RADIOSS IMPACT INTRODUCTION

Introduction to Explicit and Large Displacement Analysis
Rev.: May 2009

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Radioss Basic Training Schedule

8:30 8:45 9:15 9:30 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:30 1:00 1:30 2:15 2:30 3:15 3:45

– – – – – – – – -

8:45 9:15 9:30 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:30 1:00 1:30 2:15 2:30 3:15 3:45 4:30

Introduction RADIOSS Tools + Process Example Break Elements Hands on Twisted Beam Common Features Lunch Time Step Control Time Step Demo with an Example Materials Break Hands on Tensile Test Interfaces Hands on Boxtube

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Chapter 1: RADIOSS Introduction

Application Fields
Modeling A Physical Problem Formulations Time Integration

Explicit and Implicit Method

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Application Fields Structural Mechanics Fluid-Structure interaction Material characterization Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . All rights reserved. Inc.

Application Fields Composite shell Stamping Safety Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. . Inc.

All rights reserved. Inc. .Application Fields Centrifugal Fan Noise Centrifugal Fan Noise Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Aero Acoustics Noise Vibration Harshness Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

Time Integration: • Newmark scheme Explicit formulation + Central Difference Method Implicit formulation Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Space Discretization: • Finite Element (FE) simple form 5.Modeling A Physical Problem 1. . Formulation: • Choice of time and space discretizations • • • Lagrangian Eulerian Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) 4. Physical laws (conservation) • Physical laws (conservation) • • • Mass conservation Energy conservation Momentum conservation (equilibrium) 3. All rights reserved. Inc. Shell or Solid ? 2. Geometry (Physical model) • 1D. 2D or 3D ? [ Beam.

All rights reserved. Inc.fluid) • • Nodes fixed in space. Lagrangian Formulation (Structural Analysis) • • • The mesh points coincide with the material points Elements are deformed with material Element deformation = Material deformation 2. Material goes through the mesh Fixed nodes a No degradation of mesh in large deformation problems 3. ALE: Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Formulation (Impact .missile) • • Between two previous formulations Internal nodes move to minimize element distortion Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.Formulations How to combine time and space discretization? 1. . Eulerian Formulation (CFD .

. All rights reserved.Formulations Fluid flow for three kinds of formulations Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc.

Time Integration Newmark scheme simple form Explicit formulation + Central Difference Method Implicit formulation tn-1 tn tn+1 xn 1 xn xn t 1  xn 1 2  xn n x 1 2  xn xn 1 2  xn xn 1 2 n t x xn+1 is obtained with a precision 1 t2  xn 1 2 t Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information . Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.Explicit Flow Chart t t t Fext •Loop over elements ij Fint 1 2 t  ij ij vi xj f ( ij ) t ij vj xi t  ij t Fcont •Assemble Fint . Inc. . Fhrg  vi Fi mi  xn 1 2  xn 1 2 n t x 1 2 Time integration xn 1  xn xn t Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

Inc. 2. a i i 1. a5 . M .. t1 . t t . All rights reserved. . a7  U t  U t a0 t t t U t U  U  a6 t U  a2 t U  a7 t t U  a3 t U ˆ Form K K a0 M a1 C ˆ ˆ Triangular ize K : K LDLT Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. 1. C t t   Initialize U . U .Implicit Newmark Flow Chart Form K . U 0 0 0 ˆ R t t R M a0 t U  a2 t U  a3 t U C a1 t U  a4 t U  a5 t U Select t.7 a1 a3 t 2 1 2 t Solve LDLT t t U t t ˆ R . t. . a0 a2 a4 a6 1 t2 1 t then det. 1.

All rights reserved.Explicit 1 Implicit Non Linearity Rupture Damage Explicit Buckling Plasticity Elasticity Implicit Static Dynamic Velocity Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . Inc.

Explicit 1 Implicit Cost (CPU) Implicit Explicit Complexity Static / Elastic Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Nonlinear Dynamic Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. . Inc.

Inc. Divergence. « Low » Memory Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information (-) ([M]+ [K])-1 (non diagonal) (-) High memory (6000 MW) (+) Dynamic and Static problems (-) Global resolution •Need of convergence at each step (-) Low Robustness • Null pivots. High Memory Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . … (-) Too expensive • High CPU. All rights reserved.Advantages / Disadvantages Explicit (-) Conditional stability (-) Small (+) Precision Implicit tc (+) Always stable (+) Large (+) Precision t t ( s) t (ms) t 2 t 2 (+) [M]-1 (diagonal matrix) (+) Low memory (10 MW) (+) Dynamic and Shock problems (+) « Element-by-Element » method • Local treatment (+) High Robustness • High and Coupled nonlinearities (+) Relatively low cost • « Low » CPU.

.Chapter 2: RADIOSS Tools RADIOSS Tools Pre-Processor HyperMesh and HyperCrash RADIOSS Solver (Start and Engine) Pos-Processor HyperView and HyperGraph RADIOSS Files Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc. All rights reserved.

Inc.Radioss Tools Access Radioss from HyperWorks 10. .0 Suite: Launch Radioss Radioss Manuals Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.HyperMesh Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc.Pre-Processor . .

1 block and Fixed Formats • RADIOSS 4.Pre-Processor .4 & 51 Block Formats • Nastran Format • Universal Format (Ideas) • Ls-Dyna Format •Pam 2G Format Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.1. materials HyperCrash • RADIOSS 4. properties .HyperCrash Create / Modify a RADIOSS model from a FE mesh • RADIOSS Input (fixed/block) • NASTRAN Format • Universal Format (IDEAS) • Ls-Dyna Format • Pam 2G Format Databases . Inc. 4. Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information . All rights reserved.

HyperCrash Quality Menu Model Checker Menu Mesh Editing Menu HyperCrash Safety Menu Loadcase Menu Connection Menu Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. Inc.Pre-Processor . .

