GEOPAK

®

Civil Design Software

Terrain and Subsurface Modeling
Table of Contents
Part I – Digital Terrain Modeling
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Digital Terrain Modeling DTM Tools Stroking Options Extract Tools DATA File Editing Tools Triangulation Display and Draw Features TIN Editing Tools Lattice Model Other Build Tools Volumes, Elevation Differences, and Slope Area Themes Draping Tools Heights and Profiles Visibility DTM Drainage Tools Trace Slope Path DTM Camera Utilities

Part II – GeoTechnical Tools
1 2 3 4 GeoTechnical Tools Preferences Using GeoTechnical Tools Soil Boxes Via Input Files

1190 N.E. 163rd Street, North Miami Beach, Florida 33162

P.O. Box 1368, North Miami Beach, Florida 33160Phone: (305) 944-5151

Fax: (305)948-6290

GEOPAK® _________________________________________________________________________________________

PART I __________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 1

Digital Terrain Modeling
1.1 Overview of DTM Features
GEOPAK offers Digital Terrain Modeling components that employ advanced state-of-the-art algorithms and are rich in functionality. GEOPAK DTM features are not limited to triangulated models. Features include: lattice models, contours, interactive editing of TIN files, integrated pads, merged models, surface-to-surface volumetric analyses, thematic analyses, drainage tools, and various utilities. The following sections briefly describe each primary feature.

1.2 Extraction of Input Data
Digital Terrain Models can be generated from a wide range of data sources including MicroStation elements, survey data, GEOPAK cross sections, and GeoGraphics project data. An Extract utility is included to facilitate the retrieval and formatting of MicroStation graphical elements. These elements can be classified as contours, random points, break lines, voids, islands, and boundary points. One of the GEOPAK Extract utilities analyzes the MicroStation elements and formulates interpretations. For example, 2D circular arcs can be segmented with elevations interpolated from spot elevations located on the circular arcs and/or upon adjacent elements. Text strings can be interpreted in terms of either the text origin or in terms of the value represented by the text string. A "765.71" text string can be interpreted such that the X and Y coordinates are derived from the origin of the text string and the elevation derived from the "765.71" value represented by the text string. One sample dialog is depicted below.

Digital Terrain Modeling

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GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________

Another GEOPAK Extract utility can create DTM input files from various types of ASCII files including: TEX, THD, RT40 and CAiCE. The GEOPAK Survey Manager dialog can prepare an input file for DTM processing directly from survey data. This input file distinguishes between random spot elevations, contours, voids, boundary polygons, break lines and other features. Points stored in a GEOPAK coordinate geometry database may also be utilized via the Survey Manager to create a DTM input for spot elevations. In total, GEOPAK provides the capability to create DTMs from a wide array of data sources.

1.3 Triangulated Models
The advanced algorithms employed by GEOPAK are apparent the first time you see the triangulated model display on the screen. Triangles appear from left-to-right in an ordered array; not in a randomized manner as is typical with standard Delauney based algorithms. You will also notice how fast the DTM is calculated. Processing time takes no longer than a few seconds, even for a set of data points numbering in the thousands.

1-2 Part I - Digital Terrain Modeling

___________________________________________________GEOPAK®
The triangulated model is stored in a binary file as a triangulated irregular network. For each generated triangle, polynomial coefficients can be calculated and also stored in the binary file. Voids defined during the extraction or editing process can be utilized within a model. No triangles are drawn within the void areas. There is no limit as to the number of voids supported per model. Several routines for interactively editing the triangulated model are provided in the Edit mode. These include editing spot elevations, adding and deleting break lines, all seen on the screen, and, by the push of a button, changed in the binary file, at the user's request. When large models are utilized, the user may select an area of interest (with a Fence placement), displaying only that area. Models, which require additional review or editing, may also be "clipped" to a smaller size model while the original model integrity remains intact. If desired, the "clipped" model may be merged back into the original model, as the user dictates.

1.4 Editing
Several options are available within the Editing mode, some of which utilize the extracted data file, while others utilize the triangulated model. Utilizing the extracted data file, two reports may be generated: the first will identify duplicate points while the second identifies and optionally displays crossing features, such as break lines or contours. Neither of these reports make any adjustments to the model, they are for informational use only. However, two other features, which do change the extracted data file, are joining and filtering linear features. The joining process is useful when the source break lines or contour lines consist of several elements containing numerous vertices. In these cases, the end of one break line is the beginning of the next break line, so the software distinguishes this as two separate break lines. During the joining process, GEOPAK changes these from the beginning and end of individual elements to the beginning and subsequent shots of one element. In addition to making a small sized model, the best advantage is a more accurate model. The filtering process compares each pair of adjoining vertices on linear features, i.e. break lines or contours. If the horizontal distance between two vertices is less than the tolerance, the software compares the initial two points to the next vertex on the element. If this third vertex is also within the tolerance, the middle vertex is filtered out.

Digital Terrain Modeling

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GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________
The other editing features utilize the triangulated model and include: ● Edit spot elevations – changes the x, y or z value of a spot elevation, delete or add a spot. ● Edit lines - this includes deleting a break line, as well as inserting a break or drape line. ● Edit triangles - deletion of triangles optionally creating a void, or re-triangulating. All these editing features dynamically show the changes as they occur. In addition, the changes are not made permanently to the triangulated model until the user selects the Save button, so the user decides when to change the original model, not the software.

1.5 Lattice Models
The lattice model represents a grid mesh draped over the triangulated irregular network. As can be seen in the image below, this creates a very clear visualization of existing ground.

The user controls the density of the lattice grid as well as range and registration of the lattice. The process requires very little processing time.

1.6 Contours
Contours may be drawn as line strings or color filled shapes in a thematic manner. As can be ascertained on the dialog depicted below, for string contours the following features may be defined: major and minor contour intervals, maximum and minimum z-ranges,
1-4 Part I - Digital Terrain Modeling

___________________________________________________GEOPAK®
registration, text labels for both major and minor contours including the level, symbology, and intervals. Contours may be displayed only or written into a 2-D or 3-D MicroStation file. When written, they can be placed in a single graphic group for easy deletion. Areas of interest may be identified with any of the MicroStation fence commands wherein the software can load contours.

A variety of other DTM features can also be drawn or displayed. These include the hull, or outline of the model, triangles, spot elevations, break lines, etc. Each feature can have its own unique symbology, and any combination of features can be drawn or displayed. Utilizing MicroStation fence commands, features within a specified area, rather than the entire model, can be drawn.

1.7 Merged Models
Any two models may be merged into a third model as long as the two models overlap at a minimum of one point. Both the original and the merged model remain intact. Typical applications of merged models include the superimposition of a proposed roadway onto the existing terrain, or merging of updated terrain onto void areas of the existing terrain.

Digital Terrain Modeling

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1-6 Part I .GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ 1. These volume calculations can be performed across the entire DTM model or on localized portions of the model. Three prismoidal volumes are supported. GEOPAK first lattices.Digital Terrain Modeling . One volume dialog is shown below.8 Volumetric Analyses Six volume options are available in the Volume Analyses. TIN topology is utilized to determine the triangle intersections on the fly and therefore does not require the time and/or memory resources of the other volume modules. In the prismoidal routines. reports can be created in addition to the volume display window above. Depending on the option utilized. Lattice volumes may be computed by utilizing TIN files. then computes volumes. In other modules. then specifying the number of grid points. which calculate prismoidal volumes between two surfaces or a surface and a plane. cut and fill volumes between two surfaces can be calculated. as well as between one surface and a fixed elevation.

Elevation thematics display elevation ranges.___________________________________________________GEOPAK® 1. permit color-coded displays of portions of the model facing certain directions.9 Thematic Analyses Color-coded shading of elevation ranges. Slope aspects display the steepness of the terrain. the image below depicts the slope thematic where the heavily shaded portion of the model indicates the areas of terrain with a slope less than 25 degrees. Aspect thematics. For example. on the other hand. slopes and aspects can be applied to either the DTM or lattice models with the Themes dialog. Since zero degrees Digital Terrain Modeling 1-7 .

Low Points. 1. an angle range between 45 and 135 degrees would provide a shaded model of easterly facings.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ denotes due north.dat files. collectively via a MicroStation fence or MicroStation selection sets. Graphic elements can be selected individually. These include Delineating Watersheds. etc. 1. and aspect of a given coordinate point. and Flow Direction. Ridge Lines. 1-8 Part I . Other Utility features include the ASCII to Binary and Binary to ASCII file conversions utilizing GEOPAK .11 Utilities The GEOPAK DTM component also includes several utilities to query height.12 Drainage Tools A myriad of drainage tools is supported on the Drainage Tools palette. In addition. review model statistics (number of points. 1. high/low elevations.10 Draping The draping tool sets the Z-coordinate values of MicroStation elements to correspond to the surface of the triangulated model. both Upstream and Downstream Trace are supported.) as well as interactively review the elevation. Sump Lines.Digital Terrain Modeling . view profiles. High Points. slope.

access any MicroStation 3D or 2D file. The tool frame (as depicted below) is similar to the MicroStation main tool frame. Each icon in the toolframe is a tool box that one can "tear off" to become a "tool box. To begin. and subsequently accessing a variety of DTM tools and features.PART I __________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 2 DTM Tools 2. is 2x5. but dockable.1 Overview Feature / Function Project Manager (Road) Tool Invoking the Digital Terrain main tool frame." The individual tool boxes can be docked and resized. Tool frames and tool boxes are supported within GEOPAK in addition to the menu bar options invoking various GEOPAK tools. There are ten tool boxes. The DTM menu bar is accessed via the DTM tool frames. not resizable. with the following titles (order down first column. Existing Ground Menu Application GEOPAK Road > DTM Tools GEOPAK Site > DTM Tools GEOPAK Bridge > Road Tools GEOPAK Survey: Limited number of tools supported – See GEOPAK Survey documentation All GEOPAK functions are processed from either the GEOPAK DTM tools or the DTM menu bar. then down second column): DTM Tools 2-1 .

then re-enter later. which invokes the GEOPAK DTM menu bar as depicted below. as depicted in the graphic below. A detailed description is displayed in the status bar and a tool tip appears.3 Extract 2-2 Part I . top box) is depicted above and is a single icon. If the function of an icon is not apparent to the user. 2. 2.2 Menu Bar The DTM Menu tool box (first column.Digital Terrain Modeling . position the cursor on the icon.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ ● DTM Menu ● Extract ● Edit ● Load ● Analysis ● Stroking Options ● Build ● Drape ● Reports ● Utilities Each tool box is discussed in subsequent subsections. These tools remain and reopen automatically even if you exit Microstation.

fourth box) is depicted above and contains a single tool. fifth box) is depicted above and contains ten tools. third box) is depicted above and contains six tools. second box) is depicted above and contains four tools. 2. Load DTM Features.6 Analysis The Analysis tool box (first column. These include (from left to right): ● Height Query ● View Profile DTM Tools 2-3 . These include (from left to right): ● ● ● ● ● ● Edit Triangles Edit Duplicate Points Edit Crossing Break Lines Filter Vertices Join Linear Features Z Range Clip 2.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® The Extract tool box (first column. These include (from left to right): ● ● ● ● Extract DGN Data Extract XYZ Data Extract DEM Data Extract Set Format 2.5 Load The Load tool box (first column.4 Edit The Edit Tools tool box (first column.

Digital Terrain Modeling . These include (from left to right): ● Drape Vertices ● Drape Vectors ● Drape Elements 2-4 Part I .GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Volumes Elevation Difference Slope Area Themes Drainage Tools Visibility Trace Slope Path DTM Camera 2.7 Stroking Options The Stroking Options tool box (second column. These include (from left to right): ● ● ● ● ● ● Build Triangles Build Lattice Merge TINs Clip TIN Build Pad Build Delta TIN 2. second box) is depicted above and contains six tools. Stroking Options.9 Drape The Drape tool box (second column. 2. first box) is depicted above and contains a single tool.8 Build The Build Tools tool box (second column. third box) is depicted above and contains three tools.

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 2. These include (from left to right): ● ● ● ● ● ● Convert TIN ASCII to Binary Binary to ASCII Check Triangulation English to Metric Export DTM 2.10 Reports The Reports tool box (second column. fourth box) is depicted above and contains four tools.11 Utilities The Utilities tool box (second column. fifth box) is depicted above and contains six tools. These include (from left to right): ● ● ● ● Duplicate Point Report Crossing Break Line Report TIN Statistics Report Lattice Statistics Report 2.12 DTM Tool Summary DTM Menu Edit TIN Edit Dup. Points Edit Break Lines Filter Vertices Join Features Z Range Clip Drape Vertices DTM Tools 2-5 .

GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Drape Vectors Dup. Point Report Crossing Break Line Report Lattice Statistics TIN Statistics Elev.Digital Terrain Modeling . Difference Slope Area Volumes Extract DEM Extract Graphics Extract Set Format Extract XYZ Convert TIN ASCII To Binary Binary to ASCII Check Triangulation Build Triangles Build Lattice Clip TIN Merge Tins Load Features Themes View Profiles Drainage Tools Height Query English <-> Metric Export DTM Build Pad Build Delta TIN Visibility Drape Elements Trace Slope Path 2-6 Part I .

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® DTM Camera DTM Tools 2-7 .

Digital Terrain Modeling .GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ 2-8 Part I .

Stroking is not available if the data resides in a 2D-design file.dat) file by interpolating new shots from the linear and curved sections of the data.PART I_______________________________________________________________CHAPTER 3 Stroking Options 3. Stroking is the process of automatically adding shots to the DTM input (. The graphic below illustrates median nose break lines. Review of the triangles generated from the DTM input files utilizing the various stroking options best illustrates these stroking options.1 Overview Feature / Function Tool DTM Menu Bar Settings > Stroking Setting stroking options utilized in the Extraction and TIN editing tools. The Stroking Options dialog is depicted below. Two user-defined values need to be defined before the extraction or TIN editing procedure commences. Stroking may be applied to the data. If the source data is mapped in a 3D-design file. Stroking Options 3-1 .

Notice the increased number of triangles due to the increased number of vertices on the linear break lines. Also. For instance.GEOPAK® _______________________________________________________ The vertices of the break lines are depicted by the +s. 3-2 Part I . Linear Distance is set to 25. Activate the Minimum Linear Distance toggle if you wish to densify portions of linear elements. if survey data was taken approximately every 50 master units and this distance was set to 25 master units. note there is no change in the number of vertices in the curved area as the linear toggle has no effect on curves or arcs. The illustration below depicts the triangles generated from the break lines above utilizing no stroking options. The graphic below depicts the generated triangles when the toggle is activated and the Minimum Linear Distance is set to five. Interpolated vertices have been added whenever the distance between surveyed vertices is greater than 25 master units. t en a new shot would be interpolated every 25 h master units. In this example. The Minimum Linear Distance is utilized to interpolate new shots from the linear elements. twice as many shots would be used to create the DTM in the linear sections of the break lines.Digital Terrain Modeling . Still utilizing our original median nose. the following graphic depicts the generated triangles when the toggle is activated and the Min.

1 master units. the greater number of points that will be calculated. The flatter the curve. the following triangles would be generated._______________________________________________________GEOPAK® Activate the Curve Stroke Tolerance toggle to densify the curved portions of the break lines. This distance is used to interpolate new shots along the curved break lines. the process is repeated with a shorter chord length. Let's review a few examples utilizing the same median nose. The steeper the curve. Now if the Curve Stroke Tolerance toggle is activated and the Curve Stroke Tolerance is set to 0. the original break line and generated triangles are illustrated below. the fewer number of points will be calculated. Curved break lines in GEOPAK are handled by segmenting the curve into small chord segments. This process is repeated until the end of the curve is reached. (Note the Linear Distance toggle is inactive for these examples. Again. Chords are drawn along the arc and the perpendicular distance is measured from the middle of each chord to the arc. This value is used as a perpendicular minimum distance from chords generated along the arc. If this distance is larger than the Curve Stroke Tolerance. The length of the chord segments can be determined by setting the Curve Stroke Tolerance.) Stroking Options 3-3 .

The results for the entire median and the close-up are depicted in the illustrations below.01. Now.Digital Terrain Modeling . 3-4 Part I .GEOPAK® _______________________________________________________ Looking at a close-up of the median nose. The Curve Stroke Tolerance and Minimum Linear Distance toggles can be activated simultaneously. let's set the Curve Stroke Tolerance to 0. the following would be viewed on the screen. The illustration below depicts the same median nose when both toggles are activated.

Stroking Options 3-5 . while the Minimum Linear Distance was five._______________________________________________________GEOPAK® In the example above. the Curve Stroke Tolerance was set to 0.01.

GEOPAK® _______________________________________________________ 3-6 Part I .Digital Terrain Modeling .

The Extract tools create source-input files for the GEOPAK Build Triangles tool from MicroStation graphics (Extract) or several types of ASCII files (ASCII). Another option utilized during the extraction process is stroking.PART I_______________________________________________________________CHAPTER 4 Extract Tools 4. 4. Extract Tools 4-1 . These source-input files are the basis for creation of the triangulated models. create a source input file for subsequent DTM model generation. the process of automatically adding shots to the DTM Input file by interpolating new vertices from linear and curved break lines.2 Extraction of Graphic Elements Feature / Function Utilizing graphic data.1 Overview Feature / Function Tools From the Digital Terrain main tool frame. DEM files can also be utilized. invoke a variety of DTM extraction tools. Tool DTM Menu Bar Extract > Graphics Graphic elements in MicroStation 2D or 3D files can be extracted.

Interpolation. within a fence or within a selection set.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ Note: Extraction of elements of specified parameters include all elements visible in a view. A view of the Extract Parameters dialog for the Extraction mode is shown below. whether the elements are in the active file or reference files (with locate activated).Digital Terrain Modeling . The dialog utilizing the second Mode option. 4-2 Part I . is displayed below.

the spot elevations determine the elevations along longitudinal reference elements. but are all drawn at a common elevation. The interpolation process is applicable where elevations are not stored with the MicroStation longitudinal reference elements. For example. Then.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Whereas the Extraction mode creates a DTM input data file from the coordinate vertices of MicroStation elements. Therfore. the elevation at the element endpoint is calculated. the example Extract Tools 4-3 . GEOPAK locates the spot elevations nearest to and on either side of the element endpoint. For each MicroStation longitudinal reference element. Spot elevations can be represented by graphical elements or text. the dialog for the Interpolation mode has two sets of Search Criteria. In both of these topographic mapping instances. This occurs when longitudinal reference elements are two-dimensional or threedimensional. one for the Longitudinal References and a second for the Spot Elevations. the Interpolation mode must first calculate the elevations for the coordinate vertices of MicroStation elements.

there are no functional differences between the ASCII and binary files.e. Contours. zero length lines or cells. more commonly known as "tagged. The binary option Decimal 4-4 Part I . These alterations in the horizontal topology determine break lines.57 from elevations located 10 meters and 25 meters on either side of the element endpoint.Digital Terrain Modeling .. i." Elevations for spot elevations may be determined by textual value (if the origin of the text is the origin of the spot) or "tagged" elevations for other element types. and Break Voids. File Name File Type: ASCII Binary Name of DAT file to be created. The advantage of the binary format is that input data is loaded much quicker when generating the triangulated model since the point and/or break line data can be read much faster from a binary file than from an ASCII file. Inclusion of interpolated endpoints is mandatory since the endpoints of longitudinal reference elements define changes in the horizontal topological features. For contours within a 2D file.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ shown below calculates an interpolated elevation of 137. One advantage of the ASCII file format is that the file may be viewed and/or edited with a text editor. The fields in the dialog are detailed in the table below. Note: The interpolation mode is only valid for Feature Types: Breaks. Inclusion of the source spot elevations is mandatory since the spot elevation data often reflects important vertical topological features such as the high and low points along the longitudinal reference. The resulting input file includes XYZ coordinates for both source spot elevations as well as for interpolated endpoints. However. Only valid when the ASCII File option is selected. the associated elevation must be within the Con Z-range. other than reduced loading time. the number of decimal places displayed within the file ranges from zero to six.

The binary option defaults to double precision. Any longitudinal element may be defined as a break line. Extract Tools 4-5 . the data file is not actually opened until you establish all entries on the dialog and press the Apply button. No triangles are created outside the boundary polygon. Contours are a special feature intended for use if the source MicroStation elements represent digitized or otherwise created contours. Random survey shots in open terrain would be an example of random spots. ditch bottoms. etc. Breaks are used to designate linear features such as edges of pavement. line strings. When you type the file name or use the Files button to access a file. circles. and text strings are typical MicroStation elements used to define spot elevations. with no user options. In addition. and other longitudinal elements are equally valid. ridges. any point data outside the boundary polygon is ignored.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® places displayed within the file ranges from zero to six. Pressing OK results in the creation of the specified file. In addition. If the Open option button is set to Append and the file does not exist. Point elements such as cells. GEOPAK simply creates a spot elevation for each vertex of each longitudinal element. File Open: Create Append The data file used as input to the DTM process can be created as a new file or the extracted data can be appended to the end of an existing data file. Use of this feature insures the integrity of the contour strata in the Spots are points that have no functional relationship to any other point. Lines. an Alert dialog appears with the message "Create <file name>?" when the Apply button is pressed. the boundary polygon must be continuous within the data file. At that time. Circular arcs are automatically segmented by GEOPAK in a manner consistent with the arc radius. Pressing Cancel returns control back to the main Extract dialog. A boundary polygon must start and finish with the same point. an Alert dialog appears with the message "Overwrite existing <file name>?" when the Apply button is pressed. Pressing the Cancel button permits you to return to the main Extract dialog and readjust the file name or File Open mode. Feature Type: Spots Breaks Boundary Contours Voids Island Graphic Triangle Drape Void Break Void A Boundary is used to constrain the external boundary of the triangulated model. If the File Open option is set to Create and the file already exists. the existing file is overwritten. If you press OK. GEOPAK creates a new file or opens an existing file depending upon the setting of the File Open option button.

the sides of each triangle. break voids change the slope and elevations of the TIN surface. Utilized in the interpolation mode. refer to the Settings > Stroking documentation. etc. Island . the Interpolation mode can be applied to both two-dimensional as well as three-dimensional MicroStation files as long as a Z-coordinate reading can be ascertained from the spot elevations. Graphic Triangles . Even though a user must provide an elevation for the Drape Void vertices. The Void coordinates are included in the triangulation and void lines between successive void coordinates are inserted as drape lines on the TIN surface. Break Void . Void areas are closed shapes to demarcate areas of missing data or obscure areas. Therefore.Digital Terrain Modeling . while the void lines between successive void coordinates are inserted as break lines. lakes. by contrast. Mode: Extraction or Interpolation The Extraction mode determines XYZ data directly from the coordinate values of three-dimensional MicroStation elements. the vertices would be utilized but not the triangle sides. No point or break data located within the void area is utilized and no triangles are created inside the void areas.In the drape void.A void utilizes the elevations of each vertex. The Interpolation mode. in addition to the vertices are maintainted.by extracting as triangles. Drape Void . if subsequently contoured. The void coordinates and lines are draped on the TIN surface. derives XYZ data by locating spot elevations on longitudinal MicroStation elements and interpolating.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ subsequent DTM. this shortcut button to the Settings > Stroking dialog may be used. Therefore. i. they do not change the slope or elevations of the TIN surface. Hence. will not match the original extracted contours. Voids are inserted post triangulation. Processing of a DTM with contours classified as spot elevations invariably results in a DTM that. If spots are used.used to place triangulated data within a void. Changing the dialog from either location automatically updates the dialog in the other location. For a detailed discussion. the user elevations are changed to the elevation of the TIN surface at the XY Drape Void coordinate position..e. the void coordinates are not included in the triangulation. islands in the middle of rivers. Stroking 4-6 Part I .

if the Cell option is activated and a cell name is typed into the field to the right of Cell toggle. For example. If a toggle is activated and no values given. level. the press the Select button.. However. and no cell name is specified in the cell field. weight) are utilized. To the left of each parameter label is a toggle. GEOPAK searches for all colors: 0-256. levels. then only the level parameter need be defined. Simply toggle on the desired parameter. only enough parameters to uniquely differentiate the desired element from all other graphical elements in the MicroStation file. GEOPAK assumes that the full range of settings for this parameter is available. If the toggle for any parameter is deactivated. if the Colors toggle is deactivated. color. Once activated. Level Weight Styles Types Colors If specific parameter settings are to be considered. if SPOT is typed into the field. the associated Select button becomes available. Extract Tools 4-7 . and two cells. the toggle must be activated. SPOT and X are located on level 40. For example. GEOPAK searches for nothing. therefore. You may select as few or as many parameters to identify the desired elements. Similarly. For example. then only the SPOT cells are extracted. a description of the desired elements must be defined in terms of element types. all cells with the other specified parameters (i. a deactivated Colors toggle is equivalent to an activated Colors toggle and a keyin of 0-256.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Select Criteria group box Before extracting MicroStation elements. When the Type > Cell option is activated. then only the named cell with the other specified parameters is utilized. wherein the desired parameter settings may be identified. weights and styles. However.e. colors. Not every extract operation requires the definition of every parameter. if level 40 is specified in the Level Mask. if the elements desired for extraction are only present on level 25. be sure if a toggle is on that values are defined. then both cells are extracted. The Mask dialog is displayed.

Place the fence prior to pressing the Apply button. If the Content option is specified. the x. Fence Complex Chain Selection Set 4-8 Part I . The View method extracts every element that is visible in the specified active view and satisfies the select criteria. Then press the Match button. First. Simply set the desired View number before pressing the Apply button. The Match button can be utilized numerous times to select additional elements. The Fence method extracts every element that satisfies both the fence criteria as well as the selection criteria defined via the Select Criteria group box. Match The Match tool is a method of determining and adding the symbology of elements to be extracted to the Mask dialogs.The Select Criteria group box disappears from the dialog. 2. so a new match procedure may commence.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ although other cells are located on level 40. Pressing the Display button displays all elements of the current parameters. The Text String also has two options: Origin and Content. the software projects the spot onto the reference (perpendicular) element and uses the elevation to interpolate. However. You are prompted to select the desired element. its select criteria is added to any criteria whose toggle is activated. and no file-wide searches are involved. z coordinates for extraction. The Reset button clears all Mask dialogs. Complex Chain . All MicroStation fence options are supported. y coordinates are derived from the text origin. any elements of the specified parameters are highlighted. whether a 2D or 3D file. ……. the z value is not the z value within a 3D file. activate the desired toggle(s) to the left of the Select Criteria. notice that the ID Element button appears adjacent to the Extract method option button. If a spot elevation is within 0. In addition. since you identify the elements via the cursor. After identifying and accepting the element. y.75 master units of a longitudinal reference.Digital Terrain Modeling . The information is appended to the Mask dialogs until the Reset button in the dialog is pressed. but the actual value of the text. This button initiates the Display Reset Tolerance (Interpolation mode only) Extract Method: View 1. (which clears all active criteria selections). When the Text String toggle is activated and the option is set to Origin. This includes elements in both the active as well as reference files if the Locate is activated. GEOPAK utilizes the origin of the text as the x. Also.

the identification of component chain elements is complete. Once the end of the chain is reached or the user presses the reset cursor button when no more connecting elements are available. Establish the desired dialog settings. The following outlines the sequence of operations associated with the Selection Set method. The Selection Set method employs the MicroStation Selection Set tool to identify the element(s) for processing. 1. Establish the desired dialog settings.This method is identical to the Complex Chain in every aspect other than the actual selection of elements. Successive connected elements are highlighted one at a time for inclusion or rejection as long as the endpoint of the next element is within a specified tolerance to an endpoint of the current element. Press the ID Element button. If more than a single element is located within tolerance to the next element endpoint. Adjust the Extract method option button to Complex Chain. 1. A data point accepts the highlighted element. The extraction of elements to a DTM input file commences when the Apply button is selected. After the first element is selected and accepted. the Apply button becomes available. Extract Tools 4-9 . Pressing the reset cursor button rejects the highlighted element and highlights another one. 4. 2. This method is particularly useful when selecting a single element or a group of disjointed elements few in number. the next connected element is highlighted. At the completion of the selection process. Identify and accept the first element that constitutes the beginning of the chain. the message "Fork Accept/reject" appears in the MicroStation prompt field. The Tolerance is specified on the MicroStation Automatic Create Complex Chain palette. 3. Selection of subsequent elements is identical to the operation of the MicroStation automatic create complex chain command.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® "chaining" of MicroStation elements. Selection Set . The following outlines the sequence of operations associated with the Complex Chain method.

At the completion of the selection process. 4-10 Part I . Adjust the Extract method option button to Selection Set. 5. Press the ID Element button. view. Tool DTM Menu Bar Extract > XYZ The Extract ASCII XYZ Format tool supports most any ASCII file containing reduced survey data or even just XYZ data. the Apply button becomes available.Digital Terrain Modeling . Note: These ASCII files need not conform to any particular structure or format other than a requirement that each point entry be restricted to a single row. Identify the element(s) comprising the selection set. the control key on the keyboard must be utilized during the selection process. DTM input files can be derived from a file containing XYZ data with no point codes. selection set or complex chain identified prior to pressing the Apply button.3 Extracting ASCII XYZ Format Feature / Function Utilizing generic ASCII files. support for linking together shots based upon defined chains. create a source input file for subsequent DTM model generation. and the Extract mode selected and applicable fence. support for comments and support for the situation where the user does not have a “continuation” linking code for each shot but wants these shots connected. The extraction of elements to a DTM input file commences when the Apply button is selected. Note that the dialog should be filled in completely. Other features include embedded Linking Codes and Feature Codes. 4. If more than one element is being selected.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ 2. 4. 3. Apply Commences the extraction procedure.

y-coordinate. etc. Two steps are required to extract ASCII data: 1) Load the ASCII file. z-coordinate.3. extraneous information may be present in the row and ignored by GEOPAK. Other Extract Tools 4-11 . dashes. the first few lines are displayed in the list box labeled Contents of File as depicted in the graphic above. point number) can be arranged in either free form or column formats. When the Extract ASCII XYZ tool is invoked. 4.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® The ASCII file should not contain more than one point per row. x-coordinate. Once the survey file is retrieved. multiple rows should not be required to define a single point code.1 Setting up the ASCII File The name of the ASCII file may be typed directly into the input field labeled Input File or may be accessed via the File button. the dialog depicted below is displayed. In addition. virtually no restrictions are placed on the arrangement and separation of survey data. commas. The ASCII file need not be in the current directory. Similarly. Pressing the File button invokes the standard MicroStation dialog box used for files retrieval. Within the row containing point code data. GEOPAK requires the following information for each data point: Point Code. Y-coordinate and Z-coordinate. Individual data items (point code. X-coordinate. Data items in the free form format can be separated by spaces. 2) Identify how the data items are arranged.

point number. Chain. dash.Digital Terrain Modeling . The individual items fields will appear over the series of option buttons located beneath the list box as shown below. The third step is to identify the individual fields in the data file as representing either a point code.) 4-12 Part I . y-coordinate or z-coordinate. If none of these satisfy your needs. the second step is to single click onto a line of data. you can select the Other field. Linking Code. semi-colon and space. (An exploded view of the option button is depicted below. x-coordinate. Once the correct delimiter has been specified. DTM. The first step in assigning fields is to set the delimiter option button to the correct delimiter separating the free format fields.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ informational items include Point Number. Various delimiters include the comma. In response to the Other selection. slash. Zone. and combination Linking Code Point Code. GEOPAK prompts for the delimiter character.

adjust the option buttons to the appropriate settings. we must make use of the Previous and Next buttons to shift the fields right and left. X.441 STA 4+40 ELEV 134. is set to None.431 STA 4+40 ELEV 95. 1 N 19805. the option buttons appear in the following order: Point Code (PCode).______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® To accomplish this.501 E 22223. The next field contains the letter "N" identifying the Extract Tools 4-13 .518 E 22155. The first field represents the point number and. Y. The data file depicted below contains eleven separate fields. adjust the option button to correctly identify the function of each associated field from the survey file.758 STA 4+40 ELEV 100. another case might involve a considerable number of extraneous entries in the survey file.521 E 22239.330 PCode PL(B) Since the dialog permits the definition of only five fields at a time. For the sample case shown below. hence. and Z.79 PCode PL(B) 2 N 19678. Prior to pressing the Next button. Yet.020 PCode PL(B) 3 N 19600.

