,3 )
(x) { 4 } ∪ [ 5, ∞ ) (xi) (0

,

1/4) U (3/4

,

1) U {x : x ∈ N, x ≥ 2} (xii)
|
¹
|

π

\
| π
− 6 ,
3
5
3
,
6
1
(xiii) [– 3,– 2)

[ 3,4) (xiv) φ
(xv) 2Kπ < x < (2K

+

1)π but x



1 where K is non−negative integer
(xvi) {x

1000 ≤ x < 10000} (xvii) (–2, –1) U (–1, 0) U (1, 2) (xviii) (1, 2) ∪
|
¹
|

\
|
2
5
, 2
(xix) (−

∞ , −3) ∪ (−3

,

1] ∪ [4

, ∞)
Q 2.
(i) D : x ε R R : [0

,

2] (ii) D = R ; range [ –1 , 1 ]
(iii) D : {xx ∈ R ; x ≠ −3 ; x ≠ 2} R : {f(x)f(x) ∈R , f(x) ≠ 1/5 ; f(x) ≠ 1}
(iv) D : R ; R : (–1, 1) (v) D : −1 ≤ x ≤ 2 R :
[ ]
3 6 ,
(vi) D : x ∈ (2nπ, (2n

+

1)π) −
{ }
2 2 2
6 2
5
6
n n n n I π π π
π π π
+ + + ∈ , , , and
R : log
a
2 ; a ∈ (0, ∞) − {1} ⇒ Range is (–∞, ∞) – {0}
(vii) D : [– 4, ∞) – {5}; R :

\
|

|
¹
|

\
|
3
1
,
6
1
6
1
, 0
Q.4 (a) neither surjective nor injective (b) surjective but not injective
(c) neither injective nor surjective
Q.5 f
3n
(x) = x ; Domain = R − {0

,

1}
Q.6 1 Q.7 (a) 2Kπ ≤ x ≤ 2Kπ + π where K ∈ I (b) [−3/2

,

−1]
Q.8 (i) (a) odd, (b) even, (c) neither odd nor even, (d) odd, (e) neither odd nor even, (f) even,
(g) even, (h) even; (ii)
− + − − − + − − 1 5
2
1 5
2
3 5
2
3 5
2
, , ,
Q.9 (a) y = log

(10



10
x
) , − ∞ < x < 1
(b) y = x/3 when − ∞ < x < 0 & y = x when 0 ≤ x < + ∞
Q.10 f
−1
(x) = (a



x
n
)
1/n
Q.12 (a) f(x) = 1 for x < −1 & −x for −1 ≤ x ≤ 0; (b) f(x) = −1 for x < −1 and x for −1 ≤ x ≤ 0
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [25]
EXERCISE–III
Q.1 The number of real solutions of tan
−1
x x ( ) +1
+ sin
−1
x x
2
1 + + =
π
2
is :
(A) zero (B) one (C) two (D) infinite [JEE '99, 2 (out of 200)]
Q.2 Using the principal values, express the following as a single angle :
3 tan
−1
1
2
|
\

|
¹
|
+ 2 tan
−1
1
5
|
\

|
¹
|
+ sin
−1
142
65 5
. [ REE '99, 6 ]
Q.3 Solve, sin
−1
a x
c
+ sin
−1
bx
c
= sin
−1
x, where a
2
+ b
2
= c
2
, c



0. [REE 2000(Mains), 3 out of 100]
Q.4 Solve the equation:
( ) ( )
cos cos
− −
+ =
1 1 2
6 3 3
2
x x
π
[ REE 2001 (Mains), 3 out

of 100]
Q.5 If sin
–1
x
x x
− + −
|
\

|
¹
|
2 3
2 4
........
+ cos
–1
x
x x
2
4 6
2 4
− + −
|
\

|
¹
| ........ =
π
2
for 0 < | x | <
2
then x equals to
[JEE 2001(screening)]
(A) 1/2 (B) 1 (C) – 1/2 (D) – 1
Q.6 Prove that cos tan
–1
sin cot
–1
x =
x
x
2
2
1
2
+
+
[JEE 2002 (mains) 5]
Q.7 Domain of f (x) =
6
) x 2 ( sin
1
π
+

is
(A)

\
|

2
1
,
2
1
(B)
|
¹
|


4
3
,
4
1
(C)


4
1
,
4
1
(D)


2
1
,
4
1
[JEE 2003 (Screening) 3]
Q.8 If
( ) ) x cos(tan ) 1 x ( cot sin
1 1 − −
= +
, then x =
(A) –
2
1
(B)
2
1
(C) 0 (D)
4
9
[JEE 2004 (Screening)]
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [24]
Q.10 If the value of

=

∞ →
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
+ + − +
n
2 k
1
n ) 1 k ( k
) 2 k )( 1 k ( k ) 1 k ( 1
cos Lim
is equal to
k
120π
, find the value of k.
Q.11 If X = cosec . tan
−1
. cos . cot
−1
. sec . sin
−1
a & Y = sec cot
−1
sin tan
−1
cosec cos
−1
a ;
where 0 ≤ a ≤ 1 . Find the relation between X & Y . Express them in terms of ‘a’.
Q.12 Find all values of k for which there is a triangle whose angles have measure tan
–1
|
¹
|

\
|
2
1
, tan
–1
|
¹
|

\
|
+ k
2
1
,
and tan
–1
|
¹
|

\
|
+ k 2
2
1
.
Q.13 Prove that the equation ,(sin
−1
x)
3
+ (cos
−1
x)
3
= α π
3
has no roots for α <
1
32
and α >
8
7
Q.14 Solve the following inequalities :
(a) arc

cot
2
x − 5 arc

cot

x + 6 > 0 (b) arc

sin

x

>

arc

cos

x (c) tan
2
(arc

sin

x) > 1
Q.15 Solve the following system of inequations
4 arc tan
2
x – 8arc tanx + 3 < 0 & 4 arc cotx – arc cot
2
x – 3 > 0
Q.16 Consider the two equations in x ; (i) sin

cos

|
\

|
¹
|
1
x
y

= 1 (ii) cos

sin

|
\

|
¹
|
1
x
y

= 0
The sets X
1
, X
2




[−1, 1] ; Y
1
, Y
2




I

− {0} are such that
X
1
: the solution set of equation (i) X
2
: the solution set of equation (ii)
Y
1
: the set of all integral values of y for which equation (i) possess a solution
Y
2
: the set of all integral values of y for which equation (ii) possess a solution
Let : C
1
be the correspondence : X
1
→ Y
1
such that x C
1
y for x ∈ X
1
, y ∈ Y
1
& (x

,

y) satisfy (i).
C
2
be the correspondence : X
2
→ Y
2
such that x C
2
y for x ∈ X
2
, y ∈ Y
2
& (x

,

y) satisfy (ii).
State with reasons if

C
1
& C
2
are functions ? If yes, state whether they are bijjective or into?
Q.17 Given

the functions

f(x) =
( ) ( )
e
x cos sin

+
1
3
π
, g(x) = cosec
−1
4 2
3
− |
\

|
¹
|
cosx
& the function h(x) = f(x)
defined only for those values of x, which are common to the domains of the functions f(x) & g(x).
Calculate the range of the function h(x).
Q.18 (a) If the functions f(x) = sin
−1
2
1
2
x
x +
& g(x) = cos
−1
1
1
2
2

+
x
x
are identical functions, then compute
their domain & range .
(b) If the functions f(x) = sin
−1
(3x



4x
3
) & g(x) = 3 sin
−1
x are equal functions, then compute the
maximum range of x.
Q.19 nnnn nnnn nnn nnnnn n. n. nnn n nn nnn nnnnn n(n - z·(sn - r· - z. nnn nnnn nnn nnnnnnnn. nnnn nnnnnnn
nnn nnnnn nn nnn
-i
(n· - nnn
-i
(n· - nnn
-i
(n·.
Q.20 Solve for x : sin
–1
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
+
2
2
x 1
4 x 2
sin
< π – 3.
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [23]
EXERCISE–II
Q.1 Prove that: (a) tan
π
4
1
2
1
+


cos
a
b
+ tan
π
4
1
2
1


cos
a
b
=
2b
a
(b) cos
−1
cos cos
cos cos
x y
x y
+
+ 1
= 2

tan
−1
tan . tan
x y
2 2
|
\

|
¹
| (c) 2

tan
−1
a b
a b
x −
+

. tan
2
= cos
−1
b a x
a b x
+
+

cos
cos
Q.2 If y = tan
−1
1 1
1 1
2 2
2 2
+ − −
+ + −

x x
x x
prove that x² = sin 2y.
Q.3 If u = cot
−1
cos2θ − tan
−1
cos2θ then prove that sin u = tan
2
θ.
Q.4 If α = 2 arc tan
1
1
+

|
\

|
¹
|
x
x
& β = arc sin
1
1
2
2

+
|
\

|
¹
|
x
x
for

0 < x < 1 , then

prove

that

α

+ β = π, what the
value of α + β will be if x > 1.
Q.5 If x ∈
− −

1
1
2
,
then express the function f (x) = sin
–1
(3x – 4x
3
) + cos
–1
(4x
3
– 3x) in the form of
acos
–1
x + bπ , where a and b are rational numbers.
Q.6 Find the sum of the series:
(a) sin
−1
1
2
+ sin
−1
2 1
6

+ ..... + sin
−1
n n
n n
− −
+
1
1 ( )
+ ...... ∞
(b) tan
−1
1
3
+ tan
−1
2
9
+ ..... + tan
−1
2
1 2
1
2 1
n
n


+
+ ..... ∞
(c) cot
−1
7 + cot
−1
13 + cot
−1
21 + cot
−1
31 + ...... to n terms.
(d) tan
−1
1
1
2
x x + +
+ tan
−1
1
3 3
2
x x + +
+ tan
−1
1
5 7
2
x x + +
+ tan
−1
1
7 13
2
x x + +
to

n

terms.
(e) tan
−1
1
2
+ tan
−1
1
8
+ tan
−1
1
18
+ tan
−1
1
32
+ ..... ∞
Q.7 Solve the following
(a) cot
−1
x + cot
−1
(n² − x + 1) = cot
−1
(n − 1)
(b) sec
−1
x
a
− sec
−1
x
b
= sec
−1
b − sec
−1
a a ≥ 1; b ≥ 1, a ≠ b.
(c) tan
−1
x
x

+
1
1
+ tan
−1
2 1
2 1
x
x

+
= tan
−1
23
36
Q.8 Express
2
3
β
cosec
2

α
β
−1
tan
2
1
+
2
3
α
sec
2

β
α
−1
tan
2
1
as

an

integral

polynomial

in α & β.
Q.9 Find the integral values of K for which the system of equations ;

arc x arc y
K
arc y arc x
cos ( sin )
( sin ) . ( cos )
+ =
=

2
2
2
4
4
16
π
π
possesses solutions & find those solutions.
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [22]
Q.10 If arc sinx + arc siny + arc sinz = π then prove that : (x, y, z

>

0)
(a)
x x y y z z xyz 1 1 1 2
2 2 2
− + − + − =
(b) x
4
+ y
4
+ z
4
+ 4 x
2
y
2
z
2
= 2 (x
2
y
2
+ y
2
z
2
+ z
2
x
2
)
Q.11 If a > b > c > 0 then find the value of : cot
–1
|
¹
|

\
|

+
b a
1 ab
+ cot
–1
|
¹
|

\
|

+
c b
1 bc
+ cot
–1
|
¹
|

\
|

+
a c
1 ca
.
Q.12 Solve the following equations / system of equations:
(a) sin
−1
x + sin
−1
2x =
π
3
(b) tan
−1
1
1 2 + x
+ tan
−1
1
1 4 + x
= tan
−1
2
2
x
(c) tan
−1
(x−1) + tan
−1
(x) + tan
−1
(x+1) = tan
−1
(3x) (d) sin
−1
1
5
+ cos
−1
x =
π
4
(e) cos
−1
x
x
2
2
1
1

+
+ tan
−1
2
1
2
x
x −
=
2
3
π
(f) sin
−1
x + sin
−1
y =
2
3
π
& cos
−1
x − cos
−1
y =
π
3
(g) 2 tan
−1
x = cos
−1
1
1
2
2

+
a
a
− cos
−1
1
1
2
2

+
b
b
(a > 0, b > 0).
Q.13 Let l
1
be the line 4x + 3y = 3 and l
2
be the line y = 8x. L
1
is the line formed by reflecting l
1
across the
line y = x and L
2
is the line formed by reflecting l
2
across the x-axis. If θ is the acute angle between
L
1
and L
2
such that tanθ=
b
a
, where a and b are coprime then find (a + b).
Q.14 Let y = sin
–1
(sin 8) – tan
–1
(tan 10) + cos
–1
(cos 12) – sec
–1
(sec 9) + cot
–1
(cot 6) – cosec
–1
(cosec 7).
If y simplifies to aπ + b then find (a – b).
Q.15 Show that :
sin sin cos cos tan tan cot cot
− − − −
|
\

|
¹
|
+
|
\

|
¹
|
+ −
|
\

|
¹
|
+
|
\

1 1 1 1
33
7
46
7
13
8
π π π
=
13
7
π
Q.16 Let α = sin
–1
|
¹
|

\
|
85
36
, β = cos
–1
|
¹
|

\
|
5
4
and γ = tan
–1
|
¹
|

\
|
15
8
, find (α + β + γ) and hence prove that
(i)

α cot =

α cot , (ii)

β α tan · tan = 1
Q.17 Prove that : sin cot
–1
tan cos
–1
x = sin cosec
–1
cot tan
–1
x = x where x ∈( , ] 0 1
Q.18 If sin
2
x + sin
2
y < 1 for all x, y

R then prove that sin
–1
(tanx . tany)
|
¹
|

\
| π π
− ∈
2
,
2
.
Q.19 Find all the positive integral solutions of, tan
−1
x + cos
−1
2
y 1
y
+
= sin
−1
10
3
.
Q.20 Let f (x) = cot
–1
(x
2
+ 4x + α
2
– α) be a function defined R →

\
| π
2
, 0
then find the complete set of real
values of α for which f (x) is onto.
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [21]
Q.4 Find the domain of definition the following functions.
( Read the symbols [*] and {*} as greatest integers and fractional part functions respectively.)
(i) f(x) = arc cos
2
1
x
x +
(ii)
cos(sin ) sin x
x
x
+
+
−1
2
1
2
(iii) f

(x) =
sin log ( )

− |
\

|
¹
|
− −
1
10
3
2
4
x
x
(iv) f(x) =
1
1 4
1
5
2
1


+ −

sin
log ( )
cos ( { })
x
x
x , where {x} is the fractional part of x .
(v) f (x) =

( ) ( ) 3
3 2
5
2 3
1
6
1
2
− +
− |
\

|
¹
|
+ − +
− −
x
x
x x cos log sin log
(vi) f

(x) = log
10
(1

− log
7
(x
2
− 5

x

+

13))

+

cos
−1
3
2
9
2
+
|
\

|
¹
|
|
sin
πx
(vii) f(x)

=

( )
( )
e
x
x
n x x
sin
tan [ ]