All rights reserved.out / L01 A01-Ann Listing File (ASCII) Animation File (Binary) T01 TH File (Binary) Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc.rst / R00 Restart File (BINARY) _0001.rst / R01 Restart File (BINARY) _0001.rad / D00 Input Deck (ASCII) STARTER _0000.Processor – RADIOSS Computation _0000.out / L00 Listing File (ASCII) _0000. .rad / D01 Engine File (ASCII) ENGINE _0001.

out / L00 Listing File (ASCII) • Checks consistency of the model • Gives you warning and errors • Generates R00 file for engine Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. Inc.rad / D00 STARTER _0000.rst / R00 Restart File (BINARY) _0000.RADIOSS Starter Input Deck (ASCII) _0000. .

rst / R00 ENGINE _0001.rad / D00 _0000.rst / R01 Restart File (Binary) T01 TH File (Binary) A001-Annn Animation File (Binary) 0001.RADIOSS Engine Engine File (ASCII) Restart File (Binary) _0001. All rights reserved. Inc.out / L01 Listing File (ASCII) • Generates output files (Annn Tnnn) • Details the computation (Lnn) • Generates Rnn file for restart Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. .

etc. Plastic Strains. Inc. All rights reserved. Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.Post-Processor–HyperView • Reads animations (Annn) • Displays selected variables (Von Mises Stress. .

and etc. . All rights reserved. Element. Inc. Nodal.Post-Processor – HyperGraph • Reads Time history (Tnn) • Plots selected variables (Energies.) Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

rad D01 (V4) _000n. .out L00. Rnn (V4) Restart files Engine Starter/Engine Binary (by default) Annn Animation files HyperView Engine Binary Tnn Time history file HyperGraph Engine Binary (by default) Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.RADIOSS Files File _0000. All rights reserved. Lnn (V4) _000n. Inc.rst Description Read by Starter/ HyperMesh HyperCrash Engine Written by Format Input RADIOSS File HyperMesh HyperCrash HyperCrash /Text Editor Starter/Engine ASCII Engine input ASCII List files Text Editor ASCII R00.rad D00 (V4) _0001.

All rights reserved. Inc. .1: First run with Radioss Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.Exercise 2.

All rights reserved. Spring. . Shell. Truss. Beam.) Element Capabilities Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. etc.Chapter 3: Elements Stress/Strain Hourglass Element Library (Solid. Inc.

Stress/Strain .Definitions • Logarithmic TRUE STRAIN tensor true l ln l0 ln 1 eng • Cauchy TRUE STRESS tensor true eng 1 eng Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. Inc. .

. All rights reserved.Stress/Strain – Small strain option • Usually used for small deformation simulations : • Linear elastic studies • Usually not used for crash analysis • Sometimes used to resolve some special numerical problems : • • • Large mesh distortion due to large deformations Decrease of time step due to decrease of element length Negative volume of brick elements due to large deformation Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc.

Inc.Hourglass Formulation • Under Integrated Elements (1 IP) • • Efficiency Constant Stress over Elements Y 4 3 • Hourglass mode exists IP • Zero energy deformation • Strain and stress are zero 1 2 X dx 8 Nodes SOLID 4 Nodes SHELL 0 xx 0 xx 0 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . All rights reserved.

Control • Additional internal forces are required to maintain the deformation stability of the element • Resistance forces [ Generate an ARTIFICIAL energy Y f4 4 3 f3 IP X 1 f1 f2 2 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved.Hourglass . . Inc.

4. 2. . 6) 2 rigid body or deformation modes (7. 9) 6 deformation modes (3. Inc. 6. 5. All rights reserved.Hourglass – Shell Modes • 12 translational modes: • • • 3 rigid body modes (1. 8. 12) • 12 rotational modes: • • • 4 out of plane rotation modes (1 [ 4) 2 deformation modes (5. 10. 11) 3 hourglass modes (7. 8) • 4 hourglass modes (9 [ 12) Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

Inc. All rights reserved.Hourglass – Brick Modes • 4 modes for each directions: • 12 hourglass modes for a brick element Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. .

All rights reserved. Inc. .Hourglass .Checking • For the Model: HE/IE < 10% • Plot Global Hourglass for the model in HyperGraph • For each Subset/Part: HE/IE < 10% • • Select PARTS for Output in the D00 file Plot Hourglass for selected Parts in HyperGraph • Check Hourglass with HyperView • • Add the command below in the Engine file • /ANIM/ELEM/HOURG Display Hourglass contour over Elements Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

3D – Solid .Hexahedron • A simple Brick element: • • 8 nodes with Linear interpolation Integration : • Reduced [ 1 POINT (DEFAULT) • Full [ 8 POINT s 8 7 • Characteristic length 5 • 6 r 4 3 lc Volume largest face area 1 t 2 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . All rights reserved. Inc.

Degenerated Solid Elements Put nodes of the same edge together to obtain other shapes Use of a normal tetra element is recommended Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc. All rights reserved. .

All rights reserved. . Inc.Not Rec’d Element Degenerations • Element symmetry must be respected • Not recommended elements: Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

Tetrahedron • 4 nodes solid tetrahedron • • Linear shape functions Integration: • 1 POINT • • • No HOURGLASS Shear Locking Low convergence • Characteristic length • lc a 2 3 0.816a Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.3D – Solid . . All rights reserved. Inc.

Inc.Tetrahedron • 10 nodes solid tetrahedron • • Quadratic shape functions Integration : • 4 POINTS • • • No HOURGLASS Low time step No shear locking a • High convergence • Characteristic length 5 lc a 6 2 0. All rights reserved.3D – Solid .264 a Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. .

Quadratic 4 nodes tetra element • Quadratic 4 nodes tetra element • • • 4 nodes tetra element with enriched nodal variables (6 DOF per each node) 4 integration points Displacement of the dummy nodes is computed on the basis of rotational DOF • Advantages • • • High time step versus 10 nodes tetra element with same accuraccy Shear locking effect low or negligible (it may appear in bending) Compatibility with shells Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. . Inc.