2. and combination Linking Code Point Code. station value. Pressing the Next button two more times would permit the definition of the Point Code (PCode).2. After adjusting the five option buttons and pressing the Next button four times. the option button below the "N" is set to None. and elevation label. 4. These codes are used to determine how the data is utilized with the DAT file creation. Zone. 4. The option button below the elevation value would be set to Z as shown below. 4. Y-coordinate and Z-coordinate. the dialog would appear as shown below. Subsequent assignment of the other four option buttons would be None for the station label.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ following coordinate as a northing.3. fields designated as PCodes must correlate with Feature Codes defined in the Feature Setting dialog. DTM.2 Linking Code (LCode) A Linking Code describes how individual spot shots are to be connected.3.3.1 PCode or Feature Code Within the ASCII file. The X coordinate has now shifted from the fifth to the first option button. Linking Codes determine if the shots should be connected 4-14 Part I . Hence. Other informational items include Point Code. Linking Code.2 Informational Codes GEOPAK requires the following information for each data point: Xcoordinate.Digital Terrain Modeling . Chain. For example.

the code would be four. the Linking Code button in the lower right corner is displayed. Depicted below is a short fragment of data: 8 9 10 11 12 17000. Supported Linking Codes (also referred to as LCode) are listed below: • Begin Line • End Line • Point on Curve • End Curve • Continuation • Close Figure After one of the options is set to Linking Code. the user can associate specific character strings.2252 17671.0000 17399.1539 MID 2 1234.4338 17426. the dialog depicted below appears. These linking codes instruct the software how to connect various linear features. if the shots were on curve.1088 20545. For example.0000 MID 1 1200. with linking operations on the Linking Code dialog.0000 21000. rather than numeric values.7510 900. arcs or curve strings. Subsequent shots on the curb and gutter in a tangent section would be twos. line strings.0359 20000. When pressed. based on the Linking Code dialog above.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® with lines. Extract Tools 4-15 .3531 MID 3 1364. etc.5333 MID 1 As seen on the dialog below.0000 20336.0000 MID 2 914.0000 18800. the first shot of a curb and gutter would be a linking feature of one.4905 20808.

Digital Terrain Modeling .GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ The user has the ability to decide which set of shots should be grouped together as a single chain. Rather. A circular arc is fit between the three Point On Curve shots. Now consider a similar set of spot shots where no End Line Linking Code appears. consider the following set of Linking Codes. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Begin Line Begin Line Begin Line End Line Point On Curve Point On Curve Point On Curve The diagram below depicts how GEOPAK extracts the data in response to this Linking Code sequence: 1 2 5 6 3 4 7 The spot shots designated as Begin Line are connected together until the End Line Linking Code is encountered. 1 2 3 Begin Line Begin Line Point On Curve 4-16 Part I . a Begin Line is immediately followed by a Point On Curve shot. As an example.

For example. GEOPAK draws a line between points two and three. In the sequence of spot shots. a circular arc is fit between the Point On Curve shots. It need only be specified when the Linking Code changes. As before. assuming that point three is a continuation of the chain. the Linking Code can be defined for one spot shot and not necessarily repeated for subsequent spot shots Extract Tools 4-17 . if a Linking Code has been defined for one spot shot. the Close Figure Linking Code instructs the software to draw a line back to the first point in the chain (Point 1). It is not mandatory for the user to designate a Linking Code for each shot. consider a situation where no Chain Name has been defined and chains are created by grouping like PCodes. Similarly.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 4 5 Point On Curve Point On Curve 1 3 2 4 5 In this instance. GEOPAK also supports a Close Figure Linking Code as shown below: 1 2 3 4 Begin Begin Begin Close Line Line Line Figure In this case. if Chain Names are specified. it is not necessary to repeat that Linking Code in a redundant manner for subsequent spot shots. GEOPAK also supports the concept a Continuation Linking Code.

3. • 4-18 Part I .4 DTM Another example of the option buttons is DTM.3 Chain Sometimes the surveyor defines distinct names to designate groups of spot shots that should be connected together in some manner. the DTM Control button in the lower right corner is displayed. GEOPAK graphically connects the spot shots with common chain names in the order that they appear in the ASCII files.Any data. Include As Void . Eight options are included within the dialog.3. 4.2. The subsequent shots will be assigned the same Linking Code as the previous shot on the same chain. Include As Spot . includes the shot as a random spot within the DTM.Any data. After one of the options is set to DTM. is not included in the creation on the DTM. each having its own Control Code: • • • Do Not Include .Digital Terrain Modeling . Include As Spot and Break .GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ belonging to the same chain. which has this control code. the dialog depicted below appears.2. When pressed. which has this control code.This control code includes the data as a spot shot and use its linear feature as a break line.This control code includes the data as a void. 4.

This control code includes the data as an island. Utilizing the information from the dialog above. each shot would be assigned to a specific DTM zone.3.0000 MID 2 914. Include As Island .6 Combined Linking Codes and PCodes Another option is a combination PCode/Linking Code LCode&PCode and functions slightly different that the other features. Include As Boundary .2252 20000. Include As Contour .5 Zones The user is also able to assign a field of the ASCII XYZ file to Zones.This control code includes the data as a boundary. When creating the DTM input file. • • • A sample fragment of the data file is depicted below.0000 17399. If there is no zone assignment. The fourth line would be included as a spot shot as its Control Code is three.4338 17426.1539 TREE 4 1234. 8 9 10 11 17000.4905 900.3531 SPT 3 In this case. The DTM treatment options can be either 1) associated with the PCode in the Features Setting dialog 2) designated in a field of the ASCII XYZ file or if no Pcode is given.0000 MID 1 1200.0000 21000.This control code includes the x.3. GEOPAK defaults to all spot elevations. Since the composition and length of the LCode&PCode combination field can vary from spot shot to spot Extract Tools 4-19 . 4. you can designate the zone(s) you wish to include. and ascertaining the elevations from the model.2.2.This control code includes the data as a contour. GEOPAK will place all shots into Zone 1. The third line of data would be excluded from the DTM as its control code is four. In this mode.0000 18800. 4.y data as a drape void. you could create separate DTMs for each zone.0000 20336. the software will decode a given ASCII character string into its Linking Code and PCode components. the first two lines of data would be included as spots and a break line as the DTM control codes are one and two.1088 20545. the DTM Control is the last field. In this case. If desired.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® • Include As Drape Void .

and the Linking Code button in the lower right corner of the dialog is pressed. we only have Begin Line (. In our example.067 100. Since the length of the field is variable.101. Y and Z have already been defined.420 252857. for example. 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 252825. enter the text string utilized for each Linking Code. The one exception to this rule relates to the Comments field.238 337009. It would assume everything to the right would be part of the PCode/Linking Code including the Z coordinates.498 336994.567 336994.280 337004. Line two is also a begin line for 101. which can appear after the LCodePcode. Therefore. this option cannot be placed in the middle of the file. these three lines would draw a line from the first line.553 252849. the first line is a begin line (based on the . when the LCodePCode option is selected. Therefore. from the dialog above) for PCode 101.104 . through the second shot and stop and the third shot.182000 99.101 . The third line is an end line for 101 and a begin line for 104. the ASCII field designated as LCode&PCode must appear at the end of the line. At this point PCode 104 begins a line.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ shot.5970000 .Digital Terrain Modeling . Below is a fragment of a sample data file. GEOPAK utilizes all information from the first LCode&PCode character onward. i. after all of the other options such as X.101 .e.4940000 94.616000 100..354 252841.086 336996.. and spaces are supported. In the data above. the following dialog appears.104 .5180000 97.. First. before the Z coordinates.104. Note that only those fields utilized in the data must have entries.564 252835. 4-20 Part I .) defined as our data has none of the other codes. if a Comment delimiter is utilized. In each field.101 Note that the LCode&PCode sequence is at the end of the line.) and End Line (..

user defined delimiter. in the example above. … LC1 PCode1 PCode2 … LC1PCode1 PCode2 … PCode1LC1PCode2 Linking Code (LC1) would be applied to those PCodes that are defined in the Feature Setting dialog with the Linking Code option selected. For example: … LC1 PCode1 LC2 PCode2 … LC1PCode1LC2PCode2 The first Linking Code (LC1) is associated with PCode1 and the second Linking Code (LC2) is associated with PCode2 and so on. the user defines a set of Linking Code strings via the Linking Code dialog box.3 Decision Making Procedures The graphic on the next page offers a Decision Tree whereby the user can determine the proper settings on the ASCII XYZ dialog for specific data sets. This Decision Tree is organized in terms of specific data set formats.3. then the Linking Code (LC1) would be applied only to PCode1. GEOPAK searches for these strings and separates Linking Code strings from the PCodes. Primary determinants include the following: • • Presence of Linking Codes Designation of Chain Names Extract Tools 4-21 . GEOPAK references the Feature Setting dialog to determine if Linear Features were defined for PCode1 and/or Pcode2. Moreover. First. 4.3.2. the Comment Delimiter as well as the content of the comment must be contiguous. GEOPAK attempts to pair the Linking Codes and PCodes from left to right. The comment must be preceded by a specific. The only condition is that this delimiter must be different from the primary delimiter used to distinguish between the various ASCII fields. if PCode1 was defined with the Linking Code toggle active while PCode2 was defined with the Linking Code toggle not active. The user can establish this delimiter via the Comment Delimiter field contained on the dialog whereupon the various ASCII fields are designated. 4.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® The decoding of the combined LCode&PCode is a two step process. Hence.7 Comments GEOPAK also supports Comments.

• No Gaps: Do not extract connecting geometry in instances where points belong to the same Chain or PCode but are not contiguous in the ASCII file.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ Gaps: Extract connecting geometry between points belonging to the same Chain or PCode but which are not contiguous in the ASCII file. Subsections following the Decision Tree detail each of the 15 cases.Digital Terrain Modeling . • 4-22 Part I .

53 EP1 2 15354.2342 45665.3.3.4354 35321. Consider the following example: 1 14324.9052 135.3. the user should choose the No Chain and PCode w/ Lc on the dialog as shown below.1 Case 1: No Linking Codes. This circumstance typically indicates a default condition where PCodes are defined without associated Linking information.7827 134. In addition. Connect by Chain Names In this case. Individual Spot Shots.3434 34525.23 EP2 1 1 1 BL BL BL Extract Tools 4-23 . all the XYZ lines that have the same Chain name will be connected.4360 134. The Chain field in the ASCII XYZ file is designated via the Chain setting on the row of option buttons located at the bottom of the dialog as shown below.2 Case 2: Linking Code Present & Separated from PCode.79 EP1 3 15346.3. 4.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 4.

The manner in which the points are connected is determined by a defined Linking Code as shown below: Consider the following example: 1 2 3 4 14324.75 EP2 1 BL This results in a single Chain designated as “Chain 1” being drawn between points 1 through 4 as shown below: 4. but it is desireable to connect all the shots within the file as one group.75 EP1 EP1 EP2 EP2 BL BL BL BL 4-24 Part I . In this case. the ASCII data set does not identify a Chain Name.3455 45665.79 135.7827 35321.Digital Terrain Modeling .2342 15354.3. Connect All Points as Single Chain.4360 34525.3.9052 34054.53 134.0412 134.4354 15544.3434 15346.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ 4 15544.3 Case 3: Linking Code Present & Separated from PCode.23 136.0412 136.3455 34054.

With the Upgrade setting. all points (1 through 4) will be grouped together under one chain. Connect by Linking Codes.3. 4.53 134. it might be desirable to avoid connecting all spot shots for this single PCode into one huge chain.4354 15544. In this instance.23 136. Consider the following example: 1 2 3 4 14324.75 EP1 EP1 EP2 EP2 BL BL BL BL Extract Tools 4-25 . The would allows the user have many different chains with only few PCodes. the composition of individual chains is controlled completely by Linking Codes. a new chain is defined whenever the program encounters End Line. Consider a survey that contains a large number of spot shots for a single PCode.4 Case 4: Linking Code Present & Separated from PCode.3434 15346.3455 45665. End of Curve or Close Figure. the user would employ the Upgrade feature as shown below.9052 34054.2342 15354. To obtain this result.4360 34525.7827 35321.3.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® In this case as shown below.79 135. Rather.0412 134.

3. If the ASCII XYZ data does not contain a Chain field.5 Case 5: Linking Code Present & Separated from PCode. extract with EP4.75 EP1 EP1 EP2 EP2 BL BL BL BL 4-26 Part I .Digital Terrain Modeling .3455 45665. this can be accomplished via the dialog settings depicted below: Consider the following example: 1 2 3 4 14324.9052 34054.79 135. Connect by PCodes. when a terminating Linking Code is encountered.7827 134.53 134. Chain EP1-2 containing points 5 & 6.0412 134.77 EP1 BL BL This data would group together points with the same PCode name. but the user is interested in grouping together data points with the same PCode.3394 33765.7827 35321. the name of the chain is upgraded as depicted below: • • • Chain EP1-1 containing points 1 & 2.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ 5 14394. Hence.2342 15354. 4.93 EP1 6 15384.4360 34525.4820 134.2456 45647. Chain EP2-1 containing points 3 & 4.3434 15346. extract with EP1.23 136.4354 15544.3. extract with EP1.

First.53 134.3455 45665.79 135.3. The resultant chains include: • • Chain extracted containing points 1 & 4.0412 134.3434 15346.2342 15354. Chain extracted containing points 3 & 4.6 Case 6: Linking Code Present & Embedded in PCode. Connect by Chain Names. consider the situation that the Chain is indicated in the ASCII XYZ file as shown below. all the points that have the same PCode are grouped together as a Chain and the Chain name is identical to the PCode.4360 34525.7827 35321.4354 15544.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® In this case. 4. Linking Codes can be embedding within the PCode definitions.9052 34054.23 136. The following comprises a sample data set: 1 2 3 4 14324.3.75 EP1 EP1 EP2 EP2 A A A A Extract Tools 4-27 .

GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ All the XYZ lines that have the same “Chain Name” will be grouped together.7 Case 7: Linking Code Present & Embedded in PCode. The geometry of the Chain will be determined by Linking Code value embedded into the PCodes “EP1” and “EP4. In this case the user does not have any Chain and wants to place all the shots within the file as one group.75 EP1 EP1 EP2 EP2 A A A A 4-28 Part I .4354 15544. Consider the following example: 1 2 3 4 14324.2342 15354.” 4.3. Connect All Points as Single Chain.7827 35321.0412 134.3.4360 34525. This results in a single Chain designated as “Chain A” being extracted between points 1-4 as shown below.9052 34054.23 136.53 134.3455 45665.79 135.Digital Terrain Modeling .3434 15346.

9052 34054.0412 134.75 EP1 EP1 EP2 EP2 In this case. Extract Tools 4-29 .4354 15544.53 134.8 Case 8: Linking Code Present & Embedded in PCode.79 135.3. The geometry of the Chain will be determined by the Linking Code value embedded into the PCode.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® In this case as shown below.23 136.7827 35321.2342 15354.3434 15346. this can be accomplished via the dialog settings depicted below: Consider the following example: 1 2 3 4 14324. If the ASCII XYZ data does not contain a Chain field.4360 34525. Connect by PCodes. all points (1 through 4) will be grouped together under one chain.3.3455 45665. The geometry of the Chain will be determined by the Linking Code value embedded into the PCodes. 4. but the user is interested in grouping together survey points with the same PCode. all the points that have the same PCode are grouped together as a Chain.

A user might have an ASCII XYZ file that contains no Linking Code. a Gap would be placed if we move from one set of points with same PCode name to another set of points with different PCodes within the same Chain. First. all our chain alignments will be restricted to lines or line strings. the shots within the file should be connected together as a series of lines/line strings depending on their PCode names or Chain Names. 4.3. Gap.3. However. The user can also decide if he/she would like to introduce a Gap between connected elements within a same Chain. we consider the situation where the Chain is indicated in the ASCII XYZ and the user would like to have Gaps between different PCodes.Digital Terrain Modeling .9 Case 9: No Linking Codes. In this case.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ This results in Chain EP1 containing points 1 & 2 as well as Chain EP2 containing points 3 & 4 as shown below. The user also can define the grouping or chaining of the survey points in many different ways. Point Connections defined via Chain Names. The following cases will discuss Gap circumstances. 4-30 Part I . The intent is to connect the points that have the same PCode name and are part of the same Chain. the PCodes in the Feature Settings dialog should not have their Linking Code toggle active. Since there is no indication of Linking Code within our ASCII XYZ file. In this case.

3455 45665. 4.4360 34525.3.75 EP1 EP1 EP2 EP2 A A A A In this case.2342 15354.4354 15544.10 Case 10: No Linking Codes. All the points with the same PCode name would be connected together and there would be a gap in the chain between two different PCodes.9052 34054. a line would be drawn only between points 1 & 2 and between points 3 & 4 due to the Link w/ Gap designation on the dialog. Point Connections defined via Chain Names.3434 15346. Chain A contains points 1 through 4.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Consider the following example: 1 2 3 4 14324. The result is shown below.0412 134.23 136. The Chain Name field assignment will be made via the option buttons located at the bottom of the dialog depicting the ASCII XYZ file.7827 35321. all the XYZ shots that have the same Chain Name are grouped together as a Chain. However. No Gap. Extract Tools 4-31 .79 135.3.53 134.

All the points with the same PCode would be connected together and there would be a Link w/ No Gap in the chain.0412 134. 4. In this case.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ Let’s consider the situation that the Chain i again indicated in the ASCII s XYZ. Consider the following example: 1 2 3 4 14324.3434 15346. Chain A is extracted continuously between points 1 through 4 due to the Link w/ No Gap designation.Digital Terrain Modeling .2342 15354.75 EP1 EP1 EP2 EP2 A A A A In this case.9052 34054.3.23 136. but the user does not want to have Gaps between different PCodes.11 Case 11: No Linking Codes. all the points that have the same PCode are group together as a Chain and the Chain name is the same as PCode. The result is shown below.7827 35321.53 134.4360 34525. Gap at Change in PCode. the PCodes in the Feature Setting dialog should not have their Linking Code toggle active.79 135. 4-32 Part I .3.4354 15544.3455 45665. Connect All Points as Single Chain.

4360 34525.77 EP1 EP1 EP2 EP2 EP1 EP1 All points are grouped together under one chain and there is a gap between sequential PCodes.93 134.53 134.3394 45665.0412 45647. The resulting chain runs continuous within a consistent PCode.7827 35321.2456 15384. in accordance with his/her preference.4820 33765.4354 15544.79 135. all the points within the ASCII XYZ file are part of the same Chain as there is no indication of the Chain Name within the ASCII XYZ file. The user should choose the option of No Chain and.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® In this particular case.7827 134. Due to the Link w/ Gap setting.3455 14394. either select the option of Link w/ Gap or Link w/ No Gap. The dialog below is set to Link w/ Gap.23 136.75 134. links are not extracted between successive spot Extract Tools 4-33 .2342 15354.9052 34054.3434 15346. Consider the following example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 14324.

all points are connected together without any gaps.53 134.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ shots with differing PCodes.3. No Gap at Change in PCode. As with the previous case. 4. The result is a continuous stream of connecting points.3455 14394.79 135. However.3394 45665.3434 15346.4354 15544.75 134.9052 34054.7827 35321. Hence.Digital Terrain Modeling .93 134.7827 134.77 EP1 EP1 EP2 EP2 EP1 EP1 In this case. 4-34 Part I .4360 34525.3. the user should choose the option of No Chain.2456 15384. Consider the following example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 14324.12 Case 12: No Linking Codes. Connect All Points as Single Chain. in this instance. it is desirable to connect the entire set of points necessitating the selection of the Link w/ No Gap option.2342 15354.0412 45647. all the points within the ASCII XYZ file are part of the same Chain as there is no indication of the Chain Name within the ASCII XYZ file.23 136. line segments are not extracted between points 2 & 3 as well as between points 4 & 5. Hence.4820 33765.

75 134.9052 34054.4354 15544. Connect Points by PCodes. For example.3434 15346.3.7827 35321. It might be desirable to upgrade the name of the chain whenever a new PCode has been encountered.2456 15384.23 136. The second series of points associated with the EP1 PCode would be called chain EP1-4. Extract Tools 4-35 . we would also choose the option of Link w/ Gap.2342 15354.4820 33765.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 4.7827 134. Consider the following example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 14324. a new series of connected elements begins at every change in the PCode.13 Case 13: No Linking Codes. To accomplish these results. the first series of points associated with the EP1 PCode would be called chain EP1-1. New Chain Element at Change in PCode.93 134.3.4360 34525. With this case.3455 14394. points that have the same PCode name would be grouped together.53 134.79 135. In this particular instance.77 EP1 EP1 EP2 EP2 EP1 EP1 In this case. we would choose the option of Upgrade from chain option button.0412 45647.3394 45665.

3394 45665. In this case. Consider the following example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 14324.79 135.23 136.9052 34054.75 134.93 134.2456 15384.Digital Terrain Modeling .3. 4-36 Part I .3434 15346.14 Case 14: No Linking Codes.4360 34525. Single Chain Element for PCode.0412 45647.2342 15354.7827 134. Gap. Connect Points by PCodes.3.56 and Chain EP2 consisting of points 3-4.3455 14394. The extraction would include a line from 1 to 2 and a line from 5 to 6 with a gap between points 2 and 5. Chain EP2 would extract a line between points 3 and 4. all the points with the same PCode would be connected together and there would be a Gap in the chain if all the shots with the same PCode name are not listed sequentially in the ASCII XYZ file.4820 33765.77 EP1 EP1 EP2 EP2 EP1 EP1 This dataset would create two chains: Chain EP1 consisting of points 1-2.7827 35321.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ 4.53 134.4354 15544.

3. Single Chain Element for PCode.93 134.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 4. all the points that have the same PCode are going to be connected together and will be part of the same Chain.3455 14394. Moreover.23 136.7827 35321.15 Case 15: No Linking Codes. No Gap.79 135.3434 15346.0412 45647.5-6 and Chain EP2 consisting of points 3-4.3.4354 15544. Connect Points by PCodes.7827 134.4820 33765.4360 34525.53 134. The extraction would include a line from 1 to 2. all of the points with the same PCode would be connected together due to the No Gap setting.9052 34054.2342 15354.2456 15384. This data set would extract two chains: Chain EP1 consisting of points 12. a line from 2 to 5 (due to the Link w/ No Gap Extract Tools 4-37 .3394 45665. all the points that have the same PCode are going to be part of the same Chain and the Chain Name will be identical to the PCode name.75 134. Consider the following dataset: 1 2 3 4 5 6 14324. In this case.77 EP1 EP1 EP2 EP2 EP1 EP1 In this case.

The dialog has a list box.3. present a wide variety of options to suit most every need.5 Additional Fields Two toggles are supported in the lower left corner of the dialog: 4-38 Part I . A prudent review of the various cases is warranted before creating and / or editing the settings.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ setting).Digital Terrain Modeling . DTM Control.3. These support saving settings for repeated use in subsequent sessions. Chain EP2 would extract a line between points 3 and 4. plus fields for Feature Code. Standard File commands are supported in the upper left corner of the dialog. The options within the Feature Setting dialog. 4. the dialog depicted below is displayed.4 Feature Setting When the Feature Setting button is pressed. combined with the options on the main dialog itself. Linking Code. See the previous subsections for a detailed discussion. and On Chain. and a line from 5 to 6. 4.

assume that feature 3001 is the EP for Edge of Pavement.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® • Apply Best Match Feature Code • Display Alert Box for Errors When the Apply Best Match Feature Code toggle is active. press the Process bar at the bottom of the dialog. Although binary files process faster. 4. Another field in the lower center of the dialog is the Output File Format: Binary or ASCII. For example. The different EP chains can be located as 30011. these features will be matched to the EP feature 3001 in the database. 30012 and 30014. which subsequently can be utilized to generate a DTM with the Build Triangles tool. three different EP’s need to be located and chained together. if impossible extraction or geometrics are attempted. Therefore. the best match feature from the Feature Settings dialog is utilized. the dialog depicted below opens. The ASCII file can be reviewed via any text editor. the user does not have to define multiple EP features in the database. create a source input file for subsequent DTM model generation with the Build Triangles tool. The result of this processing is a GEOPAK DAT file. Extract Tools 4-39 . In addition to reading DEM files and creating a DAT file. To commence processing. but in the field. there is no other functional difference. This option allows placement of one feature in the Feature Settings dialog per item and locates derivatives of that feature in the field. Tool DTM Menu Bar Extract > Extract DEM When the Extract DEM tool icon is selected. an error message is displayed on the screen if the Display Alert Box for Errors toggle is activated. while a binary file may not. The error information is always written to the Error Report regardless of the status of this toggle. During the mapping process.4 Extracting DEM Format Feature / Function Utilizing specialized Digital Elevation Models (DEM files) generated from other software programs. During processing.

1 Conversion Operations A wide variety of conversion operations are supported including: • • • converting latitude and longitude to grid coordinates.4. The Geodetic Conversion tool performs many of the common computations encountered when working with geodetic and grid coordinate systems. in addition to a resizable output window. One sample dialog is depicted below. Points can be individually entered and converted or multiple points from a coordinate geometry database (GPK file) can be converted via batch mode. converting grid coordinate from one zone to grid coordinates in another zone. 4. In addition to the standard DEM input. and SDTS are also supported. DTED directories and files.Digital Terrain Modeling . 4-40 Part I . converting grid coordinates to latitude and longitude. The DEM option is selected by activating the DEM toggle in the center part of the dialog.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ conversions to other coordinate systems can be performed simultaneously. Note the File and Point options are discussed in the Geodetic Conversions online help and therefore are not repeated herein. All output is directed to an ASCII report file. so the output can be in a different system from the input.

Computing grid azimuth and grid distance in addition to geodetic forward and back azimuth and distance between two points in the same zone. • 4. computing geodetic forward and back azimuth and distance between two geodetic positions. Note that both systems must have a common ellipsoid.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® • • • • converting grid coordinates from one system to another system. northern and southern hemisphere) Latitude / Longitude User-defined zones based on either the Lambert Conformal or the Transverse Mercator projection. Computing the line grid scale factor and combined scale factor if elevation data is entered.2 Supported Systems and Projections Several common systems and projections are supported including the following: • • • • • • • HPGN State Plane 1983 State Plane Coordinate systems (all zones) 1927 State Plane Coordinate systems (all zones) Universal Transverse Mercator system (all zones. computing grid scale factor and convergence angle for grid coordinates. Variety of ellipsoids are supported for the user-defined and UTM projections.4. New Zealand Map Grid (1949) New Zealand Local Circuits (1949) New Zealand Local Circuits (2000) • • • • Three options are supported for the Vertical Datum: • • • Not Defined NAVD 88 NAVD 29 Extract Tools 4-41 .

and DTED.usgs.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ 4. EROS Data Center.4 Using DEM Files to Create a DAT File Other data sources utilized in the Geodetic Coordinate conversions tools are the various DEM formats including DEM.gov. the desired output is the Output Data File. One sample dialog is depicted below. “A Digital Elevation Model (DEM). but is distributed by the USGS. in the DEM data record format.4.4 User Defined Systems Menu Three options are supported on the User Defined Systems pulldown: • • • User defined projections Used defined ellipsoids Set NTv2 Grid Files Additional information on these systems is available in the Geodetic Conversion online help. 4.Digital Terrain Modeling . the dialog changes to reflect the selection. 4.” A wealth of information on DEM formatted data can be obtained from www. When the DEM option is selected in the center section of the dialog.4. 4-42 Part I . The basic elevation model is produced by or for the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). consists of a sampled array of elevations for ground positions that are normally at regularly spaced intervals. SDTS.3 File Menu The upper right corner of the dialog has standard File options as detailed in the table below.4. therefore the File Menu is not utilized in this application. However.

Therefore.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Within the Input DEM File group box. Once the selection is made. Once the file is read. Ellipsoid. The group box changes based on the selection. a Zone must also be selected from the list. the DEM Coordinate System group box is display only and the values cannot be edited. the File Name may be typed in. and Zone. however. For example. when 1983 State Plane is selected. or selected via the Files button. the DEM Coordinate system group box is populated automatically. the data format is selected. the Ellipsoid is ghosted. As each system is selected. Each format is discussed in subsequent sub-sections. the ellipsoid and zone unghost as needed. Extract Tools 4-43 . The Output Coordinate system box includes System type.

GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ When Latitude / Longitude option is selected. One sample dialog is depicted below. the Zone field is not present. the software scans the DEM file and determines the Number of Points and approximates the size of the Output DAT File. the display fields are initially blank. however. This file can be used within the Build Triangles dialog in the DTM tools.4. The Vertical Datum options include NAVD88.1 DEM Format Within the Input DEM File group box.4. 4. Ft. Pressing the Inquire DEM button. The Output DAT File group box has a single key-in field for the file name of the DAT file to be created. When the dialog is completely populated.Digital Terrain Modeling . as depicted in the sample below. U.. NAVD 29 or may be Not Defined. Supported Horizontal and Vertical Units include Meters. and Int'l Ft. press the Apply button in the center bottom of the dialog to commence processing.S. Manually enter the file name or select via the File button. 4-44 Part I . the Ellipsoid is unghosted.

If the Every Other option is selected. as the density may be too intense. 4. the Number of Points is divided in half. If Custom is selected. If Every Tenth option is selected.2 SDTS Format Extract Tools 4-45 . the user may choose to filter out some of the grid points. In very large DEM files.4.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® The other field in the Input DEM File is the Filter Points. a key-in field is displayed and the user can specify the desired filtering factor. the original number of points decreases by 90%. while the Output DAT File Size decreases accordingly.4. The options are displayed in the exploded view below.

GEOPAK determines the SDTS Name(s) from the directory.mil. choose the directory where these files are located. All the files need to be in the same directory. not a file. It is a DEM type format created by NIMA.3 DTED File or Directory Format DTED stands for Digital Terrain Elevation Data. When the directory is defined. Therefore.4.4. A DTED file typically has 4-46 Part I . DTED File is used to convert a single DTED file. Notice that the prompt for SDTS asks for a directory.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ Unlike a DEM file. The graphic below depicts the single file option. the National Imagery and Mapping Agency. 4. GEOPAK supported options include either DTED File or DTED Directory. SDTS consists of multiple files. http://geoengine. pressing the Inquire button scans the specified file and populates the Number of Points and approximated Output Data Size in addition to the DEM Coordinate System group box. they are listed in the combo box for the user to select the desired Name. If multiple Names are found. The Level 0 data can be downloaded free from the following site.Digital Terrain Modeling . As in the other Input DEM File formats.nima. Level 0 data is a grid typically in 30X30 seconds or 30X60 seconds (latitudeXLongitude).

this is the format the data arrives in.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® an extension of . pressing the Inquire button scans the specified file and populates the Number of Points and approximated Output Data Size in addtion to the DEM Coordinate System group box. Extract Tools 4-47 . The graphic below depicts the single file option. The following dialog illustrates the DTED directory option. This option is used when the user wants to convert an entire DTED directory structure. This directory structure is of a distinct format and contains certain type files and directories.dtX. as illustrated below. When downloading data from the official NIMA site.2 depending on the type of DTED. As in the other Input DEM File formats.1. where X is either 0.

GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ 4.5 Extract Set Format Feature / Function Utilizing specialized ASCII files generated from other software programs. create a source input file for subsequent DTM model generation.Digital Terrain Modeling . 4-48 Part I . Tool DTM Menu Bar Extract > Set Format The dialog is depicted below.

and RT40. As seen above. both Job Number and Chain are required. THD. Pressing the Chain button invokes the Chain Selection dialog. wherein the desired chain may be selected. the dialog fields change to reflect the selection. the TEX format requires the GEOPAK Job Number. The RT40 mode is depicted below. pressing the Files button invokes the Input File dialog. wherein the desired file may be selected. As the mode is selected. Pressing the Apply button commences the procedure. In this format. In lieu of typing. The four supported modes are: TEX. The Output File keyin field requires the name of the DTM Souirce Input (.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® The Input ASCII File must be keyed in. CaiCE. This format also requires the Job Number. It may also be selected via the Files button.dat) file to be created. Extract Tools 4-49 . The THD mode is depicted in the dialog below.