+ −

+ −
1
2 1
2
1 l
(viii) f(x) = sin(cos ) x

+ ln (−

2 cos
2
x

+

3 cos

x

+

1) + e
x
x
cos
sin
sin

+
|
\

|
¹
|
|
1
2 1
2 2
Q.5 Find the domain and range of the following functions .
(Read the symbols [*] and {*} as greatest integers and fractional part functions respectively.)
(i) f (x) = cot
−1
(2x



x²) (ii) f (x) = sec
−1
(log
3
tan

x

+ log
tan x
3)
(iii) f(x) = cos
−1
2 1
1
2
2
x
x
+
+
|
\

|
¹
|
|
(iv) f (x) =
( )
tan log

− +
|
\

|
¹
|
|
1
4
5
2
5 8 4 x x
Q.6 Find the solution set of the equation, 3 cos
−1
x = sin
−1
1 4 1
2 2
− −
|
\

|
¹
| x x ( ) .
Q.7 Prove that:
(a) sin
–1
cos (sin
−1
x) + cos
–1
sin (cos
–1
x) =
π
2
, | x | ≤ 1
(b) 2 tan
−1
(cosec tan
−1
x − tan cot
−1
x) = tan
−1
x (x ≠ 0)
(c) tan
−1
2
2 2
mn
m n −
|
\

|
¹
|
+ tan
−1
2
2 2
pq
p q −
|
\

|
¹
| = tan
−1
2
2 2
MN
M N −
|
\

|
¹
| where M = mp − nq,

N = np

+

mq,

1
M
N
and 1
p
q
; 1
m
n
< < <
(d) tan (tan
−1
x + tan
−1
y + tan
−1
z) = cot (cot
−1
x + cot
−1
y + cot
−1
z)
Q.8 Find the simplest value

of, arc

cos

x + arc

cos
x
x
2
1
2
3 3
2
+ −
|
\

|
¹
| , x ∈
1
2
1 ,
|
\

|
¹
|
Q.9 If cos
−1
x
a
+ cos
−1
y
b
= α then prove that
α = + α −
2
2
2
2
2
sin
b
y
cos
b a
xy . 2
a
x
.
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [20]
11. (a) y = cosec
−1
(cosec

x), 11. (b) y = cosec (cosec
−1
x) ,
= x = x
x ε R − { nπ , n ε I },
y ∈

|
¹
|

|
\


π π
2
0 0
2
, ,
x ≥ 1

, y ≥

1, y is aperiodic
y is periodic with period 2

π
12. (a) y = sec
−1
(sec

x) , 12. (b) y = sec (sec
−1
x) ,
= x = x
y is periodic with period 2π ; x ≥ 1 ; y ≥

1], y is aperiodic
x ∈ R – ( ) 2 1
2
n n I − ∈
¦
´
¹
¹
`
)
π

y ∈

|
¹
| ∪
|
\

0
2 2
, ,
π π
π
EXERCISE–I
Q.1 Find the following
(i) tan
cos tan
− −
+
− |
\

|
¹
|

1 1
1
2
1
3
(ii) sin
π
3
1
2
1

− |
\

|
¹
|


sin
(iii) cos
−1
cos
7
6
π |
\

|
¹
|
(iv) tan
−1
tan
2
3
π |
\

|
¹
|
(v) cos tan

|
\

|
¹
|
1
3
4
(vi) tan
|
¹
|

\
|
+
− −
2
3
cot
5
3
sin
1 1
Q.2 Find the following :
(i) sin
π
2
3
2
1


|
\

|
¹
|
|


sin (ii) cos
cos


|
\

|
¹
|
|
+

1
3
2 6
π
(iii) tan
−1
|
¹
|

\
| π
4
3
tan
(iv) cos
−1
|
¹
|

\
| π
3
4
cos
(v) sin
cos

1
3
5
(vi) tan
−1
|
¹
|

\
|
α +
α
2 cos 3 5
2 sin 3
+ tan
−1
|
¹
|

\
| α
4
tan
where −

π
2
< α <
π
2
Q.3 Prove that:
(a) 2 cos
−1
3
13
+ cot
−1
16
63
+
1
2
cos
−1
7
25
= π (b)
cos cos sin
− − −
|
\

|
¹
|
+ −
|
\

|
¹
|
+
1 1 1
5
13
7
25
36
325
= π
(c) arc

cos

2
3
− arc

cos
6 1
2 3
+
=
π
6
(d) Solve the inequality: (arc sec x)
2
– 6(arc sec x) + 8 > 0
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [19]
7. (a) y = sin
−1
(sin

x) , x ∈ R ,
y ∈ −

π π
2 2
,
, 7.(b) y = sin (sin
−1
x) ,
Periodic with period 2 π = x
x ∈ [−

1

,

1] , y ∈ [−

1

,

1] , y is aperiodic

8. (a) y = cos
−1
(cos

x), x ∈ R, y ∈[0, π], periodic with period 2

π 8. (b) y = cos (cos
−1
x) ,
= x = x
x ∈ [−

1

,

1] , y ∈ [−

1

,

1], y is aperiodic
9. (a) y = tan (tan
−1
x) , x ∈ R , y

∈ R , y is aperiodic 9. (b) y = tan
−1
(tan x) ,
= x = x
x ∈ R −
( ) 2 1
2
n n I − ∈
¦
´
¹
¹
`
)
π
,
y ∈ −
|
\

|
¹
|
π π
2 2
,
,
periodic with period π
10. (a) y = cot
−1
(cot

x) , 10. (b) y = cot (cot
−1
x) ,
= x = x
x ∈ R − {n

π} , y ∈ (0 , π) , periodic with π x ∈ R , y

∈ R , y is aperiodic
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [18]
INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
SOME USEFUL GRAPHS
1. y = sin
−1
x , x ≤ 1 ,
y ∈


π π
2 2
,
2. y = cos
−1
x , x ≤ 1 , y ∈ [0 , π]
3. y = tan
−1
x , x ∈ R ,
y ∈ −
|
\

|
¹
|
π π
2 2
,
4. y = cot
−1
x , x ∈ R , y ∈ (0 , π)
5. y = sec
−1
x , x ≥ 1 ,
y ∈

|
¹
| ∪
|
\

0
2 2
, ,
π π
π
6. y = cosec
−1
x , x ≥ 1 ,
y ∈ −

|
¹
|

|
\

π π
2
0 0
2
, ,
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [17]
P− −− −−5 tan
−1
x + tan
−1
y = tan
−1
x y
xy
+
− 1
where x > 0 , y > 0 & xy < 1
= π + tan
−1
x y
xy
+
− 1
where x > 0 , y > 0 & xy > 1
tan
−1
x − tan
−1
y = tan
−1
x y
xy

+ 1
where x > 0 , y > 0
P− −− −−6 (i) sin
−1
x + sin
−1
y = sin
−1
x y y x 1 1
2 2
− + −

where x ≥ 0 , y ≥ 0 & (x
2
+ y
2
) ≤ 1
Note that : x
2
+ y
2
≤ 1 ⇒ 0 ≤ sin
−1
x + sin
−1
y ≤
π
2
(ii) sin
−1
x + sin
−1
y = π − sin
−1
x y y x 1 1
2 2
− + −

where x ≥ 0 , y ≥ 0 & x
2
+ y
2
> 1
Note that : x
2
+ y
2
>1 ⇒
π
2
< sin
−1
x + sin
−1
y

< π
(iii) sin
–1
x – sin
–1
y =
[ ]
2 2 1
x 1 y y 1 x sin − − −

where x > 0 , y > 0
(iv) cos
−1
x + cos
−1
y = cos
−1
[ ]
2 2
y 1 x 1 y x − − m
where x ≥ 0 , y ≥ 0
P− −− −−7 If tan
−1
x + tan
−1
y + tan
−1
z = tan
−1
x y z xyz
xy yz zx
+ + −
− − −

1
if, x > 0, y > 0, z > 0 & xy + yz + zx < 1
Note : (i) If tan
−1
x + tan
−1
y + tan
−1
z = π then x + y + z = xyz
(ii) If tan
−1
x + tan
−1
y + tan
−1
z =
π
2
then xy + yz + zx = 1
P− −− −−8 2 tan
−1
x = sin
−1
2
1
2
x
x +
= cos
−1
1
1
2
2

+
x
x
= tan
−1
2
1
2
x
x −
Note very carefully that :
sin
−1
2
1
2
x
x +
=
( )
2 1
2 1
2 1
1
1
1
tan
tan
tan




− >
− + < −

x if x
x if x
x if x
π
π
cos
−1
1
1
2
2

+
x
x
=
2 0
2 0
1
1
tan
tan



− <

x if x
x if x
tan
−1
2
1
2
x
x −
=
( )

> − π −
− < + π
<



1 x if x tan 2
1 x if x tan 2
1 x if x tan 2
1
1
1
REMEMBER THAT :
(i) sin
−1
x + sin
−1
y + sin
−1
z =
3
2
π
⇒ x = y = z = 1
(ii) cos
−1
x + cos
−1
y + cos
−1
z = 3π ⇒ x = y = z = −1
(iii) tan
−1
1 + tan
−1
2 + tan
−1
3 = π

and tan
−1
1 + tan
−1

1
2
+ tan
−1

1
3
=
π
2
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [16]
KEY CONCEPTS (INVERSE TRIGONOMETRY FUNCTION)
GENERAL DEFINITION(S):
1. sin
−1
x , cos
−1
x , tan
−1
x etc. denote angles or real numbers whose sine is x , whose cosine is x
and whose tangent is x, provided that the answers given are numerically smallest available . These
are also written as arc sinx , arc cosx etc .
If there are two angles one positive & the other negative having same numerical value, then
positive angle should be taken .
2. PRINCIPAL VALUES AND DOMAINS OF INVERSE CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS :
(i) y = sin
−1
x where −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 ;
− ≤ ≤
π π
2 2
y
and sin y = x .
(ii) y = cos
−1
x where −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 ; 0 ≤ y ≤ π and cos y = x .
(iii) y = tan
−1
x where x ∈ R ; − < <
π π
2 2
x and tan y = x .
(iv) y = cosec
−1
x where x ≤ −

1 or x ≥ 1 ; − ≤ ≤
π π
2 2
y , y ≠ 0 and cosec y = x .
(v) y = sec
−1
x where x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 1 ; 0 ≤ y ≤ π ; y ≠
π
2
and sec y = x .
(vi) y = cot
−1
x where x ∈ R , 0 < y < π and cot y = x .
NOTE THAT : (a) 1st quadrant is common to all the inverse functions .
(b) 3rd quadrant is not used in inverse functions .
(c) 4th quadrant

is

used in the CLOCKWISE DIRECTION i.e.
− ≤ ≤
π
2
0 y
.
3. PROPERTIES OF INVERSE CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS :
P− −− −−1 (i) sin (sin
−1
x) = x , −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 (ii) cos (cos
−1
x) = x , −1 ≤ x ≤ 1
(iii) tan (tan
−1
x) = x , x ∈ R (iv) sin
−1
(sin x) = x ,
− ≤ ≤
π π
2 2
x
(v) cos
−1
(cos x) = x ; 0 ≤ x ≤ π (vi) tan
−1
(tan x) = x ; − < <
π π
2 2
x
P− −− −−2 (i) cosec
−1
x = sin
−1
1
x
; x ≤ −1 , x ≥ 1
(ii) sec
−1
x = cos
−1
1
x
; x ≤ −1 , x ≥ 1
(iii) cot
−1
x = tan
−1
1
x
; x > 0
= π + tan
−1
1
x
; x < 0
P− −− −−3 (i) sin
−1
(−x) = − sin
−1
x , −1 ≤ x ≤ 1
(ii) tan
−1
(−x) = − tan
−1
x , x ∈ R
(iii) cos
−1
(−x) = π − cos
−1
x , −1 ≤ x ≤ 1
(iv) cot
−1
(−x) = π − cot
−1
x , x ∈ R
P− −− −−4 (i) sin
−1
x + cos
−1
x =
π
2
−1 ≤ x ≤ 1 (ii) tan
−1
x + cot
−1
x =
π
2
x ∈ R
(iii) cosec
−1
x + sec
−1
x =
π
2
x ≥ 1
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [15]
(c) The domain of definition of f

(x)

=

log ( )
2
2
3
3 2
x
x x
+
+ +
is :
(A) R \ {−

1, −

2} (B) (−

2, ∞) (C) R\{−

1, −

2, −

3} (D) (−

3, ∞) \ {−

1, −

2}
(d) Let E

= {1, 2, 3, 4

}

&

F

=

{1, 2}. Then the number of onto functions from E to F is
(A) 14 (B) 16 (C) 12 (D) 8
(e) Let f

(x) =
α x
x + 1
, x

≠ − 1 . Then for what value of

α

is f (f (x))

=

x

?
(A)
2
(B) − 2 (C) 1 (D) − 1.
[ JEE 2001 (Screening) 5 × 1 = 5 ]
Q.8(a) Suppose f(x) = (x + 1)
2
for x > –1. If g(x) is the function whose graph is the reflection of the graph of f(x)
with respect to the line y = x, then g(x) equals
(A) – x – 1, x > 0 (B)
1
1
2
( ) x +
, x > –1 (C) x +1 , x > –1 (D) x – 1, x > 0
(b) Let function f : R → R be defined by f (x) = 2x + sinx for x ∈ R. Then f is
(A) one to one and onto (B) one to one but NOT onto
(C) onto but NOT one to one (D) neither one to one nor onto
[JEE 2002 (Screening), 3 + 3]
Q.9(a) Range of the function f (x) =
1 x x
2 x x
2
2
+ +
+ +
is
(A) [1, 2] (B) [1, ∞ ) (C)

3
7
, 2
(D)

\
|
3
7
, 1
(b) Let f (x) =
x 1
x
+
defined from (0, ∞ ) → [ 0, ∞ ) then by f (x) is
(A) one- one but not onto (B) one- one and onto
(C) Many one but not onto (D) Many one and onto [JEE 2003 (Scr),3+3]
Q.10 Let f (x) = sin x + cos x, g (x) = x
2
– 1. Thus g ( f (x) ) is invertible for x ∈
(A)

π
− 0 ,
2
(B)

π
π
− ,
2
(C)

π π

4
,
4
(D)

π
2
, 0
[JEE 2004 (Screening)]
Q.11(a) If the functions f (x) and g (x) are defined on R → R such that
f (x) =
¹
´
¦
irrational x , x
rational x , 0


, g (x) =
¹
´
¦
rational x , x
irrational x , 0


then (f – g)(x) is
(A) one-one and onto (B) neither one-one nor onto
(C) one-one but not onto (D) onto but not one-one
(b) X and Y are two sets and f : X → Y. If {f (c) = y; c ⊂ X, y ⊂ Y} and {f
–1
(d) = x; d ⊂ Y, x ⊂ X}, then
the true statement is
(A)
( ) b ) b ( f f
1
=

(B)
( ) a ) a ( f f
1
=

(C)
( ) b ) b ( f f
1
=

, b ⊂ y (D)
( ) a ) a ( f f
1
=

, a ⊂ x [JEE 2005 (Scr.)]
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [14]
Q.18 Find the set of real x for which the function

f(x) =
[ ] [ ]
1
1 12 11 x x − + − −
is not defined, where [x]
denotes the greatest integer function.
Q.19 A is a point on the circumference of a circle. Chords AB and AC divide the area of the circle into three
equal parts . If the angle BAC is the root of the equation, f