Elastic-plastic physical stabilization method • BRICK20: 20 node quadratic brick with reduced 2x2x2 or full 3x3x3 integration schemes 8 20 5 17 13 6 14 18 15 19 7 12 4 11 3 10 8 16 5 14 3 10 2 15 7 1 9 2 • SHELL16 : Thick shell element 13 1 9 6 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. . Inc.3D – Other Elements • Other solid elements: • HA8: 8 node linear brick with variable integration schemes from 2x2x2 to 9x9x9 • HEPH: 8 node linear brick with 1 integration point .

3D – Solid Control Card • Isolid: Solid & Hourglass formulations • • • Default = 0 [ 1 IP 12 [ 8 IP 24 [ HEPH • Ismstr: Small Strain control • Default = 0 [ Large Strain • • 1 [ Small Strain from t = 0 2 [ Small Strain if criteria reached Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information . Inc.

.3D – Solid .Applications • • • • • Bushings Inserts Barriers Bumpers Dummies • Seat Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. Inc.

2D – Shell Q4 Formulations • Crashworthiness simulations: Over 90% shell elements BT • Four Node Quadrilateral Elements (Q4) • Belytshko & Tsay (BT) formulation (DEFAULT) • • 1 Integration Point [ Hourglass Unphysical Hourglass Control • QEPH • 1 Integration Point [ Hourglass • Physical Hourglass Control • BATOZ • 4 Integration Point [ No hourglass Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. . Inc.

All rights reserved.BT • 1 Integration point over the surface • Low cost elements to save CPU time • Four non-coplanar nodes • Normal constant over the element (without curvature) ez N1N 3 N 2 N 4 N1N 3 N 2 N 4 z N4 N3 N1 N2 • The local z axis is the vector product of two element diagonals • For warped surfaces [ precision m • Drawbacks: Hourglassing. .2D – Shell Q4 . flat element and cannot couple bending & membrane behavior Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc.

2D – Shell Q4 . All rights reserved. . Inc.QEPH • Four-node curved element • Four independent normals at nodes • Hourglass physical Stabilization n4 n1 N4 n3 N3 n2 N1 N2 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

All rights reserved.2D – Shell Q4 . Inc. .Batoz • Fully Integrated Elements: 4 Gauss point over the element • • • More Expensive Today 3*CPU cost Variable Stress over Elements No Hourglass Y 4 3 IP IP dx IP IP 0 X xx 0 xx 0 1 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information 2 Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

.Conclusion • BT • • • Use of Q4BT (Belytschko Tsay) : robust. All rights reserved.2D – Shell Q4 . CPU cost effective Popular + Compatible + Cannot couple bending-membrane behavior Best choice for coarse mesh • QEPH • • 15% CPU > BT + Sensitive to mesh quality + Avoid hourglassing Good trade off quality/cost • BATOZ • • No Hourglass + Good curvature + Couples bending-membrane behavior Best choice for fine mesh Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc.

All rights reserved. Inc.2D – Shell Q3 – C0 • Q3 • • • A flat facet element No HOURGLASS Too stiff z y x • Degenerated Q4 (Not Recommended) • • • Q4 [ T3 Non homogenous mass distribution m/4 m/4 m/4 m/4 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. .

2D. Inc. . All rights reserved.Shell Q3 – DKT18 • DKT18: Batoz Triangle: • Three in-plane integration points with Hammer scheme • No hourglass • Good bending behavior but high cost element • Globally. twice more expensive than C0 element z y x Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

. All rights reserved. Inc.2D – IP Through Thickness • Global Integration (DEFAULT) • • Average value is computed Bad strain/stress computation for the bending out of plane • Integration Points • • From 1 to 5 1 IP gives no out of plane stiffness • Use 5 for a good accuracy z N4 N3 N1 N2 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

Plastically Admissible Stresses • Two methods : • • Radial return (IPLAS = 2) Iterative algorithm (IPLAS = 1) • Radial return: • CPU m. All rights reserved. Inc. . precision m • Iterative algorithm: • Use Newton-Raphson method • CPU k. precision k Iterative Plasticity Iplast = 1 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

All rights reserved. Inc. .Thickness Variation • By default Radioss considers a constant thickness through the element: • Ithick = 0 • To take the thickness changes into account : • Ithick = 1 Thickness Changes Ithick = 1 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

Inc. Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information .2D – Shell Control Card • Ishell: Shell & Hourglass • formulations • • • • Default = 0 [ BT 4 [ BT with improved Hourglass 12 [ BATOZ 24 [ QEPH • Ismstr: Small Strain control • • • Default=0 [ Large Strain 1 [ Small Strain from t = 0 2 [ Small Strain if criteria reached Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved.

Inc.Applications Manufacturing Automotive Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . All rights reserved.2D – Shell .

2 1 L 3 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. . Inc.1D – Beam Element • A standard Euler-Bernouilli beam • Element with three nodes • Third node to define the orientation of the cross-section z z y 2 x y 3 1.

5( I y Iz ) Ix 2( I y Iz ) • Time Step: t aL c with c E a 0. I z ) Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc. 1 B / 12. All rights reserved.01 I y / I z 0. .1A4 12 I y I z 10 A4 0.5 min( 4.1D – Beam Element • Beam inputs: • • • • A : cross section area Ix : moment of inertia of cross section about local x axis Iy : moment of inertia of cross section about local y axis Iz : moment of inertia of cross section about local z axis • Recommendations: L A 100 0. B / 3) B Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information AL2 / max( I y .

1D – Beam Control Card Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. . Inc.

