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For other uses, see Reflex (disambiguation). A reflex action, also known as a reflex, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.[1] A true reflex is a behavior which is mediated via the reflex arc; this does not apply to casual uses of the term 'reflex'.

1 Reaction time 2 Human reflexes

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2.1 Stretch reflexes 2.2 Reflexes involving cranial nerves 2.3 Reflexes usually only observed in human infants 2.4 Other reflexes 2.5 Grading

3 See also 4 References



For a reflex, reaction time or latency is the time from the onset of a stimulus until the organism responds In animals, reaction time to visual stimuli is typically 150 to 300 milliseconds.[2]
[edit]Human [edit]Stretch


The stretch reflexes (often called deep tendon reflexes, though not to be confused with Golgi tendon reflexes) provide information on the integrity of the central nervous system andperipheral nervous system. Generally, decreased reflexes indicate a peripheral problem, and lively or exaggerated reflexes a central one. 

Biceps reflex (C5, C6) Brachioradialis reflex (C5, C6, C7) Extensor digitorum reflex (C6, C7)

S2) Plantar reflex or Babinski reflex (L5. S2) While the reflexes above are stimulated mechanically. the term H-reflex refers to the analogous reflex stimulated electrically. [edit]Reflexes Name involving cranial nerves Sensory Motor Pupillary light reflex II III Accommodation reflex II III Jaw jerk reflex V V Corneal reflex.. VI + Gag reflex [edit]Reflexes IX X usually only observed in human infants Main article: Primitive reflexes . L3. L4) Ankle jerk reflex (Achilles reflex) (S1. also known as the blink reflex V VII Vestibulo-ocular reflex VIII III. S1. IV.. C8) Patellar reflex or knee-jerk reflex L2.    Triceps reflex (C6. and Tonic vibration reflex for those stimulated by vibration. C7.

also known as the startle reflex Rooting reflex Sucking Symmetrical tonic neck reflex (STNR) Tonic labyrinthine reflex (TLR) [edit]Other reflexes Other reflexes found in the central nervous system include:       Abdominal reflexes (T6-L1) Anocutaneous reflex (S2-S4) Cremasteric reflex (L1-L2) Mammalian diving reflex Muscular defense Scratch reflex .[3] These include:         Asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR) Grasp reflex Hand-to-mouth reflex Moro reflex.Grasp reflex Newborn babies have a number of other reflexes which are not seen in adults. referred to as primitive reflexes.

reflexes are often used to assess the health of the central nervous system. the withdrawal reflex). Processes such as breathing. digestion. and the maintenance of the heartbeat can also be regarded as reflex actions.g.  Startle reflex Withdrawal reflex  Crossed extensor reflex Many of these reflexes are quite complex requiring a number of synapses in a number of different nuclei in the CNS (e... Doctors will typically grade the activity of a reflex on a scale from 0 to 4:[4] Grade Description 0 Absent 1+ or + Hypoactive 2+ or ++ "Normal" 3+ or +++ Hyperactive without clonus 4+ or ++++ Hyperactive with clonus [edit] . Others of these involve just a couple of synapses to function (eg. according to some definitions of the term. [edit]Grading In medicine. the escape reflex).

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