Data input elements (records) can represent random spot elevations. the user has no means of reviewing the data outside of GEOPAK.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ The CAiCE mode is depicted below.600 1 17383.850 2 17404.651 22324. Each input record consists of the feature code field. No Chain or Job Number is required.411 21907.311 382.581 332.200 4-50 Part I . The type of element is defined by a feature code. or boundary polygons. the file can be viewed.380 3 17427.Digital Terrain Modeling . 4. modified.311 440.890 3 17405.411 297. voids.071 21997.041 22319. Note: If the data is collected or created in the ASCII format described below. the Output Format is specified as DTM Input. The user may skip the extraction and proceed directly to the triangulation procedure. contours. simply the Input File and Output File names. or even created within any ASCII text editor. break lines. no extraction processing is required. coordinate fields and the elevation field: • Feature Code (integer value) • X Coordinate (decimal value) • Y Coordinate (decimal value) • Elevation (decimal value) A sample fragment from the ASCII input file is shown below: • • • • • 1 17381.6 DAT File Format When a Binary formatted DAT file is created. when an ASCII formatted file is generated. In this mode. However.071 391.721 21621.

Random survey shots in open terrain would be an example of random spots. The first point in a series of connected break lines has a feature assignment of "2. The elevations of the void Extract Tools 4-51 . A Void delineates an area of no data or an obscured area and is defined by a series of points forming a closed element.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® The format in the file is quite simple: a feature code followed by X. ridges or valleys. The following are valid feature code values and associated descriptions." Break line data must be continuous within the data file. Break Lines designate linear features such as edges of pavement. ditch bottoms. Y and Z coordinate values in succession. Feature Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 13 14 15 16 Random Spots Start of Break Line Subsequent Point(s) on a Break Line Boundary Polygon Point Start of Contour Line Subsequent Point(s) on a Contour Line Start of a Void Subsequent Point(s) of aVoid Start of an Island Subsequent Point(s) of an Island Start of a Graphic Triangles Subsequent Point(s) of a Triangle Start of a Drape Void Subsequent Point(s) of a Drape Void Function Random Spots are points that have no functional relationship to any other point. A single point record occupies each line of the ASCII file. Spaces serve as delimiters between individual fields." The second and subsequent points along the break line have a feature code of "3. The feature code is mandatory and informs GEOPAK how to interpret the input records.

Since GEOPAK ignores any additional fields past the fourth field (Z Coordinate). An Island is a closed element completely encompassed within a Void. Random spots. and model elevations are utilized. breaks and contour elements may be present within the island. It differs from a Void in that the elevations of the void elements are not incorporated into the data file. 4-52 Part I . the boundary polygon must be continuous within the data file. In addition. extraneous data such as comments or point code information can be included in the file for reference or use with other software or GEOPAK components. Rather.GEOPAK®______________________________________________________________ are incorporated into the data file. The drape void must be contiguous within the data file. All points along the boundary polygon are assigned a feature code of "4.Digital Terrain Modeling . the drape void elements are draped onto the model. A Boundary Polygon is used to constrain the external boundary of the triangulated model. In addition. A Drape Void delineates an area of no data or an obscured area and is defined by a series of points forming a closed element. Graphic Triangles are 3D triangles placed at true elevations." A boundary polygon must start and finish with the same point. the void must be contiguous within the data file.

. However. The Filter Data File features tool removes vertices from break or contours lines when located within the specified tolerances of another vertex. Two reports can be generated: ● Report Duplicate Points . In these cases.dat).e.reports duplicate points. The Data Z Clip filters the data file to include (or exclude) data based on elevations.PART I __________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 5 DAT File Editing Tools 5. ● Report Crossing Features . A wide variety of DAT file editing tools are supported within GEOPAK. however. If the TIN model needs to be regenerated. i. and the Tin model is regenerated. DAT File Editing Tools 5-1 . The Join Linear Feature is useful when the source break line or contour line consists of several elements containing numerous vertices. they are simply reporting functions.1 Overview Feature / Function Tools Generate reports and / or edit the DAT File prior to generating the triangulation model. so the software utilizes this as two separate break lines.reports intersecting break lines or contours. During the Joining process. they do not make changes to the file. all TIN editing changes are lost. those with coincident x. if changes are made to the DAT file are made. the end of one break line is the beginning of the next break line. GEOPAK changes these from the beginning and end of individual elements to the beginning and subsequent shots of one element. y coordinates. Hence. It is preferable to edit prior to creating the TIN model. the changes are utilized within the TIN generation. Both reports utilize the extracted data file (*.

and z coordinates of the point are coincident. When the Report Duplicate Points is accessed. Y values. Note this feature has no editing capabilities. Another useful editing tool is the Edit Duplicate Points. Duplicate points are defined as two or more points with identical X.Digital Terrain Modeling . then prompts the user for corrective action.2 Report Duplicate Points Feature / Function Tool Create a report of duplicate points. which only provides a report. A sample fragment of the report is shown below. the report simply lists the point and its coordinates. DTM Menu Bar Reports > Duplicate Points The Report Duplicate Points dialog produces an ASCII file report listing duplicate points. dynamically displays both graphic and coordinate data.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ The Break Line editor locates intersecting break lines. When the Process button is pressed. The name of the ASCII file which the software will utilize to write the report must also be specified or selected from the File Manager dialog. Their corresponding Z values may or may not be identical. ************************************************************ ** ** GEOPAK Duplicate Data Point Report 5-2 Part I . which activates the MicroStation File Manager to select the desired file name. the point coordinates are listed. However. y. Two types of messages are supported. In contrast to the Report Duplicate Points. the process commences. Once again. if the x and y coordinates are coincident. an ERROR message is given. or optionally can select the Files button. 5. the Edit Duplicate Points provides interactive editing. If the x. but the z values are different. the following dialog is displayed: The user specifies the name of the data file.

266 1759. When the Report Crossing Features is accessed. the vertices of each crossing element.537 ** ERROR Point 37541 : 1 530473. and the interpolated x. DAT File Editing Tools 5-3 .537 ** ERROR Point 37088 : 1 530473.733 532606.921 1332213.600 125. y.537 ** Point 37540 : 1 530473.600 125.400 124.800 27.600 5.100 2438.921 1332213.dat ** Number of Data Points = 37543 ** Minimum Maximum Range ** ============ ============ ============ ** X 530167.3 Report Crossing Features Feature / Function Tool Create a report of intersecting features. DTM Menu Bar Reports > Crossing Features The Report Crossing Features tool scans the DAT file and generates a list of intersecting break lines or intersecting contours.400 124.537 ** ERROR Point 36635 : 1 530473.921 1332213.921 1332213.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® ** ********************************************************** ** ** Fri Jul 1 12:05:39 1994 ** ** Data File : site. Note this tool has no editing capabilities. the following dialog is displayed.921 1332213.920 ** ** Number Of Duplicates = 32927 ** ** Errors Detected In Duplicate Data ** ** Point 36634 : 1 530473. even though it may not be a vertex on either feature.312 1333649.400 124.954 ** Z 113.880 141. The report lists the number of intersections.367 ** Y 1331889.921 1332213.537 ** ********************************************************** 125. z coordinates of the intersection.537 ** Point 37087 : 1 530473.

000 ## Point No = 35167 3 531346.629 120.Digital Terrain Modeling .367 ** Y 1331889.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ The user specifies the name of the data file. The name of the ASCII Report file must be specified or selected from the File Manager dialog.225 1332498.880 141.978 120.256 1332494.505 120.645 1332500.944 1332498.000 5-4 Part I .954 ** Z 113.645 1332508. which activates the MicroStation File Manager to select the desired file name.000 ## Point No = 35166 3 531335. the procedure commences.312 1333649.978 120.100 2438.256 1332494.000 == Point No = 27320 3 531343.dat ** ** Number of Data Points = 36184 ** Minimum Maximum Range ** ============ ============ ============ ** X 530167.225 1332498.733 532606. A sample fragment of the report is shown below: ************************************************************ GEOPAK Crossing Features Report ** ************************************************************ ** Fri Jul 1 11:52:50 1994 ** ** Data File : site.645 1332500.760 120.629 120.645 1332508.000 ## Point No = 35167 3 531346.920 ** ** Number Of Duplicates = 31571 ** ** Number Of Break Lines = 9046 ** Number Of Contour Lines = 0 ** ** Intersecting Lines == Point No = 27319 3 531329.266 1759.505 120.000 ## Point No = 35166 3 531335. or optionally can select the Files button.000 ** Intersection = 531342.800 27. When the Process button is pressed.722 ** ** Intersecting Lines == Point No = 27314 3 531329.760 120.000 == Point No = 27315 3 531343.

Two Feature Types are supported as depicted in the exploded view below. the crossing features are highlighted on the screen for the user to review.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® ** Intersection = 531342.944 1332498. DAT File Editing Tools 5-5 .4 Join Linear Features Feature / Function Tool Utilizing the DAT file.722 In addition. join linear data. the end of one break line is the beginning of the next break line. GEOPAK changes these from the beginning and end of individual elements to the beginning and subsequent shots of one element. In these cases. 5. During the Joining process. The dialog for Join DTM Features is depicted below: The user must specify the Data File to be utilized for joining as well as the name of the New File to be created. DTM Menu Bar Edit > Join Linear Features The Join Linear Features tool is useful when the source break line or contour line consists of several elements containing numerous vertices. so the software utilizes this as two separate break lines.

filter vertices within linear data. The dialog is depicted below. the Join Statistics are displayed in the dialog.5 Filter Vertices Feature / Function Tool Utilizing the DAT file. the two elements are not joined. DTM Menu Bar Edit > Filter Vertices The Filter Vertices tool removes vertices from break or contours lines when located within the specified Tolerance of another vertex. 5-6 Part I . Pressing the Process button commences the procedure.Digital Terrain Modeling . When 5. complete. GEOPAK creates a single element. If the distance is greater than the Tolerance.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ If the distance between the vertices of two elements is less than the specified Tolerance.

The heavier weighted line depicts a break line with four vertices.elevation of 2) < Z Tolerance DAT File Editing Tools 5-7 . The Data File identifies the original GEOPAK . (specified in terms of master units. GEOPAK connects the first and third vertices. while the filtered file is specified in the New File field. Two Feature Types are supported: Break Lines and Contour Lines. then the point is NOT filtered out. two fields are supported. If the distance is less than the XY Tolerance. Point 2 is removed only if the following conditions are all satisfied: Measured Distance (measured horizontally) < XY Tolerance Absolute Value (elevation of 1 .__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® In order to maintain the integrity of the original data file. Two tolerances.dat file.. If the distance is greater than the XY Tolerance. GEOPAK compares three consecutive points on the linear feature as depicted in the graphic below. In lieu of typing existing file names. pressing either Files button invokes the Files dialog. feet or meters) are supported: XY-Tolerance and Z-Tolerance. then measures the distance in a horizontal plane as depicted above. wherein the desired file may be selected. i.e. then the Z Tolerance is considered.

In lieu of typing in the file. and 4. pressing the Files button invokes the Files dialog. complete. 5-8 Part I .elevation of 3) < Z Tolerance When the testing on the three vertices (1.3) is complete. which is in binary format. while the New File is the name of the clipped DAT file.dat) file. either binary or ASCII format. Pressing the Process button commences the procedure. GEOPAK repeats the process for vertices 2. The Clip Z Range group box contains the Z Minimum and Z Maximum fields which identify the elevation range (in master units) of the clipping.6 Z Range Clip Feature / Function Tool Utilizing the DAT file. the Filter Statistics are displayed in the dialog. The Data File is the original DAT file.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Absolute value (elevation of 2 . A New File is created in order to maintain the integrity of the original DAT file. The dialog is depicted below. wherein the desired file may be selected. Its function is the filtering of a data file to include (or exclude) data based on elevations. When 5. remove extraneous or erroneous data based on elevation ranges.2. 3. DTM Menu Bar Edit > Z Range Clip Another editing feature is Data Z Clip and utilizes the data (*.Digital Terrain Modeling .

Report Crossing Features and Insert Break Lines. DAT File Editing Tools 5-9 . DTM Menu Bar Edit > Crossing Features Break lines have been utilized in other editing tools.00 would not be included. When the Internal option is selected. in the dialog above. the entire break line is not eliminated. namely. all data external or outside of the specified range is excluded from the New File. another useful tools is the Break Line Editor.7 Edit Break Lines Feature / Function Tool Utilizing the DAT file. leaving only the data outside the range within the New File. If this is not done and GEOPAK encounters duplicate points. then prompts the user for corrective action. all data within the specified elevation range is eliminated from the new file. The Break Line editor locates intersecting break lines.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Two Clip options are supported: External and Internal. When the External option is utilized. only the particular vertices which are outside the range. However. the Alert message depicted below is displayed. a spot elevation of 149. 5. edit crossing linear features.250 master unit range would be eliminated.5 or a vertex of a break line at 251. For example. Therefore. dynamically displays both graphic and coordinate data. Note if some vertices of a break line are in the range and some are outside. Note the Duplicate Points tool should be utilized prior to the Break Line editor. any spot elevation or vertex on a break line not in the 150 .

the user specifies the view where errors are displayed in the Dynamic Close-up View. In lieu of typing.Digital Terrain Modeling . a group box for Line 1 and Line 2 are displayed. Activate the toggle and key in the value of the desired Auto Average Tolerance. The Break Line Editor dialog is depicted below. wherein the desired file may be selected. select Preferences > Tolerances to invoke the dialog depicted below. The Break Line Editor dialog has a keyin field for the DAT (not TIN) file name. In the center of the dialog.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Pressing No closes the dialog. If the specified view is not active when the first error is encountered. GEOPAK opens the view. 5-10 Part I . while pressing Yes opens the duplicate Points editor. In the lower left corner. pressing the Files button invokes the Files dialog. Before any processing occurs.

. The graphics below depict both the dialog and corresponding view of a problem area. the elevations of the two elements is computed and compared.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Separate element symbology fields are supported. the two are averaged. where the user can specify the desired weight. contour or break line) are provided. If the elevation difference is greater than the tolerance. unique symbology should be selected for each line. Display fields for coordinates. the elevations of the intersection are displayed in the dialog. while the graphic intersection is displayed in the Dynamic Close Up View. color. As corrective action and error display is based on these parameters. The Corrective Action group box is located on the far right side of the dialog. and style for each element. waiting for user input for corrective action. At the intersection. Upon pressing the Process button in the Break Line Editor dialog.e. and the average is utilized for the model. It includes the number of Intersections in the DAT file. and type of feature (i. it flags the intersection as an error and the processing stops. GEOPAK scans the DAT file and locates intersecting break lines or contours. If errors are encountered. how many GEOPAK DAT File Editing Tools 5-11 . If the elevation difference at the intersection of the two elements is less than the specified tolerance. Note the information displayed at the bottom of the dialog.

requires no additional user input. while Apply commences the corrective action selected. The Corrective Action options are depicted in the exploded view below.Digital Terrain Modeling . A sample dialog is depicted below. either by averaging if the elevation difference was less than the tolerance or user corrective action).e. Remove Break Line.. requires the identification of which line is to be removed. Activate the toggle to the left of the desired color of the break line to be removed. A sample dialog is depicted below. 5-12 Part I . The option to Skip (ignore a particular intersection with no corrective action being taken) is located in the bottom of the Corrective Action group box. The Corrective Action group box presents the two options based on color. The first option. Abort discontinues the processing. Average. how many have been Skipped and the number Remaining. The elevations of the two elements at the point of intersection are averaged. The second option. then both elements are changed to the computed elevation when the Apply button is pressed. then press the Apply button.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Fixed (i.

Define Elevation. DAT File Editing Tools 5-13 . Key in the Elevation at Inter. requires the identification of which line is to be changed to conform to the other. then press the Apply button. then press the Apply button. Activate the toggle to the left of the desired conformity. The last option. Conform. The Corrective Action group box presents the two options based on color. requires the user to input the desired elevation of the intersection point as depicted in the graphic below.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® The third option. A sample dialog is depicted below.

all changes made via corrective action are lost.8 Edit Duplicate Points Feature / Function Tool Utilizing the DAT file.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ The Save button to the right of the Process button may be utilized at any time after processing commences and saves the corrective action to the DTM Data file.Digital Terrain Modeling . edit duplicate points. If the Abort button is selected or the dialog is closed prior to activating the Save button. DTM Menu Bar Edit > Duplicate Points Another useful editing tool is Edit Duplicate Points. Report Duplicate Points. Duplicate points Y values. The dialog is depicted below. corresponding Z values may or may not be identical. which only provides a Duplicate Points provides interactive editing. are defined as two or more points with identical X. Pressing the Save As button saves the corrective action to a new file specified by the user. 5. 5-14 Part I . the Edit Note: The Edit Duplicate Points tool should be utilized prior to the Break Line editor. Their In contrast to the report.

e. and continues scanning with no corrective action taken. Excess points with identical elevations are ignored during the build triangle procedure. The specified elevation is assigned to the displayed X. The list box on the left side of the dialog lists the type of feature (i. The Skip button ignores the current duplication. spot. Activate the desired toggle. The Average displayed at the bottom of the dialog is assigned to the displayed X. Y location. key in the desired elevation if the Set option is utilized. etc. To begin the procedure.. In lieu of typing. The right side of the dialog has Corrective Action options: Average or Set.) and associated elevations. To utilize the Average option. then press the Apply button to commence corrective action. press the Process button. whose name may be typed in. Y value. pressing the Files button invokes the File Manager dialog. GEOPAK scans the file. stopping at duplicate points as depicted in the graphic below. The X and Y coordinates are displayed directly above the list box. while the Average and the Median are displayed directly below. the Duplicate Point Editor utilizes the DTM Data File.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Similar to the Break Line Editor. wherein the desired file may be selected. DAT File Editing Tools 5-15 . then press the Apply button. simply activate the toggle. Note that the duplicate points must have different elevations in order to stop. break.

all changes made via corrective action are lost. The Save button may be utilized at any time after processing commences and saves the corrective action to the DTM Data file.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ The Abort button discontinues all processing and closes the dialog. 5-16 Part I . If the Abort button is selected or the dialog is closed prior to activating the Save button.Digital Terrain Modeling .

The resulting triangulated model is stored in a binary file which stores the data for the triangulated model in a triangulated topological network format. • • • Triangulation 6-1 . This means that the interrelationships between individual points and individual triangles are all recorded in the binary file.PART I_______________________________________________________________CHAPTER 6 Triangulation 6. other than reduced loading time. Triangles appear from left-to-right in an ordered array. processing time is minimal. The presence of state-of-the-art algorithms will be apparent the first time you see the triangulated model display on the screen. Therefore. The GEOPAK triangulated model is created using state-of-the-art algorithms. not in a randomized manner as is typical with standard Delauney based algorithms. The triangulated model is generated from binary or ASCII input (DAT) files created by the following methods: DTM Extract utility Survey Project Manager Cross Section Reports within GEOPAK Road (DTM Input and DTM 3 Proposed) • Collected in the raw ASCII DAT format The binary format facilitates processing since the point and/or break line data can be read much faster from a binary file than from an ASCII file. However. lattice models and calculations are derived from this core triangulated model. there are no functional differences between the ASCII and binary files. All subsequent merged models. This efficient binary database format permits rapid extrapolation of cross sections and other information derived from the triangulated model.1 Overview The triangulated model is the core of the DTM process.

File where the triangulated model is stored in binary format.Long. DTM Menu Bar Build > Triangles The Build Triangles dialog. Data File Name of the input (e. None . One approach to eliminate these triangles is the use of the Dissolve Option applied during the Build Triangles phase. wherein the desired file may be selected..GEOPAK®_____________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. A TIN extension is assumed for the binary file containing the triangulated model if no extension is typed. site. Many of the external edge triangles are thin and narrow and not representative of the surface. In lieu of typing. thin triangles are dissolved based on a formula hard TIN File Dissolve Options: None Sliver Side 6-2 Part I . is depicted below. which creates a binary file containing the triangulated model. You need not necessarily type the extension. At the completion of a triangulation process.g. This is particularly evident where the edge of the data set is concave in nature. A DAT extension is assumed for the input data file.dat) file.No external triangles are dissolved. pressing the Files button invokes the Data File dialog.2 Building the Triangulated Model Feature / Function Tool Create a triangulated model.Digital Terrain Modeling . Sliver . the external edge of the triangulated model is convex.

which generates an additional TIN file internal to a specified polygon. Process Commences the triangulation procedure. add or delete triangles. Simply type the name of the triangulation file (if not supplied. When invoked. lines. wherein the desired TIN file may be selected. Then press the Process button. Note the side option does not apply to internal triangles. There are no user defined parameters. In addition. A post-triangulation. Note during this process. Side: External triangles whose external edge is longer in length than a user specified distance are dissolved. pressing the Files button invokes the TIN File dialog.3 Triangle Statistics Feature / Function Tool Review the statistics of the specified TIN model. Another post-triangulation method is the Build Clip tool. triangles. Triangle statistics for the triangulation model are displayed on the Triangle Statistics dialog as shown below. volume calculations. After a model has been generated. it can be utilized within a wide variety of GEOPAK tools. no elements are drawn or displayed on the screen. Triangulation 6-3 . along with a plethera of other information about the model. DTM Menu Bar Reports > Triangle Statistics The Triangle Statistics tool displays the coordinate ranges of data points in a triangulation model as well as the total number of points.______________________________________________________________GEOPAK® coded within the software. interactive editing tool (TIN Edit) can be utilized to delete unwanted external triangles. move vertices. and drainage applications. These include drawing contours. only those on the edge of the model. In lieu of typing the TIN File name. until you have obtained the desired model. it can be utilized to add break lines. the dialog depicted below is displayed. a "TIN" extension is assumed) and specifiy the number of Decimal Points used for display within the dialog. 6. thematic analyses.

GEOPAK®_____________________________________________________________________________________________ 6-4 Part I .Digital Terrain Modeling .

the DTM Features automatically change to reflect the selection. Features for part of a model can be displayed or drawn by the placement of a MicroStation fence prior to processing. islands. triangles. lattices. depending on the type of source file. all within a single dialog. TIN file or Lattice file. The source data can be the DAT file. As the file is selected. The table below illustrates which DTM Features are supported for each file type. then displayed or drawn. DTM Menu Bar Load > DTM Feature GEOPAK supports a wide variety of options to provide the user with maximum flexibility when drawing and displaying DTM Features. DTM Feature Spots Break Lines Extd. such as contours.Part I_____________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 7 Display and Draw Features 7.1 Overview Feature / Function Tool Display or draw DTM features. Features can be display only or drawn into the MicroStation file. etc. voids. Different DTM Features can be loaded. Contour Lines (inplace contours if extracted) Voids Islands Holes Boundary DATA X X X X X X X TIN X X X X X X LAT X Display and Draw Features 7-1 .

not extracted data) Lattice Lattice X Lines Lattice Y Lines X X X X X X X X X 7. By double clicking on the sample text graphic. 7-2 Part I .2 Setting Element and Text Symbology One major feature of drawing DTM features is setting element and text symbology to user-defined specifications.Digital Terrain Modeling . the dialog depicted below is displayed. Element Symbology By double clicking on the sample element graphic.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Triangles Hull (outer border of the triangulated model ) Vertical Edges Contours (based on model. For ease of use. all Load DTM Features utilize identical dialogs to define both text and element symbology and are detailed in the table below. the dialog depicted below is displayed.

the user is prompted to select any MicroStation element. As all text and element symbology is defined using these dialogs. which is then highlighted and its symbology is populated within the dialog. The dialog can also be invoked by right mouse clicking on the sample graphic. the element symbology can be set By Current. When the By Element option is selected. When selected. then press the OK button to automatically close the dialog and return to the main dialog. select the element symbology of the second item. The symbology copied from the first item is now pasted into the second item symbology. Display and Draw Features 7-3 . the active symbology parameters are utilized to set the feature. if we want to use the same symbology for two items. Pressing the Cancel button closes the dialog with no changes occurring. Next. Note the Paste option is ghosted. In addition. simply place the cursor over the first element symbology. right mouse click and select Paste. then right mouse click and select Copy. For example. all text and element symbology options are supported. Copy and Paste options are also supported. the documentation is not repeated for each option within the Load DTM Features documentation. Simply set the desired values.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Within these dialogs.

Load File: Data TIN Lattice Data File Name TIN File Name Lattice File Name Various types of DTM Features can be displayed or drawn.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ 7. then LAT File Name is displayed. pressing the Files button invokes the Files dialog. The table below discusses the general aspects of the dialog. then Data File Name is displayed. If the Load File option is set to LAT. a MicroStation fence must be placed prior to pressing the Load button. This setting is determined by the selected Load File option. The View option draws only features within the current MicroStation view. As this is changed. Load: Extent For Fence For View 7-4 Part I .3 Load DTM Features Dialog One sample Load DTM Feature dialog is depicted below. In lieu of typing in the File Name. both the DTM Feature options and the Load File options are dynamically changed to reflect the current selection. Regardless of the MicroStation Fence option selected.Digital Terrain Modeling . dependent on the type of source file. wherein the desired (optional) path and file name may be selected. then TIN File Name is displayed. while partial model features can be accomplished by the Fence option. the overlap method will be utilized. When utilizing the Fence option. If the Load File option is set to TIN. Features for an entire model can be drawn utilizing the Extent option. This file is used as the source for the data to be drawn or displayed. If the Load File option is set to Data.

Each feature has element symbology options (Level. the list box changes dynamically to display supported features. When not activated. when Triangles is selected. Display and Draw Features 7-5 . Note the toggle to the right of the element symbology indicates whether the display is on (toggle is on) or off (not toggled. and Style) and a display mode (on/off).) For example. the dialog is displayed as depicted below. As each Load File option is selected. spots) the dialog dynamically changes as depicted below when the feature is highlighted. Graphic Group DTM Feature Symbology List Box The symbology can be changed by editing the fields below the list box. Weight.. As each feature is highlighted. Color.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Display Only When this toggle is activated. all elements placed within a single processing (each pressing of the Load button) are placed into a graphic group for easy manipulation and / or deletion. elements are drawn into the file at the specified element symbology. If the feature requires text (i. its element symbology is displayed directly below the list box. When activated. elements are not drawn into the MicroStation file and disappear when an update or view control command is issued.e.

From either model. Double clicking on any feature places the associated data directly below the list box AND changes the display parameters from its current status. The darkened bulb (second button) deactivates the display for all features. (the ability to define a minimum and maximum elevation range about which contours are to be drawn). 7. Note the toggle to the right of the element symbology indicates whether the display is on (check mark displayed) or off (no check mark). Other optional features include contour registration. In addition. regardless of their current display status. contours may be drawn with or without elevation labels. the option of drawing contours within a user-defined area via the MicroStation fence commands. Load Commences the drawing or displaying of DTM Features.3. and drawing contours as a MicroStation graphic group. you may differentiate between major and minor contour intervals. The Contour Symbology is invoked when Contours are highlighted in the list as depicted below. The bottom two light bulbs activate and deactivate the selected feature.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ The bright light bulb (top) activates the display for all features.Digital Terrain Modeling . regardless of their current display status.1 Defining Contour Symbology Contours can be drawn from either the triangulation or lattice models. 7-6 Part I .

30. a minor contour interval of 2 and a major contour interval of 5 would not be reasonable since 5 is not an even increment of 2. determines the Registration Range or Single Minimum Z Maximum Z Read Display and Draw Features 7-7 .5. or specific elevation ranges via the Minimum Z and Maximum Z keyin fields.0 and the Minimum Z is set to 70 and the Maximum Z is set to 100.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Major Interval Minor Interval Major contour intervals should be even increments of minor contour intervals.0 will result in contours drawn at elevations 10.0 to 135. a Minor Contour Interval of 10 and a Registration value of 0. 30.5. 20. For example. etc.5 will result in contours drawn at elevations 10. then only contours between 70 and 100 are drawn. if the elevations in the DTM model ranges from 45. 20. etc. by pressing the Read push button to the right of the Maximum Z keyin field. The elevations at which contours are drawn equals the Minor Interval plus the Registration value. a minor contour interval of 2 and a major contour interval of 10 would be reasonable. GEOPAK scans the specified Lattice or TIN file. Every fifth contour element would reflect the level.5. For example. a Minor Contour Interval of 10 and a Registration value of 0. Contours may be constrained to a single elevation. For example. However. Conversely. However. Contour placements are dictated by the major and minor intervals. symbology and text attributes defined for major contours. These placements can be offset by the value typed into the Registration keyin field.

2 Defining Contour Lines Symbology When Major Lines or Minor Lines are highlighted. All smoothing is done afterwards. Note the B-Spline produces the best-looking contours and can be utilized for final plans production. The distance is hard coded to one third of the minimum of the length of the preceding or following contour segment. a keyin field is visible to key in the desired elevation. The smoothing parameters for the B-spline are hard coded and can not be altered by the user. Another option is a single elevation. When None is utilized. the dialog changes to reflect the selection as depicted below. That is 7. however. To achieve the smoothing effect. contours are first drawn across the plane of the triangles. The Three Point Smoothing algorithm replaces each contour vertex with a curve that is tangent to the preceding and following contour segments.3. Note that no element symbology has been defined.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ minimum and maximum elevation and populates the keyin fields. The curve starts and finishes at tangent points that are equal distances on both sides of the contour vertex. Contour lines stored in the Tin are smoothed between consecutive vertices. Only contours of the specified elevation are drawn. The post checking accounts for most of the computational time for the B-spline algorithm. five additional vertices are calculated on the B-Spline between the vertices of the unsmoothed contour.Digital Terrain Modeling . The smoothing cubic B-spline ensures that the smoothed contour passes through the tin points and break lines. no smoothing of contours is done. When selected. The B Spline smoothing places a smoothing cubic B-spline through the contour vertices. Three curve points are then calculated between the two tangent points. 7-8 Part I . The smoothed contours are post checked for crossing contours. the B-Spline is also the slowest method and should be used with caution during the design procedure. Smooth Contours: None Three Point B Spline First. accomplished within the Major / Minor Lines symbology.

Display and Draw Features 7-9 .3. In addition. Note that drawing of labels is independent of the contour lines.3 Defining Contour Label Symbology When the Major or Minor Label sub-features are selected. minor labels. or both. The label is a separate sub-feature. the user can specify major labels. 7.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Only the symbology for the actual contour is identified within this dialog. the dialog changes as depicted below.

1 Hull and Triangles The image below depicts the triangulated model (in isometric view) as well as the corresponding hull. Defines the distance between contour elevation labels measured along the longitudinal length of the contour. ● Save . but cannot be retrieved with the Open command. For example. Note that the examples are not all inclusive.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Decimal Points Care should be given to the selection of decimal places in terms of the major and minor intervals. Distance Between Labels 7.0.Digital Terrain Modeling .4 File Options The upper left corner of the dialog has the standard File options including: ● Open .saves the current DTM feature settings to an LDF file (default) for retrieval in a subsequent session or by other users. if the minor Interval is set to 0. They are displayed in subsequent sessions. utilization of decimal points greater than zero (e. while the Minor Interval is 1. ● Save As .4. utilize the File > Open option. 10. Conversely.0. 7-10 Part I . one) would produce labels such as 5.g.5.4 DTM Feature Examples The following are examples of the wide variety of DTM Features in various views.select a previously stored set of DTM feature settings. however. if the Major Interval is 5. To select the file in future sessions.saves the current DTM features as default. yet the decimal places is set to 0. making the label longer than necessary. Once a file is saved. 7. no file is created. etc.3. the software will round off the contour labels. it is added to the bottom of the File pulldown menu. 7. The hull is displayed bold for clarification.

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Display and Draw Features 7-11 .

The resulting contours are shown below. 7-12 Part I .2 Contours Contours can be derived from the TIN or lattice grid mesh.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ 7.Digital Terrain Modeling .4.