1D – Truss Element • A standard two node element N1 N2 • Material law: • • Type 1 : Linear Elastic Type 2 : Elastic Plastic • Property set: • A : Cross section area • Time Step: t L (t ) c L(t) : Current Truss length c E Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . All rights reserved. Inc.

. All rights reserved. Inc.1D – Beam/Truss–Applications • Suspensions. Supports … Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

All rights reserved. .1D – Springs • Type 4 • Spring with 1 d. Inc.o.f. • Type 8 • Mathematical spring • Type 12 • Pulley type • Type 13 • Beam type Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

All rights reserved. .f spring: • Tension-Compression behavior + • The nodal forces are always collinear • Time step is depending on the spring mass.o.1D – Spring Type 4 • Simple physical spring with a dashpot • F  kx cx • 1 d. its stiffness and its damping • dt KM C M 2 C = Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc.

. Inc. having 6 DOF’s total. All rights reserved. L > 0 12 DOF’s to represent Rigid Body Motion 3 nodes.1D – Spring Type 8. 2 to define axis of spring and 3rd for local frame Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. 12. 13 • Type 8: • • • Mathematical def. L > 0 Not enough DOF’s to represent Rigid Body Motion Global momentum not respected • Type 12: • • • 3 Nodes to define pulley Deformable rope with friction at node 2 Sliding is locked when node 1 or 3 touches node 2 • Type 13: • • • Works like a Beam element (bending & shear coupled).

All rights reserved. .1D – Spring Property Set F F F l0 l0 l0 Linear Spring Non linear Elastic Spring H=0 Non linear Elastic-Plastic Spring With Isotropic Hardening H=1 F f1 F F l0 l0 f2 l0 resid Non Linear Elastic-Plastic Spring With uncoupled hardening H=2 Non Linear Elastic-Plastic Spring With kinematic hardening H=4 Non Linear Elastic-Plastic Spring With nonlinear unloading H=5 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc.

. All rights reserved.1D – Spring Property • Dashpot behavior F d / dt • Multidirectional Failure Criteria D Y Dyp Dxn Dxp DX Dyn Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc.

. Inc. All rights reserved.1D – Spring Control Card Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

. Inc.1D – Spring Applications • • • • • • Joints Rivets Spotwelds Pretension Retractors … Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved.

SOL_ORTH TYPE8. SPR_PUL TYPE13. RIVET TYPE6. SPRING TYPE5. All rights reserved.Element Compatibility PROPERTY SET LIST Fixed format number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Description Void element Shell element Truss element Beam element Spring element Old rivet Orthotropic solid element General spring element Orthotropic shell element Composite shell element Sandwich shell element 3 nodes spring element Beam type spring element General solid element Keywords TYPE0. TRUS TYPE3. SOLID Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. SHELL TYPE2. VOID TYPE1. SH_SANDW TYPE12. SPR_GENE TYPE9. SPR_BEAM TYPE14. . BEAM TYPE4. SH_ORTH TYPE10. SH_COMP TYPE11. Inc.

Mooney-Rivlin Brittle shell (aluminum. elasto-plastic foam Generalized Kelvin-Voigt Hill’s model Tabulated Hill model Honeycomb material Strain rate and temperature dependent yield stress Turbulent viscous flow Von Mises isotropic hardening. Inc. polynomial pressure Generalized Maxwell . Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information . All rights reserved. hydrodynamic behaviour is given by a function Linear elastic model Linear elastic orthotropic Closed cell. hydrodynamic behaviour is polynomial Ductile damage Ogden .Kelvin law Law for rock or concrete. glass) Von Mises isotropic hardening Piecewise linear Von Mises isotropic hardening Foam (Tabulated law) Fictitious Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.Element Compatibility MATERIAL LAWS DESCRIPTION 34 25 14 24 22 21 1 19 33 35 32 43 28 4 6 3 40 10 23 42 27 2 36 2 29 30 31 38 0 Law BOLTZMAN COMPSH COMPSO CONC DAMA DPRAG ELAST FABRI FOAM_PLASTIC FOAM_VISCOUS HILL HILL_TAB HONEYCOMB HYD_JCOOK HYD_VIS HYDPLA KELVINMAXWELL LAW10 LAW23 OGDEN PLAS_BRIT PLAS_JOHNS PLAS_TAB PLAS_ZERIL USER1 USER2 USER3 VISC_TAB VOID Type Viscoelastic Elastic plastic orthotropic Elastic plastic orthotropic Elastic plastic brittle Elastic plastic Elastic plastic Elastic Shell orthotropic Viscous plastic Viscous elastic Elastic plastic orthotropic Elastic plastic orthotropic Orthotropic Johnson Cook Hydrodynamic Viscous Elastic plastic hydrodynamic Viscous elastic Elastic plastic Drücker-Prager Elastic plastic Hyperelastic Elastic plastic brittle Elasto plastic (Johnson Cook) Elastic plastic Elastic plastic (Zerilli-Armstrong) User’s User’s User’s Viscous elastic Void material Description Boltzman Composite shell Composite material Reinforced concrete Ductile damage Drücker-Prager Law for rock or concrete.

Inc.Element Compatibility ELEMENT COMPATIBILITY 34 25 14 24 22 21 1 19 33 35 32 43 28 4 6 3 40 10 23 42 27 2 36 2 29 30 31 38 0 Law 2D QUAD 3D BRICK BOLTZMAN yes yes COMPSH COMPSO yes yes CONC yes yes DAMA yes yes DPRAG yes yes ELAST yes yes FABRI FOAM_PLASTIC yes yes FOAM_VISCOUS yes yes HILL HILL_TAB HONEYCOMB yes yes HYD_JCOOK yes yes HYD_VIS yes yes HYDPLA yes yes KELVINMAXWELL yes yes LAW10 yes yes LAW23 yes yes OGDEN yes yes PLAS_BRIT PLAS_JOHNS yes yes PLAS_TAB yes yes PLAS_ZERIL yes yes USER1 yes yes USER2 yes yes USER3 yes yes VISC_TAB yes yes VOID yes SHELL yes TRUSS BEAM yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. .