(x) = 0 then find f

(x) .
Q.20 If for all real values of u & v, 2

f(u) cos

v = f(u + v) + f(u − v), prove that, for all real values of x
(i) f(x) + f(−

x) = 2a cos

x (ii) f(π − x) + f(−

x) = 0
(iii) f(π − x) + f(x) = −

2b sin

x . Deduce that f(x) = a cos

x − b sin

x, a, b are arbitrary constants.
EXERCISE–III
Q.1 If the functions f

, g

, h are defined from the set of real numbers R to R such that ;
f

(x)= x
2


1, g

(x) =
x
2
1 +
, h

(x) =

0 x if , x
0 x if , 0


; then find the composite function ho(fog) & determine
whether the function (fog) is invertible & the function h is the identity function. [REE '97, 6]
Q.2(a) If g (f(x)) = sin

x & f (g(x)) =
( )
sin x
2
, then :
(A) f(x) = sin
2
x

, g(x) =
x
(B) f(x) = sin

x

, g(x) = x
(C) f(x) = x
2
, g(x) = sin
x
(D) f & g cannot be determined
(b) If f(x) = 3x − 5, then f
−1
(x)
(A) is given by
1
3 5 x −
(B) is given by
3
5 x +
(C) does not exist because f is not one−one (D) does not exist because f is not onto
[JEE'98, 2 + 2]
Q.3 If the functions f & g are defined from the set of real numbers R to R such that f(x) = e
x
,
g(x) = 3x



2, then find functions fog & gof. Also find the domains of functions (fog)
−1
& (gof)
−1
.
[ REE '98, 6 ]
Q.4 If the function f : [1, ∞) → [1, ∞) is defined by f(x) = 2
x (x − 1)
, then f
−1
(x) is : [ JEE '99, 2 ]
(A)
1
2
1
|
\

|
¹
|
− x x ( )
(B) ( )
1
2
1 1 4
2
+ + log x
(C) ( )
1
2
1 1 4
2
− + log x
(D) not defined
Q.5 The domain of definition of the function, y

(x) given by the equation, 2
x
+ 2
y
= 2 is :
(A) 0 < x ≤ 1 (B) 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 (C) −

∞ < x ≤ 0 (D) − ∞ < x < 1
[ JEE 2000 (Screening), 1 out of 35 ]
Q.6 Given x = {1, 2, 3, 4}, find all one−one, onto mappings, f : X → X such that,
f

(1) = 1

, f

(2) ≠

2

and f

(4) ≠ 4 . [ REE 2000, 3 out of 100 ]
Q.7(a) Let

g

(x)

=

1 + x − [

x

]

&

f

(x)

=

− <
=
>
¦
´
¦
¹
¦
1 0
0 0
1 0
,
,
,
x
x
x
. Then for all

x , f (g (x))

is equal to
(A) x (B) 1 (C) f (x) (D) g (x)
(b) If f : [1

,

∞) → [2

,

∞) is given by

, f (x)

=

x

+
1
x
, then f
−1
(x) equals
(A)
x x + −
2
4
2
(B)
x
x 1
2
+
(C)
x x − −
2
4
2
(D) 1



x
2
4 −
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [13]
Q.5 A function f : R → R satisfies the condition, x
2
f (x) + f (1 – x) = 2x – x
4
. Find f (x) and its domain and
range.
Q.6 Suppose p(x) is a polynomial with integer coefficients. The remainder when p(x) is divided by x – 1 is 1
and the remainder when p(x) is divided by x – 4 is 10. If r (x) is the remainder when p(x) is divided by
(x – 1)(x – 4), find the value of r (2006).
Q.7 Prove that the function defined as , f (x) =



then , otherwise } x {
exists it ever where } x { e
| } x { n |
1
| } x { n | l l
f (x) is odd as well as even. ( where {x} denotes the fractional part function )
Q.8 In a function 2

f(x) + xf
1
x
|
\

|
¹
| − 2f 2
1
4
sin π x +
|
\

|
¹
|
|
\

|
¹
|
|
\

|
¹
|
|
= 4

cos
2
πx
2
+ x cos
π
x
Prove that (i) f(2) + f(1/2) = 1 and (ii) f(2) + f(1) = 0
Q.9 A function f , defined for all x

, y



R is such that f

(1) = 2 ; f

(2) = 8
& f

(x

+

y)



k

xy

= f

(x)

+

2

y
2
, where k is some constant . Find f

(x) & show that :
f

(x

+

y) f

1
x y +
|
\

|
¹
|

= k for x

+ y ≠ 0.
Q.10 Let ‘f’ be a real valued function defined for all real numbers x such that for some positive constant ‘a’ the
equation ( ) f x a f x f x ( ) ( ) ( ) + = + −
1
2
2
holds for all x . Prove that the function f is periodic .
Q.11 If f

(x) = −1 + x



2 , 0 ≤ x ≤ 4
g

(x) = 2 −

x , −

1 ≤ x ≤ 3
Then find fog

(x) & gof

(x) . Draw rough sketch of the graphs of fog

(x) & gof

(x) .
Q.12 Find the domain of definition of the implicit function defined by the implicit equation

,
3
y
+ 2
4
x
=

2
4 1
2
x −
.
Q.13 Let {x} & [x] denote the fractional and integral part of a real number x respectively. Solve 4{x}= x + [x]
Q.14 Let f (x) =
3 9
9
x
x
+
then find the value of the sum f
|
¹
|

\
|
2006
1
+ f
|
¹
|

\
|
2006
2
+ f
|
¹
|

\
|
2006
3
+ ....+ f
|
¹
|

\
|
2006
2005
Q.15 Let f (x) = (x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)(x + 4) + 5 where x ∈ [–6, 6]. If the range of the function is
[a, b] where a, b ∈ N then find the value of (a + b).
Q.16 Find a formula for a function g (x) satisfying the following conditions
(a) domain of g is (– ∞, ∞)
(b) range of g is [–2, 8]
(c) g has a period π and
(d) g (2) = 3
Q.17 The set of real values of 'x' satisfying the equality

x
3
+

x
4
= 5 (where [ ] denotes the greatest integer
function) belongs to the interval

\
|
c
b
, a
where a, b, c ∈ N and
c
b
is in its lowest form. Find the value of
a + b + c + abc.
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [12]
Q.16 A function f :
1
2
, ∞

|
¹
|

3
4
, ∞

|
¹
| defined as, f(x) = x
2
− x + 1. Then solve the equation f (x) = f
−1
(x).
Q.17 Function f & g are defined by f(x) = sin x, x∈R ; g(x) = tan x , x∈R − K+
|
\

|
¹
|
1
2
π
where K ∈ I . Find (i) periods of fog & gof. (ii) range of the function fog & gof .
Q.18 Find the period for each of the following functions :
(a) f(x)= sin
4
x + cos
4
x (b) f(x) =

cosx (c) f(x)= sinx+cosx
(d) f(x)= cos

3
5

x − sin

2
7

x .
Q.19 Prove that the functions ; (a) f(x) = cos
x
(b) f(x) = sin
x
(c) f(x) = x + sin

x (d) f(x) = cos

x
2
are not periodic .
Q.20 Find out for what integral values of n the number 3π is a period of the function :
f(x) = cos nx . sin (5/n)

x.
EXERCISE–II
Q.1 Let f be a one−one function with domain {x,y,z} and range {1,2,3}. It is given that exactly one of the
following statements is true and the remaining two are false .
f(x) = 1 ; f(y) ≠ 1 ; f(z) ≠ 2 . Determine f
−1
(1)
Q.2 Solve the following problems from (a) to (e) on functional equation.
(a) The function f (x) defined on the real numbers has the property that ( ) ( ) ) x ( 1 · ) x ( f f f + = – f (x) for all
x in the domain of f. If the number 3 is in the domain and range of f, compute the value of f (3).
(b) Suppose f is a real function satisfying f (x + f (x)) = 4 f (x) and f (1) = 4. Find the value of f (21).
(c) Let 'f' be a function defined from R
+
→ R
+
. If [ f (xy)]
2
= x
( )
2
) y ( f
for all positive numbers x and y and
f (2) = 6, find the value of f (50).
(d) Let f (x) be a function with two properties
(i) for any two real number x and y, f (x + y) = x + f (y) and
(ii) f (0) = 2.
Find the value of f (100).
(e) Let f be a function such that f (3) = 1 and f (3x) = x + f (3x – 3) for all x. Then find the value of f (300).
Q.3(a) A function f is defined for all positive integers and satisfies f(1) = 2005 and f(1)+ f(2)+ ... + f(n) = n
2
f(n)
for all n > 1. Find the value of f(2004).
(b) If a, b are positive real numbers such that a – b = 2, then find the smallest value of the constant L for
which
bx x ax x
2 2
+ − +
< L for all x > 0.
(c) Let f (x) = x
2
+ kx ; k is a real number. The set of values of k for which the equation f (x) = 0 and
( ) ) x ( f f = 0 have same real solution set.
(d) If f (2x + 1) = 4x
2
+ 14x, then find the sum of the roots of the equation f (x) = 0.
Q.4 Let f (x) =
c x 4
b ax
+
+
for real a, b and c with a ≠ 0. If the vertical asymptote of y = f (x) is x = –
4
5
and the
vertical asymptote of y = f
–1
(x) is x =
4
3
, find the value(s) that b can take on.
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [11]
Q.4 Classify the following functions f(x) definzed in R → R as injective, surjective, both or none .
(a) f(x) =
x x
x x
2
2
4 30
8 18
+ +
− +
(b) f(x) = x
3


6

x
2
+

11x



6 (c) f(x) = (x
2
+

x

+

5)

(x
2
+

x



3)
Q.5 Let f(x) =
1
1− x
. Let f
2
(x) denote f [f (x)] and f
3
(x) denote f [f {f(x)}]. Find f
3n
(x) where n is a natural
number. Also state the domain of this composite function.
Q.6 If f(x) = sin²x

+

sin²
1
4
5
g and
3
x cos x cos
3
x =
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
| π
+ +
|
¹
|

\
| π
+
, then find (gof)

(x).
Q.7 The function f(x) is defined on the interval [0,1]. Find the domain of definition of the functions.
(a) f (sin x) (b) f (2x+3)
Q.8(i) Find whether the following functions are even or odd or none
(a) f(x) = log x x + +
|
\

|
¹
| 1
2
(b) f(x) =
( )
x a
a
x
x
+

1
1
(c) f(x) = sin x + cos x
(d) f(x) = x sin
2
x − x
3
(e) f(x)= sin x



cos x (f) f(x) =
( )
1 2
2
2
+
x
x
(g) f(x)=
x
e
x
x

+ +
1 2
1
(h) f(x) = [(x+1)²]
1/3
+ [(x

−1)²]
1/3
(ii) If f is an even function defined on the interval (−5, 5), then find the 4 real values of x satisfying the
equation f (x) = |
¹
|

\
|
+
+
2 x
1 x
f ..
Q.9 Write explicitly, functions of y defined by the following equations and also find the domains of definition
of the given implicit functions :
(a) 10
x
+

10
y
= 10 (b) x +

y= 2y
Q.10 Show if f(x) =
a x
n
n


, x > 0

n ≥ 2 , n ∈ N , then (fof) (x) = x . Find also the inverse of

f(x).
Q.11 (a) Represent the function f(x) = 3
x
as the sum of an even & an odd function.
(b) For what values of p ∈ z

, the function f(x) = x
p n
, n ∈ N is even.
Q.12 A function f defined for all real numbers is defined as follows for x ≥ 0 : f x
x
x x
( ) [
,
,
=
>
≤ ≤
1 1
0 1
How is f defined for x ≤ 0 if : (a) f is even (b) f is odd?
Q.13 If f (x) = max
x
x
,
1 |
\

|
¹
|
for x > 0 where max (a, b) denotes the greater of the two real numbers a and b.
Define the function g(x) = f(x) .
f
x
1 |
\

|
¹
|
and plot its graph.
Q.14 The function f (x) has the property that for each real number x in its domain, 1/x is also in its domain and
f(x) + |
¹
|

\
|
x
1
f = x. Find the largest set of real numbers that can be in the domain of f (x)?
Q.15 Compute the inverse of the functions:
(a) f(x) = ln

x x + +
|
\

|
¹
|
2
1 (b) f(x) = 2
1
x
x −
(c) y =
10 10
10 10
x x
x x

+


Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [10]
EXERCISE–I
Q.1 Find the domains of definitions of the following functions :
(Read the symbols [*] and {*} as greatest integers and fractional part functions respectively.)
(i) f (x) =
cos2 16
2
x x + −
(ii) f (x) = log
7
log
5
log
3
log
2
(2x
3
+ 5x
2
− 14x)
(iii) f (x) =
|
¹
|

\
|
− − − − 2 x 24 x 5 x n
2
l
(iv) f (x) =
7 7
5 1
x
x



(v) y = log sin( )
10
2
3 16 x x − + − (vi) f (x) =
|
|
¹
|

\
|

+
x
1 x log 2
log
10
x 100
(vii) f

(x) =
1
4 1
1
2
2
x
x x

+ − ln ( ) (viii) f (x) = log
1
2
2
1
x
x −
(ix) f x x x
x
( ) = − +

2
2
1
9
(x) f (x) =
) 3 x ( n . ) 10 x 3 x (
2 2
− − − l
(xi) f(x) = log (cos )
x
x 2π (xii) f (x) =
2
x 6 x 35 6
2
1
x cos
− +

(xiii) f(x) =
( ) ( ) 5 ] x [ log log
2
3 / 1
4

(xiv) f(x) =
1
3 10
1
1
2 5
2
[ ]
log ( )
( { } )
x
x x
x
x
+ − + +


,
(xv) f(x) = log
x
sin x
(xvi) f(x) = log
2
( )
− +
|
\

|
¹
|
|
|
\

|
¹
|
|
°
log
sin
/ 1 2
1
1
100
x
+
( ) ( ) log log log log log
10 10 10 10 10
4 3 x x − − −
(xvii) f (x) =
1
[ ] x
+ log
1 – {x}
(x
2
– 3x + 10) +
1
2−| | x
+
1
sec(sin ) x
(xviii) f (x) =
{ } { } [ ] x n ) x 6 x 5 (
2
l − −
+
) x 2 5 x 7 (
2
− −
+
1
x
2
7
n

|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− l
(xix) If f(x) =
x x
2
5 4 − +
& g(x) = x

+

3

, then find the domain of
f
g

(x) .
Q.2 Find the domain & range of the following functions .
( Read the symbols [*] and {*} as greatest integers and fractional part functions respectively.)
(i) y

=

( )
log (sin cos )
5
2 3 x x − +
(ii) y =
2
x 1
x 2
+
(iii) f(x) =
x x
x x
2
2
3 2
6
− +
+ −
(iv) f (x) =
| x | 1
x
+
(v) y = 2 1 − + + x x
(vi) f (x) = log
(cosec x - 1)
(2

− [sin

x] − [sin

x]
2
) (vii) f (x) =
5 x
3 4 x

− +
Q.3 Draw graphs of the following function , where [

] denotes the greatest integer function.
(i) f(x) = x + [x]
(ii) y = (x)
[x]
where x = [x] + (x) & x > 0 & x ≤ 3
(iii) y = sgn [x] (iv) sgn (x

−x)
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [9]
13. ODD & EVEN FUNCTIONS :
If f (−x) = f (x) for all x in the domain of ‘f’ then f is said to be an even function.
e.g. f (x) = cos x ; g (x) = x² + 3 .
If f (−x) = −f (x) for all x in the domain of ‘f’ then f is said to be an odd function.
e.g. f (x) = sin x ; g (x) = x
3
+ x .
NOTE : (a) f (x) − f (−x) = 0 => f (x) is even & f (x) + f (−x) = 0 => f (x) is odd .
(b) A function may neither be odd nor even .
(c) Inverse of an even function is not defined .
(d) Every even function is symmetric about the y−axis & every odd function is
symmetric about the origin .
(e) Every function can be expressed as the sum of an even & an odd function.
e.g.
f x
f x f x f x f x
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
=
+ −
+
− −
2 2

