Wing Design II

Lift surfaces/devices Ailerons Vertical Stabilizer Rudder Spoilers

Control surfaces Leading-edge slats

Flaps Elevators Horizontal Stabilizer

Wing Wing-tip device

Basic Configuration Choices
• Wing planform
– span – taper ratio – sweep

• Wing airfoil geometry
– airfoil sections – twist & incidence – thickness

Basic Configuration Choices • • • • Vertical wing placement Control surface placement Empennage Fuselage shape Definition of Sideslip and Yaw +n V∞ +β Wing Taper Ratio .

more rigid structures • Allows for reduction of inboard airfoil thickness for transonic drag reduction • Must keep room for ailerons.Wing Taper Ratio • Reduces the wing-root bending moments by moving the center of lift inboard • Thicker inboard sections allow for lighter. and therefore increase drag . Wing Incidence Incidence Angle Wing Incidence • Allows a lower rotation angle on take-off • Permits the airplane to be lower to the ground • May increase the lower fuselage size. etc.

Wing Airfoil Sections • The tip should have a high maximum lift coefficient and gradual stalling characteristics • The inboard section should have a high maximum lift coefficient with flaps extended Wing Thickness Distribution • Thicker wings increase fuel volume • Thicker wings are structurally lighter • Thick wings will increase transonic drag penalty • Best to add thickness near the root to balance these requirements Wing Twist .

Wing Twist • Spanwise distribution of airfoil chord lines are not in the same plane • Used to maintain desired pressure and lift distribution • Wash-out: decrease incidence near the tip to avoid stall in the region of ailerons Wing Dihedral • The angle between a horizontal plane containing the root chord and a plane midway between the upper and lower surfaces of the wing • Dihedral: the wing plane lies above the horizontal plane • Anhedral: the wing plane lies below the horizontal plane Wing Dihedral .

the drag of the right wing is increases – increased induced drag – increased drag of ailerons • The plane will tend to yaw to the right! • This is an example of cross coupling Wing Sweep & Dihedral • Already discussed Mach effects • Sweep also affects dihedral .Wing Dihedral • Positive sideslip (nose left) creates an upward velocity on right wing and downward velocity on left wing • Equivalent of “downwash” • Increases angle of attack over right wing. decreases angle of attack over left wing • Results in a rolling moment to the left Adverse Yaw • When the aircraft rolls to the left.

Wing Sweep & Dihedral Wing Sweep & Dihedral • Positive sideslip increases velocity over the right wing and decreases velocity over the left wing • The right wing will have more lift than the left wing • The wing will roll left Vertical Wing Placement • Low wing • Mid wing • High wing .

Vertical Wing Placement & Dihedral • The vertical placement of the wing affects dihedral as well • Each wing placement type has different characteristics Vertical Wing Placement Vertical Wing Placement & Dihedral • Positive sideslip over high wing aircraft increases angle of attack of right wing and decreases angle of attack of left wing • The right wing has more lift than the left wing • The plane will roll left • The affect is opposite for a low wing aircraft .

Low Wing Flaps Low Wing • Easier landing gear stowage • Ground clearance difficulty • Decreases roll stability (dihedral effect) Mid Wing Flaps .

Mid Wing • Provides the lowest drag • Allows for better clearance than low wing • Structural carry-through a problem High Wing Flaps High Wing • Allows for placing the fuselage close to the ground • Allows clearance for engines/props • Possible structural weight savings • Increases roll stability (dihedral effect) .

there are two types of affects: – directly coupled – cross coupled Stability Coupling • The affect of the elevator on pitch moment is an example of direct coupling • The affect of roll attitude on yaw moment is an example of cross coupling • In general. and handling qualities of the aircraft • In general. control.Stability Coupling • We have seen that the aircraft geometry has a large affect on the stability. direct coupling is an order of magnitude larger than cross coupling .

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