Exercise 3.1: Hands on Twisted Beam Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. Inc. .

Inc.Chapter 4: Common Features Interfaces Rigid Bodies Monitored Volumes Boundary Conditions Loads General Features Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. .

Inc. .Interfaces • The interfaces solve the contact between two parts • Different kinds of interfaces exist depending on the contact Surface 1 Surface 2 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. .Rigid Wall • Four kinds of rigid walls are available • Infinite plane • Cylindrical rigid wall • Spherical rigid wall • Parallelogram • Each wall can be fixed or moving • A rigid wall is defined by a Master Node and a group of slave Nodes • The group of Slave Nodes is defined by an explicit list and/or by a “distance for slave search” • A rigid wall is a Kinematic Condition Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc.

.Rigid Wall M0 M1 M Diameter M Slave Nodes Spherical Plane Rigid Wall Slave Nodes M1 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Cylindrical Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. Inc.

All rights reserved. the master node is moved to the center of mass Input master node localization Rigid body center of mass Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . Inc.Rigid Body • A Rigid Body is an underformable structure • A Rigid Body is defined with a set of slave nodes and a master node • A kinematic condition is applied on each node and for all directions • By default.

All rights reserved. battey) Connections between Parts Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. walls engine.Rigid Body Rigid Parts (Undeformable parts. Inc. .

Monitored Volumes • Simulate a volume of gas or fluid • Requirement • The surface defined must be closed • The shell normal must be oriented outward the volume • Only 3 or 4 shell elements sets • 5 types of monitored volume • Type 3 for tire and fuel tank • For simple unfolded airbag use monitored volume type 4 • For chambered airbag use type 5 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. Inc. .

Inc.Monitored Volumes Tank Tire Airbag Deploying Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . All rights reserved.

Inc. .Boundary Conditions • A boundary condition is a constraint on node degrees of freedom • A boundary condition is a kinematic condition • 6 degrees of freedom : • X translation • Y translation • Z translation • X rotation • Y rotation #-BOUNDARY CONDITION: #--1---|---2---|---3---|---4---|---5---| /BCS/1 boundary_condition #trarot nskew gr_node 101 110 0 1004 # BCS NODE GROUP /GRNOD/NODE/1004 group_of_nodes 207 #--1---|---2---|---3---|---4---|---5---| • Z rotation Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved.

. All rights reserved. Inc.Velocity & Imposed Displacements • Initial velocity: defined by a value in each direction and a group of nodes • Imposed velocity: defined by a function. a direction and a group of nodes • Imposed displacement (Block only): same as Imposed Velocity Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

Loads & Gravity F P Concentrated load Pressure load g Gravity load Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc. . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. .5 1000 /GRNOD/NODE/1000/ ADDED MASS 207 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc.Added Masses • An added Mass is a mass which is added on a group of nodes • The mass is equally divided among the nodes in the group or is added to each node of the list #-ADDED MASS: #--1---|---2---|---3---|---4---|---5---| /ADMAS/1/1 BOAT #Mass| Node| 0.

Skew Frames • SKEW FRAMES are used to define local directions • Two types of skew frames are available in RADIOSS • Fixed skew frame • Moving skew frame Zs Ys Xs Fixed skew frame Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Moving skew frame (defining by 3 nodes) Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . All rights reserved. Inc.

All rights reserved.Sections • A section is a cut in the structure where forces and moments will be stored in TH files • A section is defined by a group of element. a group of nodes and a skew defined by three nodes Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . Inc.

.Chapter 5: Time Step Control Critical Time Step Stability Condition Characteristic length of elements Time Step Control in Radioss Hints and Remarks Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. Inc.

. Inc. All rights reserved.Stability of Time Integration • Explicit Scheme: • Conditionally stable • If t tcritical Stable scheme • Unstable case: • If information passes across more than one element per time step Fext(t) • Size of the smallest element [ Numerical • Sound propagation speed [ Physical L • Stability Condition depends on two factors: Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

All rights reserved.866 l D lc AD Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. .Courant’s Stability Condition • Courant’s stability condition t lc c c : Speed of sound in the material lc : Characteristic element length • Characteristic length • It depends on the shape of the element: l l lc l lc = 0.707 l l lc l lc = 0. Inc.

. no need of user intervention (automatic) • The time step is calculated using two methods: • Element time step • Nodal time step • The time step is influenced by existence of interfaces • Interface time step Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.Time Step Control in Radioss • In principle. Inc. All rights reserved.

. Inc.1 • Foams (high nonlinearity) [ Sf = 0. All rights reserved.67 te lc E lc [ [ [ te Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.Element Time Step Control • For the smallest element. the following relation must be verified: te Sf • Scale Factor: • To ensure the stability l c Where Sf is the Scale Factor • To introduce the nonlinearity in Courant’s condition • Particular cases: • One element mesh [ Sf = 0.

All rights reserved. Inc.Nodal Time Step Control • For any node. the following relation must be verified: tn 2m k m : nodal mass k : equivalent stiffness of node • For a regular mesh: tn • For an irregular mesh (generally): te tn te Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. .

5 and 8: • A small stiffness is used [ Stable with Sf = 0. 10 and 11: • A variable stiffness is used • May be large enough compared to element stiffness  [ A stability condition must be established ti 2m k Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc. 4. All rights reserved.Interface Time Step • The interface time step depends on the type of interface used: • Type 2: • Just a kinematic condition [ No need of time step condition • Types 3.9 or less • Types 7. .