(f) The only function which is defined on the entire number line & is even and odd at the same time
is f(x) = 0.
(g) If f and g both are even or both are odd then the function f.g will be even but if any one of
them is odd then f.g will be odd .
14. PERIODIC FUNCTION :
A function f(x) is called periodic if there exists a positive number T (T > 0) called the period of the
function such that f

(x

+

T) = f(x), for all values of x within the domain of x.
e.g. The function sin x & cos x both are periodic over 2π & tan x is periodic over π .
NOTE : (a) f (T) = f (0) = f (−T) , where ‘T’ is the period .
(b) Inverse of a periodic function does not exist .
(c) Every constant function is always periodic, with no fundamental period .
(d) If f

(x) has a period T & g (x) also has a period T then it does not mean that
f

(x)

+

g

(x) must have a period T . e.g. f

(x) = sinx + cosx.
(e) If f(x) has a period p, then
1
f x ( )
and f x ( ) also has a period p .
(f) if f(x) has a period T then f(ax + b) has a period T/a (a > 0) .
15. GENERAL :
If x, y are independent variables, then :
(i) f(xy) = f(x) + f(y) ⇒ f(x) = k ln x or f(x) = 0 .
(ii) f(xy) = f(x) . f(y) ⇒ f(x) = x
n
, n ∈ R
(iii) f(x

+ y) = f(x) . f(y) ⇒ f(x) = a
kx
.
(iv) f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) ⇒ f(x) = kx, where k is a constant .
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [8]
8. COMPOSITE OF UNIFORMLY & NON-UNIFORMLY DEFINED FUNCTIONS :
Let f : A → B & g :

B → C be two functions . Then the function gof : A → C defined by
(gof) (x) = g (f(x)) ∀ x ∈ A is called the composite of the two functions

f & g .
Diagramatically
x
 → 

f x ( )
 → 

→ g

(f(x)) .
Thus the image of every x ∈ A under the function gof is the g−image of the f−image of x .
Note that gof is defined only if ∀ x ∈ A, f(x) is an element of the domain of g so that we can take its
g-image. Hence for the product gof of two functions f & g, the range of f must be a subset of the domain
of g.
PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS :
(i) The composite of functions is not commutative i.e. gof ≠ fog .
(ii) The composite of functions is associative i.e. if f, g, h are three functions such that fo

(goh) &
(fog)

oh are defined, then fo

(goh) = (fog)

oh .
(iii) The composite of two bijections is a bijection i.e. if f & g are two bijections such that gof is
defined, then gof is also a bijection.
9. HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTIONS :
A function is said to be homogeneous with respect to any set of variables when each of its terms
is of the same degree with respect to those variables .
For example 5

x
2
+ 3

y
2
− xy is homogeneous in x & y . Symbolically if

,
f

(tx , ty) = t
n
. f

(x

, y) then

f

(x

, y) is homogeneous function of degree

n .
10. BOUNDED FUNCTION :
A function is said to be bounded if f(x) ≤ M , where M is a finite quantity .
11. IMPLICIT & EXPLICIT FUNCTION :
A function defined by an equation not solved for the dependent variable is called an
IMPLICIT FUNCTION . For eg. the equation x
3
+ y
3
= 1 defines y as an implicit function. If y has been
expressed in terms of x alone then it is called an EXPLICIT FUNCTION.
12. INVERSE OF A FUNCTION :
Let f : A → B be a one−one & onto function, then their exists a unique function
g : B → A such that f(x) = y ⇔ g(y) = x, ∀ x ∈ A & y ∈ B . Then g is said to be inverse of f . Thus
g = f
−1
: B → A = {(f(x), x) 

(x, f(x)) ∈ f} .
PROPERTIES OF INVERSE FUNCTION :
(i) The inverse of a bijection is unique .
(ii) If f : A → B is a bijection & g : B → A is the inverse of f, then fog = I
B
and
gof = I
A
, where I
A
& I
B
are identity functions on the sets A & B respectively.
Note that the graphs of f & g are the mirror images of each other in the
line y = x . As shown in the figure given below a point (x ',y ' ) corresponding to y = x
2
(x >0)
changes to (y ',x ' ) corresponding to y x =+ , the changed form of x = y .
(iii) The inverse of a bijection is also a bijection .
(iv) If

f & g are two bijections f : A → B

, g : B → C then the inverse of gof exists and
(gof)
−1
= f
−1
o g
−1
.
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [7]
Into function :
If f : A → B

is such that there exists atleast one element in co−domain which is not the image of any
element in domain, then f(x) is into .
Diagramatically into function can be shown as
OR
Note that : If a function is onto, it cannot be into and vice versa . A polynomial of degree even will
always be into.
Thus a function can be one of these four types :
(a) one−one onto (injective & surjective)
(b) one−one into (injective but not surjective)
(c) many−one onto (surjective but not injective)
(d) many−one into (neither surjective nor injective)
Note : (i) If f is both injective & surjective, then it is called a Bijective mapping.
The bijective functions are also named as invertible, non singular or biuniform functions.
(ii) If a set A contains n distinct elements then the number of different functions defined from
A

A is n
n
& out of it n ! are one one.
Identity function :
The function f : A → A defined by f(x) = x ∀ x ∈ A is called the identity of A and is denoted by I
A
.
It is easy to observe that identity function is a bijection .
Constant function :
A function f : A → B is said to be a constant function if every element of A has the same f image in B .
Thus f : A → B ; f(x) = c

, ∀ x ∈ A

, c ∈ B is a constant function. Note that the range of a constant
function is a singleton and a constant function may be one-one or many-one, onto or into .
7. ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS ON FUNCTIONS :
If f & g are real valued functions of x with domain set A, B respectively, then both f & g are defined in

A ∩ B. Now we define f

+

g

, f



g

, (f

.

g) & (f/g) as follows :
(i) (f

±

g) (x) = f(x) ± g(x)
(ii) (f

.

g) (x) = f(x) . g(x)
(iii)
f
g
|
\

|
¹
|
(x) =
f x
g x
( )
( )
domain is {x



x ∈ A ∩ B s

.

t g(x) ≠ 0} .
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [6]
5. EQUAL OR IDENTICAL FUNCTION :
Two functions f & g are said to be equal if :
(i) The domain of f = the domain of g.
(ii) The range of f = the range of g and
(iii) f(x) = g(x) , for every x belonging to their common domain. eg.
f(x) =
x
1
& g(x) =
2
x
x
are identical functions .
6. CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTIONS :
One

− −− −−

One Function (Injective mapping) :
A function f : A → B is said to be a one−one function or injective mapping if different elements of A
have different f

images in B . Thus for

x
1
, x
2
∈ A & f(x
1
)

,
f(x
2
) ∈ B

, f(x
1
) = f(x
2
) ⇔ x
1
= x
2
or x
1


x
2
⇔ f(x
1
) ≠ f(x
2
) .
Diagramatically an injective mapping can be shown as
OR
Note : (i) Any function which is entirely increasing or decreasing in whole domain, then
f(x) is one−one .
(ii) If any line parallel to x−axis cuts the graph of the function atmost at one point,
then the function is one−one .
Many–one function :
A function f : A → B is said to be a many one function if two or more elements of A have the same
f image in B . Thus f : A → B is many one if for

; x
1
,

x
2
∈ A

, f(x
1
) = f(x
2
)

but x
1
≠ x
2
.
Diagramatically a many one mapping can be shown as
OR
Note : (i) Any continuous function which has atleast one local maximum or local minimum, then

f(x) is
many−one . In other words, if a line parallel to x−axis cuts the graph of the function atleast
at two points, then f is many−one .
(ii) If a function is one−one, it cannot be many−one and vice versa .
Onto function (Surjective mapping) :
If the function f : A → B is such that each element in B (co−domain) is the f image of atleast one element
in A, then we say that

f is a function of A 'onto' B . Thus f : A → B is surjective iff ∀ b ∈ B, ∃ some
a ∈ A

such that f (a) = b .
Diagramatically surjective mapping can be shown as
OR
Note that : if range = co−domain, then f(x) is onto.
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [5]
Function Domain Range
(y = f (x) ) (i.e. values taken by x) (i.e. values taken by f (x) )
D. Exponential Functions
(i) e
x
R R
+
(ii) e
1/x
R – { 0 } R
+
– { 1 }
(iii) a
x
, a > 0 R R
+
(iv) a
1/x
, a > 0 R – { 0 } R
+
– { 1 }
E. Logarithmic Functions
(i) log
a
x , (a > 0 ) (a

1) R
+
R
(ii) log
x
a =
x log
1
a
R
+
– { 1 } R – { 0 }
(a > 0 ) (a ≠ 1)
F. Integral Part Functions Functions
(i) [ x ] R I
(ii)
] x [
1
R – [0, 1 )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
− ∈ } 0 { I n ,
n
1
G. Fractional Part Functions
(i) { x } R [0, 1)
(ii)
} x {
1
R – I (1, ∞)
H. Modulus Functions
(i) | x | R R
+
∪ { 0 }
(ii)
| x |
1
R – { 0 } R
+
I. Signum Function
sgn (x) =
0 x ,
x
| x |

R {–1, 0 , 1}
= 0 , x = 0
J. Constant Function
say f (x) = c R { c }
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [4]
4. DOMAINS AND RANGES OF COMMON FUNCTION :
Function Domain Range
(y = f (x) ) (i.e. values taken by x) (i.e. values taken by f (x) )
A. Algebraic Functions
(i) x
n
, (n

N) R = (set of real numbers) R , if n is odd
R
+
∪ {0} , if n is even
(ii)
n
x
1
, (n ∈ N) R – {0} R – {0} , if n is odd
R
+
, if n is even
(iii)
n / 1
x
, (n ∈ N) R , if n is odd R , if n is odd
R
+
∪ {0} , if n is even R
+
∪ {0} , if n is even
(iv)
n / 1
x
1
, (n ∈ N) R – {0} , if n is odd R – {0} , if n is odd
R
+
, if n is even R
+
, if n is even
B. Trigonometric Functions
(i) sin x R [–1, + 1]
(ii) cos x R [–1, + 1]
(iii) tan x R – (2k + 1)
I k ,
2

π
R
(iv) sec x R – (2k + 1)
I k ,
2

π
(– ∞ , – 1 ] ∪ [ 1 , ∞ )
(v) cosec x R – kπ , k

I (– ∞ , – 1 ] ∪ [ 1 , ∞ )
(vi) cot x R – kπ , k

I R
C. Inverse Circular Functions (Refer after Inverse is taught )
(i) sin
–1
x [–1, + 1]

π π

2
,
2
(ii) cos
–1
x [–1, + 1] [ 0, π]
(iii) tan
–1
x R
|
¹
|

\
| π π

2
,
2
(iv) cosec
–1
x (– ∞ , – 1 ] ∪ [ 1 , ∞ )

π π

2
,
2
– { 0 }
(v) sec
–1
x (– ∞ , – 1 ] ∪ [ 1 , ∞ ) [ 0, π] –
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦π
2
(vi) cot
–1
x R ( 0, π)
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [3]
(IV) EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION :
A function f(x) = a
x
= e
x ln a
(a > 0

, a ≠ 1, x ∈

R) is called an exponential function. The inverse of the
exponential function is called the logarithmic function . i.e. g(x) = log
a
x .
Note that f(x) & g(x) are inverse of each other & their graphs are as shown .
(v) ABSOLUTE VALUE FUNCTION :
A function y = f (x) = x is called the absolute value function or Modulus function. It is defined as
: y = x=
x if x
x if x

− <

0
0
(vi) SIGNUM FUNCTION :
A function y= f (x) = Sgn (x) is defined as follows :
y = f (x) =
1 0
0 0
1 0
for x
for x
for x
>
=
− <

It is also written as Sgn x = |x|/ x ;
x ≠ 0 ; f (0) = 0
(vii) GREATEST INTEGER OR STEP UP FUNCTION :
The function y = f (x) = [x] is called the greatest integer function where [x] denotes the greatest integer
less than or equal to x . Note that for :


1 ≤ x < 0 ; [x] = −

1 0 ≤ x < 1 ; [x] = 0
1 ≤ x < 2 ; [x] = 1 2 ≤ x < 3 ; [x] = 2
and so on .
Properties of greatest integer function :
(a) [x] ≤ x < [x]

+

1 and
x



1 < [x] ≤ x , 0 ≤ x



[x] < 1
(b) [x

+

m] = [x]

+

m if

m is an integer .
(c) [x]

+

[y] ≤ [x

+

y] ≤ [x]

+

[y]

+

1
(d) [x] + [−

x] = 0 if

x is an integer


= −

1 otherwise .
(viii) FRACTIONAL PART FUNCTION :
It is defined as :
g (x) = {x} = x

− [x] .
e.g. the fractional part of the no. 2.1 is
2.1− 2 = 0.1 and the fractional part of −

3.7 is 0.3.
The period of this function is 1 and graph of this function
is as shown .
y

=

x

45º
)
(0, 1)
(1, 0)
g(x) = log
a
x
f(x) = a
x
, 0 < a < 1
+ ∞
y

=

x

45º
)
(1, 0)
(0, 1)
+ ∞
f
(
x
)

=

a
x
,


a

>

1




g
(
x
)

=

l
o
g a

x
y
O
y = 1 if x > 0
y = −1 if x < 0
y = Sgn x
> x
−3 −2 −1 1 2
3

x
y




º
º
º
º

3
2
1
−1
−2
º
−3
graph of y = [x]

−1

1

2
y

1

º
• • •

− − −













º º
º
graph of y = {x}
x
Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-φ φ φ φ φ - IV [2]
KEY CONCEPTS (FUNCTIONS)
THINGS TO REMEMBER :
1. GENERAL DEFINITION :
If to every value (Considered as real unless other−wise stated) of a variable x, which belongs to some
collection (Set) E, there corresponds one and only one finite value of the quantity y, then y is said to be
a function (Single valued) of x or a dependent variable defined on the set E ; x is the argument or
independent variable .
If to every value of x belonging to some set E there corresponds one or several values of the variable y,
then y is called a multiple valued function of x defined on E.Conventionally the word "FUNCTION” is
used only as the meaning of a single valued function, if not otherwise stated.
Pictorially :
x
input
 → 

f x y
output
( ) =
 →  , y is called the image of x & x is the pre-image of y under f.
Every function from A → B satisfies the following conditions .
(i) f ⊂ A x B (ii) ∀ a ∈ A ⇒ (a, f(a)) ∈ f and
(iii) (a, b) ∈ f & (a, c) ∈ f ⇒ b = c
2. DOMAIN, CO− −− −−DOMAIN & RANGE OF A FUNCTION :
Let f : A → B, then the set A is known as the domain of

f & the set B is known as co-domain of f .
The set of all

f images of elements of A is known as the range of

f . Thus :
Domain of f = {a



a ∈ A, (a, f(a)) ∈ f}
Range of f = {f(a)



a ∈ A, f(a) ∈ B}
It should be noted that range is a subset of co−domain . If only the rule of function is given then the domain of
the function is the set of those real numbers, where function is defined. For a continuous function, the interval
from minimum to maximum value of a function gives the range.
3. IMPORTANT TYPES OF FUNCTIONS :
(i) POLYNOMIAL FUNCTION :
If a function f is defined by f (x) = a
0
x
n
+ a
1
x
n−1
+ a
2
x
n−2
+ ... + a
n−1
x + a
n
where n

is a non negative integer
and a
0
, a
1
, a
2
, ..., a
n
are real numbers and a
0
≠ 0, then f

is called a polynomial function of degree n .
NOTE : (a) A polynomial of degree one with no constant term is called an odd linear
function . i.e. f(x) = ax