1 Overview Feature / Function Tool Dynamic editing of a TIN model.” The list box on the left side of the dialog contains the editing options. and voids are optionally displayed “on the fly. As each tool is selected. deleting or moving spot elevations. As editing is initiated. the right part of the dialog dynamically TIN Editing Tools 8-1 . flow arrows. Break lines can be added or draped.PART I __________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 8 TIN Editing Tools 8. contours. resultant triangles. The triangulated model can be dynamically edited in terms of adding. DTM Menu Bar Edit > Triangles A myriad of tools to interactively edit TIN models are located in the TIN Edit Tools dialog as depicted below.

wherein the desired file may be selected.Digital Terrain Modeling . When contours are 8-2 Part I . the TIN file to be edited and its display parameters must be defined. the changes will not be reflected in the TIN file. The dialog contains the various display options and associated element symbology. Before editing can commence. not written in the MicroStation file. The TIN File can be manually entered. Save .the displayed changes are not incorporated into the specified binary TIN file until the Save button is selected. simply activate the toggle to the left of the feature. set the element symbology to the right of the feature: Color. the TIN Update group box has two buttons: Undo To Last Save . Any number of features may be active simultaneously. All displays are placed in the view selected by the Edit View mode in the upper right corner. or pressing the File button invokes the File Manager. Weight.deletes all displayed changes back to the last time the binary TIN file was saved. and Style. Note that no level is required as the elements are only displayed. If a particular feature is desired. After activating a feature. This is accomplished by selecting Preference > Display from the upper left corner of the dialog. This need not be done after each process.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ changes to reflect the current tool. but can be accomplished after all the desired changes are made or at any time during the processing. Note if the dialog is closed or the main DTM dialog is closed without saving. invoking the Display Settings dialog depicted below. Below the list box.

Utilizing this example. let's review each editing tool. In addition. for editing purposes. closer views are desirable. fields are provided for Major and Minor Intervals. (Extracted) Contours are inplace contours utilized to create the DTM. they are drawn at the same elevation as those used for extraction. Note if the Edit View is not within the hull of the TIN. and flow arrows. draw the hull via the Load Hull tool with Display On deactivated. there are no major or minor intervals. no features are displayed. Flow lines are arrows drawn (at the specified Flow Arrow Size) within each triangle indicating direction of water flow. the display parameters may be changed by selecting Preference > Display. Therfore. When the display settings are complete. Adjust the window utilizing MicroStation fit or view commands to be within the hull. If activated. however. If this occurs.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® activated. At any time during the edit session. contours. the selected Edit View is updated to display the specified features within the view. The example below displays triangles. A small area or large part of the TIN area may be displayed. in addition to different element symbologies. Extd. with the screen updating when the Display Settings dialog is closed. TIN Editing Tools 8-3 . usually digitized. pressing the OK button automatically closes the dialog and returns to the Tin Edit Tools dialog.

The X and Y values are the true coordinates of the cursor. and Z fields or interactive editing by pressing the DP push button. as the cursor is moved. Y.2 Add Vertex The Add Vertex tool is utilized to add additional spot elevations either internal or external to an existing model.Digital Terrain Modeling . When selected. GEOPAK will also display the triangles on the fly. moving the cursor over the screen will display the cursor coordinates in the dialog.e. Once the DP button has been pressed. the dialog depicted below is displayed. The user has the option of keying in the desired values in the X. Y value. while the Z value is the elevation of the specified TIN at the cursor’s X. the generated triangles are adjusted as depicted in the graphic below.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. i. 8-4 Part I .

TIN Editing Tools 8-5 . Note that a point may be added inside a previously defined Void. with triangles radiating from the added point to the edge of the void. In this case. the software will delete the void and draw in triangles. Pressing the Add button temporarily adds the point into the specified TIN file. If desired. the Z value in the dialog may be changed to a different elevation. as seen in the graphic below.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® A second data point on the screen discontinues the dynamics. The void now has a point added in the upper area.

contours. 8-6 Part I ..GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. The Re-Triangulate option deletes the specified point.) are highlighted.3 Delete Vertex Another option is Delete Vertex.Digital Terrain Modeling . and all associated display elements (i.e. Note that two options are supported for editing: Re-Triangulate or Create Void. flow arrows. then retriangulates the model without it. triangle sides. the dialog dynamically changes as depicted below. As depicted in the graphic below. When selected. when the ID Vertex button is pressed and the specified point is identified on the screen with a data point. the affected vertex. etc.

triangle sides. In addition. the affected vertices. TIN Editing Tools 8-7 . and display elements are highlighted as depicted in the graphic below. the X. The Create Void option identifies the triangle(s) which contains the desired point to be deleted and removes the triangle(s) to create a void area. When the ID Vertex button is pressed and the candidate deletion point is identified by a data point. and Z coordinates of the point are displayed in the dialog. The dialog is depicted below. Y.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® When a second data point is placed within the hull. the vertex is deleted and all associated elements are dynamically updated as depicted in the graphic below.

the Number of Voids has been adjusted to accurately reflect the number of voids in the model.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ When a second data point is placed anywhere on the screen. a void is created. Also note that if the Utility > Triangle Statistics command is utilized after the Save button is pressed. 8-8 Part I . and all associated elements are dynamically updated as depicted in the graphic below.Digital Terrain Modeling . the vertex is deleted.

and Z values of the vertex are displayed in the dialog. dynamically changes as depicted below. triangle sides. the dialog The ID Vertex button is selected.4 Move Vertex XY Another option is Move Vertex XY. and the point to be moved is identified by a data point on the screen. and display elements are highlighted as depicted in the graphic below. the vertex is attached to the cursor.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 8. In TIN Editing Tools 8-9 . Any movement of the cursor dynamically moves all highlighted elements as depicted in two examples below. while the X. When a second data point is placed anywhere on the screen. When selected. The affected vertex. Y.

8-10 Part I .Digital Terrain Modeling . Y coordinates on the dialog dynamically change.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ addition the X. however the Z value remains fixed at the value of the original selected data point. A final data point discontinues the dynamics. and adds the revised vertex into the TIN file.

Key in the desired Elevation. then place a second data point anywhere on the screen. When selected. The affected vertex.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 8. and display elements are highlighted as depicted in the graphic below. The vertex is moved to the specified elevation and all associated elements are dynamically updated on the TIN Editing Tools 8-11 . the dialog dynamically changes as depicted below. and the vertex whose elevation is to be moved is identified by a data point on the screen. triangle sides. The ID Vertex button is selected.5 Move Vertex Z Another option is Move Vertex Z.

In Drape. then the entire model is re-triangulated. When selected. either positive or negative values (in master units) dictate the amount GEOPAK moves 8-12 Part I . In this option. Y coordinates of the vertex do not change. Two options are supported to specify the value of the change in elevation: Drape or Elevation.6 Polygon Move Z Another option is Polygon Move Z.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ screen as depicted in the graphic below. the dialog dynamically changes as depicted below. Note the X. all vertices within the specified polygon will be raised (or lowered).Digital Terrain Modeling . 8.

then the Select option should be utilized. press the Apply button. All four options will be utilized with the original model and polygon depicted below. the Drape value is +5 in all cases. Note. the toggle next to the desired option must be activated. Note that the entire polygon must be completely external or completely internal to utilize this process. If the Place button is pressed. Elevation. the software prompts for drawing the polygon as part of the Move procedure. the precision of the graphics file. Note. An example of each option illustrates the difference.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® the polygon above or below the model. TIN Editing Tools 8-13 . due the precision of the LAT/TIN files vs. the polygon. GEOPAK moves the appropriate vertices and optionally. In the other option. Four options are supported for handling the polygon as depicted in the exploded view below. utilizing the TIN hull as the polygon is not supported. If the polygon has been placed prior to selecting the Polygon Move Z option. to the specified elevation. In addition. To commence the procedure.

GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.1 Do Not Insert Polygon With this option. 8-14 Part I . i. the elevations of all vertices within the polygon are moved by the amount specified in the Drape or Elevation field. The Drape or Elevation value is utilized only for vertices within the polygon. however. In addition.6. care must be taken in the placement of the polygon in respect to its z value(s) for correct elevation placement. 8. the polygon is not utilized for any other purpose. the polygon is utilized as a break line. The resultant model is depicted below.2 Insert Polygon With this option. Note that the contour lines have shifted throughout the polygon.6. break line. The resultant model is depicted below.Digital Terrain Modeling . Therefore.. Note the change in contours within the polygon.e. the elevations of all vertices within the polygon are moved by the amount specified in the Drape or Elevation field.

the elevations of all vertices within the polygon are removed as the polygon is utilized as the hull of a void. as it is the closest break line. Note that all vertices within the polygon are absent. all vertices within the polygon are deleted and the polygon is utilized as a break line. The resultant model is depicted below. as it is now a TIN Editing Tools 8-15 . The resultant model is depicted below.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 8.6. In addition. the triangles. and flow arrows adjacent to the polygon have changed drastically. 8. the polygon is utilized as a break line. based on the elevations of the break line. contours.4 Insert Polygon Create Void With this option.6. Note the absence of triangles within the polygon. and all triangles internal to the polygon have vertices on the polygon. Therefore. care must be taken in the placement of the polygon in respect to its z value(s) for correct elevation placement.3 Insert Polygon Delete Points With this option. In addition.

then select the triangle side to be deleted. just press the ID Line button. The procedure is simple.5 Delete Line Another option is Delete Line. and flow arrows adjacent to the polygon have changed based on the elevations of the break line. the triangles. 8-16 Part I . In addition.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ void. the dialog dynamically changes as depicted below. The selected side and all affected elements highlight as depicted in the graphic below. contours.Digital Terrain Modeling . 8.6. When selected.

6. which changes the common side of two triangles. TIN Editing Tools 8-17 . the dialog dynamically changes as depicted below. In the graphic below (with the Display Void toggle in the Display Parameters activated). 8.6 Swap Line Another option is Swap Line. the line is deleted and a void is inserted. When selected.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® A second data point will delete the line leaving a void in the model.

Digital Terrain Modeling . 8-18 Part I . then identify the line to be swapped. whose results can be seen in the graphic below. and flow arrows are highlighted as depicted in the graphic below.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Simply press the ID Line button. The line. A subsequent data point completes the procedure. affected contours.

the Insert Break Line utilizes the x.7 Insert Break Line Another useful editing tool is Insert Break Line. and z coordinates from the break line element.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 8. TIN Editing Tools 8-19 . y. Select is utilized if the break line has been previously drawn. so it must be placed at the desired X. and Z location. Two methods of insertion are supported: Place and Select. In contrast to the Insert Drape Line. while Place is used if no prior break line elements have been drawn. whose dialog is depicted below. Y.

When the Select button is pressed. The result of inserting a break line (which is depicted on the screen for reference) is illustrated below. GEOPAK prompts to identify and accept a previously drawn element as depicted in the graphic below.Digital Terrain Modeling . Once the break line has been identified.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 8-20 Part I . then utilize the Select option.7. Note the additional triangles along the break line and change in flow arrows and contours reflecting the newly inserted break line elevations. Note there is no dynamic action occurring on the screen.1 Select Method If the break line has been drawn into a MicroStation file prior to processing. pressing the Insert button commences the process.

set the desired options. press the Place button. Choose the desired option by activating the appropriate toggle to the left of the option and when required. Elevation . which invokes the dialog depicted below. key in the desired value. Drape . hence. To commence placement.y location. Vertex . None . Three options are supported in the upper left corner of the dialog: Active Elevation .7. The dialog provides a plethora of options to assist the user in the placement of a break line.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 8.With this option.the current elevation of the MicroStation view. then press the Start button and locate the first data point. In order to snap to various triangular elements in the model (which are only displayed.GEOPAK does not snap to any displayed triangular element.GEOPAK snaps to the closest vertex.the elevation difference in master units above (positive) or below (negative) the model at the specified x.the specified elevation or z value in master units. cannot be snapped to with generic MicroStation snap locks). GEOPAK snaps to the closest side of triangle. Numerous options are supported for the second data point as detailed below: TIN Editing Tools 8-21 . three options are supported: Side .2 Place Method If the break line has not been drawn. The first step is the selection of the z value for the first data point.

8. Elevation . dynamically changing all affected elements. foot / foot or meter / meter) is projected to the X. Y location is determined by the dynamic movement of the cursor. Y location is determined by the dynamic movement of the cursor. Y location is determined by the dynamic movement of the cursor. while the Z coordinate is determined by the elevation of the model (at the X. Y coordinates of an element placed in the MicroStation file. The dynamic movement of the cursor only controls the direction. Dz and Length . foot / foot or meter / meter) is projected by the specified Length.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Active Elevation .The Slope (specified in terms of percent. The change in elevation (Dz) from one endpoint of the break line to the second endpoint and the Length (in master units) are typed into the dialog.The Z coordinate is determined by the typed in value in the dialog. When properly located. Slope . The dynamic movement of the cursor only controls the direction.8 Insert Drape Line The Insert Drape Line option utilizes the X.The X. however the Z value is determined from the TIN model. pressing a data point will discontinue the dynamics. Drape +/.The change in elevation (Dz) from one endpoint of the break line to the second endpoint is typed into the dialog.. Pressing the Insert will insert the break line.Y cursor coordinates) plus or minus the drape value. pressing a data point will discontinue the dynamics. Dz . while the Z coordinate is determined by the active elevation of the MicroStation view. When properly located. 8-22 Part I . Y location determined by the dynamic movement of the cursor.The change in elevation (Dz) from one endpoint of the break line to the second endpoint and the Length (in master units) are typed into the dialog. When properly located.The X. while the X. When properly located. pressing a data point will discontinue the dynamics. pressing a data point will discontinue the dynamics. The dialog is depicted below. Slope and Length .The Slope (specified in terms of percent.Digital Terrain Modeling .

Note that the Z value of the drape line being drawn is inconsequential. the drape element is drawn for reference onto the original TIN model. then the Select option should be utilized. In the graphic depicted below. The results of the Insert Drape Line are depicted in the graphic below. After the drape line has been identified. When the Select button is pressed. When the Place option is pressed. press the Insert button to commence the process. GEOPAK prompts the user to identify and accept the previously drawn element. the user is prompted to draw the desired drape line. TIN Editing Tools 8-23 .__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® If the drape element has been previously drawn into the MicroStation file. as the Z values are determined from the specified TIN model.

If an internal triangle is selected. a void will be created in the model. Press the ID Triangle button. it is deleted from the model. 8-24 Part I . which is highlighted as depicted in the graphic below. The void will be reflected in subsequent processing of either the Load > Voids command or Utility > Triangle Statistics command.9 Delete Triangle The last editing tool is Delete Triangle. If an external triangle is selected. and the TIN hull is updated accordingly.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.Digital Terrain Modeling . The dialog is depicted below. and identify the desired triangle on the screen.

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK®

A subsequent data point will delete the triangle and in this case, create a void as the highlighted triangle is internal to the model. The resultant model is depicted below.

Additional adjacent triangles may also be deleted, creating a larger void as depicted in the graphic below.

TIN Editing Tools

8-25

GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

8-26 Part I - Digital Terrain Modeling

Part I_____________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 9

Lattice Model
9.1 Overview
A lattice model is a gridded mesh that is draped over triangulated data. The TIN model serves as input to the lattice process. The output of the Build Lattice procedure is a binary lattice file.

9.2 Build Lattice Dialog
Feature / Function Tool Utilizing a TIN model to create a lattice model.

DTM Menu Bar

Build > Lattice

When invoked, the Build Lattice dialog is displayed as depicted below.

Lattice Model

9-1

GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________
At the top of the dialog, the TIN File and LAT File names must be specified. In lieu of typing, the desired file may be selected by pressing the Files button. Two Interpolation options are supported: Planar and Polynomial. The Polynomial method represents the fifth order partial derivatives of the triangulated data. It should be used only when the data is natural ground, rather than abrupt changes of slope found in roadways, ditches, etc. where Planar should be utilized. Four lattice options dictate the extent of the lattice model as well as the density of individual lattice points, as displayed in the exploded view below.

9.2.1 Auto Lattice Option
The Auto option generates a lattice over the full extent of the triangulated model. The density of the lattice is dictated by the number of lattice points. For the Auto mode, both the Lattice Intervals as well as the Lattice Window settings are not applicable. Hence, they do not appear on the dialog box.

9-2 Part I - Digital Terrain Modeling

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With the Auto Lattice option, the distances between individual lattice points will invariably represent non-rounded values. Similarly, lattice grid points will not fall on rounded coordinate locations.

9.2.2 Auto Window Lattice Option
The Auto Window Lattice Option generates a lattice for a user defined window. This permits a lattice model for a portion of the triangulated model. The lattice density is determined by the number of lattice points. Hence, like the Auto Lattice option, the distances between individual lattice points invariably represents non-rounded values and individual lattice grid points do not fall on rounded coordinate locations. The image below represents the Build Lattice dialog for the Auto Window option.

Lattice Model

9-3

GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________

The image below depicts the 50000 point lattice model for the window range specified in the Lattice Window group box. The full triangulation model is also shown for reference.

9.2.3 Set Lattice Option
Another Lattice Option is Set, which generates a lattice over the full extent of the triangulation. The difference between the Set and

9-4 Part I - Digital Terrain Modeling

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK®
Auto options is that the user specifies a specific number of lattice points for the Auto option. For the Set mode, however, the density of the lattice is specified by the X and Y Lattice Intervals. Hence, the dialog for the Set option appears as shown below.

On the dialog above, the X and Y Lattice Intervals are set to 30.0. Therefore, the distance between individual lattice points is 30 master units. Furthermore, the coordinate value of lattice points is a number evenly divisible by 30.0. The X Register and Y Register entries on the Build Lattice dialog in conjunction with the X and Y Intervals dictate the coordinate values assigned to individual lattice points. The coordinate values of a lattice point are always a multiple of the X and Y Intervals plus the X and Y Register values. For example, a 30 meter X and Y Interval and a 0.0 X and Y Register would result in coordinates at 30, 60 and 90. Conversely, if the X and Y Registers were changed to 5.0, then the resulting coordinates would be at 35, 65, and 95. The resulting lattice model is shown below. With a 50000 point model, the approximate spacing between lattice points was approximately 10 meters. Therefore, the density of the lattice points for the image depicted below is approximately 67% less as the spacing is30 meters.

Lattice Model

9-5

4 Set Window Lattice Option The final lattice generation option is the Set Window option.2. the distance between individual lattice points is 30 master units. X and Y Registers are supported and function 9-6 Part I . The lattice dialog for the Set Window option is shown below. Therefore.0.Digital Terrain Modeling .0. Like the Set option. which generates a lattice for a user nominated window. The density of the lattice is determined by the X and Y Intervals. the coordinate value of lattice points is a number evenly divisible by 30. the X and Y Lattice Intervals for the Set Window equal 30.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Furthermore. Although not utilized in this example.

The Lattice Statistics dialog below corresponds to the lattice that was built for the Auto mode with a No. the total number of points comprising the model as well as other statistics such as the distance between lattice points. Lattice statistics are then displayed. The process is very quick. the triangulation model is also shown for reference purposes.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® identically to the Set usage. 9.4 Lattice Statistics Feature / Function Tool Generate lattice statistics DTM Menu Bar Reports > Lattice Statistics The Lattice Statistics tool displays the coordinate ranges of data points in a lattice model.3 Producing the Lattice Model Once all entries on the Build Lattice dialog have been established. Take note of the non-rounded X and Y Intervals. Lattice Points setting equal to 50000 points. Lattice Model 9-7 . Again. The dialog is depicted below. 9. a "LAT" extension is assumed) and press the Process push button. Simply type the name of the lattice file (if not supplied. The resulting lattice is shown below. press the Process push button.

For this model. the Lattice Statistics dialog below corresponds to the lattice that was built for the Set mode with an X and Y Intervals of 5. However. 9-8 Part I . the number of lattice points is reduced. the X and Y Intervals are rounded to 5.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ By contrast. The Interpolation Mode during the Build Lattice procedure was set to Polynomial.Digital Terrain Modeling .0. which is displayed in the statistics report.

the hull of two TIN files (old and mrg) are drawn. 10. Other Build Tools 10-1 . The name of the new. input requirements are quite simple.Part I___________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 10 Other Build Tools 10. The Old TIN is the triangulated model into which the Mrg TIN will be merged. The order of the TIN file names is significant. In lieu of typing in the file names. pressing the Files button will invoke the File Manager. In the graphic below.2 Merging Triangulated Models Feature / Function Tool Merging two TIN models to produce a third TIN model. As can be seen on the Merge TINs dialog below. leaving the integrity of the original model intact. clipping TINs. building delta surfaces and building pads. and the data within the Mrg TIN supersedes the data from the Old TIN. merged model created by this process is defined in the New TIN field. wherein the desired TIN file may be selected. The hull of the Mrg TIN is "cut" into the Old TIN. DTM Menu Bar Build > Merge TINs Any two triangulated models can be merged together as long as one model overlaps the other triangulated model in at least one point.1 Overview Several Build options are supported including merging TINs. All options create new models.

The data within the shaded area from the original TIN. The area of overlap between the two triangulation files is replaced with the merged triangulation.tin is the TIN to be merged.1 Implied Voids When merging models.tin is discarded. The hull of the new. while mrg. used as a basis for developing a lattice model. etc. 10.Digital Terrain Modeling . press the Process push button. contoured.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ The heavier weight hull is old. the original TIN. Once the three triangulated models have been identified on the Build Merge dialog.tin is utilized. and retriangulated around the common edges. old. In the shaded area (which both TINs have in common). 10-2 Part I .tin. This model can then be displayed." These occur in areas where the two models to be merged have a common side which is not exactly coincidental. the data from mrg. as depicted in the graphic below. merged TIN is depicted below.2. the user should be aware of "implied voids.

which is a subset of the original model.3 Clipping Models Feature / Function Tool Clipping a TIN model to produce a unique TIN model. the area is triangulated in the merged model. Other Build Tools 10-3 . If the area is smaller. a void is placed in the merged model. an implied void would be created. If the Area to Perimeter ratio for a triangle within the implied void area is larger than one. 10. DTM Menu Bar Build > Clip TIN As can be seen on the Clip TIN dialog below. if the implied void has an area greater than the Minimum Area. If the ratio is smaller. Therefore. therefore. then a void is included in the merged model. A Minimum Area and an Area to Perimeter ratio for implied voids are hard-coded into the Merge tool. The Minimum Area/Perimeter ratio is set to one. input requirements are quite simple. there may be small areas where neither model has data.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® When the models are merged. The Minimum Area for an implied void is five master units. the area is interpolated from surrounding data and no void is included in the merged model.

a polygon has been placed. site.Digital Terrain Modeling . In the middle of the model. as depicted in the exploded view below: Internal and External.tin. The first graphic below depicts the original TIN. while Create Tin is the clipped model. Two methods of clipping are supported.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ The TIN is the original triangulated model. pressing the Files button will invoke the File Manager. When the Clip mode is set to Internal. wherein the desired TIN file may be selected. with its associated hull. denoted with heavy black lines.tin. the graphic below depicts the resultant clip. In lieu of typing in the file names. 10-4 Part I .

the graphic below depicts the resultant clip. In top view. Press the Process push button to generate the clipped model. All Build processes can also be performed on the clipped model. If Place is pressed. two options are supported: Place or Select. Other Build Tools 10-5 .tin.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® When the Clip mode is set to External. interactively draw a polygon representing the extent of the clipping. The polygon is then closed by selecting placing a data point inside the display circle at the point of origin. define a number of data points constituting the outline of the polygon. identify and accept the previously placed MicroStation shape or complex shape element defining the boundary of the clipping. Within the Clip Polygon Selection group box. The clipped model can be utilized as any triangulated model and can be edited or merged. If Select was pressed.

DTM Menu Bar Build > Pad GEOPAK supports the build pad tool. Considerable flexibility is afforded in how the pad polygon is defined. This chapter will address how user defined polygons (pads) can be integrated into a triangulated model. which considers a pad of any shape or orientation and draws fixed or variable slopes from the pad to the existing terrain. a pad and cut/fill slope factors. The relationship between the input triangulation model and the pad is calculated and a new side slope (TIN) model is created consisting of the pad surface as well as triangles connecting the edges of the pad. The procedure considers an input triangulation model. The option to utilize stroking factors is also supported. The integration of the pad into the original triangulation model is governed by the Build Pad dialog. Optionally.4 Build Pad Feature / Function Tool Defines a pad (such as a building slab) and integrates the pad into the existing terrain with a variety of slope options. illustrated below. this TIN can be merged with the original triangulation model. Different slope factors can be defined for cut and fill. The elevations of pad vertices can be constant or can vary. 10-6 Part I .Digital Terrain Modeling .GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ 10.

which commences the procedure. The fields are detailed in the table below. Ground TIN Side Slope TIN Name of TIN to which side slopes are drawn. Other Build Tools 10-7 . as long as it is complete before pressing the Process button.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® The dialog is divided into five sections: ● TIN File Definitions ● Side Slope Parameters ● Side slope Symbology ● Element Selection ● Process The dialog may be populated in any order. Name of the Tin containing the side slopes (created during this procedure).

closed shape or polygon. Internal – Cuts Side Slopes internal to the Pad boundary. Left – Cuts Side Slopes to the left side of the Element. Element .Sends out radials normal to the Pad or Element edge at the user requested slope. the Radial and Planar Methods produce different results. For level Pads or Elements. three Directions are supported: Right – Cuts Side Slopes to the right side of the Element. The Side Slope Direction has different settings based on the Side Slope From option.A non-closing string.Cuts Side Slopes external to the Pad boundary. Right Left Right & Left External & Internal – Cuts Side Slopes on both sides of the Pad boundary. three Directions are supported: External . When Pad is the option. For non-level Pads or Elements. Side Slope Method: Radial Planar Radial .GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Side Slope Parameters Side Slope From: Element Pad Side Slope Direction: External Internal External & Internal Where the side slopes originate from: Pad . the Radial and Planar methods produce identical results.Digital Terrain Modeling . When Element is the option. With the planar method. the side slopes are 10-8 Part I . Planar – Sends out radials normal to the Pad or Element edge. Right/Left – Cuts Side Slopes to both Sides of the Element. but adjusts the slope of the radial onto a plane at the user requested slope.

refer to the online documentation under stroking options. any existing Pad or Element boundary will have to be replaced or reselected. Toggle on to stroke the Pad or Element boundary. the elevation values are taken from the placed or selected pad and the key-in field is ghosted. If not active. Merge Ground TIN with Side Slope TIN Side Slope Symbology Other Build Tools 10-9 .Adjusts the slope of Radials around corners of the Pad or Element so that the two side slopes from one Pad or Element edge to the next intersect as two planes. the resultant Side Slope TIN is merged into the existing Ground TIN. when the state of this toggle is changed. The tolerance is specified in ground units and specifies an approximate linear distance between the slope toes of consecutive corner radials. As MicroStation does the stroking. the pad is placed at a constant height. Represents the slope applied to fill sections using one of the four methods. Cut: Slope run:rise Slope rise:run Slope Percent Slope Unit / Unit Fill: Slope run:rise Slope rise:run Slope Percent Slope Unit / Unit Use Elevation Represents the slope applied to cut sections using one of the four methods. Straight . Rounded – Adjusts the slope of Radials around corners of a Pad or Element to give a rounding of slopes from one Pad or Element edge to the next. When activated. the Ground TIN will be changed to the Side Slope Tin after the merge. This enables additional Pad or Element boundaries to be processed. When activated. Stroke Linear Tolerance Curve Tolerance Corners: Rounded Straight Corner Tolerance Tolerance for including additional radials at convex corners around the Pad or Element Boundary. In addition. For a detailed discussion of stroking. specified in the Use Elevation key-in field.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® placed as planes at the user requested slope. taking into account any previous side slopes that have been processed.

Therefore. the side slope elements are not drawn into the design file. but are display only. If you want the side slopes drawn into the MicroStation file. the slopes are not drawn. the Z value of the placed elements is utilized.Digital Terrain Modeling . Style Load Side Slopes Element symbology utilized to draw the sides slopes. If the toggle is active. Press the Select button. the Side Slope TIN is still created. the Z value of the selected element is utilized. Commences the procedure. then identify and accept the desired element or pad. then draw the border of the pad into the top view. Color. If the toggle is not active. Level. Press the Place button. the cut and fill side slopes appear similar to the illustration below. Display Only When active. If the pad has already been drawn into the design file. Note the elevation of the pad is affected by the Use Elevation setting. Note the elevation of the pad is affected by the Use Elevation setting. Simply set each option to the desired parameter. If the toggle is active. however. Weight. activate the Load Side Slopes toggle. the Select method is appropriate. the constant height as determined by the value in the Use Elevation field is utilized. Two options are supported for selecting the Pad within this group box. Element Selection Place The Place method is appropriate if the pad has not been drawn into the design file. they disappear when the screen is refreshed or a view control command is executed. Select Process 10-10 Part I . If the Load Side Slope toggle is active.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ This group box contains the parameters for optionally drawing the side slopes. If not active. If the toggle is not active. the constant height as determined by the value in the Use Elevation field is utilized.

This can occur when there is too much elevation difference on the Pad or Element edge to place a plane at the requested slope through the edge. With non-level Pads or Elements. a “No Possible Solution” warning message with both the Planar and Radial methods may be encountered. This message arises from determining the angle of radials at corners on the Pad or Element boundary. rather than actual elevations. 10. the radial is generated at the user requested slope and not on a plane at the user requested slope. To get a solution. DTM Menu Bar Build > Delta Surface The Delta Surface tool creates a delta TIN or lattice between a surface and plane or between two surfaces. the dialog depicted below opens. when side slopes on either side of a corner intersect at an angle that is on the opposite side of the Pad or Element boundary. If this happens.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Sometimes it is not mathematically possibly to generate a radial normal to a Pad or Element edge using the Planar method. The Z value in the delta TIN is the difference between the two specified models or model and surface. decreasing the stroke tolerance can get a solution. When invoked. Other Build Tools 10-11 . which can then be used for Isopach contouring. the Cut/Fill slopes have to be increased or made steeper. Additionally.5 Build Delta Surface Feature / Function Tool Creates a new model based on the difference between two other models or a model and elevation surface.

Digital Terrain Modeling . two TIN files must be specified. When Surface to Plane is utilized. one TIN file and an elevation must be defined. Create Delta Two options are supported: Lattice or TIN. as illustrated below.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ The fields within the dialog are detailed in the table below. The To TIN is subtracted from the From TIN. 10-12 Part I . Note the order is important as it affects the signage to the Z value of the Delta TIN. as detailed below. two additional fields are displayed. Calculation: Surface to Surface Surface to Plane When Surface to Surface is utilized. as depicted in the illustration below. When the Lattice option is selected.

the delta TIN is created in the area where the two models intersect. Note: providing a unique TIN file name maintains the integrity of the To TIN and From TIN. When the toggle is not active. Selection of the File button invokes the File Manager wherein the user can select the desired file. The boundary is then closed by placing the final data point within the display circle around the initial point. the delta TIN is the resultant TIN of the From TIN minus the To Elevation. Selection of the File button invokes the File Manager wherein the user can select the desired file. a subset of the union must be defined. If the Use Boundary toggle is active. The number of points which comprise the lattice is specified. Note that a tentative to the actual initial point is not necessary. Utilized in the Surface to Surface calculation.e. Only displayed when the Create Delta is set to Lattice. Utilized in the Surface to Plane calculation. feet or meters. Selection of the File button invokes the File Manager wherein the user can select the desired file. Another option is to press the Select button. the TIN from which the second TIN is subtracted. Resultant TIN or Lattice created within this process. i. One option is to press the Place button. define a number of data points constituting the outline of the delta boundary. in terms of master units.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® From TIN Utilized in both calculations. To TIN To Elevation: Lattice Points Delta TIN Delta Lattice Delta Boundary Selection Other Build Tools 10-13 . then in the top view. then identify a previously placed boundary. the delta TIN is the resultant TIN of the From TIN minus the To TIN. The user must specify the Elevation of the plane.

Digital Terrain Modeling . 10-14 Part I .GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Process Commences processing and GEOPAK generates the delta TIN.