Inc. All rights reserved.RADIOSS Input for Time Step Control Time Step Control in Engine (0001. .rad) file /DT Tsca Tmin /DT/BRICK /DT/SHELL /DT/QUAD /DT/SH_3N /DT/BEAM … /DT/INTER /DT/NODA [ Element Time Step Control [ [ [ Interface Time Step Control Activate Nodal Time Step Control Larger Time Step for non-optimized mesh Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

Shell. Sh3n. Del. All rights reserved. Noda • /DT/Keyword2/Keyword3 Tsca Tmin Keyword 2: Stop. Airbag.RADIOSS Input for Time Step Control • /DT/Keyword2 Tsca Tmin Keyword 2: Brick. . Inter. Truss. Spring. Cst • Delete Option /DT/BRICK/DEL /DT/SHELL/DEL … /DT/INTER/DEL To remove nodes from interface where ti t min To delete Elements where te t min • DEL option [ Mass / Volume is lost [ Change of the physics Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Beam. Quad. Inc.

Inc. All rights reserved.RADIOSS Input for Time Step Control • Constant Option: /DT/NODA/CST /DT/INTER/CST • To apply a constant time step • Radioss adds mass to the model to satisfy the nodal stability condition • Increase of kinetic energy • The added mass should be checked by user to ensure the validity of results /DT/BRICK/CST /DT/SHELL/CST • Switch an element to small strain formulation [ time step is then independent of the size of the element Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. .

All rights reserved. .Remarks on Time Step Control • Many time step options influence the results: • Keep the numerical model close to the physical problem • Small Time Step for: • Stiff material: • Light material: • Small element: l E [ [ [ t t t With te l c l E • For mild steel: c 5000m / s lmin 5mm t 1 s (For crash problems) • Remove details to save CPU time Characteristic length for elements • More than 1 Million elements are needed to mesh a complete car model with 5x5mm2 elements Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc.

Inc. .Remarks on Time Step Control • Default values: • Scale factor = 0. All rights reserved.9 • Minimum time step = 0 • By default if te < tmin : • Radioss deletes the shell element which control the time step • Radioss stops calculation if a brick element control the time step • The /DT/INTER concerns only the interface type 7 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

Demo of Time Step Control in RADIOSS • Take a simple Tensile Test model • Case 1: Run it with Natural Time Step (No Time Step Commands) • • • Time Step is 2.164E-4 Total Number of Cycles = 55467 Cycles Case 2: Add Command: /DT/NODA 0. it’s recommended not to add more that 2% Mass Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.9 • 3E-4 Time Step = 3E-4  Must be input after reviewing Nodal Time Step in Starter Listing File • • • Total Number of Cycles = 40001 Cycles with 2. Inc. All rights reserved.19% Added Mass  28% Faster Computation This explains why we add mass to the models  For Faster Computation Time In Dynamic Analysis.9 • • • 0 Time Step = 2.2521E-4 Total Number of Cycles = 53291 Cycles This proves that Nodal Time Step > Element Time Step • Case 3: Add Command: /DT/NODA/CST 0. Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information .

1: Time Step Demo with an Example Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.Exercise 5. Inc. . All rights reserved.

Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Armstrong Law 27 .Chapter 6: Materials Material Laws Failure Models Law 2 .Elastic-Plastic Brittle Law 28 . Inc. All rights reserved.Elastic-Plastic Tab. .Honeycomb Law 36 . Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

(53) Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. . Inc.Material Laws In RADIOSS Type Isotropic Elasticity Description Linear elastic model Hyper elastic Linear elastic for orthotropic shells Nonlinear pseudo-plastic orthotropic solids without strain rate effect Model Hook Ogden-Mooney-Rivlin Fabric Honeycomb Law (MID) (1) (42) (19) (28) Composite and Orthotropic materials Nonlinear pseudo-plastic orthotropic solids with strain rate effect Crushable foam (50) Hill (32) (43) (25) Elastic-plastic orthotropic shells Hill (tabulated) Composite Shell Elastic-plastic orthotropic composites Composite Shell with Chang-Chang failure Composite Solids (15) (14).

Inc. von Mises hardening with brittle damage Predit rivets Reinforced concrete von Mises hardening with ductile damage Ductile damage for solids and shells Ductile damage for solids von Mises with viscoplastic flow Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information (23) (52) Ductile damage for porous materials. All rights reserved. etc. Gurson Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . glass. (21) (27) (54) (24) (22) Elasticplasticity of Isotropic Materials Aluminum.Material Laws In RADIOSS Type Description Model Johnson-Cook Zerilli-Armstrong Zhao Law (MID) (2) (2) (48) von Mises hardening without damage Cowper-Symonds Piecewise linear Drucker-Prager for rock or concrete (44) (36) (10).

All rights reserved.Material Laws In RADIOSS Type Description Model Boltzmann Generalized Kelvin-Voigt Viscous Materials Visco-elastic Tabulated law Generalized Maxwell-Kelvin Visco-plastic Closed cell. . elasto-plastic foam Johnson-Cook Law (MID) (34) (35) (38) (40) (33) Strain rate and temperature dependence on yield stress Hydrodynamic Turbulent viscous flow Elastio-plastic hydrodynamic (4) Hydrodynamic viscous von Mises isotropic hardening with polynomial pressure Steinberg-Guinan Fictitious (6) (3) Elastio-plastic hydrodynamic with thermal softening Void Void material (49) (0) Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc.

Inc.Failure Models In RADIOSS • Independent and can be coupled with compatible material laws • /FAIL/TYPE/MAT_ID Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . All rights reserved.

Materials discussed in this class • Law 2: Elastic Plastic Isotropic (Von Mises) • Law 27: Elastic Plastic Brittle • Law 28: Honeycomb Material • Law 36: Elastic Plastic Isotropic Piecewise Linear Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. . Inc.