, a ≠ 0
(b) There are two polynomial functions

, satisfying the relation ;
f(x).f(1/x) = f(x) + f(1/x). They are :
(i) f(x) = x
n
+ 1 & (ii) f(x) = 1



x
n
, where n is a positive integer .
(ii) ALGEBRAIC FUNCTION :
y is an algebraic function of x, if it is a function that satisfies an algebraic equation of the form
P
0
(x) y
n
+ P
1
(x) y
n−1
+ ....... + P
n−1
(x) y + P
n
(x) = 0 Where n is a positive integer and
P
0
(x), P
1
(x) ........... are Polynomials in x.
e.g. y = x is an algebraic function, since it satisfies the equation y² − x² = 0.
Note that all polynomial functions are Algebraic but not the converse. A function that is not algebraic is
called TRANSCEDENTAL FUNCTION .
(iii) FRACTIONAL RATIONAL FUNCTION :
A rational function is a function of the form. y = f (x) =
g x
h x
( )
( )
, where
g (x) & h (x) are polynomials & h (x) ≠ 0.
BULLS EYE AND ACME
FUNCTIONS
&
INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Trigonometry Phase - IV
CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS
FUNCTIONS
KEY CONCEPT .................................................................. Page –2
EXERCISE–I ...................................................................... Page –10
EXERCISE–II ..................................................................... Page –12
EXERCISE–III ................................................................... Page –14
INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
KEY CONCEPT .................................................................. Page –16
EXERCISE–I ...................................................................... Page –20
EXERCISE–II ..................................................................... Page –23
EXERCISE–III ................................................................... Page –25
ANSWER KEY .................................................................... Page –26 - 28
BANSAL CLASSES
TARGET IIT JEE 2008

Q.13
x −x Q.15 (a) e − e ;

Q.14

{–1, 1}

Q.17 (i) period of fog is π , period of gof is 2π ; (ii) range of fog is [−1 , 1] , range of gof is [−tan1, tan1] Q.18 (a) π/2 (b) π (c) π/2 (d) 70 π Q.20 ± 1, ± 3, ± 5, ± 15

2

(b)

; (c)

1 log 2

Q.16 x = 1

EXERCISE–II
Q 1. f (1) = y Q.2 (a) – 3/4, (b) 64, (c) 30, (d) 102, (e) 5050 Q.3 (a) , (b) 1, (c) [0, 4), (d) – 5
15 Q5. f (x) = 1 – x2, D = x∈ R ; range =(– ∞, 1] 4 Q 9. f (x) = 2 x2
x +1 , 0 ≤ x < 1 3− x , 1 ≤ x ≤ 2 x −1 , 2 < x ≤ 3
−1

Q 4. Q.6

b can be any real number except 6016

Q 11. fog (x) =

; gof (x) =

;

fof (x) = 4 − x , 3 ≤ x ≤ 4 ;
 

x

,

0≤x≤1

1002 0 gog (x) = x g( x,) =  < x ≤ 2  2 4 − x , 2 < x ≤ 3 >1 x if x
3 + 1   2 

5−x , 3 < x ≤ 4 log 1 (1 + x)x , 1 − 1 ≤ x ≤ 0 −+ x2 if 0< x≤1 − x1 − 2x − 1 ,x 20 ≤ 0 ≤ 2 log ,1 − ≤ x < x x− x 

Q 12.  − 
Q.14

 3 −1 3 + 1 1 − 3  ∪  , ,   2 2  2 

Q.13 Q.16

x = 0 or 5/3

1002.5

Q.15

5049

g (x) = 3 + 5 sin(nπ + 2x – 4), n ∈ I
Q 19. f (x) = sin x + x −
π 3

Q.17 20

Q 18. (0 , 1) ∪ {1, 2, ....., 12} ∪ (12, 13)

EXERCISE–III
Q.1 (hofog)(x) = h(x2) = x2 for x ∈ R , Hence h is not an identity function , fog is not invertible Q.2 (a) A, (b) B Q.3 (fog) (x) = e3x − 2 ; (gof) (x) = 3 ex − 2 ; Domain of (fog)–1 = range of fog = (0, ∞); Domain of (gof)–1 = range of gof = (− 2, ∞) Q.4 B Q.5 D Q.6 {(1, 1), (2, 3), (3, 4), (4, 2)} ; {(1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 2), (4, 3)} and {(1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 3), (4, 2)} Q.7 (a) B, (b) A, (c) D, (d) A, (e) D Q.8 (a) D ; (b) A Q.9 (a) D , (b) A Q.10 C Q.11 (a) A ; (b) D

Bansal Classes

Functions & Trig.-φ - IV

[27]

– 1) ∪ [0. 1) [ ] D : x ∈ (2nπ. − ∞ < x < 1 (b) y = x/3 when − ∞ < x < 0 & y = x when 0 ≤ x < + ∞ Q.IV [26] . (i) D : x ε R (iii) (iv) (vi)  1 π   5π  (xii)  − . f(x) ≠ 1} D : R . R : (–1. x ≠ 2} R : {f(x)f(x) ∈R . 2) (xix) (− ∞ . 2 2 2 2 (a) y = log (10 − 10x) .    4   2  5 π4  π π 6 D : {xx ∈ R .  ∪  . (g) even. 1] ∪ [4 . (2n + 1)π) − 2 nπ + 6 . Q. (b) even. 2 nπ +  1   1 1 D : [– 4.4 (a) neither surjective nor injective (c) neither injective nor surjective (b) surjective but not injective Q.9 (h) even.-φ . .6 1 Q. a ∈ (0.3 )        2  2 (vii) (−1 < x < −1/2) U (x > 1) (x) { 4 } ∪ [ 5. 1 ] 3   2 π. ∞ (ix) (−3.5 f3n(x) = x . 1) U {x : x ∈ N. (d) odd. 1} Q.  ∪ (v) (3 − 2π < x < 3 − π) U (3 < x ≤ 4) (vi)  0. x ≥ 2} (xiii) [– 3.– 2) ∪ [ 3. (e) neither odd nor even.8 (i) (a) odd.  (ii)  − 4 . 2) ∪ R : [0 . n ∈I } and R : loga 2 . 6   6 3  3  (xviii) (1. (b) f(x) = −1 for x < −1 and x for −1 ≤ x ≤ 0 Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. ∞) − {1} ⇒ Range is (–∞.  ∪  .4) (xiv) φ (xv) 2Kπ < x < (2K + 1)π but x ≠ 1 where K is non−negative integer (xvi) {x 1000 ≤ x < 10000} (xvii) (–2. range [ –1 .12 (a) f(x) = 1 for x < −1 & −x for −1 ≤ x ≤ 0. ∞) (iii) (– ∞ . (i) (iv) (– ∞.  ∪  . ∞) – {5}. 2 nπ + 2 .ANSWER KEY FUNCTIONS EXERCISE–I Q 1. ∞) ∪ − 1  π π   3π 5 π  . − 2  ∪ (2. 6  2. −1] U {0} U [ 1. ∞ ) (xi) (0 . 2] (ii) D = R .7 (a) 2Kπ ≤ x ≤ 2Kπ + π where K ∈ I (b) [−3/2 . −1] Q. (v) D : −1 ≤ x ≤− 55 R :− 3 π .   6   6 3 { .  100   100 10  (viii)   1 + 5 1 − 5  . (f) even. 0 ∪  . . Domain = R − {0 . R :  0. – 3]   4   4 4  4 1   1   1 . 0) U (1. ∞) Q 2.10 f−1(x) = (a − xn)1/n Q. (c) neither odd nor even. −3) ∪ (−3 . ∞) – {0} (vii) Q. –1) U (–1. f(x) ≠ 1/5 . x ≠ −3 . 1/4) U (3/4 . (ii) −1 + 5 −1 − 5 −3 + 5 −3 − 5 .

3 out of 100] Q.2 (B) one (C) two + sin−1 x 2 + x + 1 = (D) infinite π is : 2 [JEE '99..6 Prove that cos tan–1 sin cot –1 x = [JEE 2002 (mains) 5] ax 2 bx x  1 (x + 1) x 3+ π −1 3 3x 2 = π 2 cos−1x1 + x −cos  6 x −  csin − (2x ) + .   4 4 is ( ) ( ) 6  1 1 (C) − . c ≠ 0. [ REE '99..EXERCISE–III Q..5 If sin–1 (A) 1/2 (B) 1 + cos–1  x 2 −    π x4 x6 + − .   4 4  1 1 (D) − . 6 ] Q.-φ . [REE 2000(Mains). then x = (A) – 1 2 ( ) (B) 1 2 (C) 0 9 4 [JEE 2004 (Screening)] (D) Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.... 2 c  2 2 4   Q. = for 0 < | x | < 2 4  2 then x equals to (C) – 1/2 x2 + 1 x2 + 2 [JEE 2001(screening)] (D) – 1 Q.. where a2 + b2 = c2..4 Solve.   4 2 [JEE 2003 (Screening) 3] Q..IV [25] .8 If sin cot −1 ( x + 1) = cos(tan −1 x ) .7 Domain of f (x) =  1 1 (A)  − .3 Q.   2 2  1 3 (B) − ...... 2 (out of 200)] Using the principal values. sin−1 + sin−1 = sin−1x. 3 out of 100] Solve the equation: [ REE 2001 (Mains). express the following as a single angle : 3 tan−1 + 2 tan−1   + sin−1  1  5 142 65 5 .1 The number of real solutions of tan−1 (A) zero Q.

(sin−1x)3 + (cos−1x)3 = α π3 has no roots for α < Q. y) satisfy (ii). Y2 ⊆ I − {0} are such that X1 : the solution set of equation (i) X2 : the solution set of equation (ii) 71 Y1 : the set of all integral values of y for which equation(i) possess a (k − 1)k (k + 1)(k + 2)   1 + solution  cos −1 x  n    ∑(ii) possess a solution 8 Limy  cos −1  Y2 : the set of all integral values of y for which equation    → ∞ k =2 n2 k (k + 1) Let : C1 be the correspondence : X1 → Y1 such that x C1 y  x ∈ X1 . )+ ( Ð 2)(3 Ð 7) = 2. cot−1 .19 their domain & range . tan–1  + k  . sec . 1] . State with reasons if C1 & C2 are functions ? If yes.15 Solve the following system of inequations 4 arc tan2x – 8arc tanx + 3 < 0 & Q.IV [24] .-φ . y)satisfy (i).13 Prove that the equation .14 Solve the following inequalities : (a) arc cot2 x − 5 arc cot x + 6 > 0 1 and α > 32 (b) arc sin x > arc cos x (c) tan2 (arc sin x) > 1 Q. Q. y ∈ Y1 & (x .20 Solve for x : sin–1  sin      2x 2 + 4     1 + x 2   < π – 3.12 Find all values of k for which there is a triangle whose angles have measure tan–1 1  and tan–1  + 2k  . )+ Ð1( ). g(x) = cosec−1   4 − 2 cosx   & the function h(x) = f(x)   3 defined only for those values of x. Express them in terms of ‘a’. cos .Q. then compute the maximum range of x.11 If X = cosec . 2  Q.17 Given the functions f(x) = e cos −1 sin x + π 3 ( ( )) . 1  . . X2 ⊆ [−1. state whether they are bijjective or into? Q. where 0 ≤ a ≤ 1 . Ð1( .16 Consider the two equations in x . k Q. 2  Q. Y1. then compute 1 + x2 1 + x2 (b) Q.10 If the value of is equal to 120π . find the value of k. tan−1 . Ð1( . If the functions f(x) = sin−1 (3x − 4x3) & g(x) = 3 sin−1 x are equal functions. for C2 be the correspondence : X2 → Y2 such that x C2 y for x ∈ X2 . (i) sin 4 arc cotx – arc cot2 x – 3 > 0 =1 (ii) cos   sin −1 x   =0  y  The sets X1. sin−1 a & Y = sec cot−1 sin tan−1 cosec cos−1 a .   Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. y ∈ Y2 & (x .18 (a) If the functions f(x) = sin−1 1 − x2 2x & g(x) = cos−1 are identical functions. Find the relation between X & Y . Calculate the range of the function h(x). Q. which are common to the domains of the functions f(x) & g(x).

+ sin−1 1x −x1+ cos1y+. a cos Q.4 If α = 2 arc tan  value of α + β will be if x > 1. tan 2  = cos−1        a + b cos x   a−b x Q. ∞ βπn (n 1 cos − a b a 6 18 + 5 1 7  4++1x++1) 13y  9 32 1 36 2 2 x 2+ 7 8 1 x + 3x + 3 2 cos x cos b  n −1 2 + . where a and b are rational numbers...−  then express the function f (x) = sin–1 (3x – 4x3) + cos–1 (4x3 – 3x) in the form of 2  –1 x + bπ .-φ ..8 Q. b ≥ 1. + tan−1 1 + 22 n − 1 + ... = tan−1 Q. ∞ + tan−1 to n terms. then prove that α + β = π. Q.EXERCISE–II Q.7 Solve the following (a) cot−1x + cot−1 (n² − x + 1) = cot−1 (n − 1) (b) sec−1 (c) tan−1 − sec−1 + tan−1 cosec2 = sec−1b − sec−1a a ≥ 1.9 Express  1 −1 α   1 −1 β  α 3 sec2  tan as an integral polynomial in α & β. ∞ 2 −1 cot−17 + cot−113 + cot−121 + cot−131 + . tan    2 2  b + a cos x  (c) 2 tan−1  a + b . + tan−1 + tan−1 + tan−1 + tan−1 + ..IV [23] . to n terms..5 Q. 1 + 1 −  1 − x2  x  for 0 < x < 1 .......3 If u = cot−1 cos2θ − tan−1 cos2θ then prove that sin u = tan2 θ.  π4 (arc sin y) 2 . what the  & β = arc sin  2 x 1 + x  Q.... a ≠ b. Q. 1  If x ∈ −1.....1 Prove that: (a) tan (b) cos−1 a 2b π 1 + tan  − cos −1  = 4 2 b a x y  = 2 tan−1  tan .  K π2 2 = arc cos x + (arc sin y) 4 possesses solutions & find those solutions..... (arc cos x) =  16  Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.  2 tan α  + β   2 2  Find the integral values of K for which the system of equations .2 If y = tan−1   1 + x2 − 1 − x2    1 + x2 + 1 − x2    prove that x² = sin 2y..6 Find the sum of the series: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) sin−1 1 2 1 3 + sin−1 tan−1 + tan−1 tan−1 tan−1 + tan−1 n x 3− 1 1 − 1 2cos 1 n 1− 23 x + ..

