here are five basic types of helmets intended for motorcycling, and others not intended for motorcycling

but which are used by some riders. All of these types of helmets are secured by a chin strap, and their protective benefits are greatly reduced, if not eliminated, if the chin strap is not securely fastened so as to maintain a snug fit. From most to least protective, as generally accepted by riders and manufacturers, the helmet types are: Full face helmet. White is the color most visible to other motorists Full face A full face helmet covers the entire head, with a rear that covers the base of the skull, and a protective section over the front of the chin. Such helmets have an open cutout in a band across the eyes and nose, with a plastic face shield (which may be clear or tinted) that generally swivels up and down to allow access to the face. Many full face helmets include vents to increase the airflow to the rider. The significant attraction of these helmets is their protectiveness. Some critics[who?] dislike the increased heat, sense of isolation, lack of wind, and alleged reduced hearing of such helmets. Full face helmets intended for off-road use sometimes omit the face shield but extend the visor and chin portions. Studies have shown that full face helmets offer the most protection to motorcycle riders because 35% of all crashes showed major impact on the chin-bar area.[7] Wearing a helmet with less coverage eliminates that protection the less coverage the helmet offers, the less protection for the rider. [edit] Off-Road/Motocross A motocross helmet showing the elongated sun visor and chin bar The motocross and off-road helmet has clearly elongated chin and visor portions, a chin bar, and partially open face to give the rider extra protection while wearing goggles. The visor is to keep the sun out of the eyes of the rider during jumps. Originally, off-road helmets did not include a chin bar, with riders using helmets very similar to modern open face street helmets, and using a face mask to fend off dirt and debris from the nose and mouth. Modern off-road helmets include a (typically angular, rather than round) chin bar to provide some facial impact protection in addition to protection from flying dirt and debris. When properly combined with goggles, the result provides most of the same protective features of full face street helmets. [edit] Modular or "Flip-up" Modular (flip-up) helmet, open and closed

Bugs. dust or even wind to the face and eyes can cause rider discomfort or injury. Its chin bar may be pivoted upwards (or. in some cases. [edit] . a face shield extending over the upper portion of the face to protect the eyes.[9][10] ECE 22. useful while not actively riding. many open face helmets include. it is not uncommon (and in some states. and does not necessarily include a face shield.A hybrid between full face and open face helmets for street use is the modular or "flip-up" helmet. An open face helmet provides the same rear protection as a full face helmet. as the movable chin bar is designed as a convenience feature. or "three-quarters". helmet has a rear which also covers the back of the skull. As a result.[12] [edit] Open face or 3/4 Open face helmet The open face. Alternatively.[11] and additional warning text for non-certified chin bars. they resemble full face helmets by bearing a chin bar for absorbing face impacts. The curved shape of an open chin bar and face shield section can cause increased wind drag during riding. Many offer visors of selectable length which may be used by the rider to reduce sunlight glare. As of 2008. may be removed) by a special lever to allow access to most of the face. there have not been wide scientific studies of modular helmets to assess how protective the pivoting or removable chin bars are.05 allows certification of modular helmets with or without chin bar tests. An example of such an helmet would be the Shark Evoline.[8] but the extent of protection is not fully established by all standards bodies. also sometimes termed "convertible" or "flip-face". Many modular helmets are designed to be worn only in the closed position for riding. The rider may thus eat. as air will not flow around an open modular helmet in the same way as a three-quarters helmet. as in an open face helmet. The DOT standard does not require chin bar testing. and may be enough to pass full-face helmet standardized tests. making them popular among motor officers. distinguished by -P (protective lower face cover) and -NP (non-protective) suffixes to the certification number. but little protection to the face. or can be fitted with. The Snell Memorial Foundation recently certified a flip-up helmet for the first time. The chin bar of those helmets offer real protection and they can be used in the "open" position while riding. even from noncrash events. When fully assembled and closed. Some modular helmets are dual certified as full face and open face helmet. but lacks the lower chin bar of the full face helmet. is required by law) for riders to wear wrap-around sunglasses or goggles to supplement eye protection with these helmets. Observation and unofficial testing suggest that significantly greater protection exists beyond that for an open face helmet. riding with the helmet in the open position may pose increased risk of neck injury in a crash. drink or have a conversation without unfastening the chinstrap and removing the helmet. Since the chin bar section also protrudes further from the forehead than a three-quarters visor.

Half helmet Half helmet from the 1960s The half helmet.might protect the scalp against abrasion.if it stays on during a crash . Because of their inferiority compared to other helmet styles. The half helmet provides the minimum coverage generally allowed by law in the U. also referred to as a "Shorty". Unlike open face and full face helmets. half helmets are also prone to shifting and sometimes coming off the rider's head during an accident. Such items are often smaller and lighter than helmets made to DOT standards." "brain buckets". [edit] Headwear not intended for motorcycling There are other types of headwear . and are unsuitable for crash protection because they lack the energy-absorbing foam that protects the brain by allowing it to come to a gradual stop during an impact. . These helmets are not certified and are generally only used to provide the illusion of compliance with mandatory helmet laws. has essentially the same front design as an open face helmet but with a raised rear. some Motorcycle Safety Foundation courses prohibit the use of half helmets during riding exercises.often called "beanies.S. it is not uncommon to augment this helmet's eye protection through other means. a term which arose since they cannot legally be called motorcycle helmets. or "novelty helmets". As with the open face. but it has no capability to protect the skull or brain from an impact. A "novelty helmet" can protect the scalp against sunburn while riding and .

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