Material Law 2: Elastic-Plastic

• Elastic for stresses lower than the yield stress • Plastic when the stress reaches the yield stress • Available for brick, shell, beam and truss elements • Two plasticity models:
• Johnson-Cook • Zerilli Armstrong

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Material Law 2: Johnson-Cook

Stress-Strain relation:
(a b
n p )(1

c ln

 )(1 0

T *m )

Influence of temperature change Influence of strain rate Influence of plastic strain = Stress level
p

= Plastic strain c = Strain rate coefficient  = Strain rate 0 = Reference strain rate

a = Yield stress b = Hardening modulus n = Hardening Exponent

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Material Law 2: Zerilli-Armstrong

Stress-Strain relation:
C0 C1 exp C3T C4T ln
 0

C5

n p

Influence of plastic strain Influence of temperature change and strain rate

= Stress level
p

= Plastic strain
 = Strain rate

C0 = Yield stress n = Hardening Exponent

0 = Reference strain rate

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. Inc. All rights reserved.Material Law 2: Element Rupture • Element rupture if the plastic strain is larger than • For shell elements: • Ruptured element is deleted max • For solid elements: • Deviatoric stress tensor is set to zero • The element is not deleted Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

All rights reserved. Inc. … • Brittle failure is modeled by the introduction of a crack • Crack throughout the element thickness for type 1 elements (regular shell) • Crack in the layer that the material is applied for type 11 elements (composite shell with variable layers) 2 1 Crack orientation Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Layer cracking Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. aluminium.Material Law 27: Elastic-Plastic Brittle • Only for shell elements • The isotropic elastic-plastic computation and modeling is the same as for law 2 • Law allows material damage and brittle failure • Glass. .

Material Law 27: Damage Model • Damage effected material = = m1 dmax1 = = f1 t1 Tensile rupture strain in direction 1 Maximum strain in direction 1 Maximum damage in direction 1 Maximum strain for element deletion in direction 1 Linear damage y Linear stress E p t t m • Nominal and effective stress: n eff 1 d d : damage factor 0<d<1 • Linear damage: d t m t • Linear stress: E m m t p t Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc. All rights reserved. .

Inc. crushable foams • Only for solid elements • Two drawbacks: • No viscous effect • Plastic behavior 1 t 5 4 2 8 6 3 s 7 r • Material behaves as three independent membrane spring: • Hook’s law 11 22 33 12 23 31 E11 0 0 0 0 0 E11 0 E22 0 0 0 0 E22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G23 0 0 0 0 0 0 G31 G23 11 22 33 12 23 31 E33 0 0 G12 0 0 0 0 • For an isotropic material Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information E33 and G12 G31 E11 2 Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . All rights reserved.Material Law 28: Honeycomb • Typical honeycomb.

. Inc. the element is deleted ij User defined yield curve ij 0 1 or ij Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved.Material Law 28: Honeycomb • Plasticity is represented by independent stress-strain curves • Material behavior is always orthotropic • The input yield stress is always positive • Volumic strain or strain dependent yield curve (user’s choice) • The failure plastic strain is input for each direction • If the failure strain is reached in one direction.

• Isotropic elastic-plastic material • User defined function for the stress-strain curve • Available for brick and shell elements • Elastic portion of material stress-strain curve defined by Young modulus and Poisson’s ratio • Material plasticity curves can be given for an arbitrary number of strain rates • Linear interpolation of strain-stress curve • For a given strain rate • For a given plastic strain    1 1 0 p Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. Inc. Law 36: Elastic-Plastic Tab.Mat. .

. Inc.1: Hands on Tensile Test Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.Exercise 6. All rights reserved.

Chapter 7: Interfaces Contact Interfaces in Radioss Contact Treatment Contact Modeling Description of commonly used Interfaces Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . All rights reserved. Inc.

Interfaces in RADIOSS Type 1&9 2 3&5 4 6 Description For Radioss ALE Tied interface. Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information . No sliding Contact between 2 parts Contact for a single part Contact between two rigid bodies General purpose contact impact between 2 parts Like type 7 but with a tied contact Comments Fluid structure interaction Change of mesh density (solid) Use of type 7 is recommended Not recommended anymore User defined contact 7 Good contact at all speeds Tied After impact with or without rebound For beams. Inc. bars or springs 10 11 Impact between two lines Edge-to-edge impact (7+11) Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved.

. Inc. All rights reserved.or 16-node thickshell or 20 bricks Fluid-structure inetractions Combination of Type 7 and Type11 Fast interface for Stamping 18 19 21 Rigid master surface/slave surface Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.Interfaces in RADIOSS Type 12 14 15 16 / 17 Description Connects 2 fluid meshes with free. tied or periodic options Ellipsoidal surfaces to nodes contact Ellipsoidal surfaces to segments contact Contact between nodes to quadratic shape solids and solid-shells or between quadratic shapes CEL Lagrange / Euler interface Slave and Master Surfaces Comments ALE or Euler or Lag. Radioss/Madymo Coupling Radioss/Madymo Coupling Meshes with 8.

All rights reserved. Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information .Contact Modeling & Treatment • The interfaces solve the contact between several parts of the model • Contact modeling: • Type 7: • Node-to-surface contact • Symmetric Node-to-Surface contact • Self-contact Node-to-Surface • Generalized Node-to-Surface contact • Type 11: • Edge-to-Edge contact • Contact treatment: • • Kinematic master-slave formulation Penalty method Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc.

All rights reserved.Nodes-to-Surface Contact The velocity and displacement of the slave nodes are controlled by the master segments in order to satisfy the kinematic contact conditions Slave nodes Master surface Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . Inc.

Inc. .Symmetric Nodes-to-Surface • The nodes of each surface are treated as slaves • Each surface is treated as a master surface Slave + Master Slave + Master Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved.

. Slave node + Master surface Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.Self-contact Nodes-to-Surface Self-contact of a single surface due to buckling . . Inc.. All rights reserved.

Generalized Nodes-to-Surface • A node may be master and slave at the same time • Slave nodes may belong to different surfaces Master nodes Slave Nodes Master surface Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . All rights reserved. Inc.