(ii) ∑ tan α · tan β = 1 where x ∈ (0. find (α + β + γ) and hence prove that 5  15  Q.15 Show that : = 7 4 8 . +  1 + cos  cos z = + tan  − tan 13 π  + cot −1  co 3 22 sin + 1  1 b2 b  x 85 2 2     7 7  8    13π Q.1] Q. Q.19 Find all the positive integral solutions of. then find the complete set of real Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.10 If arc sinx + arc siny + arc sinz = π then prove that : (a) (b) x4 + y4 + z4 + 4 x2y2z2 = 2 (x2 y2 + y2 z2 + z2x2) (x. tan−1x + cos−1 y 1 + y2 = sin−1 3 . where a and b are coprime then find (a + b). If a > b > c > 0 then find the value of : cot–1   a−b   b−c   c−a  Q.1−x .11  ab + 1   bc + 1   ca + 1   + cot–1   + cot–1  . tany) . 10 Q.18 If sin2x + sin2y < 1 for all x. π a ∈ 1 2− − 2 2 x −1 1 x If y simplifies to aπ + b then find (a – b).20 Let f (x) = cot–1 (x2 + 4x + α2 – α) be a function defined R → values of α for which f (x) is onto.17 Prove that : sin cot–1 tan cos–1 x = sin cosec–1 cot tan–1x = x Q.  01a−π 2 π  π  − y 2 +−1z  1 − 46 π 2 xyz −1   x 36bπ  33 ∈ a sin y   2+. b > 0). Q.Q. z > 0) Q. y.16 Let α = sin–1 (i) ∑ cot α = ∏ cot α .12 Solve the following equations / system of equations: (a) sin−1x + sin−1 2x = π 3 (b) tan−1 (d) sin−1 1 5 + tan−1 + cos−1x = 1 1 + 4x π 4 = tan−1 2 x2 (c) tan−1(x−1) + tan−1(x) + tan−1(x+1) = tan−1(3x) (e) cos−1 + tan−1 2x x −1 2 = 2π 3 (f) sin−1x + sin−1y = 2 π & cos−1x − cos−1y = 3 (g) 2 tan−1x = cos−1 − cos−1 (a > 0.14 Let y = sin–1(sin 8) – tan–1(tan 10) + cos–1(cos 12) – sec–1(sec 9) + cot–1(cot 6) – cosec–1(cosec 7).-φ . L1 is the line formed by reflecting l1 across the line y = x and L2 is the line formed by reflecting l2 across the x-axis.IV [22] . y R then prove that sin–1 (tanx . Q. β = cos–1   and γ = tan–1   .13 Let l1 be the line 4x + 3y = 3 and l2 be the line y = 8x. If θ is the acute angle between L1 and L2 such that tan θ = .

2 2  M − N2  p − q  n q N <1 .-φ . ( Read the symbols [*] and {*} as greatest integers and fractional part functions respectively.9 If cos−1 x a + cos−1 = α then prove that .IV [21] . arc cos x + arc cos  +  x 2 1 2  3 − 3x2     .7   Find the solution set of the equation.Q.6 Q. where {x} is the fractional part of x . 1 2  1 Q. (Read the symbols [*] and {*} as greatest integers and fractional part functions respectively. Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.4 Find the domain of definition the following functions. − (v) f (x) = 3 − x + cos −1  3 2 x  + log6 (2 x − 3) + sin −1 (log 2 x)     5 (vi) f (x) = log10 (1 − log7 (x2 − 5 x + 13)) + cos−1   (vii) f(x) = e sin −1 ( x ) 2  3  2 + sin 9π x  2    x  + tan −1  − 1 + ln 2  ( x − [x] ) −1 2 sin x + 1  (viii) f(x) = sin(cos x) + ln (− 2 cos2 x + 3 cos x + 1) + ecos     2 2 sin x    Q. N = np + mq. <1 and <1 m p M (d) tan (tan−1 x + tan−1 y + tan−1 z) = cot (cot−1 x + cot−1 y + cot−1 z) Q.   Prove that: (a) sin–1 cos (sin−1 x) + cos–1 sin (cos–1 x) = π .) (i) f (x) = cot−1(2x − x²) (iii) f(x) = cos−1 2    2x + 1  x2 + 1    (ii) f (x) = sec−1 (log3 tan x + logtan x 3) y tan − (iv) f (x)2=1mx . x ∈  . |x| ≤1 2 (b) 2 tan−1 (cosec tan−1x − tan cot−1x) = tan−1x (x ≠ 0) (c) tan−1 + tan−1   2pq   2MN   = tan−1  2  where M = mp − nq.− 1 log 4−1 5x 2x 2 8x + 4  −  2 x  2 xy+ sin 14y− −)  2 (sin 3  xcos n x) − log10 ( + 2 x sin −  5  +2x 22   cos α + 2x = sin 2 α  b 1m  n  2 2 −  ab a b  ( )  Q. 3 cos−1 x = sin−1  1 − x 2 (4 x 2 − 1)  .8  Find the simplest value of.5 Find the domain and range of the following functions .) (i) f(x) = arc cos (iii) f (x) = (iv) f(x) = 1 − sin x log 5 (1 − 4x 2 ) + cos −1 (1 − {x}) (ii) .

+ cot . y is aperiodic x ε R − { nπ . 2  −  + sin 25 63 3   13 5 22 3  2  25  13 325  EXERCISE–I Q. y is periodic with period 2 π 12.2 Find the following : (i) sin  − sin −1   2   π  − 3     2  π −1 − 3 (ii) cos cos  2  + 6              3π  4π    (iii) tan−1  tan  (iv) cos−1  cos  4 3    (v) sin  cos −1  5  Q.π π π y ∈ 0 .11. (a) y = sec −1 (sec x) . = x y is periodic with period 2π . = x x ≥ 1 . y ≥ 1].3 Prove that: (a) 2 cos−1 (c) arc cos + cot−1 − arc cos + 3  3 sin 2α   tan α  π (vi) tan−1   + tan−1   where − < α < 2  5 + 3 cos 2α   4  cos−1 = π 6 =π (b) =π (d) Solve the inequality: (arc sec x)2 – 6(arc sec x) + 8 > 0 Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.1 Find the following (i) tan  cos −1     −1  1 + tan −1   2  3  2π  3  −1 (ii) sin  3 − sin  2      π  − 1  (iii) cos−1  cos 6    (vi) tan  7π (iv) tan−1  tan   3 (v) cos  tan −1    4 Q. = x 11.  ∪    2  2     16 π 5 13  π2  3 7∈ +−1 30 ∪  0 1 π  7  −1 36 y 6 −1 1  + cos −1  cos    −    sin− 2 . (a) y = cosec −1 (cosec x). (b) y = cosec (cosec −1 x) . = x x ≥ 1 . x∈R– π   n ∈ I (2 n − 1) 2   12. (b) y = sec (sec −1 x) . y ≥ 1. n ε I }.-φ . y is aperiodic .IV [20] .

y ∈  − .-φ . = x x ∈ R − {n π} . periodic with π 10. (b) y = cos (cos −1 x) . y ∈ [− 1 . (b) y = cot (cot −1 x) . (a) y = cos −1(cos x). y ∈ (0 . = x  π π y ∈ − . 1] . (a) y = tan (tan −1 x) . π]. y ∈[0. x ∈ R . y ∈ R .7.   2 2 x∈R− π    π π n ∈ I . 1]. (a) y = cot −1 (cot x) .(b) y = sin (sin −1 x) .  (2 n − 1)  2 2 2   . = x x ∈ R . 1] . (b) y = tan −1 (tan x) . π) . 1] . y is aperiodic Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. = x x ∈ [− 1 . x ∈ R. y is aperiodic 9. x ∈ R . periodic with period 2 π = x 8. Periodic with period 2 π .IV [19] . y is aperiodic 8. y ∈ [− 1 . 7. (a) y = sin −1 (sin x) . y is aperiodic =x 9. = x x ∈ [− 1 . periodic with period π 10. y ∈ R .

x ∈ R . x ≥ 1 .  π π y = tan −1 x . x ≥ 1 . π 2  5.-φ . x ∈ R . x ≤ 1 . y ∈ [0 . y = cos −1 x . y ∈ (0 . 2    4.   2  2  Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. x ≤ 1 .IV [18] . y = cot −1 x . 2  ∪  2     π π .INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS SOME USEFUL GRAPHS 1. 0 ∪  0 . y = cosec −1 x . y = sec −1 x . π] 3.π    6. y ∈ 0 . y = sin −1 x . y ∈  − 2 . π) π y ∈ −  2  . π  π   y ∈  − . 2.

y ≥ 0 & (x2 + y2) ≤ 1 π 2 P−6 − (i) 2 2 sin−1 x + sin−1 y = sin−1 x 1 − y + y 1 − x      Note that : x2 + y2 ≤ 1 (ii) ⇒ 0 ≤ sin−1 x + sin−1 y ≤ sin−1 x + sin−1 y = π − sin−1 Note that : x2 + y2 >1 ⇒ where x ≥ 0 . y ≥ 0 & x2 + y2 > 1 π < sin−1 x + sin−1 y < π 2 (iii) (iv) − P−7 sin–1x – sin–1y = cos−1 x + cos−1 y = cos−1 x y m 1− x 2 1− y 2 where x > 0 . y ≥ 0 If tan−1 x + tan−1 y + tan−1 z = tan−1 1 − x y − y z − z x  if. y > 0 [ ] where x ≥ 0 . x > 0. y > 0 & xy < 1 x+y 1 − xy where x > 0 . y > 0.-φ . z > 0 & xy + yz + zx < 1   −1 x + tan−1 y + tan−1 z = π then x + y + z = xyz Note : (i) If tan (ii) If tan−1 x + tan−1 y + tan−1 z = x2+−then 2 xy +2yz + zx = 12 π 12 1y sinx12 −xy 1+ y 1 − x 21− x −y −y  2 3 x   = cos−1 1− x 1 + x2 2  x + y + z − xyz  π − P−8 2 tan−1 x = sin−1 1 + xy − −1 2 x = tan 1 − x2 [ ] Note very carefully that : 2x sin−1 1 + x2  2 tan −1 x  = π − 2 tan −1 x  − π + 2 tan −1 x  ( ) if if if if if if x ≤1 x>1 x < −1 cos−1 1 − x2 1 + x2 =   2 tan −1 x −1 if x ≥ 0 − 2 tan x if x < 0  2tan −1 x  2x tan−1 =  π+ 2tan −1 x 2 1− x  − π−2tan −1 x  ( ) x <1 x < −1 x >1 3π 2 REMEMBER THAT : (i) (ii) (iii) sin−1 x + sin−1 y + sin−1 z = ⇒ x=y=z=1 ⇒ and x = y = z = −1 tan−1 1 + tan−1 1 + tan−1 2 = cos−1 x + cos−1 y + cos−1 z = 3π tan−1 1 + tan−1 2 + tan−1 3 = π Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.IV [17] . y > 0 where x ≥ 0 .P−5 − tan−1 x + tan−1 y = tan−1 = π + tan−1 tan−1 x − tan−1y = tan−1 where x > 0 . y > 0 & xy > 1 x−y 1 + xy where x > 0 .

− . y ≠ y = cot−1 x where x ∈ R . x ∈ R −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 x ≥ 1 (ii) tan−1 x + cot−1 x = x∈R P−4 − (i) sin−1 x + cos−1 x = (iii) cosec−1 x + sec−1 x = Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.IV [16] . x ≤ −1 . . x>0 . 3rd quadrant is not used in inverse functions . 0 ≤ y ≤ π . y = tan−1 x where x ∈ R . −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 tan−1 (−x) = − tan−1 x . 2.-φ . 0 ≤ x ≤ π − ≤y≤0 2 x 2 cos (cos−1 x) = x 2 (ii) . −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 2 2 (iv) sin−1 (sin x) = x . y = cos−1 x where −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 . These are also written as arc sinx . − π π <x< 2 2 − P−2 (i) cosec−1 x = sin−1 (ii) sec−1 x = cos−1 (iii) cot−1 x = tan−1 1 x . . arc cosx etc .KEY CONCEPTS (INVERSE TRIGONOMETRY FUNCTION) GENERAL DEFINITION(S): 1. 0 ≤ y ≤ π and cos y = x . 0 < y < π and cot y = x . −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 (iii) tan (tan−1 x) = x . If there are two angles one positive & the other negative having same numerical value. cos−1 x . <x< 2 2 π π ≤y≤ 2 2 y = cosec−1 x where x ≤ − 1 or x ≥ 1 . x<0 = π + tan−1 P−3 − (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) sin−1 (−x) = − sin−1 x . −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 cot−1 (−x) = π − cot−1 x . whose cosine is x and whose tangent is x. and sec y = x . x ≥ 1 x ≤ −1 . π PROPERTIES OF INVERSE CIRCULARπ FUNCTIONS : 1 π (i) sin (sin−1 x) = x . NOTE THAT : (a) (b) (c) 3. − π ≤ x ≤ π (vi) tan−1 (tan x) = x . π 2 y = sec−1 x where x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 1 . x ∈ R (v) cos−1 (cos x) = x . denote angles or real numbers whose sine is x . PRINCIPAL VALUES AND DOMAINS OF INVERSE CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) y = sin−1 x where −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 . − P−1 1st quadrant is common to all the inverse functions .e. x ∈ R cos−1 (−x) = π − cos−1 x . x ≥ 1 . 4th quadrant is used in the CLOCKWISE DIRECTION i. y ≠ 0 and cosec y = x . then positive angle should be taken . sin−1 x . provided that the answers given are numerically smallest available . and sin y = x . − π π and tan y = x . tan−1 x etc.

-φ .  f (x) =   x.)] Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. Then f is (A) one to one and onto (B) one to one but NOT onto (C) onto but NOT one to one (D) neither one to one nor onto [JEE 2002 (Screening). b ⊂ y ( ) (B) f −1 (f (a ) ) = a (D) f −1 (f (a ) ) = a . 3 + 3] x2 + x + 2 Q. then the true statement is (A) (C) f f −1 (b) = b . 3. Thus g ( f (x) ) is invertible for x ∈ (A) – x – 1. 2}. then (f – g)(x) is (A) one-one and onto (C) one-one but not onto (B) neither one-one nor onto (D) onto but not one-one (b) X and Y are two sets and f : X → Y. y ⊂ Y} and {f –1(d) = x. [ JEE 2001 (Screening) 5 × 1 = 5 ] Q. ∞ ) (C) (D) 1. 4 } & F = {1. then g(x) equals 1 . − 2} (B) (− 2. x > –1 (D) x – 1. If {f (c) = y.8(a) Suppose f(x) = (x + 1)2 for x > –1.   2 [JEE 2004 (Screening)] . ∞) \ {− 1.   3 x (b) Let f (x) = defined from (0.IV [15] . ∞) is : (C) R\{− 1. g (x) = x2 – 1.(c) The domain of definition of f (x) = (A) R \ {− 1. 2] (B) [1.   4 4 Q. − 3} (D) (− 3. 2.one but not onto (B) one. x > –1 (C) x + 1 . x > 0 (x + 1) 2 (b) Let function f : R → R be defined by f (x) = 2x + sinx for x ∈ R. x > 0 (B) ( )  π (A) − .11(a) If the functions f (x) and g (x) are defined on R → R such that 0. x ∈ rational x ∈ irrational 0. g (x) = x. Then the number of onto functions from E to F is (A) 14 (B) 16 (C) 12 (D) 8 Let f (x) = (A) .10 Let f (x) = sin x + cos x. ∞ ) → [ 0.9(a) Range of the function f (x) = 2 is x + x +1  7 (A) [1.3+3] x2 . c ⊂ X. x ≠ − 1 . d ⊂ Y. x ⊂ X}.  2  0   π (B) − . a ⊂ x [JEE 2005 (Scr. − 2} (d) (e) Let E = {1.one and onto  2 27(( ) =  f  flog−1 xb+ 3) b 2++ Many2one and onto (C) Many one but not onto [JEE 2003 (Scr). x ∈ irrational x ∈ rational  π (D) 0. Then for what value of α is f (f (x)) = x ? (B) − 2 (C) 1 (D) − 1. (D)1 x  33x +   Q. ∞ ) then by f (x) is 1+ x αx (A) one.  2  π   π π (C) − . − 2. If g(x) is the function whose graph is the reflection of the graph of f(x) with respect to the line y = x.

