Persuasion Engineering

Sales & Business / Language & Behavior Richard Bandler and John La Valle


0-916990-36-2 Meta Publ 95010 (408)

The first set of language patterns is the inverse of the META MODEL. The additional other important language patterns include:

Embedded Commands: Embedded directives within a larger sentence structure. “You can begin to relax” Analogue Marking: Set the directive apart from the rest of the sentence with some nonverbal analogue behavior. Embedded Questions: Embed questions within a larger sentence structure. “I’m wondering what time it is.” Negative Commands: Stating what you do want to occur and preceding this statement with the word “don’t.” Conversational Postulates: Yes/ No questions that typically elicit a response rather than a literal answer: “Do you know what time it is?”



Subordinate Clauses of Time: Before, after, during, as, since, prior, when, while, etc. Ordinal Numbers: Another, first, second, third, etc. Use of “Or”: The word “or” between the given choices. Awareness Predicates: Know, aware, realize, notice, etc. Adverbs and Adjectives:

INDIRECT ELICITATION PATTERNS Ambiguities p. wait. “They went with the charming men and women. write. in the process of…” PATTERNS IN METAPHOR Selection Restriction Violations: p. innocently. etc. easily.” Punctuation Ambiguity: Put two sentences together that end and begin with the same word. still. luckily.Deeply. I. anymore. GENERALIZATION And the Linguistic Patterns of Information Gathering DELETION Information Gathering: p. etc. add “ing” after it.” Quotes: Making any statement you want to make to another person as if you are reporting in quotes what someone else said at another time and place. Commentary Adjectives and Adverbs: Fortunately. curious about. . continue. read. stop. or adverb applies to. Syntactic Ambiguity: Take a transitive verb. yet. “The rock is sad. DISTORTION. happily. red. their.” Scope Ambiguity: Occurs when it is unclear how much of the sentence an adjective.13 Phonological Ambiguity: Words that sound alike but have different meanings. Change of Time Verbs and Adverbs: Begin.19 Simple Deletion: Statement with missing or deficient information. proceed. right. there. “They were milking cows. “I’m speaking clearly to make sure that you can hear you are.15 The attribution of qualities to something or something which by definition could not possess those qualities. eye. weight. they’re. start. etc. already. and place it before a noun. META MODEL DELETION. verb. etc.

Modal Operators of Necessity / Possibility: Words that require particular action or imply no choice. Lack of Referential Index: Unidentified pronoun. .21 Nominalization: Verbs made into a noun (thing or event) thus obscuring the process or action. META MODEL DISTORTION Semantic Ill-Formedness p.Comparative Deletion: Missing standard of evaluation. Where. Complex Equivalence: Conclusion based on the belief that outcome will always be the same. Presuppositions: Something implicitly required in order to understand a sentence. Unspecified Verb: Verbs that delete specifics about: How. When.23 Univesal Quantifiers: Generalizations that preclude exceptions or alternative choices. Mind Reading: Assuming you know what the other person thinks. feels. etc. Cause / Effect: A specific stimulus causes a specific experience. X=Y Lost Performative: Value judgments or opinions in which the source of assertion is missing. GENERALIZATION Limits of the Speakers’s Model p. X causes Y.

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