Each of these options will be discussed in subsequent subsections.volume between two gridded triangulation models. An alternative method of defining the area about which volume calculations are performed is by interactively defining the area (Place mode).prismoidal volume between a single triangulated model and a horizontal plane at a specified elevation. depth ranges may also be utilized for each Volume option. and Slope Area 11.volume between a single gridded triangulated model and a horizontal plane at a specified elevation. and can be optionally written into an ASCII file. These include: Prismoidal Surface To Plane . DTM Menu Bar Analysis The Volumes Tool computes volumes between TIN models or a TIN model and plane. and Slope Area 11-1 .1 Overview Feature / Function Tools Compute volumes between two models or a model and plane. Prismoidal Surface to Surface . Both Select and Place mode operations will be discussed for each volume calculation option. Several volume analyses are supported in the GEOPAK DTM operation to compute cut and fill volumes. For each volume option. In addition. the area about which volume calculations are performed is defined by a MicroStation shape or complex shape element (Select mode). Elevation Differences. and generate an optional ASCII report. Gridded Surface To Plane .prismoidal volume between two triangulation models. Volumes. Elevation Differences. The quantities are displayed in the dialog.Part I___________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 11 Volumes. Gridded Surface to Surface .

while the Grid Points utilizes lattice models created "on the fly. triangulated models are utilized to compute the prismoidal volume. When activated. the dialog depicted below opens. from existing ground terrain to the proposed surface. as depicted below. As the Calculation type is selected.Digital Terrain Modeling . This group box specifies which TIN files or planes are to be utilized for volume calculations. i. the fields directly below are From TIN and To TIN. This configuration would be common for determining the project volumes. Prismoidal utilizes the triangulation models. then computes lattice volumes. When TIN to TIN is selected. Calculation 11-2 Part I . Calculation Method: Prismoidal Grid Points Calculation Options Activate one of the two methods to determine the method of calculation. the From and To fields directly below dynamically change to reflect the selection. the Site Modeler utilizes the user-specified number of Grid Points to create a lattice..GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ When the Volumes tool is selected." When activated.e.

Use Range Pressing the Range button invokes the dialog depicted below. the fields directly below are From Plane and To TIN. Modify. and Slope Area 11-3 . a keyin field for the elevation is provided. Elevation Differences. This example is common for determining volumes between a water level (elevation) and the proposed pond. The dialog contains a list box. Options are supported (button to the right of the list box) to Add. Volumes. In this case. If the toggle is active and no ranges are defined. Note the button is unghosted only when the Use Range toggle is active. with edit fields directly below. and Delete ranges.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® When Plane to TIN is selected. When the Active toggle is activated. the Process button remains ghosted.

To delete a line. The top of the dialog supports automatic creation of ranges. along with the Minimum and Maximum elevations. Two options are supported: ● Auto Number of Ranges . simply key in the desired values. The line is removed from the list box. and the Minimum and Maximum elevations to 700 and 750 respectively. the user has complete control over which ranges are computed at any one time. To add a single range. then press the Modify button. Then set the Range Increment to 5.Digital Terrain Modeling . To modify a line. set the Range option to Auto Range Increment. A range can be activated or deactivated at any time during the processing by highlighting the desired line and changing the Active toggle in the lower right corner of the dialog. A maximum of 50 ranges is supported. GEOPAK divides the elevation into as many elevation ranges as necessary at the specified increment. GEOPAK divides the Minimum and Maximum elevation difference into the specified number of elevation ranges. and press the Add button. highlight the desired line. The resultant dialog is depicted below. GEOPAK updates the list box. set the Active toggle. They are displayed only when TIN file names are specified within the main dialog.the number of ranges is specified. 11-4 Part I . When more than five ranges are specified. along with the Minimum and Maximum elevations. The current values are displayed in the edit fields. highlight the line and press the Delete button. Change the desired field. simply press the appropriate button. the scroll bar and arrows on the right side of the dialog are automatically invoked for easy scanning.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ the selected range is utilized for computations. To populate the list box with the specified ranges. The created line is added to the list box. For example. In this manner. ● Auto Range Increment . press the Set Range button. To utilize them in populating the fields.the range increment is specified. Note the buttons to the right of the Elevations are the Min /Max values for the current TIN Model.

press the Set Range button. indicating the range is included in the current processing. Leaving the Minimum and Maximum Elevations the same as the last example. The resultant dialog is depicted below. however. and set the Number of Ranges to five. Now. and Slope Area 11-5 . Elevation Differences. change the Range to Auto Number of Ranges.) All Active toggles are set to Yes.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® The Range Increment is added to the Minimum Elevation as many times as possible until the Maximum Elevation is attained. Volumes. Note there are numerous ranges. each range is five master units (per our dialog specification.

The Factors are also applied to the range totals. there are only five ranges (the number specified in the dialog) in the list box. In English projects. and Open. activate the toggle to the left of the Fill Factor. 11-6 Part I . several File functions are supported: Save. Fill Factor Cut Factor To utilize the Fill Factor or Cut Factor. To utilize the specified ranges for subsequent sessions. Note. When activated. each range spans ten master units. The calculations displayed in the Volume Calculations and in the optional report reflect the adjusted volumes. while the Cut Factor is applied to the Cut Volume. while metric projects are cubic and square meters. and Area.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ In this case. the Fill Factor is applied to the Fill volume. All ranges are defaulted to Active. Fields are supported for Cut Factor and Fill Factor. Units are determined by the User Preferences. Balance. divided by the number of ranges. units are cubic and square yards. Save As.Digital Terrain Modeling . and computed the Low and High for each range. Fill Volume. GEOPAK computed the elevation difference. Volume Calculations This group box contains the Cut Volume.

as illustrated below.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® When the Shrink arrow is pressed. the dialog expands. placing the results in an ASCII file. This exposes the output options for computing volumes. Volumes. and Slope Area 11-7 . Output An optional output can be generated. Elevation Differences. Each press of the button expands or shrinks the dialog based on its current size.

When activated.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Output to ASCII File Files When activated. pressing the Files button invokes the Create ASCII Output File dialog. rather than the entire model. Pressing the Regions button opens the dialog depicted below. Place Pressing this button enables the user to subsequently identify data points within the model to define the boundary limits. place the last data point within the circle at the initial point of the boundary. the results are placed in the specified ASCII file Name of ASCII file to be created or appended. In lieu of typing. Setting the option to Create File creates a new output file. To close the boundary. wherein volume calculations can be computed. Pressing this button enables the user to identify a previously defined closed element. and automatically loads the output report for review. When activated. rather than computing volumes for the entire model. both the Place or Select buttons are unghosted. Select Volumes by Region 11-8 Part I . the Volumes for multiple boundaries based on element symbology can be computed. Create File Append File View Boundary Selection Volume calculations can be performed in a user-defined area(s). utilizing information within this group box. Pressing this button invokes the MDL editor.Digital Terrain Modeling . while setting the option to Append File adds the results of the current processing to the bottom of the previously created output file. a single user-defined boundary is utilized. wherein the desired file may be selected. Use Boundary When activated.

If defined areas overlap. Pressing the Add button (top icon to the right of the list box) adds the items to the list box. which places the current line in the edit fields. Each region (one line in the list box) and its associated volume is listed separately within the output report. and is ghosted out.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® To add region(s). Make the desired changes. and Slope Area 11-9 . The regions must be closed shapes. polygons are filled. Volume Polygons The areas where volumes are computed are displayed or drawn into the design file. highlight the desired line to be modified. their union is utilized for volumes. To modify a listing.e. simply highlight the line to be deleted. located at the bottom of the three action buttons. then press the Modify button (directly below the Add button). Note Volumes. rather than just outlined. Fill Volume When activated. The list box is updated. then double click on the line in the element field to define the desired symbology. while only the total volume is shown within the Volume Calculations part of the dialog. only MicroStation shapes. The area of the volume polygon is identical to the Area value displayed within the Volume Calculations group box. Note this option is not supported if the By FIFO or Quantity Depth options are utilized. so the volumes are not included twice in the computations. enter a Description. lines or line strings) are also not utilized.. Closed areas comprised of other elements (i. Note numerous regions of the same symbology can be computed by a single entry in the list box. then press the Delete button. as any nonclosed shapes are ignored. Elevation Differences. To delete a line.

the polygons which outline the area where volumes have been computed are visually displayed. placing the cursor over the element symbology line and right mouse clicking invokes the pop-up menu with the following options: ● Feature Dialog (invokes dialog depicted above) ● By Current .Digital Terrain Modeling . Element Symbology In addition. When activated. the polygons are drawn into the design file. they disappear when the screen is refreshed or any view control command is executed. Double clicking on the element symbology line opens the Set Feature dialog below.utilizes the active symbology ● By Element . Therefore. When not activated. Note this button is ghosted until sufficient data has been incorporated within the dialog.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Polygons Display Only the MicroStation fill attribute must be active for the fill to display. but not drawn into the design file. 11-10 Part I .can be copied and / or pasted from another Set Feature dialog within GEOPAK Process Commences the volume calculations. wherein the desired symbology may be specified.prompts the user to select an element to match the symbology ● Copy (and Paste) .

The lattice can be wireframe or filled color. the cut or fill depth between the two specified TIN files at each grid point.which are simply contours of the cut and fill depths. In a 3D design file. The T's represent the cut or fill values.e. The bar of the T is placed on the surface of the From TIN.. Isopach contour drawing. The T's represent the cut or fill values. in a cut situation. ● Cut / Fill Contours (Isopach) . A zero contour would be where the surface and plane intersect. The bar of the T is placed on the surface of the From TIN. The user specifies the grid interval. when in a front or side view. The vertical part of the T is the vertical length of the cut or fill and the bar of the T is the text value of the cut or fill. A fill of two feet is a positive two contour. or contours of elevation differences Menu Bar Application Analysis > Elevation Differences The Elevation Difference tool supports a variety of grid generation. ● Difference Grid . when in a front or side view. while in a fill situation the T is inverted. The tools are: ● Difference Point – draws the text of cut / fill elevations. therefore GEOPAK determines the number of text placements.. i. Therefore.e. and cut/fill latticing.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 11. i.draws a textual grid of cut / fill elevations. a normal T is placed. the grid displays T's. ● Cut / Fill Grid . and Slope Area 11-11 . In a 3D design file. Elevation Differences. while in a fill situation the T is inverted. Therefore. in a cut situation.a lattice with a user-defined number of points determining the density with different element symbology for cut and fill.2 Elevation Differences Feature / Function Tools Generate grids. while a cut depth of six would be a negative contour. Volumes. a normal T is placed. The vertical part of the T is the vertical length of the cut or fill and the bar of the T is the text value of the cut or fill. the cut or fill depth between the two specified TIN files at each specified point. the grid displays T's.

Digital Terrain Modeling . i. When the TIN to TIN option is selected. the fields directly below are From TIN and To TIN. When the Plane to Tin option is utilized. Calculation TIN Models and a horizontal Plane (defined by specified elevation) can be utilized for elevation differences. 11-12 Part I . from existing ground terrain to the proposed surface..GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ When invoked. the fields directly below are From Plane and To TIN. as depicted below. as depicted below. the dialog depicted below is displayed. This configuration would be common for determining the project elevation differences.e.

The Difference Grid option requires the grid interval to determine the gridded text placement. and Contour Label Interval. Elevation Differences. The Cut / Fill Grid option requires the number of grid points. When the Dynamic toggle is activated. and Slope Area 11-13 . Plane or Boundary area. In this option. Additional user-defined parameters include Contour Elevation Interval (elevation difference between successive contours). graphic lines which comprise the grid are drawn. then calculates the grid interval based on the area encompassed by the TIN. moving the cursor over the model dynamically displays the elevation difference at the current cursor location. and the Contour Label Volumes. then draws Isopach (cut / fill) contours of the cut / fill lattice. The Cut / Fill Contours option requires the Number of Grid Points in order to lattice the model(s). If the Label toggle is active. rather than textual placement.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Option: Difference Point Difference Grid Cut / Fill Grid Cut / Fill Contours The Difference Point option displays the elevation difference at specified locations. It requires a data point within the model after the Process button is pressed unless the Dynamic toggle is activated.

Digital Terrain Modeling . rather than at the elevation difference. a single label is placed midpoint on each contour. Pressing this button enables the user to identify a previously defined closed element. Pressing this button enables the user to subsequently identify data points within the model. It is not necessary to tentatively snap to the initial point. When activated. rather than the entire model. Only applicable with the cut / fill grid option. Note the MicroStation Fill View Attribute must also be active. this toggle (when active) fills the grid solid color. Use Boundary Place Select Process 11-14 Part I . the elevation differences and associated elements are not drawn into the MicroStation file. GEOPAK utilizes a user-defined boundary. wherein elevation difference data can be displayed. utilizing information within this group box. Note this button is ghosted until sufficient data has been incorporated within the dialog. all elements within a single processing are placed in a single graphic group for easy manipulation and deletion. and disappear when any view or update command is issued. Boundary Selection Elevation differences can be performed in a user-defined area. This is applicable only in a 3D design file.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Interval is zero. Fill Set Graphic Group Planarize at Elevation When activated. Display Only When activated. rather than wire frame. To close the boundary. all data is drawn at the specified elevation. Commences the elevation difference calculations. When activated. place the last data point within the circle at the initial point of the boundary. rather than displaying data for the entire model.

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 11. The Grid Intervals are set to 25 master units. A detail of one area is illustrated below. and Slope Area 11-15 . Elevation Differences.2. Volumes.1 Elevation Differences Examples The first example is utilizing the Difference Grid option as depicted in the dialog below.

The T's represent the cut or fill values. 11-16 Part I . Therefore. The bar of the T is placed on the surface of the primary TIN.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ The graphic below illustrates the screen if a side view is depicted (3D design file only). The vertical part of the T is the depth of the cut or fill and the bar of the T is the text value of the cut or fill. while in a fill situation the T is inverted. in a cut situation. a normal T is placed.Digital Terrain Modeling .

fill and even. Elevation Differences. rather than the individual lattice grids. The resultant grid (lattice)is depicted below. and Slope Area 11-17 . If the Fill toggle is active. the grid is solid color. Volumes.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® The second example is the Cut / Fill Grid utilizing the dialog below. Note the change in color for the cut.

In the dialog below. As the Label toggle is active and the Contour Label Interval is set to zero. 5000 Grid Points are utilized. The contours are every even master unit.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ The third example is Cut / Fill (Isopach) Contours. i.Digital Terrain Modeling . 11-18 Part I . every foot or meter..e. each contour is labeled at the midpoint.

the dialog depicted below opens. When invoked. and Slope Area 11-19 .3 Slope Area Feature / Function Tools Displays the horizontal area and actual slope area Menu Bar Application Analysis > Slope Area The Slope Area tool displays the horizontal area and actual slope area (area following the terrain of the Model or Object). Volumes.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 11. Elevation Differences.

but not drawn into the design file. press the Select button and select the element. wherein the desired symbology may be specified. The area of the volume polygon is identical to the Area value displayed within the Slope Area dialog. they disappear when the screen is refreshed or any view control command is executed.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ TIN File Area Calculations Boundary Selection Select the desired TIN by pressing the Files button. the polygons are drawn into the design file. Double clicking on the element symbology line opens the Set Feature dialog below. It is not necessary to tentatively snap to the initial point. To select a previously defined element. Display area of the Area (measured on a horizontal plane) and the Slope Area (measured along the actual surface model or object). Slope Polygons group box Display Only Fill Polygons Element Symbology 11-20 Part I . When activated. move the cursor near the initial point within the displayed circle and place the final data point. When not activated. an enclosed shape or boundary must be identified.Digital Terrain Modeling . press the Place button and place data points around the desired area. rather than simply outlined. To close. Polygons are drawn (or displayed) which outline the area where the slope area has been computed. the polygons are visually displayed. the polygons are filled. To interactively identify the area. Therefore. When activated. When activated and the MicroStation Fill attribute is on.

populates the Area Calculations group box. Elevation Differences. Process Commences the Slope Area computation and upon completion.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® In addition.can be copied and / or pasted from another Set Feature dialog within GEOPAK.prompts the user to select an element to match its symbology Copy (and Paste) . and Slope Area 11-21 .utilizes the active symbology By Element . Volumes. placing the cursor over the element symbology line and right mouse clicking invokes the pop-up menu with the following options: Feature dialog (invokes dialog depicted above) By Current .

GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ 11-22 Part I .Digital Terrain Modeling .

1 Overview Feature / Function Tool Analyze TIN file. or aspect ranges.reflects ranges of elevations Themes 12-1 .Part I___________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 12 Themes 12. or Models and objects within a site project in terms of elevation. When invoked. slopes or aspects can be generated from triangulated models. DTM Menu Bar Analysis > Themes Thematic maps of elevations. the Themes dialog is displayed as depicted below. slope. The four options are depicted across the top of the dialog and include (from left to right): ● Elevation Range .

● Aspect Range . In lieu of analyzing an entire model. a MicroStation fence may be placed prior to processing and this toggle activated for partial model analyzing. Style 12-2 Part I . Models or Objects may be utilized directly without creating a TIN file. the themes are not drawn into the MicroStation file. As each option is selected. Element symbology of the themes. based on the specified grid points. which includes all active Objects or Models in the current site project. When the toggle is not active.Digital Terrain Modeling . the triangles are used for thematics. When a site modeler project is open. Let's review each field in the table below. then generates themes for the lattice model. and disappear when any view or update command is issued. then select the desired Object or Model from the list. Number of Grid Points To create gridded themes. GEOPAK lattices the TIN model.(in terms of Percent or Degrees) describe the angles of individual triangles. Weight. rather than a grid. specify the number of grid points. When activated. The remainder of the main dialog remains unchanged.describe the direction that the triangle plane faces. Activate the desired toggle. as it is set in the Set Ranges dialog to distinguish the various ranges. the name of TIN file for which themes are desired. TIN File Model / Object When utilizing GEOPAK Road.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ ● Slope Range . Display Only Load Within Fence Level. Note color is not an option. the dialog title changes to reflect the selection.

as depicted in the example below. However. the themes appear as MicroStation string elements When activated. When not activated. ensure that the Fill toggle is active on the dialog invoked by selecting Settings > View Attributes from the MicroStation tool bar.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Set Graphic Group Fill When activated. When not activated. In the graphic below. Planarize at Elevation Polygonize Results Note each triangle is outlined. all elements drawn in a single processing are placed in a graphic group for easy manipulation and deletion. rather than the elevation of the TIN model. the same model and theme ranges have been utilized. each triangle is not outlined. all shapes or line strings are drawn at the specified elevation. but rather the area of common theme value is outlined in one shape. Themes 12-3 . therefore. When activated. To view the shaded areas. regardless of its theme value. each triangle is outlined. themes are color filled shapes. the Polygonize Results toggle was activated.

This is accomplished by pressing the Set Range button. Commences the processing.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ Set Range Process Pressing this button invokes the respective Range dialog to set ranges and is detailed below. If a theme is greater than or equal to the low value and less than the high value. 12.Digital Terrain Modeling . the triangle or lattice is assigned the color for that range. The legend is also created from this dialog.2 Set Ranges Before the Themes processing commences. 12-4 Part I . which invokes the dialog depicted below. the user must define the desired ranges and associated colors. A low and high value is defined for each range. The user may define a maximum of 50 Range Values and associated Colors.

highlight the desired line. with edit fields directly below. select a color from the color picker. regardless of the order in which they were created.the number of ranges is specified. Two options are supported: ● Auto Number of Ranges . highlight the line and press the Delete icon. Change the desired field. When the Active toggle is activated. To modify a line. The current values are displayed in the edit fields. In this manner. Themes 12-5 .__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® The lower half of the dialog contains the list box. then press the Modify icon. When more than five ranges are specified. the user has complete control over which ranges are visible on the screen at any one time. along with the Minimum and Maximum elevations (or slopes or aspects). Options are supported (button to the right of the list box) to Add. the scroll bar and arrows on the right side of the dialog are automatically invoked for easy scanning. The top of the dialog supports automatic creation of ranges. A range can be activated or deactivated at any time during the processing by highlighting the desired line and changing the Active toggle. the selected range is displayed or drawn when the themes are processed. Modify. The line is removed from the list box. To add a single range. simply key in the desired values. GEOPAK divides the elevation into the specified number of ranges. Note the lines are displayed in ascending low value order. To delete a line. An unlimited number of ranges are supported. and press the Add icon. GEOPAK updates the list box. The created line is added to the list box. and Delete ranges.

it is prudent to set the Minimum Elevation to a number divisible by the Range Increment. set the Range option to Auto Range Increment. however. along with the Minimum and Maximum elevations (or slopes or aspects). The Range Increment is added to the Minimum Elevation as many times as possible until the Maximum Elevation is attained. The resultant dialog is depicted below. Now. in order to utilize even value ranges. The resultant dialog is depicted below. Note the two push buttons to the right of the elevations specify the Minimum and Maximum Elevations of the current Model / Object or TIN. the value is populated within the Minimum or Maximum Elevation field without typing. However. press the Set Range button.Digital Terrain Modeling .994 respectively. Then set the Range Increment to 5.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ ● Auto Range Increment . and set the Number of Ranges to five. and the Minimum and Maximum elevations to 695 and 710. To populate the list box with the specified ranges. Note there are numerous ranges. 12-6 Part I . GEOPAK divides the elevation into as many ranges as necessary at the specified increment. commencing with color 0 and all Active toggles are defaulted on. Leaving the Minimum and Maximum Elevations set to the defaults. By pressing one of the buttons. change the Range to Auto Number of Ranges.) Colors are assigned in order. For example. press the Set Range button. each range is five master units (per our dialog specification.the range increment is specified.

and computed the Low and High Elevations for each range. there are only five ranges (the number specified in the dialog) in the list box. The Title is displayed at the top of the legend. commencing with color 0 and all Active toggles are defaulted on. divided by the number of ranges. wherein the desired symbology may be specified. while the Text and Border parameters are utilized for the rest of the legend. Colors are assigned in order. After the range has been defined and is displayed in the list box. GEOPAK computed the elevation difference.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® In this case. Themes 12-7 . pressing the Create Legend button opens the dialog depicted below. Double clicking on the element symbology line opens the Set Feature dialog below. each 10 master units in range. Note.

To utilize the specified ranges for subsequent sessions. placing the cursor over the element symbology line and right mouse clicking invokes the pop-up menu with the following options: ● Feature dialog (invokes dialog depicted above) ● By Current . 12-8 Part I .can be copied and / or pasted from another Set Feature dialog within GEOPAK One sample of a legend is illustrated below. several File functions are supported as depicted in the exploded view below.prompts the user to select an element to match its symbology ● Copy (and Paste) .Digital Terrain Modeling .GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ In addition.utilizes the active symbology ● By Element .

or aspect) are saved in the same file. 12. height.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® If the Theme Ranges file is not saved.e. The graphic below depicts the resulting lattice image for the dialog depicted above. the last set of Theme Ranges of the same Theme type (i. height. If the Ranges are saved. slope. Note the legend parameters are not saved..e. all ranges (i. or aspect) is utilized in subsequent sessions. Themes 12-9 .3 Elevation Themes Example Height Themes reflect ranges of elevations. A sample Themes dialog for Elevation Ranges is depicted below.. slope.

Note the dialog title has changed to reflect the selection.4 Slope Themes Example Slope themes (in terms of Percent or Degrees) describe the angles of individual lattices or triangles.Degrees and is depicted below. the dialog below is displayed. 12-10 Part I .Digital Terrain Modeling . The main Themes dialog is set to Slope . When the Set Range button is pressed. It is helpful to ascertain the more level and/or the steeper portions of the lattice or triangulated model.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ 12.

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® In this instance. Note that any area not within the Themes ranges (i.Degree dialog above. it is desired to identify the relatively level areas on the project site. more than 25 degrees are not filled. two ranges are defined: from zero to 15 degrees and from 15 to 25 degrees in the Slope Range . Hence. Themes 12-11 .e. defined in this case as those areas with a slope less than 25 degrees.. The graphic below depicts the resulting lattice image for the dialog depicted above.

zero degrees points north. The north axis is defined as zero degrees and angles increase in a clockwise direction. The most direct easterly facings (60 to 120 degrees) are assigned one color. Less direct easterly facings (45 to 60 degrees and 120 to 135 degrees) are assigned another color. Two color shadings are employed.5 Aspect Themes Example Aspect Themes describe the direction that the triangle or lattice plane faces. 90 degrees points east. The graphic below depicts the resulting lattice image for the dialog depicted above. The sample Aspect Ranges dialog below is intended to determine the portion of the triangle or lattice models that face east. Therefore. A level triangle is assigned a default aspect of 360 degrees. Aspect ranges are expressed in degrees.Digital Terrain Modeling .GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ 12. 180 degrees points south and 270 degrees points west. 12-12 Part I .

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Themes 12-13 .

Digital Terrain Modeling .GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ 12-14 Part I .

Hence. which adjusts the Z-coordinates of MicroStation element vertices. Three draping tools are available: vertices. Draping Tools 13-1 . The vector draping tool creates a series of line strings by draping each linear reference element onto the triangulated model.PART I ________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 13 Draping Tools 13. Elements GEOPAK provides tools to drape MicroStation elements onto a triangulated model.2 Drape Vertices Feature / Function Tool Adjust Z-values of MicroStation element vertices coincident with a TIN model. 13. The vertices draping tool adjusts the Zcoordinate values of MicroStation element vertices to the surface of the triangulated model. DTM Menu Bar Drape > Vertices The Drape Vertices dialog. is depicted below. Vectors. The elements tool drapes cells and other MicroStation elements referenced from a MicroStation 2D file. vectors. DTM Menu Bar Drape > Vertices. each vertex of the created line string reflects either a vertex of the original linear element projected onto the triangulated model or an intersection between the original linear element and a triangle edge projected onto the triangulated model.1 Overview Feature / Function Tools Drape elements onto a triangulated model. and elements.

GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ The first step is to type the name of the triangulated model into the TIN keyin field or utilize the File button for selection. Consider the shape element depicted below. Element types and levels must be defined even if the draping element is to be individually selected. Prior to processing. the Z-coordinate for each individual vertex is adjusted to an elevation on the surface of the triangulated model. For elements with several vertices. so a draped text string remains planar. Select the element types and levels of elements to be draped. 13-2 Part I . this shape element is located several hundred meters above the triangulated model. The Z-coordinate at the origin of the text string is adjusted to an elevation on the surface of the triangulated model. The vertices draping tool adjusts the Z-coordinate values of MicroStation element vertices to the surface of the triangulated model.Digital Terrain Modeling . only the origin of the element is adjusted. For text strings.

The identification of the MicroStation elements to be draped can be performed by one of two methods: Select or Fence. The following subsections detail each method.__________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ GEOPAK® The image below depicts the adjusted shape vertices. Draping Tools 13-3 .

Digital Terrain Modeling . you must define the level and element type for the range of elements that might be selected. the element is draped onto the triangulation model. 3. Establish the desired dialog settings. Then adjust the fence option to Inside. Press the Select button. 2. Another data point is then required to accept the element. 13-4 Part I . Press the Fence push button.1 Select Method The Select method permits the selection of individual elements to be draped. you must define the level and type for the range of elements that might be selected.2 Fence Method The Fence method permits the selection of every element that satisfies both the fence criteria as well as the search criteria defined via the dialogs invoked by the Levels and Element Type push buttons. 2. The following outlines the sequence of operations for the Select method. or Clip. 3. Place a MicroStation fence around the range of elements to be draped. 1. The element highlights. Upon acceptance.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ 13.2. In addition. 1. This Processing does not begin until a data point is selected.2. This includes defining the triangulation model onto which the element is draped. The following outlines the sequence of operations associated with the Fence method. This includes defining the triangulation model onto which the element is to be draped. MicroStation Inside. In addition. 13. This requirement is identical to the steps necessary for MicroStation fence operations. Identify the MicroStation element for draping. These are defined via dialogs that are invoked by pressing the Levels and Types buttons. These are defined via dialogs that are invoked by pressing the Levels and Element Types push buttons. Establish the desired dialog settings. Overlap. Overlap and Clip fence options are supported.

while modifying the Z coordinate coincident with a TIN model.__________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ GEOPAK® 13. the dialog depicted below opens. Valid element types are depicted in the graphic below. Draping Tools 13-5 . The first step is to type the name of the triangulated model into the TIN File keyin field. the element types and levels of elements that are to be draped are defined. Tool DTM Menu Bar Drape > Vectors The vector draping tool creates a series of line strings by draping linear reference elements onto the triangulated model. When invoked. Y coordinate values. Then.3 Drape Vectors Feature / Function Drapes MicroStation elements maintaining their X. This is accomplished via two separate dialogs invoked by the Element Type and Levels buttons.

The images below serve to illustrate how the Drape Vectors dialog creates the series of draped line strings.Digital Terrain Modeling . The first image illustrates the triangulated model and the element to be draped which is located several hundred meters above the triangulated model.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Element types and levels must be defined even if the draping element is to be individually selected. 13-6 Part I .

__________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ GEOPAK® The image below depicts the result of the draping vector process. The draped image reflects a series of line strings where each component line string vertex reflects either a vertex of the original linear element projected onto the triangulated model or an intersection between the original linear element and a triangle edge projected onto the triangulated model. Draping Tools 13-7 .

the Drape Elements tool draws into a 3D file maintaining their X. maintaining the integrity of the original element.Digital Terrain Modeling . Y coordinate values. Note the tool must be invoked while in a 3D file. while modifying the Z coordinate coincident with a TIN model (plus optional offset). while modifying the Z coordinate coincident with a TIN model (plus optional offset). The Drape Vertices dialog makes adjustments to the identified elements. When invoked. Tool DTM Menu Bar Drape > Elements Referencing 2D elements. the dialog depicted below opens.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Unlike the Drape Vertices dialog. the Drape Vector dialog produces a copy of the reference element. Y coordinate values. 13.4 Drape Elements Feature / Function References MicroStation 2D elements to draw into a 3D file maintaining their X. 13-8 Part I .

TIN file to utilize for determining elevations for 2D elements. i. Click to display (or undisplay) any elements with the specified search criteria. its symbology is appended to the current values.__________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ GEOPAK® Reference 2D File MicroStation 2D file wherein the candidate elements are drawn. If the original element type is a cell. TIN File Curvilinear Element as: Line String Curve String B-spline Elevation Offset The dialog also provides a keyin for . Stroking is the process of automatically adding shots to the 3D elements by interpolating new shots from the linear and curved sections of the model. In lieu of keying in the file. whereupon the designer can select the desired file. Clears out any values in the Search criteria fields.e. The file name may be manually entered or selected via the Files button. Dictates the element symbology of the candidate elements in the 2D file. GEOPAK draws the 3D elements at the same element symbology as the original 2D elements. pressing the Files button invokes a dialog listing the reference files. no 3D element is drawn. Curve Search Criteria Match Display / Undisplay Reset Apply Draping Tools 13-9 . Commences the process. If the cell is not found. The symbology of the selected element is utilized to populate the toggled on search fields. Stroke Tolerances: Linear. but does not turn off any toggles. GEOPAK scans the attached 3D cell library (or a 3D library in the MS_CELLLIST) to locate a 3D cell of the same name. then select and accept any element. As each additional element is selected. If the 2D element is linear. Refer to the online documentation section for a detailed discussion on stroking. Only parameters to define uniqueness are required. how many master units (feet or meters) above the TIN file the candidate elements should be drawn. three options are supported on the element type to be utilized in the 3D file. Click Match.

GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ 13-10 Part I .Digital Terrain Modeling .

The Profile Dialog is depicted below. Profiles and Heights 14-1 .2 Profile Dialog Feature / Function Tool Draw a profile based on a user defined MicroStation element draped onto a GEOPAK DTM model. Y coordinates (Height). Each tool utilizes a triangulated model and displays either a profile or heights. an object. Displays and optionally draws the elevation of the model at user specified X.1 Overview Feature / Function Viewing profiles of a specified element within TIN model (Profile). which creates a series of line strings by draping each linear reference element onto the triangulated model. 14.Part I___________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 14 Profiles and Heights 14. DTM Menu Bar Analysis > Profile One tool is the Profile dialog. or in the case of site modeler. Tools DTM Menu Bar Analysis > Height or Analysis > Profile Two viewing tools are supported within GEOPAK: Profile and Height.