All rights reserved. .Limitation of Nodes-to-surface Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc.

Edge-to-Edge Contact
For contacts between beams, bars, springs or the edges of shells

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Contact treatment in RADIOSS
• Penalty method:
• A spring is added between a slave node and a master segment


• • •

Each contact is treated as an element
The kinematic continuities are not directly respected The energy conservation is verified The stiffness of the spring is very important
• • Too stiff [ Numerical instabilities Large penetration, kinematic discontinuity

Too flexible [

Interface Spring Mm

Vm

Vs

Ms

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Interfaces discussed in this class

• Type 2: Tied interface • Type 7: General contact • Type 11: Edge-to-Edge interface

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Type 2: Tied Interface • Tied interface is a kinematic condition • Applications: • • To connect a fine and a coarse solid lagrangian mesh To connect spring elements to shell surfaces for spotweld or rivet modeling Shell elements (master segments) Spotwelds modeled by spring elements (slave nodes) Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . Inc. All rights reserved.

.Type 2: Tied Interface • Tied interface formulation: • Masses and forces of the slave nodes are added to the master nodes • Accelerations and velocities of the master nodes are computed with the added masses and added forces • Kinematic constrains are applied to all slave nodes in order to keep them on the initial position with respect to their master segments Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc. All rights reserved.

Interface Type 7 • For all types of impact between a set of nodes and a master surface • A node can impact on several master segments • A node can impact on the edge of a master segment • Direct search of the closest segment • No search limitation • Only edge-to-edge contacts are not solved • Possible to put a slave node on the master surface • Impact is possible on the two sides of segments • Variable interface stiffness is used to avoid penetration larger than gap • A time step is computed to insure the stability Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. . Inc.

Type 7: Search Algorithm Fast Sorting Method Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. . Inc.

. Inc. All rights reserved.Type 7: Detection of Penetration • A gap is used to: • Give a physical thickness to the surface • Allows to distinguish the impacts on the top or the lower part from the facet Master gap P • The contact is activated if: • The node penetrates inside the gap • Distance Between Node to Surface < Gape Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.

l/2) • lmin : the smallest side length of the master brick element • l • t : the side length of the element brick : thickness of the master shell Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering.Type 7: Constant Gap • Physical value for constant Gap: • GAP = 1/2 (thickness1+thickness2) e1 e2 • Default value for GAPmin (used if no constant gap is given) • GAPmin= min (lmin/10 . t . . Inc. All rights reserved.

Type 7: Variable Gap
• Possible to use a different gap value for each interface segment • The gap is computed for each impact as:
• Gap = Gapm+ Gaps (m: master s: slave)

• Gapm= ½ shell thickness or zero for brick elements • Gaps = ½ largest thickness of the elements connected to the slave node • • or or zero for a node connected to a brick or spring elements ½ (beam cross-section)1/2 for beam elements

• If the slave node is connected to multiple elements, the largest Gaps is used

• The minimum value of Gap is given by Gapmin as it is explained previously

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Type 7: Penalty Force
g g p

F

KsP C dp dt

Ks

0.5sEt (

) Where E and t are the young modulus and the
thickness of the master surface S is a scale factor (1 by default)

F

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Type 7: Time Step
• A kinematic time step is applied to prevent large penetrations
• If dp/dt > 0
t 0.5 g p dp / dt
g

p g-p

• For a crash problem:
t 1mm 100 s 2(5000mm / s)

• The nodal time step is computed as following:
t 2M K
With

K

K Interface K elements

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Type 7: Hints and Remarks • Initial penetration is not allowed for interface type 7 • The node is deactivated from interface when: • node to element mid-plane distance is smaller than 10-10*Gap • For self impacting surfaces. use the following recommended value: • Gap < (smallest segment edge) / 2 • For impact between stiff and soft materials the stiffness factor has to be adjusted • S = Eslave*Thickslave / Emaster*Thickmaster Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc. . All rights reserved.

Type 7: Hints and Remarks Contacts between a soft and a rigid part (foam/steel or tire/structure) 2 interfaces Rigid Master Soft Slave Rigid Slave Soft Master K1=Eslave / Emaster K2 = Eslave / Emaster = 1 / K1 Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved. . Inc.

All rights reserved.Type 7: Hints and Remarks • Deep penetrations are not tolerated • Deep penetration leads to: • high penalty forces • small time step • infinite loop message • large contact force vectors in post-processing • Deep penetrations are caused by: • Initial penetrations of adjacent plates • Edge impacts • Full local collapse • Rigid body impact on another rigid body or on fixed nodes or on very stiff part • Impact between heavy stiff structures • High impact speed • Small gap Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. . Inc.

Type 7: Hints and Remarks • Time step reduces for high speed impacts or small gaps • To avoid time step problems: • Increase gap. Inc. . but check if no initial penetration is resulted • Increase stiffness factor STFAC • Some ENGINE options can be used but attention should be paid to the quality of results: • /DT/INTER/DEL • Some nodes will be allowed to pass through the impacted surface • /DT/INTER/CST • Nodal masses will be modified to maintain a constant time step Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. .Type 7: Hints and Remarks • Initial penetrations: • are generally due to the discretization • result in high initial contact forces • should be avoided • Remedies: • Modify node coordinates • Reduce gap • For small penetrations Initial penetration • Deactivate node stiffness • Simple approach • Option used after geometry adjustments Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Inc.

All rights reserved. Bars.Interface Type 11 • Simulates impacts between two lines • Lines: Beams. Inc. . Springs. the edge-to-edge impacts can be simulated Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. Edge of shell elements • Works as the interface type 7: • Penalty formulation • Same search method • In association with interface type 7.

1: Hands on Boxtube Altair Proprietary and Confidential Information Copyright © 2008 Altair Engineering. .Exercise 7. Inc. All rights reserved.

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