2 + 2]  Q. ∞) is defined by f(x) = 2x (x − 1). f (2) ≠ 2 and f (4) ≠ 4 .3 If the functions f & g are defined from the set of real numbers R to R such that f(x) = ex. a.Q. 6 ] If the function f : [1. f (1) = 1 . g(x) = x (D) f & g cannot be determined x +5 3 (B) is given by x 2 (C) does not exist because f is not one−one (D) xdoes−not exist because f is not onto x1+2 (2x−2 ) 1 − x 1 x sin −x4 4 1x − 1 + 12 − x − 11 +x [JEE'98. 2. g (x) = x 2 + 1 . [ REE 2000. g(x) = x (C) f(x) = x2 . find all one−one. ∞) is given by . if x ≤ 0  f (x)= x2 − 1. then f−1(x) (A) is given by 1 3x − 5 [REE '97. x = 0 . 6] . where [x] Q. g(x) = 3x − 2. [ REE '98. f (x) = 0 then find f (x) . 2 f(u) cos v = f(u + v) + f(u − v).4 [ JEE '99. 0. g(x) = sin x (b) If f(x) = 3x − 5.-φ . Also find the domains of functions (fog)−1 & (gof)−1.19 A is a point on the circumference of a circle. for all real values of x (i) f(x) + f(− x) = 2a cos x (ii) f(π − x) + f(− x) = 0 (iii) f(π − x) + f(x) = − 2b sin x . Q. If the angle BAC is the root of the equation. Q. h (x) =  . Chords AB and AC divide the area of the circle into three equal parts . EXERCISE–III Q. x < 0  Q.20 If for all real values of u & v. f (g (x)) is equal to 1 .2(a) If g (f(x)) = sin x & f (g(x)) = (A) f(x) = sin2 x . then f −1 (x) equals x (D) 1 − Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.18 Find the set of real x for which the function f(x) = denotes the greatest integer function. then : (B) f(x) = sin x . y (x) given by the equation. f : X → X such that.6 − 1 . then f−1(x) is : (A) (B) 1 1 + 1 + 4 log2 x 2 ([ 2 2 ] [ ) ] Q. h are defined from the set of real numbers R to R such that . f (x) = x + (A) (B) (C) 1 . onto mappings.7(a) Let g (x) = 1 + x − [ x ] & f (x) =  0 .IV [14] . x>0  (A) x (B) 1 (C) f (x) (D) g (x) (b) If f : [1 . is not defined. Then for all x . then find the composite function ho(fog) & determine  x . ∞) → [2 .5 The domain of definition of the function. b are arbitrary constants. ∞) → [1. prove that.1 If the functions f . if x ≥ 0 whether the function (fog) is invertible & the function h is the identity function. Deduce that f(x) = a cos x − b sin x. 3 out of 100 ] Q. 1 out of 35 ] Given x = {1. g . 3. then find functions fog & gof. 2 ] ( ) (C) 1 1 − 1 + 4 log2 x 2 ( ) (D) not defined Q. 2x + 2y = 2 is : (A) 0 < x ≤ 1 (B) 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 (C) − ∞ < x ≤ 0 (D) − ∞ < x < 1 [ JEE 2000 (Screening). 4}.

The remainder when p(x) is divided by x – 1 is 1 and the remainder when p(x) is divided by x – 4 is 10. ( where {x} denotes the fractional part function ) Q... 6]. 8] (c) g has a period π and (d) g (2) = 3 3 4 Q. x2 f (x) + f (1 – x) = 2x – x4 . Suppose p(x) is a polynomial with integer coefficients.  1    1  πx Q. Solve 4{x}= x + [x] Q. Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. If r (x) is the remainder when p(x) is divided by (x – 1)(x – 4).14 Let f (x) = Q.10 Let ‘f’ be a real valued function defined for all real numbers x such that for some positive constant ‘a’ the 2 equation f (x + a ) = + f (x) − (f (x)) holds for all x .8 + x cos In a function 2 f(x) + xf   − 2f  2 sin  π  x +    = 4 cos2  2  x 4      Prove that (i) f(2) + f(1/2) = 1 and (ii) f(2) + f(1) = 0 A function f . Find f (x) & show that : f (x + y) f = k for x + y ≠ 0. If the range of the function is [a.13 Let {x} & [x] denote the fractional and integral part of a real number x respectively.16 Find a formula for a function g (x) satisfying the following conditions (a) domain of g is (– ∞. Prove that the function f is periodic . ∞) (b) range of g is [–2. c ∈ N and is in its lowest form. Q. find the value of r (2006).-φ .  {x}  otherwise . 3y + 2x = 24 x Q.+ f   then find the value of the sum f  x  2006   2006   2006   2006  9 +3 Q. b] where a. defined for all x .5 Q.12 Find the domain of definition of the implicit function defined by the implicit equation .15 Let f (x) = (x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)(x + 4) + 5 where x ∈ [–6.11 If  1   2   3   2005  9x +f   +f   + . 1 2 f (x) = −1 + x − 2 .6 A function f : R → R satisfies the condition.17 The set of real values of 'x' satisfying the equality   +   = 5 (where [ ] denotes the greatest integer x x b  b function) belongs to the interval  a . − 1 ≤ x ≤ 3   − | l n { x }| | l n { x }| e x  x + the − {xof Then find fog (x) & gof (x) . b.  where a. where k is some constant . 0 ≤ x ≤ 4 1 π  1  g (x) = 2 − x .9 Q. Q. f (2) = 8 & f (x + y) − k xy = f (x) + 2 y2 . b ∈ N then find the value of (a + b).Q. it exists & gof ever   Q.7 Prove that the function defined as . Draw rough sketch of y  graphs } fog (x) where (x) . y ∈ R is such that f (1) = 2 .IV [13] . Find f (x) and its domain and range.. Find the value of c  c a + b + c + abc. then 2 −1 4 . f (x) = f (x) is odd as well as even.

f(z) ≠ 2 . Find the value of f(2004). (d) If f (2x + 1) = 4x2 + 14x. (c) Let f (x) = x2 + kx . 4 and the Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. Find (i) periods of fog & gof. (a) f(x) = cos (d) f(x) = cos x2 Q.2 (a) (b) (c) (d) Solve the following problems from (a) to (e) on functional equation.17 Function f & g are defined by f(x) = sin x.z} and range {1.-φ . then find the smallest value of the constant L for which x 2 + ax − x 2 + bx < L for all x > 0.  4  2 3  Q.3}. b and c with a ≠ 0.4 Let f (x) = for real a. Let f be a function such that f (3) = 1 and f (3x) = x + f (3x – 3) for all x.Q. + f(n) = n2f(n) for all n > 1. Then find the value of f (300). If [ f((xy)]2)2 x  1 ( y) =  2 . Q... f(y) ≠ 1 . ∞ defined as. EXERCISE–II Q. The set of values of k for which the equation f (x) = 0 and f ( f ( x ) ) = 0 have same real solution set.IV [12] . ax + b Q. (e) Q. compute the value of f (3). f(x) = 1 . find the value(s) that b can take on. 2fx 3 5 Let 'f' be a function defined from R+ → R+ . f(x) = x2 − x + 1. sin (5/n) x. Then solve the equation f (x) = f −1 (x). k is a real number.3(a) A function f is defined for all positive integers and satisfies f(1) = 2005 and f(1)+ f(2)+ . (ii) range of the function fog & gof . If the number 3 is in the domain and range of f.y. It is given that exactly one of the following statements is true and the remaining two are false . x∈R −  K + 1  π   where K ∈ I . then find the sum of the roots of the equation f (x) = 0. x∈R . g(x) = tan x .16 A function f : →  . (c) f(x) = x + sin x (b) f(x) = sin x are not periodic .20 Find out for what integral values of n the number 3π is a period of the function : f(x) = cos nx .2.1 Let f be a one−one function with domain {x. Suppose f is a real function satisfying f (x + f (x)) = 4 f (x) and f (1) = 4. (c) f(x)= sinx+cosx Q.19 Prove that the functions . Q. (b) If a. find the value of f (50). Find the value of f (100). f (x + y) = x + f (y) and (ii) f (0) = 2. b are positive real numbers such that a – b = 2.18 Find the period for each of the following functions : (a) f(x)= sin4x + cos4x (b) f(x) = cosx (d) f(x)= cos x − sin x. ∞ 7 5  4  f (2) = 6. Determine f−1(1) The function f (x) defined on the real numbers has the property that f ( f ( x ) )· (1 + f ( x ) ) = – f (x) for all x in the domain of f. for all positive numbers x and y and Let f (x) be a function with two properties (i) for any two real number x and y. Find the value of f (21). If the vertical asymptote of y = f (x) is x = – 4x + c 3 vertical asymptote of y = f –1 (x) is x = .

(a) f (sin x) (b) f (2x+3) x ax +1 a −1 x Q. then (fof) (x) = x . n ∈ N is even.   1   for x > 0 where max (a.IV [11] .15 Compute the inverse of the functions:   (a) f(x) = ln  x + x 2 + 1   x −1 (b) f(x) = 2 x (c) y = 10 x − 10 − x 10 x + 10 − x Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. Find the domain of definition of the functions. 1/x is also in its domain and 1 f (x) + f   = x.11 (a) (b) Represent the function f(x) = 3x as the sum of an even & an odd function.8(i) Find whether the following functions are even or odd or none (a) f(x) =   log  x + 1 + x 2    (b) f(x) = ( ) (c) f(x) = sin x + cos x (d) f(x) = x sin2 x − x3 (g) f(x)= x x + +1 e −1 2 x (e) f(x)= sin x − cos x (f) f(x) = (h) f(x) = [(x+1)²]1/3 + [(x −1)²]1/3 (ii) If f is an even function defined on the interval (−5.5 Let f(x) = .1].12 A function f defined for all real numbers is defined as follows for x ≥ 0 : f (x) = [1. Find f3n(x) where n is a natural number. (b) f is odd? x ≤ Q.7 If f(x) = sin²x + sin² . Q. Find also the inverse of f(x). For what values of p ∈ z .6 Q.4 Classify the following functions f(x) definzed in R → R as injective. Find the largest set of real numbers that can be in the domain of f (x)? x Q.. functions of y defined by the following equationscos also π  and domains 1 definition  x x2  + cos x and x + find the g   = of   2 + 1 − − 8x + 18 x 3  2x 3   4 of the given implicit functions : (a) 10x + 10y = 10 (b) x + y= 2y 2 ( ) Q. Let f2(x) denote f [f (x)] and f3(x) denote f [f {f(x)}]. Q.13 If f (x) = max  x . f  1  and plot its graph. The function f(x) is defined on the interval [0.10 Show if f(x) = n a − x n . the function f(x) = n x p .Q..14 The function f (x) has the property that for each real number x in its domain. Also state the domain of this composite function.9 x + 42 11 + xπx+ 30 5 Write explicitly.    x Q. x > 0 n ≥ 2 . 5). x  Define the function g(x) = f(x) .x0> 1x≤1 How is f defined for x ≤ 0 if : (a) f is even Q.-φ . then find the 4 real values of x satisfying the  x +1  equation f (x) = f   .  x+2 Q. surjective. (a) f(x) = (b) f(x) = x3 − 6 x2 + 11x − 6 (c) f(x) = (x2 + x + 5) (x2 + x − 3) Q. then find (gof) (x). b) denotes the greater of the two real numbers a and b. both or none . n ∈ N .

3 x +4 −3 x −5 Draw graphs of the following function .1 Find the domains of definitions of the following functions : (Read the symbols [*] and {*} as greatest integers and fractional part functions respectively.1) (2 − [sin x] − [sin x]2) Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. g Find the domain & range of the following functions . (xv) f(x) = logx sin x   1  − log  1 + (xvi) f(x) = log2  1/ 2  x° sin 100   ( )  11  + 2 log10 (log10cos2x + 10 ( 4 − log10 x ) − log10 3 x) − log 16 − x  sec(sin 2−| x| x)  (xvii) f (x) = (xviii) f (x) = 1 + log1 – {x}(x2 – 3x + 10) + [x] +  7  − x    2 −1 (5x − 6 − x 2 ) [{ln{x}}]  + ( 7 x − 5 − 2 x 2 ) +  ln   (xix) If f(x) = x 2 − 5 x + 4 & g(x) = x + 3 .2 f (x) .-φ . where [ ] denotes the greatest integer function.) (i) y = log 5 ( 2 (sin x − cos x) + 3 ) (ii) y = 2x 1+ x2 (iii) f(x) = x 2 − 3x + 2 x2 + x − 6 x (iv) f (x) = 1+ | x | (v) y = 2 − x + 1 + x (vii) f (x) = Q. ln 2 ( x − 3) cos x − (xi) f(x) = logx (cos 2πx) (xiii) f(x) = (xii) f (x) = 1 2 6 + 35x − 6x 2 1 1 + log (2{x}− 5) (x 2 − 3x + 10) + [x] 1− x log1 / 3 log 4 ( ( [x] 2 −5 )) (xiv) f(x) = .EXERCISE–I Q. then find the domain of Q.) (ii) f (x) = log7 log5 log3 log2 (2x3 + 5x2 − 14x) (iv) f (x) = (i) f (x) = (iii) f (x) = ln  x 2 − 5x − 24 − x − 2      (v) y = log10 sin (x − 3) + 16 − x 2 1 4x − 1 2 1 − 5x 7 −x −7  2 log10 x + 1   (vi) f (x) = log100 x    −x   (viii) f (x) = log 1 2 (vii) f (x) = + ln x(x 2 − 1) 1 9−x 2 x x −1 2 (ix) f (x) = x 2 − x + (x) f (x) = ( x 2 − 3x − 10) . ( Read the symbols [*] and {*} as greatest integers and fractional part functions respectively.IV [10] . (i) f(x) = x + [x] (ii) y = (x)[x] where x = [x] + (x) & x > 0 & x ≤ 3 (iii) y = sgn [x] (iv) sgn (x −x) (vi) f (x) = log(cosec x .

g. f (x) = sinx + cosx. (b) A function may neither be odd nor even . e. e.13. f (x) = cos x . where k is a constant .g will be even but if any one of them is odd then f. then 1 and f (x ) f (x) also has a period p .) = fno)fundamentalfperiodf. g (x) = x² + 3 . then : (i) f(xy) = f(x) + f(y) ⇒ f(x) = k ln x or f(x) = 0 .g will be odd . (e) (f) If f(x) has a period p. PERIODIC FUNCTION : A function f(x) is called periodic if there exists a positive number T (T > 0) called the period of the function such that f (x + T) = f(x). If f (−x) = −f (x) for all x in the domain of ‘f’ then f is said to be an odd function. Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.g. (iv) f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) ⇒ f(x) = kx. g (x) = x3 + x .g. NOTE : (a) f (x) − f (−x) = 0 => f (x) is even & f (x) + f (−x) = 0 => f (x) is odd . y are independent variables. n ∈ R (iii) f(x + y) = f(x) .g. f(y) ⇒ f(x) = xn .IV [9] . (b) Inverse of a periodic function does not exist . NOTE : (a) f (T) = f (0) = f (−T) .g. (e) Every function can be expressed as the sum of an even & an odd function. e. f (x) = sin x . (c) Inverse of an even function is not defined . if f(x) has a period T then f(ax + b) has a period T/a (a > 0) . e. (d) Every even function is symmetric about the y−axis & every odd function is symmetric about the origin . (f) (g) 14.( − x) f (x with + 2 2 (d) If f (x) has a period T & g (x) also has a period T then it does not mean that f (x) + g (x) must have a period T . f(y) ⇒ f(x) = akx . If f and g both are even or both are odd then the function f. for all values of x within the domain of x. e. where ‘T’ is the period . (x + f ( − x) ( x) − (c) Every constant function is always periodic. ODD & EVEN FUNCTIONS : If f (−x) = f (x) for all x in the domain of ‘f’ then f is said to be an even function. The function sin x & cos x both are periodic over 2π & tan x is periodic over π .-φ . The only function which is defined on the entire number line & is even and odd at the same time is f(x) = 0. GENERAL : If x. (ii) f(xy) = f(x) . 15.