Minimum and Maximum Stations and Elevations may also be set. Set the element symbology and text parameters for the grid. elevation and station ranges. 3. 2. Note Models and Objects are supported only when a site project is open. ● Profile .GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ The main dialog has three tabs: ● Selection . In addition. 14-2 Part I . ● Preferences . This is accomplished via the Profile tab.profile placement buttons and viewing dialog before drawing the actual profile into the MicroStation file.Y values are utilized to generate a profile along the TIN. Model.Digital Terrain Modeling . This is accomplished via the Selection tab. This is accomplished via the Preferences tab. or Object. Models or Objects through which the profile intersects and set symbology. profile element symbology and create legend button.TIN file. text parameters. Select or draw the element whose X. The basic procedure is as follows: 1. Model or Object specifications.Profile and grid scales. Identify the TIN file(s).

draw the profile into the MicroStation file.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 4. pressing the Files button invokes the Files dialog. wherein the desired file may be selected. Profiles and Heights 14-3 .2. In lieu of typing. The dialog below depicts the subtle difference in that TIN Files. Generate the profile and view in the Profile window. Each tab and step is discussed in more detail. 14.1 Selection Tab The triangulated model is specified in the TIN File keyin field. a Site Model or Site Object may also be utilized. Models or Objects are supported. Optionally. These are accomplished via the Profile tab. If a GEOPAK Site project is open.

prompts the user to select an element to match its symbology. ● Copy (and Paste) . then press the OK button. placing the cursor over the element symbology line and right mouse clicking invokes the pop-up menu with the following options: ● Feature dialog (invokes dialog depicted above). The dialog automatically closes and populates the bottom of the main dialog with the symbology from the Set Feature dialog.utilizes the active symbology. 14-4 Part I .can be copied and / or pasted from another Set Feature dialog within GEOPAK. wherein the symbology can be set. ● By Element . ● By Current . By double clicking on the element symbology line. the dialog depicted below opens.Digital Terrain Modeling . Set the symbology. In addition.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ The symbology of the profile is displayed to the right of the files.

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Any number of TIN files may be utilized. Modify Delete Show Extracted Points Export to ASCII File Highlight one line within the list box. then press this button to create an input file of the profile.248 367. Note the profile element must be selected (or placed) prior to this button being displayed. Add To add a TIN file. Action buttons are located on the right side of the dialog and are detailed in the table below.274 869. One close-up example is depicted below. Model. Note the profile element must be selected (or placed) prior to exporting to ASCII. 0.678 868. the ASCII File for Exported Profile dialog opens. or Object (and associated symbology).913 869. then press the Add button.809 870.553 870. then press the Modify button.000 53. When pressed.814 870. Change the desired field(s).542 84.540 368. the COGO Input File for Exported Profile dialog opens. GEOPAK draws small display circles wherever profile points are extracted. with different profile symbology for each file. To delete a line. To modify. When pressed.184 868. wherein the file name may be specified Note the profile element must Profiles and Heights 14-5 .744 255. One sample fragment is illustrated below. wherein the file name may be specified.359 Store to GPK Highlight one line within the list box.418 869.611 211. populate the edit fields at the bottom of the dialog.107 869. based on the highlighted TIN. simply highlight the line. then press the Delete button.782 337. highlight the line to be modified and GEOPAK populates the edit fields. then press this button to export the profile to the specified File.516 158.479 869. based on the highlighted TIN.631 323. When pressed.

Once the desired TINs (or Models / Objects from the Site Modeler) have been added to the list box.678 868. opening the dialog depicted below. a legend can be created.184 868.63 E END PROFILE 870. These enable the user to save the data for subsequent recall in a later session.52 E VPI 4 S 1+58.Digital Terrain Modeling . Note the profile element must be selected (or placed) prior to exporting to ASCII. One example is depicted below (triangles 3D shown for reference only and were previously drawn. GEOPAK draws a line string denoting the location of the generated profile.814 870.) To save the data within the list box.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ wherein the file name may be specified. This is accomplished by pressing the Create Legend button in the lower left corner of the dialog. several File utilities are supported in the upper left corner (Save. 14-6 Part I .913 869.00 E VPI 2 S 0+53.61 E VPI 5 S 2+11. One sample fragment is illustrated below. STORE PROFILE ???? VPI 1 S 0+00.107 Note the ???? must be replaced with a valid profile name before the file is imported into COGO.54 E VPI 3 S 0+84.74 E VPI 6 S 2+55.) (Note this icon is only visible while in a 3D file. Place Extracted Line in When pressed. Open).553 870. Save As.

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK®

The Title of the legend is specified, along with the Text and Border parameters. Once again, double clicking on the word Sample or the actual border line invokes the Set Feature dialog, wherein the desired parameters may be set. Right mouse clicking also invokes the pop-up menu with the other selection options. When the symbology is set, press the Place Legend button, which attaches the legend to the cursor. Another data point places the legend in the design file. One sample is depicted below.

If Models / Objects are utilized within the Site Modeler, the legend is slightly different as depicted in the graphic below.

Profiles and Heights

14-7

GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________
14.2.2 Preferences Tab

The Preferences tab is depicted above and consists of a variety of element and text parameters. The table below details each grouping. Scale: Horizontal Vertical Elevations: Minimum Maximum Reset Vertical Stationing: Minimum Maximum Reset Stationing Horizontal Grid: Major Interval Minor Interval Major Symbology Minor Symbology Major Text. Major Interval Specify the horizontal and vertical scale utilized to draw the profile. Note the horizontal is drawn to true measurements, while the vertical is distorted. When the Reset Vertical button is pressed, the minimum and maximum values from the TIN file are populated in the appropriate fields. The user may choose to round the values, in order to draw a complete grid. The profile is stationed from 0.00. Pressing the Reset Stations button sets the fields to the beginning and end of the profile element. Once again, to draw a complete grid, the user may round off the values in the fields. Sets all element and text symbology for the horizontal grid. The information is utilized within the Profiles tab and also when drawing the profile into the MicroStation file. Major interval is the distance between the major grid lines, while the minor interval is the number of lines between each major grid. GEOPAK supports unique symbology for both major and minor intervals. The text is stationed along the bottom of the grid.

14-8 Part I - Digital Terrain Modeling

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK®
Vertical Grid: Major Interval Minor Interval Major Symbology Minor Symbology Major Text. Element Symbology Sets all element and text symbology for the vertical grid. The information is utilized within the Profiles tab and also when drawing the profile into the MicroStation file. Major interval is the distance between the major grid lines, while the minor interval is the number of lines between each major grid. GEOPAK supports unique symbology for both major and minor intervals. The text is elevations along the left side of the grid. By double clicking on the sample element graphic, the dialog depicted below is displayed.

By double clicking on the sample text graphic, the dialog depicted below is displayed.

Within these dialogs, all text and element symbology options are supported. Simply set the desired values, then press the OK button to automatically close the dialog and return to the main dialog. Pressing the Cancel button closes the dialog with no changes occurring. The dialog can also be invoked by right mouse clicking on the sample graphic.

Profiles and Heights

14-9

GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________

In addition, placing the cursor over the element symbology line and right mouse clicking invokes the pop-up menu with the following options: ● Feature dialog (invokes dialog depicted above) ● By Current - utilizes the active symbology ● By Element - prompts the user to select an element which is then matched ● Copy (and Paste) - can be copied and / or pasted from another Set Feature dialog within GEOPAK.

14.2.3 Profile Tab

Three action buttons are supported on this tab: ● Select Element
14-10 Part I - Digital Terrain Modeling

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK®
● Place Element ● Place Profile Select Element Identify a previously drawn element, i.e., line, curve, line string, etc., for which the Site Modeler generates the profile(s). Once identified, the Place Profile button is unghosted. Places a temporary line or line string in the Design File to be used in lieu of selecting a graphic element for which the profile will be extracted. After viewing the profile in the view window, pressing the Place Profile button attaches the profile, grids, and labels for drag and drop operation at a user-defined location in the design file. Utilized to add interpolated shots along curves, if required. For a detailed discussion of stroking, refer to the stroking discussion within Preferences. Once the line has been selected or placed, the profile is fitted within the view window, as depicted in the sample below.

Place Element

Place Profile

Curve Stroking

Extracted Profile View

Note all displayed element symbology is defined within the Preferences tab. The graphic below depicts the selected element utilized for profile generation.

Profiles and Heights

14-11

GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________

To place the profile into the MicroStation file, simply press the Place Profile button and data point in a blank area of the file. The profile is drawn as depicted below, once again, utilizing symbology in the Preferences tab.

14.3 Height Query Tool
Feature / Function Tool Determine height and other associated data dynamically based on user-defined data points within the model.

DTM Menu Bar

Analysis > Height

GEOPAK offers a tool by which the plan view coordinates, elevation, and slope of the triangulated model can be interrogated. The dialog used to interrogate the triangulated model is depicted below.

14-12 Part I - Digital Terrain Modeling

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK®

The operation is quite simple. Key in the name of the TIN file. In lieu of typing, pressing the Files button invokes the File Manager, wherein the desired file may be selected. Then press the DP button. A prompt appears to select a data point. Select a data point at any location within the boundary of the triangulated model. If a data point is selected outside the hull, the message displayed is: "Point External To Tin." The Plan View Coordinates, Elevation, and Slope of the triangulated model are populated in the dialog as shown below.

Note: The number of decimal places is based on the GEOPAK User Preferences. The Height dialog automatically updates for each successive data point; you need press the DP button only once.

Profiles and Heights

14-13

● Show Flow Arrow . simply press the Draw button. ● Show Triangle . all three options are active and unique colors set.displays a contour of the same elevation as the selected point. Note the triangles are shown for reference only as the data points do not have to coincide with a triangle vertex. Three options are supported within the dialog: ● Show Contour . the text is justified (in this case center-center) about the selected data point. In the sample dialog below. and select the point on the TIN. In addition. The process is identical to the Display procedure. then select the desired color.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Another option is drawing the elevation into the active MicroStation file.displays an arrow to indicate direction of flow from the selected point. GEOPAK places the elevation utilizing the active element symbology and text parameters.Digital Terrain Modeling . To utilize any option.identifies the triangle wherein the point is located. In addition to displaying the information within the dialog. The graphic below depicts three elevations placed with the Draw option. 14-14 Part I . simply activate the toggle to the left of the option.

the flow arrow points to the right (and is in green). and change as you move about the model.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® The DP button is pressed. all active options are attached to the cursor. The affected triangle (wherein the identified point is located) is red. and a point on the model identified. When the Dynamic button is pressed. same elevation as our selected point. while the blue contour shows the contour at elevation 279.492. Profiles and Heights 14-15 . The results are displayed below.

Digital Terrain Modeling .GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ 14-16 Part I .

which triangles can and cannot be seen. or what is visible between two specified points. The dialogs are depicted below. DTM tool on the left. GEOPAK visually displays lines of sight. Based on a userdefined point of origin. which utilizes a TIN model. or if a Site Modeler project is open.Part I___________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 15 Visibility 15.1 Overview Feature / Function Tool Determine visibility of triangles from a given point on the model Road: Site Modeler: DTM Menu Bar Analysis > Visibility GEOPAK supports a visibility tool. Visibility 15-1 . a Model or Object. Modeler on the right.

For example. Selecting the File button invokes a File Manager wherein the desired TIN may be selected. The user can manually type in the elevation for the User Supplied option. if the eye position elevation is below the model. a Point Not Visible message is displayed. this can occur. then the name from the list. The other option is to select a point within the TIN hull and GEOPAK determines the elevation by 15-2 Part I . followed by numerous examples. TIN File Model / Object GEOPAK binary TIN file. Note in order to display or draw. only partial lines are visible until a MicroStation Fit All command is executed. Otherwise.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Fields within the dialog are detailed below. If a Site Modeler project is open.Digital Terrain Modeling . select the toggle for Object or Model. Eye Position: Drape on TIN User Supplied Defines the point of origin. If the specified parameters cannot be met. the defined eye position must be within the display depth of the file.

the visible and non-visible elements are not drawn in the design file. all elements placed within the single press of the Process button form a graphic group for easy manipulation an deletion. but merely displayed. When activated. the elevation is displayed to the right of the option. Note When the the the not Redraw Display Settings: Visible Not Visible Display Only Fill Polygonize When active. GEOPAK displays the coordinates of the selected point. This option is only supported in the Surface Regions Polygonize toggle is activated. triangles. the regions are not filled. Therefore. Graphic Group Visibility Parameters Visibility Type: Line of Sight Visibility 15-3 . any execution of a screen refresh or view control command will remove the elements from the screen. utilizing the MicroStation active element symbology. the eye position is adjusted by the specified Offset Height from the defined Eye Position. MicroStation View Attributes Fill must also be active. place a data point to define the origin. This applies only in the Surface Regions option. This group box defines the various types of visibility tools. each with its own set of user defined requirements. the group box dynamically changes to reflect the selection. When active. rather than just outlined. Y DP When the toggle is activated. When the Fill toggle is polygon regions are filled. when active. Y coordinates of the point of origin or pressing the DP button.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® a point within the TIN hull and GEOPAK determines the elevation by draping the point on the TIN. The user may manually type in the X. Four tools are supported. but simply outlined. As each selection is made. When the Drape on TIN option is utilized. activated. A display circle is visualized. There is no user parameters for the display circle size. and the display circle disappears. pressing the Redraw button visually displays it on the screen again. In the course of executing view control or other commands. Offset Height X. all contiguous visible (or all non-visible) triangles are outlined in a single polygon. etc. Defines the element symbology to draw the visible and non visible lines.

this tool displays a line between the two points of varying color.Given the point of origin (Eye Position) and the point to sight (DP). The optional Offset Height. One sample result is illustrated below. 15-4 Part I . depending whether it is visible or not visible. no additional user requirements are needed. The black display circle indicates the Eye Position. functionally the same as in the Eye Position. As the Eye Position is defined at the top of the dialog. is also supported. Small display circles are visible for both the Eye Position and the Sight position. Drape on TIN or User Supplied. Surface Points In this tool. GEOPAK displays each vertex in the model as visible or not visible.Digital Terrain Modeling . One resultant graphic is illustrated below.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Line of Sight . User defined requirements include the specification of the elevation using the same options are in the eye position. The data point is defined by manually typing in coordinates or dynamically placing a data point on the screen.

No additional user input is required. One sample result is depicted below. each triangle is drawn as visible or not visible. Visibility 15-5 .__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Surface Lines Given the original eye position (indicated by the small dark circle.

100 degrees was utilized. Therefore.Digital Terrain Modeling . Radials are determined by moving in a counterclockwise direction. the entire 360 degrees is divided into the specified number of wedges. One sample is depicted below. In this case. the odd wedge is always directly below the initial radial.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Surface Regions This option displays radials emanating from the original eye position with two options. the angle is specified. using a 30 degree Radial Angle. as depicted in the graphic below. GEOPAK determines the number of wedges drawn. The angle between each radial is the specified degrees. 15-6 Part I . Since 360 divided by 30 yields 12 wedges. The initial radial always begins going Due East (horizontally to the right from the Eye Position). If the Radial Number option is selected. If 360 degrees is not equally divisible by the Radial Angle. When the Radial Angle is activated. we could get the same results by specifying a Radial Number of 12. with GEOPAK determining the radial degrees of each wedge.

as depicted below. The results can also be filled. no lines emanate from the origin point. the display is very different. As the Radial options are now ghosted. Areas of visibility are outlined (or filled if the Fill toggle is active).__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® When the Polygonize toggle is activated. Visibility 15-7 . as depicted below.

15-8 Part I .GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ 15. the black circle indicates the Eye Position.Digital Terrain Modeling .2 Surface Points Example In this first example. The dialog is depicted below.

Visibility 15-9 . The same settings produced the isometric view below.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® This is based on the point draped on the TIN model. Each vertex on the model is marked as visible or not visible. with an Offset Height of 4. utilizing the colors specified with the dialog. The illustration below is the top view.

Digital Terrain Modeling .3 Line of Sight Example In this example. Note the change in line symbology where the solid line indicates visibility and the dashed line is not visible.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ 15. In the illustration below. The dialog is depicted below. the original eye position is at the top of the model. two points are user-defined: the original eye position and the point being sighted. 15-10 Part I . Both top and isometric view are illustrated.

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Visibility 15-11 .

The dialog is depicted below. 15-12 Part I . Given the original eye position (indicated by the small dark circle.4 Surface Lines Example In this example. The illustrations below show both plan and isometric view. the surface lines option is utilized. each triangle is drawn as visible or not visible.Digital Terrain Modeling .GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ 15.

Visibility 15-13 .__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 15.4 Surface Regions Example In this example. The dialog is depicted below. the surface regions option is utilized.

thereby emanating from the original eye position in 30 degree increments. 15-14 Part I .Digital Terrain Modeling .GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ The Radial Angle is set to 30. Both visible (solid) and not visible (dashed) lines are illustrated below in plan and isometric view.

the dialog changes as depicted below.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® When the Polygonize toggle is activated. Visibility 15-15 .

.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Note the Radial options are now ghosted. In addition. 15-16 Part I . the Fill option is available.Digital Terrain Modeling . both plan view and isometric view. The results are depicted below.

Models or Objects may be utilized as depicted below.1 Overview GEOPAK supports a myriad of tools to analyze and evaluate drainage patterns of a GEOPAK Digital Terrain Model. the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection. and hydrographic features are invoked from the Drainage Tools tool box as depicted in the dialog below. As each tool is selected. However. Tools for delineating watersheds. flow directions. flow paths. When invoked in GEOPAK Road. TIN Files are the basis for evaluation. if a GEOPAK Site Modeler Project is open. DTM Drainage Tools 16-1 .Part I___________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 16 DTM Drainage Tools 16.

Therefore. the discussion below is relevant to any symbology option in all tools. When a MicroStation fence is placed and the toggle is activated. elements are displayed and not drawn. Commences the procedure. Therefore. If a Site Modeler project is open. all drawn elements are placed in a single graphic group each time the Apply button is pressed. When activated. which operate functionally the same in all dialogs. TIN File Model / Object GEOPAK binary TIN file. Selecting the File button invokes a File Manager wherein the desired TIN may be selected. which operate functionally the same in all dialogs. the display is erased when the screen is refreshed or any view control command is executed. Fields which are unique to each dialog are detailed within each tool.Digital Terrain Modeling . select the toggle for Object or Model. then the name from the list. Display Only Load Within Fence Set Graphic Group Apply Many of the tools have element symbology specifications. When activated. which are detailed below. Therefore. only elements within the fence are drawn or displayed. Many of the tools have element symbology specifications.GEOPAK® ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Many of the tools have common fields. the discussion below is relevant to any symbology option in all tools. 16-2 Part I .

the dialog depicted below is displayed. Within these dialogs. Simply set the desired values.___________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Element Symbology By double clicking on the sample element graphic. In addition. Pressing the Cancel button closes the dialog with no changes occurring. the dialog depicted below is displayed. The dialog can also be invoked by right mouse clicking on the sample graphic. then press the OK button to automatically close the dialog and return to the main dialog. all text and element symbology options are supported. By double clicking on the sample text graphic. placing the cursor over the element symbology line and right mouse clicking invokes the pop-up menu with the following DTM Drainage Tools 16-3 .

GEOPAK® ____________________________________________________________________________________________ options: • • • • Feature dialog (invokes dialog depicted above) By Current . MicroStation shapes may be created for each watershed contained in the TIN.utilizes the active symbology By Element . 16. A Watershed is defined by either a low point within the TIN or a low edge point along the TIN hull.can be copied and / or pasted from another Set Feature dialog within GEOPAK.2 Delineate All Watersheds The Delineate All Watersheds tool displays the watershed boundaries that exist within a DTM. The figure below is a typical result of delineating the watersheds with shapes being crested for the contributing watershed to each low point within the TIN. Selection of the Delineate All Watersheds icon invokes the dialog depicted below.Digital Terrain Modeling .prompts the user to select an element which is then matched Copy (and Paste) . 16-4 Part I .

set the value to a depth. in master units (feet or meters). each watershed is filled in a different color. many of these areas are simply small indentations Depth or dips in the model. However. voids within the TIN file are outlined. it is identified as a low point and the drainage area is delimited. then determines if water placed at the specified depth overflows the indentation and flows into adjacent triangles. and low points and determines more precise flow boundaries within the triangles. for which areas are delineated. more specifically it insert DTM Drainage Tools 16-5 . When activated. Note when the MicroStation fill attribute is active. the Minimum Low Point Depth is not utilized. When activated. points on the adjacent triangles are given the depth test until a point is found where the depth test does not overflow. It does not retriangulate. this option processes the entire TIN evaluating ridges. This point is then marked as a low point and all associated drainage areas are assigned to it. Zero Slope Areas Void Areas Minimum Low Point In many TINs. Refine Watershed When activated. To utilize this option. If it does not flow into adjacent triangles. GEOPAK determines each low point. When set to zero. triangles which have zero slope are outlined. If it does flow into adjacent triangles. there are numerous low points. where water would flow through to a nearby lower point. Watersheds Outline of all watersheds within the TIN file.___________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Fields in this dialog are described in the table below. sumps.

This facilitates subdividing watersheds as is often necessary in drainage facility design. Triangles that currently represent ridges or are not bounding the watershed ridges are not altered. Upon the creation of the refined watershed TIN.GEOPAK® ____________________________________________________________________________________________ lines within the TIN that actually represent flow divides. Note in the figure below.Digital Terrain Modeling . the triangle boundaries that exist in an original TIN file versus the location of the true watershed boundary. A data point representing the pour point of the watershed is indicated and the contributing watershed area is computed and delineated. This tool also relies on the overall watershed boundary containing the pour point be selected. Pour points must be located near sumps in the terrain because a point lying on the side of a hill does not actually have a contributing area. The resulting watersheds can then remove previously defined upstream watersheds to depict conditions as would occur if structures upstream are intercepting portions of the contributing watershed.3 Delineate Watershed The Delineate Watershed tool further delineates watersheds at any location within the TIN. 16. this region appears as follows: Notice the triangle boundaries follow the true watershed boundary and utilized in the creation of the watersheds. 16-6 Part I . The Delineate Watershed tool is provided for such a purpose and is depicted below.

Any MicroStation element or group of elements may be selected. Either graphical selection of the overall boundary or automatic selection based on symbology if the Use Boundary Selection Criteria toggle is active. either those watersheds created previously with the Drainage tools or user defined boundaries. Element symbology for placed basin and used if the Use Boundary Selection Criteria toggle is activated as the boundary selection criteria. Points must be adjacent to sumps so that a contributing area physically exists. of the desired watershed. Commences the definition of the overall watershed boundary. DP Pour Point The data point indicating the pour point. If the point is not adjacent to a sump DTM Drainage Tools 16-7 . Use Boundary Selection Criteria Boundary Area Selection Criteria Pick Boundary Elements Toggle to indicate the overall watershed boundary is selected using the symbolic criteria. most downstream point.___________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Fields in this dialog are described in the table below.

this commences final construction of the watershed shape. The dialog is depicted below. The Pick Boundary Point must be executed prior to this in order to establish the most remote limits of the watershed. A data point within the basin is required for completion. DP Create Point Upon execution of the Pick Boundary Point and DP Pour Point functions.Digital Terrain Modeling . Otherwise. 16-8 Part I . Model or Object. This tool performs a downstream trace from the centroid of each triangle contained in the region specified. a watershed cannot be constructed. the basin shape is constructed 16. If the execution of Set Boundary and DP Pour Point does not result in an entirely closed region.GEOPAK® ____________________________________________________________________________________________ line. no action is taken.4 Drainage Patterns The Drainage Patterns tool evaluates the flow paths contained in a region of the TIN.

___________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Note the text placement utilizes the current MicroStation text parameters. DTM Drainage Tools 16-9 .

GEOPAK® ____________________________________________________________________________________________ One sample is depicted below. 16-10 Part I . The results appear similar to the following illustration providing visualization of the flow patterns within the TIN. Note the triangles are for reference only.Digital Terrain Modeling .

and the downstream trace is drawn. GEOPAK determines each low point. for which areas are delineated. The indicated path follows the steepest descent from the point through the TIN terminating at a low point or the edge of the TIN. Apply DTM Drainage Tools 16-11 . set the value to a depth. The user is prompted to place a data point in a top view. The dialog is depicted below. If it does flow into adjacent triangles. many of these areas are simply small indentations or dips in the model. it is identified as a low point and the drainage area is delimited. the Minimum Low Point Depth is not utilized. points on the adjacent triangles are given the depth test until a point is found where the depth test does not overflow. then determines if water placed at the specified depth overflows the indentation and flows into adjacent triangles. Commences the Downstream Trace processing. Fields in this dialog are described in the table below. However. Minimum Low Point Depth In many TINs. Subsequent points may be placed without reselecting the Apply button.5 Downstream Trace The Downstream Trace tool delineates the flow path downstream from a given point in the TIN. This point is then marked as a low point. If it does not flow into adjacent triangles. where water would flow through to a nearby lower point. in master units (feet or meters). there are numerous low points. When set to zero.___________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 16. To utilize this option.

Subsequent points may be placed without reselecting the Apply button. and the upstream trace is drawn.6 Upstream Trace The Upstream Trace Tool delineates the flow path upstream from a given point in the TIN. 16.Digital Terrain Modeling . The indicated path follows the steepest ascent from the point through the TIN terminating at a high point or the edge of the TIN. 16-12 Part I . Note the triangles are shown for reference only. The user is prompted to place a data point in a top view. Apply Commences the Upstream Trace processing.GEOPAK® ____________________________________________________________________________________________ One sample TIN and downstream trace is depicted below. The dialog is depicted below.

___________________________________________________________GEOPAK® One sample TIN and upstream trace lines are depicted below. DTM Drainage Tools 16-13 . Note the triangles are shown for reference only.

GEOPAK® ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. The dialog is depicted below. Fields in this dialog are described in the table below.7 Flow Arrows The Flow Arrows tool indicates the direction of flow within the triangles for a given region of the TIN. Arrow Size Size of Flow Arrow in master units. 16-14 Part I .Digital Terrain Modeling .

DTM Drainage Tools 16-15 . If it does not flow into adjacent triangles. then determines if water placed at the specified depth overflows the indentation and flows into adjacent triangles. Fields in this dialog are described in the table below.___________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 16. GEOPAK determines each low point. A flow arrow is placed and the text "LP" is placed at the triangle vertex. in master units (feet or meters). Note the text placement utilizes the current MicroStation text parameters and are not included within the Set Feature dialog. it is identified as a low point and the drainage area is delimited. Arrow Size Minimum Low Point Depth Size of Low Point Arrow in master units. When set to zero. there are numerous low points. the Minimum Low Point Depth is not utilized. set the value to a depth. If it does flow into adjacent triangles. where water would flow through to a nearby lower point. points on the adjacent triangles are given the depth test until a point is found where the depth test does not overflow.8 Delineate Low Points The Delineate Low Points tool locates all low points within a region of a TIN. This point is then marked as a low point. To utilize this option. many of these areas are simply small indentations or dips in the model. However. for which areas are delineated. In many TINs. The dialog is depicted below.

9 Delineate High Points The Delineate High Points tool locates all the high points within a region of a TIN. A flow arrow is placed and the text "HP" is placed at the triangle vertex. 16-16 Part I . The dialog is depicted below. Note the triangles are for reference only.Digital Terrain Modeling .GEOPAK® ____________________________________________________________________________________________ One sample is depicted below. Arrow Size Size of High Point Arrow in master units. 16.

Note the triangles are for reference only. DTM Drainage Tools 16-17 .10 Delineate Ridge Lines The Delineate Ridge Lines tool indicates the ridge lines within a region of a TIN. A ridge line is defined as a triangle edge where the flow on each side of the edge is away from the edge.___________________________________________________________GEOPAK® One sample is depicted below. 16. The dialog is depicted below.

GEOPAK® ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 16.11 Delineate Sump Lines The Delineate Sump Lines tool indicates the sump lines within a region of a TIN. 16-18 Part I . The dialog is depicted below. A sump line is defined as a triangle edge where the flow on each side of the edge is towards the edge and is found in areas of concentrated flows such as streams and ditches.Digital Terrain Modeling .

the pond delineation is graphically displayed.___________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 16. and maximum elevation.12 Surface Ponds The Surface Ponds tool delineates the area(s) of ponded water within the specified TIN. In addition.13 Pond Analysis The Pond Analysis tool traces a point downstream to a low point and fills it giving the volume. 16. maximum depth. The dialog is depicted below. DTM Drainage Tools 16-19 . The dialog is depicted below.

Digital Terrain Modeling . Maximum Water Surface and Maximum Water Depth are automatically populated. 16-20 Part I . then place a data point on the screen within the confines of the specified TIN hull.GEOPAK® ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Simply press the Apply button. and the pond delineation is drawn. The dialog Volume.

Menu Bar Application Analysis > Trace Slope Path 17. the dialog depicted below opens. or Site Object at a specified slope. Note the functionality for a TIN file. while the right graphic illustrates the site modeler options. If the site modeler is open. a site model or object.Part I___________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 17 Trace Slope Path Feature / Function Tools Traces a path along a Tin.1 Overview The Trace Slope Path tool traces a path along a TIN file. When selected. or if site modeler is active. all available models (or objects) in the current project are Trace Slope Path 17-1 . Select Model or Object by activating the toggle to the left of the desired option. TIN File Model / Object Manually enter the desired TIN File. The left graphic is for a TIN file. or press the Files button to select via File Manager. the discussion utilizes a site example. therefore. Site Model. site model or site object are identical. When the tool is selected.

As each option is selected. GEOPAK moves radially from the user-defined point out the Distance (in master units) to determine the limit of the slope paths. The path will stop if a path at the specified slope does not exist. Simply specify the desired slope option and key in the desired value. each trace is drawn at a maximum of the distance (in master units). Method: Follow Slope Direct Slope The Follow Slope method moves along the surface of the model or object at the specified slope. Therefore.Digital Terrain Modeling . the GEOPAK Site Modeler computes all other values and populates the dialog.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ listed. When the Follow Slope method is utilized. using the endpoint of the first point and the radial distance to determine the new endpoint. the various paths are displayed. By double clicking on the element symbology. the fields dynamically change to reflect the selection. When a slope is keyed in. the second path is displayed. therefore it normally is not a straight line. Slope from the initial point to new endpoint. thereby resulting in higher elevations for the new endpoint. Then it determines which radial path satisfies the slope condition computed between the Model / Object elevation of the initial point and the Model / Object elevation at the distance point. the dialog depicted below is displayed. Select from the list. Slope run:rise Slope rise:run Slope % Slope Unit / Unit Distance Element Symbology 17-2 Part I . A positive slope indicates the slope will be projected upward from the initial point to the new endpoint. The slope signage (+/-) indicates the vertical direction from the initial data point to the displayed endpoint. but follows the specified slope of the model or object. Note the trace is not linear. then computes the slope between the points and draws a line. When the Direct Slope method is selected. When a data point is placed to accept the first slope trace. The Direct Slope method uses only the object or model elevation at each endpoint. As the cursor is moved. the surface of the model or object between the endpoints is ignored. all the specified distance from the initial point and all at the specified slope.

In addition. the following Alert message is displayed. The dialog can also be invoked by right mouse clicking on the sample graphic. then press the OK button to automatically close the dialog and return to the main dialog. all text and element symbology options are supported.can be copied and / or pasted from another Set Feature dialog within GEOPAK. placing the cursor over the element symbology line and right mouse clicking invokes the pop-up menu with the following options: ● Feature dialog (invokes dialog depicted above) ● By Current . Pressing the Cancel button closes the dialog with no changes occurring. GEOPAK displays (or draws) the resultant path. GEOPAK determines the trace slope path. If no solution is found.utilizes the active symbology ● By Element . Within these dialogs. After the user places a data point on the screen. If a solution is found.prompts the user to select an element which is then matched ● Copy (and Paste) . Simply set the desired values. Trace Slope Path 17-3 . Each additional data point accepts the current path. then dynamically displays the next possible solution. DP Pressing the DP button commences the procedure and prompts the user for a data point.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Within this dialog.

When DP2 is placed on the screen. Note the solution between DP 3 and DP 4 has almost a 90 degree turn in it. the first line string which was dynamically displayed at the time of the data point is now fixed. Therefore. new solutions are dynamically displayed. There is also a small turn at the end of this segment near DP 4. The graphic below illustrates the traced slope path when five data points have been defined. The Slope is set to 20:1 and the Distance is 35 master units.Digital Terrain Modeling . Using DP 2 as the initial endpoint. 17-4 Part I . based on the terrain of the model apartment. the line string meanders along a path of the specified slope until it is 35 master units long (or less if there is no solution. various solutions are displayed. In this example. as a result of the dialog above.8.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Each possible solution is comprised of a line string 35 master units long and whose slope is based on actual slope of the model or object.1 Follow Slope Example One sample dialog for the Follow Slope Method is illustrated below. The initial data point is placed on the screen and as the cursor is moved. the Apartment Model is utilized.

the first line which was dynamically displayed at the time of the data point is Trace Slope Path 17-5 . When DP2 is placed on the screen. various solutions are displayed.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 9. The Slope is set to 20:1 and the Distance is 35 master units.8. The initial data point is placed on the screen and as the cursor is moved. The graphic below illustrates the traced slope path when seven data points have been defined. as a result of the dialog above. Each possible solution is comprised of a line 35 master units long and whose slope is based on the elevation of the initial data point (on model apartment) and the elevation of endpoint (also based on the model apartment).2 Direct Slope Example One sample dialog for the Direct Slope is illustrated below. the Apartment Model is utilized. In this example.

Note the DP button on the dialog is only pressed once at the beginning of the procedure. Once again. To lock in the desired element. 17-6 Part I . as the cursor is moved. Using DP 2 as the initial endpoint.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ now fixed. The process continues with each data point defining another segment of the specified length and computed slope. the display changes.Digital Terrain Modeling . simply place DP 3 on the screen. and only elevations of the data points draped on the model or object are utilized. new solutions are dynamically displayed. Note that the terrain of the model between the data points is ignored in the Direct Slope method.

checking triangulation and exporting to Trimble DTX. Locate Camera and Target Locate Camera Locate Target DTM Camera 18-1 . the tool frame depicted below opens. DTM Menu Bar Analysis The DTM Camera tool frame supports a wide variety of tools and options to view Digital Terrain models within a MicroStation 3D file. The triangles should be drawn into the file utilizing the Load DTM Features prior to invoking the DTM Camera tool.1 Overview Feature / Function Tool A variety of utility tools including various conversions.2 Surface Navigation Camera Tool Frame Ten tools are located on the Surface Navigation Camera and are detailed in the table below. When the icon is selected.Part I___________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 18 DTM Camera 18. along with the associated Tool Settings. 18.

Select the tool. which is the Control View. 18-2 Part I . with the target point centered between them. To set both the camera and target." Note the Surface Camera Settings define the camera and target heights. The camera view is the location where the camera is located. while the target view is what would be seen looking through the view finder of the camera. One example is illustrated below. The camera is located at the point of the V in view 1. To set either the camera or target.3 Locate Camera and Target Tools Locate Camera and Target Locate Camera Locate Target Three tools are supported to set the camera an targets. then data point on the desired location(s) within the Control View. only one data point is required.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Fly Path Surface Camera Settings Inherit Z When Navigating Navigate Camera Zoom Camera Out Zoom Camera In Display More Camera Settings 18. two data points are required. View two shows the view one might see from "behind the camera. The two solid lines indicate the range of the pan.Digital Terrain Modeling .

4 Fly Path The Fly Path tool requires two data points. The beginning and ending points of the fly through are defined via data points.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 18. as all other required information is already defined in the Surface Camera Settings dialog. GEOPAK moves along the model based on the interval in the Surface Camera Settings dialog. the Control View displays the clipping limits and the . as illustrated below. When complete. DTM Camera 18-3 .

and the two blue lines to the lower corners of the camera view.Digital Terrain Modeling . it is color coded. The Surface Flight Camera tool is also opened upon commencement of the flight. When the initial flight is complete. the red line equates to the top left corner of the camera view.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ To assist you in relating the view cone to the camera view. In the view cone geometry. the Navigate Camera dialog is automatically opened and set to Fly mode in order to change settings and maneuver through the model. the green line to the top right corner. 18-4 Part I . or to the beginning or end by use of the double arrow buttons. The VCR style buttons enable the user to fly back and forth within the flight.

as depicted below. Inheriting the Z value of the model can also be toggled on / off from the Inherit tool on the tool frame.5 Surface Camera Settings A variety of settings are defined within the Surface Camera Settings dialog. The Control view (normally a top view) is used to define camera and target locations. At the top of the dialog. The distance above the elements determines the perspective of the model. DTM Camera 18-5 . the Control and Camera View are defined. and I s where the projection lines and clipping lines are displayed.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 18. The elevations for the camera and target can be defined via graphic elements (such as triangles) by defining an Elevation or by specifying a TIN file.

the user is prompted to define the two data points or select the element. 18-6 Part I .GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Front Clip From Camera Back Clip From Camera Sets the distance. Keyboard Key Left arrow. from the camera to the front clipping plane. you can change the default navigation options. Based on this setting. the front clipping plane is at the camera origin (no clipping). <A> or <J> Effect Same as moving the mouse to the left. 18. The Flight Path can be defined by two data points.7 Navigate Camera When you open the Navigate Camera view control for the first time. If off.6 Inherit Z When Navigating The Inherit Z When Navigating icon acts as a toggle to turn on and off the inheritance of the elevation. without adjusting any settings. The tool tip indicates the status of the toggle each time the icon is clicked. speed. there is no user prompts. in working units. As the chain is selected within this dialog. in working units. it is in Basic Mode. Other options determine whether the camera and target are stationary or moving during the flight. 18. navigation options for the keyboard and the mouse are predefined.Digital Terrain Modeling . and orientation. so you can move through a design immediately. there is no back The settings at the bottom of the dialog are utilized for Fly Path. The following list contains all the keyboard shortcuts used to control camera movement. In Advanced Mode. In Basic Mode. from the camera to the back clipping plane. Controls the distance. If off. The Increment determines the distance between each step of the flight along the flight path. a graphic element or a chain.

Home. if your Degrees is set to 30. <W> or <I> Down arrow. then resets the camera´s elevation angle to zero degrees (camera is horizontal to the ground). if you had increased your Distance by 10 percent (from 10 feet to 11 feet).resets the roll. Changes are applied to both the Arrow Keys and the Mouse column.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Right arrow. Changes are applied to both the Arrow Keys and the Mouse column. For example. elevation. Changes are applied to both the Arrow Keys and the Mouse column.resets the roll. pressing the <[> key on your keyboard increases the Degrees to 33 degrees. For example. Changes are applied to both the Arrow Keys and the Mouse column. pressing the Home key on your keyboard: once . Resets the camera´s roll. Decreases the Distance field by (approximately) 10 percent. <S> or <K> Same as moving the mouse to the right. Decreases the Degrees fields by (approximately) 10 percent. For example. and Orient fields under Camera Orientation in the Define Camera tool settings window).resets the camera´s tilt angle to zero degrees (roll). Increases the Degrees field by 10 percent. three times . if you had increased your Degrees by 10 percent (from 30 degrees to 33 degrees). Increases the Distance field by 10 percent. if your Distance is set to 10 (feet). pressing the <-> key on your keyboard decreases the Distance back to 10 feet. <D> or <L> Up arrow. twice . pressing the <]> key on your keyboard decreases the Degrees back to 30 degrees. then resets the camera´s orientation angle to zero degrees (camera is in the direction of the positive Xaxis). Elevate. Same as moving the mouse backward. and orientation (see the Roll. then resets the elevation. pressing the <+> key on your keyboard increases the Distance to 11 feet. <Q> or <U> <+> <[> <-> <]> DTM Camera 18-7 . For example. Same as moving the mouse forward. For example.

For example. or moving the mouse forward — moves the camera forward along the current angle of the camera. or moving the mouse to the left — moves the camera left. or moving the mouse to the left/right — same as Turn. turn left/right: ● Up arrow. parallel to the ground (as if you are looking straight out of the window of a train moving in the direction of your left shoulder). Advanced Mode 18-8 Part I . ● Down arrow.Digital Terrain Modeling .GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ Active View Basic Mode Sets the view in which to navigate the camera. ● Left arrow. For example. perpendicular to the ground (as if you were looking straight out of a glass elevator that was going down). or moving the mouse forward — moves the camera up. ● Left/right arrow. or moving the mouse backward — turns the camera downward. Allows the use of custom keymaps. or moving the mouse backward — moves the camera backward at the current angle of the camera. ● Left arrow. if camera is pointed at an upward angle. Turn — Turn about camera axes: ● Up arrow. perpendicular to the ground (as if you were looking straight out of a glass elevator that was going up). you will move backward and downward along that angle. perpendicular to the ground (as if standing still and turning your head toward the sky). Fly — Move forward/back. you will move forward and upward along that angle. Slide — Move up/down/left/right in camera plane: ● Up arrow. or moving the mouse backward — moves the camera down. or moving the mouse to the right — turns the camera to the right parallel to the ground (as if standing still and turning your head toward the right). or moving the mouse to the left — turns the camera to the left parallel to the ground (as if standing still and turning your head toward the left). Uses the default keyboard and mouse settings for controlling camera movement. perpendicular to the ground (as if standing still and turning your head toward the ground). ● Right arrow. or moving the mouse forward — turns the camera upward. ● Down arrow. The navigation option that you choose from this location in the settings window only applies to the keyboard. if the camera is pointed at an upward angle. ● Down arrow.

● Left/right arrow. Glide — Move forward/back/left/right in camera plane: ● Up/down arrow. parallel to the tilt of the camera. left/right swivel: ● Up arrow. or moving the mouse forward — moves the camera forward. Dolly — Move forward/back/left/right at current height: ● Up/down arrow. ● Left/right arrow. Float — Move up/down/left/right in design plane: ● Up/down arrow. parallel to the ground (as if walking away from the design). ● Left/right arrow. or moving the mouse to the left/right — same as Float. ● Left arrow. Tilt — Tilt camera about camera axes: ● Up/down arrow. Swivel — Turn about design axes: ● Up/down arrow. ● Right arrow. parallel to the ground (as if walking into the design). except that the camera moves up or down perpendicular to the tilt of the camera. and stops when it points straight up or straight down. DTM Camera 18-9 . or moving the mouse to the left — turns (swivels) the camera to the left. or moving the mouse to the left/right — Similar to Slide. or moving the mouse to the left/right — same as Slide. except that the camera moves to the left or right parallel to the tilt of the camera. parallel to the tilt of the camera. or moving the mouse forward/backward — similar to Turn. ● Left/right arrow. or moving the mouse forward/backward — same as Fly. or moving the mouse backward — moves the camera backward. or moving the mouse to the left/right — same as Swivel. or moving the mouse to the right — turns (swivels) the camera to the right. parallel to the ground (as if you are looking straight out of the window of a train moving in the direction of your right shoulder). except that the camera turns up or down perpendicular to the tilt of the camera.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® ● Right arrow. or moving the mouse forward/backward — same as Turn. or moving the mouse forward/backward — same as Walk. or moving the mouse forward/backward — Similar to Slide. ● Down arrow. or moving the mouse to the right — moves the camera right. Walk — Move forward/back at current height.

you can assign the same navigation options to the mouse as you can to the keyboard. If on. or moving the mouse to the left — tilts the camera to the left (as if standing still and leaning your head toward your left shoulder).GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ ● Left arrow. (Advanced Mode only) Clicking these buttons is analogous to pressing the Arrow buttons corresponding arrow keys on the keyboard. Mouse Control Show Shortcut Keys (?) 18-10 Part I . Pressing the <?> key on the keyboard also displays the default shortcuts. ● Right arrow.Digital Terrain Modeling . If off. and the Display View Cone option. (Advanced Mode only) Using the Mouse combo box. only the keyboard is enabled for controlling camera movements. the mouse is enabled (in addition to the keyboard) for controlling camera movements. The arrow buttons change depending on the navigation option chosen. Show Settings/Hide Settings Shows/hides the Shift. Displays the default shortcuts for the keyboard and the mouse. or moving the mouse to the right — tilts the camera to the right (as if standing still and leaning your head toward your right shoulder). Ctrl and Ctrl-Shift settings (Advanced Mode only). the Distance and Degrees fields.

If Mouse Control is off. you can control the camera using the <CTRL-arrow> key or <CTRL-mouse> combination. the Distance field sets the distance traveled (in working units) when you move the mouse from the left-most point in the view to the right-most point in the view. If you want to use the mouse as well as the keyboard to control the camera. Once set. Set Mode to Basic. (Advanced Mode only) Allows you to assign a navigation option to the <CTRLShift> key combination (see navigation options). Sets the distance.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® (Advanced Mode only) Allows you to assign a navigation option to the <Shift> key (see navigation options). displays the orientation of the camera in the non-active views. Distance For the mouse. Once set. Sets the angle for each camera movement. 2. you can control the camera using the <CTRL-SHIFT-arrow> key or <CTRL-SHIFT-mouse> combination. DTM Camera 18-11 . Shift key Ctrl key Ctrl-Shift Degrees Display View Cone To move the camera through a view window using the Basic Mode 1. From the Active View option menu. in working units. Select the Navigate Camera view control from the Surface Navigation Camera tool frame. turn on Mouse Control. all settings pertaining to the mouse are disabled (dimmed). select a view. 3. (Advanced Mode only) Allows you to assign a navigation option to the <Ctrl> key (see navigation options). If on. Once set. 4. you can control the camera using the <SHIFT-arrow> key or <SHIFT-mouse> combination. for each camera movement.

letter keys. Press any of the arrow keys. For example. or keyboard combinations to move the camera through the active view. only mouse accept points are recognized as viewing operations. 8. and the view is restored to its condition before the Tilt operation. (Optional) Turn on Display View Cone. enter the angle for each movement of the camera. (Optional) In the Degree field. the keyboard input is ignored. (Optional) Click the Show Shortcuts keys (?) button for a list of the default keyboard and mouse navigation settings. enter the distance for each movement of the camera. 6. Distance is in Working Units. click the Show Settings button. 9. (Optional) To display more settings. Note: When using View Previous and View Next. accept and then Walk forward using the keyboard. To move the camera through a view window using the Advanced Mode 18-12 Part I . 10. then move the mouse to move the camera. if in a view you Tilt the camera with the mouse. when you click the View Previous view control. 7. Enter another data point to accept and stop moving the camera. enter a data point to select the active view. or Reset to restore the view´s starting position.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. (Optional) In the Distance field. or If you are using the mouse.Digital Terrain Modeling .

If you want to use the mouse as well as the keyboard to control the camera. If Mouse is off. From the Active View option menu. select a view. Set Mode to Advanced. 5. DTM Camera 18-13 . 2. (Optional) In the Degree field. turn on Mouse.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 1. 8. click the Show Settings button. all settings pertaining to the mouse are disabled (dimmed). 9. (Optional) To display more settings and navigation options. 7. 3. (Optional) In the Distance field. Select the Navigate Camera view control. enter the angle for each movement of the camera. 6. 4. (Optional) Click the Show Shortcuts keys (?) button for a list of the current keyboard and mouse navigation settings. enter the distance for each movement of the camera. Distance is in Working Units. and select a navigation option. (Optional) Turn on Display View Cone.

enter a data point to select the active view. if in a view you Tilt the camera with the mouse. you can use Display More Camera Settings for specific manipulations. accept and then Walk forward using the keyboard. the view changes to Three Point projection as it pans. 18-14 Part I .Digital Terrain Modeling .GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ 10. and its settings window for precision inputs. then move the mouse to move the camera. when you click the View Previous view control. letter keys. Alternatively. the camera eyepoint remains stationary when the panned view's projection is anything other than Parallel. only mouse accept points are recognized as viewing operations. or Reset to restore the view´s starting position. Enter another data point to accept and stop moving the camera. To assist you visualize the design as you manipulate the camera. With Continuous View Updates turned on. Press any of the arrow keys. or if you are using the mouse. For example. 18.9 Display More Camera Settings Used to set up a view for rendering graphically by manipulating the dynamically displayed view cone via “handles” at strategic points. the keyboard input is ignored. 18. In these cases. Note: When using View Previous and View Next. and the view is restored to its condition before the Tilt operation.8 Zoom Camera Out and In Zoom Camera Out Zoom Camera In Similar to the MicroStation Zoom commands. the camera view updates dynamically as you manipulate the view cone in the other views. or keyboard combinations to move the camera through the active view. the viewing cone can be displayed in all other views.

or directly in the camera view using one of the Camera Action settings. in a design. When you make changes to the view interactively. The shape and features of the view cone will depend on the Projection active at the time. you are prompted to choose an Active View. These show the viewing extents of the camera view. With the More/Hide button you can quickly display or dismiss the more settings group box. DTM Camera 18-15 . Interactive adjustments can be made via the view cone. This view becomes the camera view.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® The Define Camera settings window lets you display only those settings that you require. Within this group box. When the Define Camera tool is used for the first time. You can change this view's parameters by keying in values to the various fields. values in these fields update automatically. Show/Hide buttons let you expand only those settings that you wish to examine or modify. The tool settings for Define Camera apply to the viewing parameters of the active or camera view. If Display View Cone is turned on (in the Define Camera settings window). then view cones appear in the other open views that display the same region of the design.

in the Define Camera settings window. To display the view cone. and the two blue lines to the lower corners of the camera view. When Continuous View Updates is turned on. either dynamically. Handles appear as small squares on the view cones.Digital Terrain Modeling . In the view cone geometry. or by entering values in the Define Camera settings window. the camera view updates dynamically as you modify the view cone.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ You can control the orientation of the view cone by positioning handles. When modifying a view cone: 18-16 Part I . it is color coded. the green line to the top right corner. You can use these to modify the viewing parameters interactively. the red line equates to the top left corner of the camera view. To assist you in relating the view cone to the camera view. you must ensure that Display View Cone is turned on.

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® ● Moving the eye point handle does not effect the position of the target handle. The action is similar to moving the view cone via its middle handle. Where you know the exact coordinates at which you wish to place the eye point or target. ● Moving the image plane handle of the one point projection view cone allows you to rotate the image plane independent of the eye and targets. or rotate. ● Roll — Roll. The Define Camera settings window on initial opening. or vice-versa. in any view. adjusts the viewing parameters of the camera view. in a horizontal or vertical direction. the Camera about the z-axis of the camera view. Clicking the More button displays available settings. ● The following Camera Action settings are used to make interactive adjustments in the view: ● Pan — Modify the view (cone) by revolving either the Camera about the Target (horizontally or vertically). linearly. or vice-versa. You may change the camera view. and vice-versa. ● Moving the center handle moves the whole view cone. For this setting. ● Dolly/Elevate — Move the camera view cone. This lets you move the camera sideways or vertically relative to the camera view. ● Pan Horizontal — Modify the view (cone) by revolving either the Camera horizontally (only) about the Target. ● Dolly — Move the camera view cone directly in to or out from the Camera Action DTM Camera 18-17 . ● Moving the handle at the lower left corner of the image plane lets you change the lens view angle. which is selected when you first select the Define Camera tool. or vice-versa. there is no difference whether the Reference Point is set to Eye or Target. you can use precision inputs. ● Pan Vertical — Modify the view (cone) by revolving either the Camera vertically (only) about the Target. All modifications to the view cone.

and Z coordinate values for the Target of the camera. the camera view is updated continuously as the view cone is adjusted.Digital Terrain Modeling . ● Lens Focal Length — Manipulate the focal length of the camera lens of the camera view by changing the distance between the Target and the Eye Point or camera. Y. which is made up of horizontal and vertical viewing angles. or via the input fields. ● Orient (Camera) — Horizontal angle. These are related by the Aspect ratio of the camera view. Y.GEOPAK® __________________________________________________________________________________ view. displays in all other open views that display the same portion of the design. ● Target — X. measured from the positive (design file) X direction. either graphically. and Z coordinate values for the Eye Point. — X. Reference Point ● Eye — Camera manipulations are performed relative to the camera eyepoint. Sets the camera and image plane orientation. ● Plane (One Point projection only) — Defines the image plane orientation. or camera position. Sets the location of the camera and target. ● Pan/Dolly — Revolve the Camera and to move forward or backward along the z-axis of the camera view. If on. Turns on (More) or off (Hide) display of other settings that may be adjusted in the camera view. As well you can move it sideways. for the camera view. in particular when the movement is on a plane. Sets the projection to display in the camera view Sets the point about which the camera manipulations are performed. Active View Projection Sets the view to be used as the camera view. This action is similar to moving the view cone via its middle handle. If on. Continuous View Updates Display View Cone More/Hide button 18-18 Part I . Camera Position ● Eye Pt. the view cone. This is useful for walking through a model. ● Lens View Angle — Change the camera lens viewing angle. Camera Orientation ● Camera — Defines the camera location. ● Target — Camera manipulations are performed relative to the camera target point.

— Back — sets the back clipping plane to be a factor of the eye to target distance (normally greater than 1). The maximum Angle increment is 45°. ● Orient (Plane) — Horizontal angle. measured about the zaxis of the camera. measured from the positive (design file) X direction. measured from the positive (design file) X direction. of the image plane's normal. ● Horizontal (Size) — Displays horizontal dimension. The maximum Distance increment is one-half the distance from the eye to the target. in working units. of the camera view. ● Vertical (Size) — Displays vertical dimension. Changing this value automatically adjusts the Horizontal. Sets the clipping planes for the camera view. View Information Display Depths Controlled Movement DTM Camera 18-19 . Distance and Angle. — Back — sets the distance from the eyepoint to the back clipping plane. Sets incremental limits. Changing this value automatically adjusts the Vertical. relative to the view aspect ratio. — Front — sets the distance from the eyepoint to the front clipping plane.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® ● Elevate (Camera) — Vertical angle. ● Clip Factor — Front — sets the front clipping plane at the percentage distance from the eye to target (normally between 0 and 1). target. ● Vertical (Angle) — Vertical view angle. ● Elevate (Plane) — Vertical angle. of the camera view. ● Aspect (Angle) — Displays the width/height ratio of the camera view. relative to the view aspect ratio. in working units. ● Clip Dist. measured from the positive (design file) X direction. of the image plane's normal. ● Roll (Camera) — Angle that camera is rotated. ● Horizontal (Angle) — Horizontal view angle. for controlled movement of the camera. Sets the viewing angles and aspect ratio. or view cone.

GEOPAK® _________________________________________________________________________________________ .

DAT file conversions from ASCII to binary and vice versa. The conversion must be done on TIN files created prior to GEOPAK 98 if they are to be utilized in any application that modifies the TIN file. checking triangulation and exporting to Trimble DTX. DTM Menu Bar Utilities GEOPAK supports a myriad of utility tools including TIN conversions from earlier GEOPAK versions.Part I___________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 19 Utilities 19. and exporting to Trimble equipment. 19.1 Overview Feature / Function Tools A variety of utility tools including various conversions. This is in response to additional features added to GEOPAK 98 models that were not supported in earlier versions.2 Convert Triangulated Model (Version) Feature / Function Tool Convert from earlier GEOPAK TIN versions (pre-GEOPAK 98). DTM Menu Bar Utilities > Convert TIN file GEOPAK provides a tool that converts earlier versions of GEOPAK Tin models to the current format. These include: • • • • Clip TIN Merging Volumes Drainage (Refining Only) Utilities 19-1 . checking triangulation.

ASCII Conversion Processes Feature / Function Tool Convert an ASCII DAT file to Binary or a Binary DAT file to ASCII. wherein the desired TIN file may be selected.GEOPAK98 TIN file.Digital Terrain Modeling . These conversions include: • • ASCII to Binary Binary to ASCII The ASCII to Binary dialog is depicted below: 19-2 Part I . Simply type the name of the Old Tin file (if not supplied. DTM Menu Bar Utilities > ASCII to Binary Utilities > Binary to ASCII Two conversion processes for DTM Input files (*. In lieu of typing the TIN File name. A New TIN file name is supported. a message is displayed alerting the user for the need to convert. to maintain the integrity of the original TIN file. When invoked. the New TIN File name and press the Process push button.dat) are supported. 19.3 Binary .GEOPAK® ____________________________________________________________________________________________ • TIN Editing In the user attempts these applications with a pre. a "TIN" extension is assumed). pressing the Files button invokes the TIN File dialog. the dialog shown below opens.

When the Process button is pressed. an additional column is added to the file. the user keys in the name of the data file to be converted.4 Check Validity of the Triangulated Model Feature / Function Tool Check the validity of a triangulated model. One sample of the Binary to ASCII dialog is depicted below.___________________________________________________________GEOPAK® For both options (ASCII to Binary and Binary to ASCII). In addition. the File dialog is invoked wherein the desired file can be selected. Point numbers are assigned to each line in the DAT file. By pressing the Files button. a different name for the converted file should be utilized. the software reads the original data file and converts to the desired file format. Append Point Numbers When activated. Number of Decimal Points Determines the number of decimal places for coordinates. In order to preserve the integrity of the original data file. 19. the name of the converted file must also be specified. Two additional fields are supported as detailed in the table below. initializing with 1. Utilities 19-3 .

This is typically used if your triangulation file is producing error messages within various DTM procedures or if you are confused whether a given file is a triangulation file. DTM Menu Bar Utilities > Metric English GEOPAK TIN files are neither English nor Metric.GEOPAK® ____________________________________________________________________________________________ DTM Menu Bar Utilities > Check Triangulation GEOPAK provides a tool that reviews the binary triangulation file and determines if it is a valid triangulation model by checking its topology and precision. wherein the desired TIN file may be selected. a "TIN" extension is assumed) and press the Process push button.5 English or Metric TIN Converter Feature / Function Tool Converts TIN files from English to Metric or vice versa. pressing the Files button invokes the TIN File dialog. In lieu of typing the TIN File name.Digital Terrain Modeling . If the triangulation model is valid. When invoked. a "Triangulation Valid" is displayed in the dialog as depicted below. the dialog shown below appears. 19. Simply type the name of the triangulation file (if not supplied. English and Metric preference settings within GEOPAK are for volume purposes 19-4 Part I .

the procedure generates a copy of the original TIN. When English to Metric is selected.281) is applied. The new TIN File to be created. when the procedure is complete. the Imperial conversion factor (i. Therefore. Utilities 19-5 . and then converts the copy. the English conversion factor (i. the dialog depicted below is displayed.e. Source TIN File Target TIN File Conversion Factor: English to Metric Metric to English Metric to Imperial Custom The original TIN File to be converted. the user-defined conversion factor is applied.___________________________________________________________GEOPAK® and do not affect the TIN.281) is applied. f3. f0. This utility converts an entire TIN file with optional translation and rotation tools. The file name can be typed in. To maintain the integrity of the original TIN file. or selected by pressing the Files button. The fields in the dialog above are detailed in the table below. When Metric to Imperial is selected. the user has both an English and a metric TIN file.e.e. the software overwrites it with no warning message. the metric conversion factor (i. f3. When Metric to English is selected. If the target TIN file already exists. When the tool is selected. When Custom is selected.3048) is applied.

Note the rotation is performed on the converted TIN. then enter the value in master units. Values can be positive or negative and are in the converted units. If the designer runs the process on an already converted TIN file. Press the Convert button to commence processing.Digital Terrain Modeling . caution must be exercised when utilizing this useful tool. not original units.tin) is converted to a metric database file (sitem. GEOPAK applies the factor a second time. making all the data approximately 1/3 of its correct value. Note the translation is performed on the converted TIN. then enter the X and Y Coordinates about which to rotate. GEOPAK applies the conversion factor again with no warning message given.tin) and the designer inadvertently runs the conversion again on sitem. 19-6 Part I . For example.tin. if an English TIN file (site. An optional rotation can be performed. Rotation Convert As a final note. Toggle on Rotation.GEOPAK® ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Translation An optional translation can be performed. Toggle on the desired factor(s). and the Angle of rotation. in terms of Decimal Degrees.

Trimble TTM or Leica GSI) is the name of the file to be loaded onto the field equipment. Names may be manually keyed in or selected by pressing the Files button. When invoked. Pressing the Process button commences the Trimble file creation. Utilities 19-7 . as depicted in the exploded view below. while the TTM file contains the breaklines and triangles. the dialog displayed below opens.___________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 19. Depending on the type of field equipment. The DTX File is a gridded mesh (lattice) file.6 Export DTM Feature / Function Tool Generates an ASCII file from a lattice for use in field equipment. DTM Menu Bar Utilities > Export DTM This tool utilizes a GEOPAK TIN or lattice file to generate a file suitable for use with Trimble field equipment. either lattice or TIN files are utilized as the source file. Three exports are supported. The second file name (Trumble DTM.

Digital Terrain Modeling .GEOPAK® ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 19-8 Part I .

When selected. Within GEOPAK Bridge.1 Overview GEOPAK GeoTechnical toolset supports a wide variety of tools for the input.2 Start-Up The GEOPAK GeoTechnical tools can be invoked from GEOPAK Road in the Utilities and Conversions tool box. review and editing of soils boring data. Subsurface TINs of the various materials can be created. for subsequent drawing onto cross sections or profiles. as depicted below. profiles or drawn into 3D as soils columns. Geotechnical Tools 1-1 . storage. The actual borings may be drawn in plan view.Part II____________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 1 Geotechnical Tools 1 . the tool can be invoked from the Road Tools. 1. the tool can be invoked directly from the Site Tools. Within GEOPAK Site. placed on cross sections. the main dialog depicted below opens.

1-2 Part II . the dialog expands as depicted below. Y coordinates). description of the borehole conditions and the water table elevation if available. boring type. the elevation either collected in the field or computed from the TIN file.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ The upper portion of the dialog displays the location (represented by station / offset or X.GeoTechnical Tools . chain. When the Expand arrow in the lower right corner is pressed. The Water Table Elevation represents the Static Water Level – 24 Hour Reading.

1. modified or deleted.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® The lower portion of the dialog lists the Material Information for each layer of the boring. Standard Penetration Test data is also supported.3 Functions of GeoTechnical Tools GeoTechnical tools has several main functions: ● Storage of boring data for easy review and manipulation ● Drawing of borings onto plan view ● Generation of subsurface TINs ● Drawing of borings onto cross sections ● Drawing of borings onto profiles ● Drawing of borings into a 3D file The manipulation of data is accomplished from the Borehole Navigator (main dialog). Boreholes can be added. Geotechnical Tools 1-3 . Material layers can also be manipulated. the depth of cover either indicated as a depth below the ground (DOC) or true elevation (Strata Elevation) and a description of the soil layer material.

GeoTechnical Tools .GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ One sample illustration of borings visualized in plan view is depicted below. One sample boring on a cross section view is illustrated below. 1-4 Part II .

etc. These preferences define cells for plan view drawings. drop down lists for material definitions. One sample Preferences dialog is depicted below.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® One sample boring on a profile view is illustrated below. 1. Geotechnical Tools 1-5 .4 GeoTechnical Preferences The visualization of boreholes is based on a rich set of preferences completely customizable by the user. area patterns for cells. text placement.

GeoTechnical Tools .GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ 1-6 Part II .

Each preference is discussed in detail below. Preferences 2-1 . pressing the OK button closes the dialog. the right side of the GeoTechnical Preferences dialog changes to reflect the selection. the user is prompted to save. As each option is selected.Part II____________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 2 Preferences 2.1 Overview The GeoTechnical Preferences control the graphic display of the borehole data in plan. and profile views. In larger organizations. cross section. Once the preferences are set. The settings may be saved (*. the GeoTechnical Preference file may be set up by the administrator and can be password protected in the same manner as the existing Design & Computation Manager databases.gtp) to serve as a standard setup for subsequent projects. when Column Label is selected. 3D. If changes have been made. the dialog dynamically changes as reflected below. For example.

All file operations are accessed via the File pull down and are detailed in the table below. This option is supported under the File > Password pull down. any power interruption or software malfunction will result in loss of data that can be avoided through the judicious use of the File > Save tool. When configuring the preferences. Hence. they can still review each item to view the element symbology or other parameters. GEOPAK closes the original preferences file in an orderly manner. For either the Open or New modes. Any changes made in the dialog are not recorded in the preferences file unless a file Save or Save As operation is executed. it may be desirable to restrict users from changing the preferences. a dialog opens offering you the opportunity to save or ignore the changes. For large organizations where systems personnel generate and maintain the preferences in order to adhere to standards.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ 2. This operation saves the current contents of the Preferences dialog to the currently active preferences file. If any changes were previously made to the original preferences and not saved. the File > Exit command should be selected If changes ha e been made to the Preferences and ha e not Exit 2-2 Part II .2 File Utilities The GeoTechnical Preferences provide several standard file open and save operations. New Creates a new preferences file. Open Save Save As Password An alternative to defining a new Preferences is to copy and modify an existing preferences file. Opens a previously created preferences file. All list boxes are empty and each item must be defined. frequent use of the File > Save pull down is important. To orderly close the preferences.GeoTechnical Tools . The Password only restricts users from changing or adding to the preferences. prior to opening the new database. however.

2. Preferences 2-3 . Element Symbology By double clicking on the sample element graphic. the discussion below is relevant to any symbology option in all preferences. the dialog depicted below is displayed. the dialog depicted below is displayed. Therefore. Exiting the MicroStation file also closes the preferences in an orderly manner. so it is another option. By double clicking on the sample text graphic. which operate functionally the same in all dialogs.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® selected.3 Element Symbology Many of the preferences have element symbology specifications. The Preferences can also be closed by double clicking in the upper left hand corner or single clicking in the upper right corner. If changes have been made to the Preferences and have not been saved. the software prompts whether the preferences should be saved.