IMPLICIT & EXPLICIT FUNCTION : A function defined by an equation not solved for the dependent variable is called an IMPLICIT FUNCTION . ty) = tn . If y has been expressed in terms of x alone then it is called an EXPLICIT FUNCTION. (ii) If f : A → B is a bijection & g : B → A is the inverse of f. Symbolically if . then fog = IB and gof = IA . the range of f must be a subset of the domain of g.x ' ) corresponding to y = + x . f(x) is an element of the domain of g so that we can take its g-image.IV [8] . f (x . Hence for the product gof of two functions f & g. (ii) The composite of functions is associative i. Note that gof is defined only if ∀ x ∈ A. where IA & IB are identity functions on the sets A & B respectively. if f & g are two bijections such that gof is defined. PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS : (i) The composite of functions is not commutative i. y) is homogeneous function of degree n . (iii) The composite of two bijections is a bijection i.8. ∀ x ∈ A & y ∈ B . Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. y) then f (x . BOUNDED FUNCTION : A function is said to be bounded if f(x) ≤ M . the equation x3 + y3 = 1 defines y as an implicit function. g.y ' ) corresponding to y = x2 (x >0) changes to (y '. the changed form of x = y . f (x ) 10.e. Diagramatically Thus the image of every x ∈ A under the function gof is the g−image of the f−image of x . For example 5 x2 + 3 y2 − xy is homogeneous in x & y . g : B → C then the inverse of gof exists and (gof)−1 = f−1 o g−1 . If f & g are two bijections f : A → B . if f. COMPOSITE OF UNIFORMLY & NON-UNIFORMLY DEFINED FUNCTIONS : Let f : A → B & g : B → C be two functions . then their exists a unique function g : B → A such that f(x) = y ⇔ g(y) = x. Note that the graphs of f & g are the mirror images of each other in the line y = x . then fo (goh) = (fog) oh .e. then gof is also a bijection. gof ≠ fog . (iii) (iv) The inverse of a bijection is also a bijection . f(x)) ∈ f} .  →  → g (f(x)) . 11. h are three functions such that fo (goh) & (fog) oh are defined. As shown in the figure given below a point (x '. x)  (x.e. Then g is said to be inverse of f . x→  INVERSE OF A FUNCTION : Let f : A → B be a one−one & onto function. 12. 9. where M is a finite quantity . For eg. Then the function gof : A → C defined by (gof) (x) = g (f(x)) ∀ x ∈ A is called the composite of the two functions f & g . f (tx . HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTIONS : A function is said to be homogeneous with respect to any set of variables when each of its terms is of the same degree with respect to those variables . Thus g = f−1 : B → A = {(f(x). PROPERTIES OF INVERSE FUNCTION : (i) The inverse of a bijection is unique .-φ .

g(x) (iii) f f (x)   (x) =  g g (x) domain is {x  x ∈ A ∩ B s . then it is called a Bijective mapping. t g(x) ≠ 0} . Constant function : A function f : A → B is said to be a constant function if every element of A has the same f image in B . The bijective functions are also named as invertible. f − g . it cannot be into and vice versa . If a set A contains n distinct elements then the number of different functions defined from A → A is nn & out of it n ! are one one. Now we define f + g . Identity function : The function f : A → A defined by f(x) = x ∀ x ∈ A is called the identity of A and is denoted by IA. ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS ON FUNCTIONS : If f & g are real valued functions of x with domain set A. then both f & g are defined in A ∩ B. Diagramatically into function can be shown as OR Note that : If a function is onto. Thus f : A → B .Into function : If f : A → B is such that there exists atleast one element in co−domain which is not the image of any element in domain. non singular or biuniform functions. 7. ∀ x ∈ A . (f . B respectively. g) (x) = f(x) . Note that the range of a constant function is a singleton and a constant function may be one-one or many-one. onto or into . then f(x) is into .-φ . Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. c ∈ B is a constant function.IV [7] . f(x) = c . g) & (f/g) as follows : (i) (f ± g) (x) = f(x) ± g(x) (ii) (f . A polynomial of degree even will always be into. It is easy to observe that identity function is a bijection . Thus a function can be one of these four types : (a) (b) (c) (d) Note : (i) (ii) one−one onto (injective & surjective) one−one into (injective but not surjective) many−one onto (surjective but not injective) many−one into (neither surjective nor injective) If f is both injective & surjective.

(ii) Onto function (Surjective mapping) : If the function f : A → B is such that each element in B (co−domain) is the f image of atleast one element in A. x2 ∈ A & f(x1) . (i) (ii) (iii) EQUAL OR IDENTICAL FUNCTION : Two functions f & g are said to be equal if : The domain of f = the domain of g. f(x1) = f(x2) ⇔ x1 = x2 or x1 ≠ x2 ⇔ f(x1) ≠ f(x2) . CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTIONS : One − One Function (Injective mapping) : A function f : A → B is said to be a one−one function or injective mapping if different elements of A have different f images in B .-φ . Thus for x1. Many–one function : A function f : A → B is said to be a many one function if two or more elements of A have the same f image in B . f(x1) = f(x2) but x1 ≠ x2 . In other words. eg. then f(x) is one−one . ∃ some a ∈ A such that f (a) = b . Diagramatically an injective mapping can be shown as OR Note : (i) Any function which is entirely increasing or decreasing in whole domain. then we say that f is a function of A 'onto' B . f(x) = & g(x) = are identical functions . 1for 2 Diagramatically a many one mapping can be shown as x OR Note : (i) Any continuous function which has atleast one local maximum or local minimum. then f is many−one . Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. Diagramatically surjective mapping can be shown as OR Note that : if range = co−domain.5.IV [6] . then the function is one−one . Thus f : A → B is many one ifx . then f(x) is onto. for every x belonging to their common domain. x1. if a line parallel to x−axis cuts the graph of the function atleast at two points. then f(x) is many−one . The range of f = the range of g and f(x) = g(x) . it cannot be many−one and vice versa . 6. f(x2) ∈ B . (ii) If any line parallel to x−axis cuts the graph of the function atmost at one point. If a function is one−one. x2 ∈ A . Thus f : A → B is surjective iff ∀ b ∈ B.

Integral Part Functions Functions (i) (ii) [x] R R – [0. (a > 0 ) (a logxa = (a > 0 ) (a ≠ 1) 1) R+ R+ – { 1 } R R–{0} F. ex e1/x ax . a > 0 Domain (i.Function (y = f (x) ) D. values taken by f (x) ) R R–{0} R R –{0} R+ R+ – { 1 } R+ R+ – { 1 } Logarithmic Functions (i) (ii) logax . 1} J. 1) (1. ∞) H. n ∈ I − {0}  n  G.-φ . 0 .x ≠0 x =0. Constant Function say f (x) = c R {c} Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.IV [5] . a > 0 a1/x . Exponential Functions (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) E.e.e. Fractional Part Functions (i) (ii) {x} 1 {x} R R–I ≠1 1 log [x] a x [0.x=0 R {–1. values taken by x) Range (i. Modulus Functions (i) (ii) |x| 1 |x| R R–{0} R+ ∪ { 0 } R+ I. Signum Function sgn (x) = |x| . 1 ) I 1   .

k I Inverse Circular Functions (Refer after Inverse is taught ) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) sin–1 x cos–1 x tan–1 x cosec –1x sec–1 x cot –1 x [–1. if n is odd R+ .-φ . (n ∈ N) R. Trigonometric Functions (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) sin x cos x tan x sec x R R ∈1 π π1 ∈ k x1/ n π  R – (2k− . (n ∈ N) R – {0} R. 2n x1 / n  2 2 [–1. + 1] R (– ∞ . if n is odd R+ ∪ {0} . + 1] [–1. Algebraic Functions (i) xn . ∞ ) (– ∞ . π) Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. (iii) . ∞ ) R R – (2k + 1) C. DOMAINS AND RANGES OF COMMON FUNCTION : Function (y = f (x) ) Domain (i. + 1] R (– ∞ . ∞ ) (– ∞ . if n is even (iv) . π]  π π − . if n is odd + R ∪ {0} . values taken by x) Range (i.4. if n is even R – {0} . – 1 ] ∪ [ 1 . + 1] [–1. – 1 ] ∪ [ 1 . if n is even if n is even (ii) . if n is odd R+ . ∞ ) R [ 0. π] –   2  ( 0. 2  – { 0 }   π  [ 0.e. I (v) cosec x R – kπ . if n is even R – {0} .1)∈ I  + . if n is even B. – 1 ] ∪ [ 1 .e. if n is odd R+ ∪ {0} . – 1 ] ∪ [ 1 .   2 2  π π − 2 . if n is odd R+ . values taken by f (x) ) A. k (vi) cot x R – kπ . (n N) R = (set of real numbers) R.IV [4] . (n ∈ N) R – {0} .

1 a> x . x ∈ R) is called an exponential function.e.IV [3] .(IV) EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION : A function f(x) = ax = ex ln a (a > 0 . y Properties of greatest integer function : graph of y = [x] 3 (a) [x] ≤ x < [x] + 1 and 2 • º x − 1 < [x] ≤ x . 2. i. the fractional part of the no.1− 2 = 0. [x] = 1 2≤x < 3 . [x] = 0 1≤x< 2 . 0) y = x y = x g(x) = loga x (v) ABSOLUTE VALUE FUNCTION : A function y = f (x) = x is called the absolute value function or Modulus function. 1) x → og a =l ) g(x (1. [x] = − 1 0≤x< 1 . 1) =a )← f(x  )45º +∞ +∞ f(x) = ax .7 is 0. The period of this function is 1 and graph of this function is as shown . (0.-φ . It is defined as : y = x= (vi) SIGNUM FUNCTION : A function y= f (x) = Sgn (x) is defined as follows :  1 for x > 0 y = f (x) =  0 for x = 0   − 1 for x < 0  y y = 1 if x > 0 > x y = Sgn x O y = −1 if x < 0 It is also written as Sgn x = |x|/ x . g(x) = loga x . x ≠ 0 . Note that for : −1 ≤ x < 0 .1 and the fractional part of − 3.3.1 is 2. f (0) = 0 (vii) GREATEST INTEGER OR STEP UP FUNCTION :  x if x ≥ 0 The function y = f (x) = [x] is called the greatest integer function where [x] denotes the greatest integer − x if x < 0 less than or equal to x . The inverse of the exponential function is called the logarithmic function . 0) (0. 0 ≤ x − [x] < 1 1 • (b) [x + m] = [x] + m if m is an integer . º (c) [x] + [y] ≤ [x + y] ≤ [x] + [y] + 1 • º (d) [x] + [− x] = 0 if x is an integer −3 −2 −1 1 2 x −1 • º 3 = − 1 otherwise . [x] = 2 and so on . Note that f(x) & g(x) are inverse of each other & their graphs are as shown . • º −2 (viii) FRACTIONAL PART FUNCTION : It is defined as : g (x) = {x} = x − [x] . −3 y 1− − − º º −− • • 1 graph of y = {x} −−−− −− º • 2 º • −1 • x Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. 0 < a < 1 )45º (1. a ≠ 1. e.g.

.. then f is called a polynomial function of degree n . For a continuous function. where n is a positive integer . Pictorially :   → . the interval from minimum to maximum value of a function gives the range. e. b) ∈ f & (a.. The set of all f images of elements of A is known as the range of f .. (i) (ii) ALGEBRAIC FUNCTION : y is an algebraic function of x.g. c) ∈ f ⇒ b = c 2. where function is defined. x is the argument or independent variable . i. Note that all polynomial functions are Algebraic but not the converse. IMPORTANT TYPES OF FUNCTIONS x→ : input POLYNOMIAL FUNCTION : n n−1 If a function f is defined by f (x) = a0 x + a1 x + a2 xn−2 + . which belongs to some collection (Set) E.. y = f (x) = g (x) & h (x) are polynomials & h (x) ≠ 0.... f(x).-φ .. a ≠ 0 (b) There are two polynomial functions . a2.  f (x ) = y output Every function from A → B satisfies the following conditions .. NOTE : (a) A polynomial of degree one with no constant term is called an odd linear function . there corresponds one and only one finite value of the quantity y. since it satisfies the equation y² − x² = 0.. FRACTIONAL RATIONAL FUNCTION : A rational function is a function of the form. If to every value of x belonging to some set E there corresponds one or several values of the variable y. f(x) = ax .. CO−DOMAIN & RANGE OF A FUNCTION : − Let f : A → B. where Bansal Classes Functions & Trig... are Polynomials in x. an are real numbers and a0 ≠ 0. satisfying the relation .KEY CONCEPTS (FUNCTIONS) THINGS TO REMEMBER : 1. A function that is not algebraic is called TRANSCEDENTAL FUNCTION .. then y is called a multiple valued function of x defined on E. P1 (x) . f(a)) ∈ f} Range of f = {f(a)  a ∈ A. GENERAL DEFINITION : If to every value (Considered as real unless other−wise stated) of a variable x. if it is a function that satisfies an algebraic equation of the form P0 (x) yn + P1 (x) yn−1 + .. Thus : Domain of f = {a  a ∈ A.Conventionally the word "FUNCTION” is used only as the meaning of a single valued function.. y = x is an algebraic function.. g(x) h (x ) (iii) .IV [2] . (a. . and DOMAIN. If only the rule of function is given then the domain of the function is the set of those real numbers. if not otherwise stated. f(a)) ∈ f (iii) (a.. f(a) ∈ B} It should be noted that range is a subset of co−domain . 3. y is called the image of x & x is the pre-image of y under f.f(1/x) = f(x) + f(1/x). + an−1 x + an where n is a non negative integer and a0. They are : (i) f(x) = xn + 1 & (ii) f(x) = 1 − xn .. then the set A is known as the domain of f & the set B is known as co-domain of f . then y is said to be a function (Single valued) of x or a dependent variable defined on the set E .e.. a1. + Pn−1 (x) y + Pn (x) = 0 Where n is a positive integer and P0 (x). (i) f ⊂ Ax B (ii) ∀ a ∈ A ⇒ (a.

................................................................ Page –20 EXERCISE–II ........ Page –25 ANSWER KEY .......................IV CONTENTS FUNCTIONS KEY CONCEPT ...................................................................... Page –26 .28 .................................................................................................................................................................................. Page –16 EXERCISE–I ......................... Page –2 EXERCISE–I ................................................................................................................................................................................ Page –23 EXERCISE–III ............................ Page –12 EXERCISE–III .. Page –10 EXERCISE–II ............... Page –14 INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS KEY CONCEPT ...BANSAL CLASSES TARGET IIT JEE 2008 BULLS EYE AND ACME FUNCTIONS & INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS Trigonometry Phase ......................