The dialog can also be invoked by right mouse clicking on the sample graphic. In addition. all text and element symbology options are supported.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ Within these dialogs. Pressing the Cancel button closes the dialog with no changes occurring.prompts the user to select an element which is then matched ● Copy (and Paste) .GeoTechnical Tools . Simply set the desired values. 2-4 Part II . then press the OK button to automatically close the dialog and return to the main dialog.can be copied and / or pasted from another Set Feature dialog within GEOPAK.utilizes the active symbology ● By Element . placing the cursor over the element symbology line and right mouse clicking invokes the pop-up menu with the following options: ● Feature dialog (invokes dialog depicted above) ● By Current .

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 2. If the sizes do not match. the symbol font size varies since the option button is set to TH/TW Scale= rather than TH/TW Fixed. Preferences 2-5 . For example. In the graphic below. as depicted below. font. The discussion herein is common to all text parameters and therefore is not repeated in each option. If the Mapping Scale and TH/TW Scale match. the font is drawn at text size 6. justification and element symbology. For the dialog fragment shown below. GEOPAK uses a ratio of Preferences TH / TW Scale and the Mapping Scale and proportionalizes the font. the text size drawn is doubled of the Preferences text size. doubling the 6 size listed in the Preferences. which specify size. Therefore. GEOPAK compares the TH / TW Scale in the Preferences to the Mapping Scale in the Visualize Boreholes in Plan View dialog. if the Mapping Scale is double the Preferences Scale. The size of the font is controlled by the Text Height and Text Width. Pressing the Justification button invokes a dialog wherein the text justification may be defined.0 master units.4 Text Parameters Many of the preferences contain text parameters. resulting font would be drawn with a text size of 12.. These can be fixed or can vary with the scale settings on the Visualize Boreholes in Plan View dialog. the symbol text size is always 6.0 regardless of the drawing scale as the Preferences is set to TH/TW Fixed.

2-6 Part II . as detailed in the table below. the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection. populate the edit field at the bottom of the group box.GeoTechnical Tools . Changing the justification in one method automatically changes the other. Three action buttons are supported. When set. GEOPAK supports an unlimited number of Borehole Types.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ Select the desired justification graphically or by the buttons on the right. Add To add a Borehole Type or Material Name / Number. simply press the OK button to close the dialog and return to the main dialog. then press the Add button. Two group boxes are supported within the Descriptions option: Borehole Types and Material Names. scroll bars are automatically displayed for ease of viewing. 2.5 Descriptions When the Descriptions option is selected. When the fifth entry is added.

To utilize a Material Number. and Sample. scroll bars are automatically displayed for ease of viewing. pressing No or Cancel closes the Alert message. The color is displayed in the list box. GEOPAK supports an unlimited number of Material Names / Numbers. three Borehole Types are stored: Default. as depicted below. The color is utilized when drawing the soil strata when visualized as a column in 3D and when the fill option (rather than material pattern) is utilized when drawing boreholes on cross sections and profiles. If the Material Color is not activated when a Material is added. N/A is displayed in the list box. Delete Pressing the Yes button deletes the Borehole Type. simply highlight the line. then press the Delete button. An optional Material Color can be utilized by activating the toggle to the left of Material Color and selecting the desired color. activate the toggle to the left of Material Number. To delete a line. The Borehole Types stored within the Descriptions Preferences are reflected throughout the GeoTechnical tools and can only be added within the Description Preferences. Modify To modify. In the graphic below. Test. An Alert message prompts the user for deletion. then press the Modify button. Change the edit field. When the fifth entry is added. but does not delete the type. Preferences 2-7 . highlight the line to be modified and GEOPAK populates the edit field.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® button.

enabling the users to select the desired Type from the list. 2-8 Part II . the Borehole Types mirror what is in the Description dialog. The Borehole Types are also utilized elsewhere within the Preferences.GeoTechnical Tools .GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ By opening the Add Borehole dialog. as illustrated in the Plan > Cell option below.

the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection.6 Plan The Plan options define the placement of borings onto plan view drawings.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Additional Borehole Types may be listed if an existing project is opened which has types not listed or an existing preference file with additional types has been opened. as depicted below. 2. Preferences 2-9 . When the Plan option is selected.

When not active. borings cannot be drawn in plan view.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ Only one option is supported on the Plan dialog. When selected. the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the current selection. If the user attempts to draw plan view borings via the Navigator. so the user can set up all preferences required to draw soils borings in the plan view.6. The dialog is illustrated below. the following Alert message is displayed. all plan related options in the list box are unghosted. When the Draw As: option is changed to Cell. When activated.1 Cell / Symbol In order to select the Cell / Symbol option. 2. the Draw Borehole in Plan View toggle in the Plan option must be activated. 2-10 Part II . Draw Borehole in Plan View.GeoTechnical Tools . the dialog depicted below opens. This dialog reflects the Symbol option for drawing.

e. Drawn As: Two types are supported: Cell and Symbol.. both Cell and Symbol). all parameters required to draw the cell / symbology representing the borings in plan view are defined. the user selects the desired Type from the list within the Add Borehole dialog. The table below details each field regardless of the Drawn As: selection (i. the Preferences 2-11 .__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Within the dialog. When set to Cell. When adding or modifying boreholes. The relationship between the Add Borehole dialog and the Preferences dialog is illustrated below.

An Alert message prompts the user for deletion. When set to Symbol. populate the edit field at the bottom of the group box. the Borehole Feature group box changes to reflect cell preferences. as illustrated below. as the list reflects the listings from the Descriptions option within Preferences. Borehole Type list box Add Modify Delete Pressing the OK button deletes the Borehole Type.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ Cell Symbol dialog reflects cell selection options in the Borehole Feature group box. To delete a line. i.e. Types cannot be manually entered. To add a Borehole Type. cell name. New Borehole Types can be added. character. then press the Modify button. i. cell library. All defined Borehole Types within the preferences are listed. Next. as depicted below. First. the Borehole Feature group box changes to reflect symbol preferences.GeoTechnical Tools . Cell When set to Cell.. simply highlight the line. etc. Change the edit field. font. etc. then press the Delete button. while current listings can be modified or deleted. scale.e. select the desired Borehole Type from the list. then press the Add button. manually enter the 2-12 Part II . To modify. highlight the line to be modified and GEOPAK populates the edit field. pressing Cancel closes the Alert message but does not delete the type.

as the user specifies the Mapping Scale at time of drawing. The cell is displayed in the box to the right. Symbol First.cel Select the desired cell by pressing the Select button and highlighting the cell.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® desired Cell Library or select via the File button. select the desired Borehole Type from the list. This symbology overrides the parameters of the cell when created. Below the cell is element symbology parameters utilized when placing cells. whether a point or graphic cell. If the cell is manually entered and cannot be found in the cell library. Include the Scale used at creation. Types cannot Preferences 2-13 . Note: If the library is stored on a central server and mounted by the users with various drive designations. as depicted in the graphic below. a message is displayed in the cell display box indicating the cell is not found. do not include the path and drive. The Cell Library field supports the MicroStation Cell Configuration Variable whereby the user could express the cell Library List such as: MS_CELLLIST = $c:\geotechnical\test. Simply include the cell library within the users' MS_CELLLIST.cel MS_CELLLIST > $c:\geotechnical\spec.

as symbol fonts are drawn solid. select the desired (symbol) Font from the list. three Components will be labeled: Borehole Name.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ be manually entered.GeoTechnical Tools . Due to the nature of symbol fonts. Six Components can be labeled for each boring. 2-14 Part II .2 Label In order to select the Label option. The dialog is divided into two sections: label parameters and the Delimiter group box. the Borehole Label Origin is located at the origin of the borehole cell or symbol. activate the toggle to the left of the Component. the Place Plan Labels toggle in the upper left corner must be activated. The size of the symbol font is controlled by the Text Height and Text Width. When all offsets are set to zero. These can be fixed or can vary with the scale settings on the Visualize Boreholes in Plan View dialog. To place a label. Color. In order to place labels and unghost the dialog. 2. Station.4. the dialog depicted below opens. Next. as the list reflects the listings from the Descriptions option within Preferences. Note there is no style. When selected. then manually enter the Character. Below the Character are element symbology parameters: Level. In the sample above. only one character is supported. and Offset. the Draw Borehole in Plan View toggle in the Plan option must be activated. and Weight.

specified in the right side of the dialog. Station.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® The Horizontal and Vertical Offsets are the distances in master units from the borehole cell or symbol origin. as illustrated in the graphic below. Another example of plan view labels illustrates multiple labels: Borehole Name. the cell origin is at the center of the circle. activate the Place Delimiter toggle in the upper left corner of the group box. and Elevation. Note in this example. in addition to text parameters are supported. The Label Spacing Offset and Preferences 2-15 . As the text origin of the Borehole Name is to the left and below the cell. The dialog settings are shown to the left of the boring. The Delimiter group box contains parameters for spacing and placing an optional delimiter. To place a delimiter. Element symbology. both the Vertical and Horizontal Offsets would be negative. All Components are placed with the same symbology.

Level. 3. size and font for all of the active components. Note: The Cell / Symbol.5 Profile The Profiles options define the placement of borings onto profile drawings. 2. the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection. Define the horizontal and vertical offsets (in master units) from the borehole cell or symbol origin. Summary: Steps to Define a Borehole Label in Plan View 1. Only the Components activated in the upper portion of the dialog are available within the Delimiter group box. enabling the placement of the delimiter in unique symbology from the text.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ Borehole Spacing Offset are the distances in master units as depicted below. Weight and Style are also defined within the group box. Note the text justification is set in the upper part of this dialog. Activate the toggle of the desired Component to label about the borehole plan view cell or symbol. 2-16 Part II . When the Profiles option is selected. weight. delimiter.GeoTechnical Tools . Define the Label Symbology including the level. Color. however the Component used to draw the delimiter is specified within the Delimiter group box. and Component text all comprise a graphic group for easy manipulation / deletion. color. 2.

all the profile related options in the list box are unghosted. on profile drawings. the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection. so the user can set up all preferences required to draw soils borings. When activated. Preferences 2-17 . When not active.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Only one option is supported on the Profiles dialog. the following Alert message is displayed. When the Column option is selected. If the user attempts to draw plan view borings via the Navigator. Draw Borehole In Profile View.1 Column The Column parameters are utilized to draw the column. as depicted below. 2.5. borings cannot be drawn in profile view. which represents the borehole drilling.

e. activate the Place Column toggle in the upper left corner.5.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ In order to draw the column. Parameters on this option include element symbology for the column. in terms of master units (i.. 2. 2-18 Part II .GeoTechnical Tools . Te Column Width. the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection. as depicted below. feet or meters) is defined.2 Column Label When the Column Label option is selected. The distance is illustrated below.

activate the toggle to the left of the Component. As the Borehole Name is to the left and above the borehole origin. Offset. as illustrated in the graphic below. To place a label. Chain. five Components will be labeled: Borehole Name. In the dialog above. imported as the ELV value from the borelog32 output file. and Elevation. The Borehole Label Origin is located at the center of the borehole column at the ground elevation. the Vertical Offset is positive. while the Horizontal Offset would be negative. The Horizontal and Vertical Offsets are the distances in master units from the borehole origin. or manually entered via the Add Borehole dialog.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Six Components can be labeled for each boring. Preferences 2-19 . Station. The Elevation is computed from the defined TIN.

When the Material Pattern option is selected. so hence a label would not be required if the elevation cannot be determined.3 Material Pattern The individual material types may be represented with pattern cells when the columns are drawn into profile view.5. All Components are placed with the same symbology.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ Note: If an elevation is not defined for a particular boring. specified in the right side of the dialog. the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection. Define the label symbology which controls the text level. justification and font for all active components. One sample is depicted below. 3. color. in addition to text parameters. as depicted below. the Place Material Patterns toggle in the upper left corner must be active. size.GeoTechnical Tools . Element symbology. Activate the toggle of the desired Component to label about the borehole column in profile view. the boring is not drawn onto the profile. 2. weight. Summary: Steps to Define a Borehole Label in Profile View 1. Define the horizontal and vertical offsets. 2-20 Part II . The label is drawn as a graphic group for ease in manipulation in the plan view file. 2. are supported. In order to draw the patterns.

Pressing the OK button deletes the Material Pattern. pressing Cancel closes the Alert message. but does not delete the Pattern. To modify. highlight the line to be modified and GEOPAK populates the edit field. simply highlight the line. An Alert message prompts the user for deletion. then press the Modify button. populate the edit field at the bottom of the group box. then press the Add button. then press the Delete button. To delete a line. Change the edit field.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Add Modify Delete To add a Material Pattern. as depicted below. Preferences 2-21 .

manually enter the desired Cell Library or select via the File button. Note: If the library is stored on a central server and mounted by the users with various drive designations. as illustrated below. Next. as it is not utilized in the color option. select the desired Name / Number from the list. If the cell is 2-22 Part II . select the Display Mode. The Cell option is depicted in the dialog fragment below. When using the cell option.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ First. Select the desired cell by pressing the Select button and highlighting the cell. do not include the path and drive. The cell information is also ghosted out. The materials can be represented by an area pattern (however filled areas are not supported) or simply a solid fill Color. The cell is displayed in the box to the right. Simply include the cell library within the users' MS_CELLLIST. There is no user input as the color is mirrored from the Descriptions dialog.GeoTechnical Tools .

cel ● MS_CELLLIST > $c:\geotechnical\spec. The dialog is divided into two sections: label parameters and the Delimiter group box.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® manually entered and cannot be found in the cell library. In order to place material labels. as depicted below.5.cel 2. Selection of the cell library should automatically attach this cell library to the active design file so that the Pattern Cells may be displayed in the preview box when selected from the cell library or the List Box. Five Preferences 2-23 . The element symbology at time of cell creation is utilized. Include the Scale used at creation. as the scale of the profile is utilized for plotting scale at time of drawing. The Cell Library field supports the MicroStation Cell Configuration Variable whereby the user could express the cell Library List such as: ● MS_CELLLIST = $c:\geotechnical\test. a message is displayed in the cell display box indicating the cell is not found. the Place Material Labels toggle in the upper left corner must be active.4 Material Label The Material Label parameters define the material label location and the symbology of the label. When the Material Label option is selected. the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection.

In the sample above. The Horizontal Offset is the distance in master units from the Material Label Origin as illustrated in the graphic below. The Material Label Origin is located at the outer edge of the borehole column. and Elevation. Note this occurs when the text height is greater than the material height. Description. three Components are labeled: Borehole Name. Note the various offset values are applied differently when the text is shifted down. The Vertical Offset is the distance in master units from the lower edge of each material as illustrated in the graphic below. To place a label. 2-24 Part II . as detailed in the graphic below.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ Components can be labeled for each material. activate the toggle to the left of the Component.GeoTechnical Tools .

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK®
Two sample boreholes illustrating the downward shift are illustrated below. The right borehole utilizes text wrapping.

The Label Direction of Column option determines whether the label is placed to the left or right of the column. The Construct Label As feature supports two options: ● Text String - Each component is placed as single text string. The Justification applies to the text string and the first selected component's Horizontal and Vertical Offset is utilized. If this option is selected, the Component Delimiter field is unghosted and a character to separate the component labels is required. One sample of a Text String Label is depicted below. In this case, the delimiter is a coma (,). Peat, Brown Moist, 1.5 Another delimiter is the slash (/), as depicted in the example below. As the comma is not the delimiter, it can be utilized within the description. Peat /Brown Moist / 1.5 ● Individual Components - Each label component acts as individual text. Offsets and the same justification is applied to each text component on an individual basis. All Components are placed with the same symbology, specified in the right side of the dialog. Element symbology, in addition to text parameters are supported.
Preferences 2-25

GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________
Summary: Steps to Define a Borehole Label in Profile View: 1. Activate the toggle of the desired Component to label about the borehole column in Profile view. 2. Define the Horizontal and Vertical Offsets and Direction to left or right of the column. 3. Define the Construct Label As: option. 4. Define the Label Symbology controls the text level, color, weight, size, justification, and font for all active components. The label is drawn as a graphic group for ease in manipulation in the profile design file. The diagram below displays a borehole column in which the multiple material layers have been labeled. The Construct Label As option has been set to Text String with a Component Delimiter of ‘/’. The Place Delimiter toggle is inactive.

The Delimiter group box contains parameters for spacing and placing an optional delimiter. If either of the delimiter options is utilized, GEOPAK also positions material text, so when the text height is greater than the material thickness, overlapping text does not occur.

To place a delimiter, activate the Place Delimiter toggle in the upper left corner of the group box. The Label Offset is the distance from the end of the delimiter line to the justification of the component label. (in master units). The Material Spacing Offset is the distance from the material label origin (edge of the column) to the beginning of the delimiter line (in master units).

2-26 Part II - GeoTechnical Tools

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK®

Two Delimiter Constraint Options are supported: ● Always Construct - If the Place Delimiter toggle is active and this option is selected, the delimiter line is drawn at the defined offsets and symbology in all situations. ● Conditionally Construct - If the Place Delimiter toggle is active and this option is selected, the delimiter line is drawn at the defined offsets and symbology only when the text height is less than the material height. Note the text justification is set in the upper part of this dialog, however the Component used to draw the limited is specified just below the Borehole Spacing Offset. Only the Components activated in the upper portion of the dialog are available within the Delimiter group box. Level, Color, Weight and Style are also defined within the group box, enabling the placement of the delimiter in unique symbology from the text. Summary: Steps to Place a Delimiter from the Label to the Material: Note: All steps are within the Delimiter Group Box. 1. Activate the Place Delimiter toggle. 2. Keyin the Label Offset which is the distance from the end of the delimiter line to the justification of the component label. (in master units). 3. Keyin the Material Spacing Offset which is the distance from the material label origin (edge of the column) to the beginning of the delimiter line. (in master units). 4. Set the Component. 5. Set the Delimiter Constraint Option to either Always Construct or Conditionally Construct.

Preferences

2-27

GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________
6. Set the graphic symbology of the delimiter line including level, weight, color and style. One sample of delimiter lines is depicted below. Numbers are utilized in lieu of Material Names. Note Material

2.5.5 0 Hr. / 24 Hr. Water Elev.
The 0 Hr. / 24 Hr. Water Elevation Label includes text for the Water Elevation and/or a cell or symbol representation. When the O Hr. Water Elev. option is selected, the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection, as depicted below.

2.5.5.1 Cell Placement
To place a cell, activate the Place Cell toggle at the top of the Cell group box.
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Identify the desired cell library by pressing the File button. If the library is stored on a central server and mounted by the users with various drive designations, do not include the path and drive. Simply include the cell library within the users' MS_CELLLIST. Select the desired cell by pressing the Select button and highlighting the cell. The cell is displayed in the box to the right. If the cell is manually entered and cannot be found in the cell library, a message is displayed in the cell display box. Include the Scale used at creation, as the drawing scale utilizes the cross section scale. Below the cell are element symbology parameters. Note: To determine the location of the cell, the beginning pointer is at the center of the borehole column at the water elevation plus ½ the column width (the edge of the column).

Summary: Place the Water Elevation Cell in Profile View: 1. Activate the Place 0Hr (24 Hr) Water Elev. toggle. 2. Set the Draw As option to Cell. 3. Activate the Place Cell toggle. 4. Define the Cell Library containing the cell. 5. Select the Cell to represent the water table elevation reading. 6. Set the symbology for the cell including the Level, Color, Weight and Style.

2.5.5.2 Symbol Placement
When the Draw As Symbol option is selected, the Cell group box changes to the Symbol group box, as depicted below.

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GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________

First, select the desired (symbol) Font from the list, then manually enter the Character. Due to the nature of symbol fonts, only one character is supported. The size of the symbol font is controlled by the Text Height and Text Width. These can be fixed or can vary with the profile scale. For the dialog fragment shown above, the symbol text size is always 1.0 regardless of the drawing scale as the Preferences is set to TH/TW Fixed. Below the Character is element symbology parameters: Level, Color, and Weight. Note there is no style, as symbol fonts are drawn solid. Summary: Steps to Place the Water Elevation Symbol in Profile View 1. Activate the Place 0Hr or (24 Hr.) Water Elev. toggle. 2. Set the Draw As option to Symbol. 3. Key-in the Character to represent the Water Elevation Symbol. 4. Define the Vertical and Horizontal Offsets, in terms of master units. To determine the location of the symbol, the beginning pointer is the center of the borehole column at the water elevation plus ½ the column width (the edge of the column). If the Justification of the Character is the Center Bottom, the Vertical Offset would be zero and the horizontal distance would be measured from the beginning pointer + the Horizontal Offset.

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5. Define the symbology of the Water Elevation Symbol including the level, weight and color. 6. Define the symbol Height, Weight and Justification of the symbol font.

2.5.5.3 Label Placement
If Label Direction option (in the upper right corner) is set to Left of Column, then the Water Elevation Label origin is left of the borehole column at the water elevation as shown below:

If Label Direction option is set to Right of Column, then the Water Elevation Label origin is right of the borehole column at the water elevation as shown below:

Steps to Place the Water Elevation Label: 1. Activate the Place Water Elevation Label toggle. 2. Define the Horizontal and Vertical Offsets in master units. 3. Define the label symbology including Level, Weight, and Color. 4. Set the Text Height, Width, Font and Justification of the Label.

2.5.6 24 Hr. Water Elev.
When the 24 Hr. Water Elev. option is selected, the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection, as depicted below.

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2. the documentation is not repeated. the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection. When the Refusal option is selected.5. therefore. Water Elevation. Water Elevation Dialog is functionally identical to the 0 Hr.7 Refusal Refusal includes text for the Refusal and/or a cell or symbol representation. as depicted below.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ The 24 Hr.GeoTechnical Tools . 2-32 Part II .

Define the Cell Library containing the cell. Below the cell are element symbology parameters. Activate the Place Cell toggle.1 Cell Placement To place a cell. activate the Place Cell toggle at the top of the Cell group box. Preferences 2-33 . a message is displayed in the cell display box. If the cell is manually entered and cannot be found in the cell library. 3. Summary: Place the Refusal Cell in Profile View: 1. Note: To determine the location of the cell. If the library is stored on a central server and mounted by the users with various drive designations. Color. Set the symbology for the cell including the Level. The cell is displayed in the box to the right. Activate the Place Refusal toggle. Select the Cell to represent the water table elevation reading. Set the Draw As option to Cell.7. Weight and Style. 6. 4. Identify the desired cell library by pressing the File button. 5. 2.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 2. Simply include the cell library within the users' MS_CELLLIST. the beginning pointer is at the center of the borehole column at the water elevation plus ½ the column width (the edge of the column). do not include the path and drive.5. Select the desired cell by pressing the Select button and highlighting the cell. Include the Scale used at creation. as the drawing scale utilizes the cross section scale.

For the dialog fragment shown above. Color.5. Below the Character is element symbology parameters: Level. and Weight. Summary: View Steps to Place the Refusal Symbol in Profile 1. the symbol text size is always 1. then manually enter the Character. Set the Draw As option to Symbol.2 Symbol Placement When the Draw As Symbol option is selected. The size of the symbol font is controlled by the Text Height and Text Width. select the desired (symbol) Font from the list. 4. Key-in the Character to represent the Refusal Symbol. Activate the Place Refusal toggle. as depicted below. These can be fixed or can vary with the profile scale. To determine the location of the symbol. Note there is no style. 3.GeoTechnical Tools . the beginning pointer is the center of the borehole column at the water elevation plus ½ the 2-34 Part II . Due to the nature of symbol fonts. Define the Vertical and Horizontal Offsets. 2.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ 2.7. the Cell group box changes to the Symbol group box. as symbol fonts are drawn solid.0 regardless of the drawing scale as the Preferences is set to TH/TW Fixed. First. in terms of master units. only one character is supported.

Weight.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® column width (the edge of the column). Font and Justification of the Label. and Color. weight and color. If the Justification of the Character is the Center Bottom. Define the symbology of the refusal Symbol including the level. Activate the Place Refusal Label toggle. 6.5. then the Refusal Label origin is right of the borehole column at the refusal elevation as shown below: Steps to Place the Refusal Label: 1. Weight and Justification of the symbol font. Preferences 2-35 . Width.3 Label Placement If Label Direction option (in the upper right corner) is set to Left of Column. 2. Define the label symbology including Level. Define the Horizontal and Vertical Offsets in master units. Set the Text Height. 2. the Vertical Offset would be zero and the horizontal distance would be measured from the beginning pointer + the Horizontal Offset. 5. then the Refusal Label origin is left of the borehole column at the refusal elevation as shown below: If Label Direction option is set to Right of Column. 4. Define the symbol Height. 3.7.

GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ 2. as depicted below. The Vertical Offset is measured from the SPT Data elevation. The example below illustrates the left of column option. the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection.GeoTechnical Tools . The Horizontal Offset is measured from the edge of the column. 2-36 Part II .8 SPT Count The SPT Count Label includes text and delimiter options. The SPT Count Label may be placed either right or left of the column by selecting the Label Direction option in the upper right corner of the dialog. When the STP Label option is selected.5.

then the SPT Count Label origin is right of the borehole column at the SPT Count elevation as shown below: Preferences 2-37 .1 Label Placement If Label Direction option (in the upper right corner) is set to Left of Column. then the Refusal Label origin is left of the borehole column at the refusal elevation as shown below: If Label Direction option is set to Right of Column.Examples of an Individual Count format is 10-3-6 or 10/3/6. NOTE: The Character Delimiter option is available only if the Count Format Option is set to Individual Count.8. Samples of the Character Delimiter are: ● 10-3-6 where the – (hyphen) is the delimiter.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Two options for Count Format are supported: ● Total Count .5. ● Individual Count .An example of a Total Count is 10. ● 10/3/6 where the / (slash) is the delimiter. 2.

Width. Two Delimiter Constraint Options are supported: ● Line Only . Weight. the delimiter line is drawn at the defined offsets and symbology. If the Total Count is utilized. Activate the Place SPT Count Label toggle.GeoTechnical Tools . The Column Spacing Offset is the distance from the SPT Count label origin (edge of the column) to the beginning of the delimiter line (in master units). Steps to Place the SPT Count Label: 1. set the Character Delimiter.If the Place Delimiter toggle is active and this option is selected.5. 2-38 Part II . Define the label symbology including Level. Select the Count Format.8. Font and Justification of the Label. If the Individual Count is utilized. 2. 4. the character delimiter (placed between each count) must be defined. If the Individual Count option is utilized. 3. (in master units). 5. and Color.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ The Count Format can be set to the Total Count or Individual Count. activate the Place Delimiter toggle in the upper left corner of the group box. 2. the Character Delimiter option is ghosted. Set the Text Height.2 Delimiter Placement To place a delimiter. Define the Horizontal and Vertical Offsets in master units. The Label Spacing Offset is the distance from the end of the delimiter line to the justification of the SPT Count label.

Level. Set the graphic symbology of the delimiter line including level. Note the text justification is set in the upper part of this dialog. Weight and Style are also defined within the group box. (in master units). however the Component used to draw the limited is specified just below the Borehole Spacing Offset. 5. an ellipse is drawn around the SPT Count label and the delimiter line is drawn from the Label Origin to a location on the ellipse that is determined to be the Text Width distance from the center of the Text plus the Label Spacing. Key in the Label Spacing Offset which is the distance from the end of the delimiter line to the justification of the component label. 4. (in master units). 3. enabling the placement of the delimiter in unique symbology from the text. Only the Components activated in the upper portion of the dialog are available within the Delimiter group box. Set the Delimiter Option to either Line Only or Line and Ellipse. Activate the Place Delimiter toggle. 2. Color. color and style. Preferences 2-39 . Key in the Column Spacing Offset which is the distance from the material label origin (edge of the column) to the beginning of the delimiter line. 1. weight.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® ● Line and Ellipse If the Place Delimiter toggle is active and this option is selected. Summary: Steps to Place a Delimiter: Note: All steps are within the Delimiter Group Box.

When activated. When the Cross Section option is selected. When not active.6.6 Cross Section The Cross Section options define the placement of borings onto cross section drawings.1 Column The Column parameters are utilized to draw the column. Draw Borehole in Cross Section View. which represents the borehole drilling. borings cannot be drawn in cross section view. the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection. all cross section related options in the list box are unghosted.GeoTechnical Tools . Only one option is supported on the Cross Section dialog. on cross section drawings. as depicted below. so the user can set up all preferences required to draw soils borings in the cross section view.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ 2. When the 2-40 Part II . 2.

2.. the Column Width. as depicted below. feet or meters) is defined. Parameters for this option include Level. The distance is illustrated below.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Column option is selected. When the Column Label option is Preferences 2-41 . the Place Column toggle in the upper left corner of the dialog must be activated.2 Column Label The Column Label parameters define the borehole data label location and the symbology of the label. and Style for the column. In order to draw the column. the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection.e. In addition.6. Weight. Color. in terms of master units (i.

To place a label.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ selected. while the Horizontal Offset would be negative. In the dialog above. activate the toggle to the left of the Component. as depicted below. As the Borehole Name is to the left and above the boring label origin.GeoTechnical Tools . and Elevation. The Borehole Label Origin is located at the center of the borehole column at the elevation. the Vertical Offset is positive. the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection. as illustrated in the graphic below. The Horizontal and Vertical Offsets are the distances in master units from the borehole label origin. 2-42 Part II . four Components will be labeled: Borehole Name. Station. Six Components can be labeled for each boring. Offset.

Summary: Steps to Set Up a Borehole Label in Cross Section View: 1. 2.6. Note: If an elevation is not defined for a particular boring. and font for all active components.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® The Elevation is computed from the defined TIN. in addition to text parameters are supported. weight. Element symbology. One sample is depicted below. When the Material Pattern option is selected. imported as the ELV value from the borelog32 output file or manually entered. Preferences 2-43 . The label is drawn as a graphic group for ease in manipulation. the boring will not be drawn onto the cross section. Define the label symbology including text level. specified in the right side of the dialog. size. color. Define the Horizontal and Vertical Offsets.3 Material Pattern The individual material types may be represented with pattern cells when the columns are drawn into cross section view. justification. so hence a label would not be required if the elevation cannot be determined. All Components are placed with the same symbology. Activate the toggle of the desired Component to label about the borehole column in cross section view. 3. the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection. 2. as depicted below.

as depicted below. Modify Delete Pressing the OK button deletes the Material Pattern. Change the edit field. then press the Modify button. then press the Delete button. An Alert message prompts the user for deletion. To delete a line. populate the edit field at the bottom of the group box. simply highlight the line. highlight the line to be modified and GEOPAK populates the edit field. then press the Add button. pressing Cancel closes the Alert message but does not delete the Pattern.GeoTechnical Tools .GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ Add To add a Material Pattern. 2-44 Part II . To modify.

select the desired Name / Number from the list. a message is displayed in the cell display box. as the Color from the Descriptions option is utilized. Preferences 2-45 . no additional entries are needed. Select the desired cell and set scale. as the scale of the cross section is utilized for plotting scale at time of drawing. The Cell Library field supports the MicroStation Cell Configuration Variable whereby the user could express the cell Library List such as: ● MS_CELLLIST = $c:\geotechnical\test.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® First.cel ● MS_CELLLIST > $c:\geotechnical\spec. The cell is displayed in the box to the right. If the cell is manually entered and cannot be found in the cell library.cel Steps to define the pattern cell for the material name (layer): 1. Note: If the library is stored on a central server and mounted by the users with various drive designations. Simply include the cell library within the users' MS_CELLLIST. Next. Define the cell library containing the pattern cell. Cell or Color. Select the desired cell by pressing the Select button and highlighting the cell. select the Display Mode. Include the Scale used at creation. 2. manually enter the desired Cell Library or select via the File button. If the cell option is selected. do not include the path and drive. If Color is utilized. Selection of the cell library should automatically attach this cell library to the active design file so that the Pattern Cells may be displayed in the preview box when selected from the cell library or the List Box.

GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ 3. The Material Label Origin is located at the outer edge of the borehole column. and Elevation. The Horizontal Offset is the distance in master units from the Material Label Origin as illustrated in the graphic below. three Components will be labeled for each material: Material Name. To place a label. activate the toggle to the left of the Component. In the dialog above.6. the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection.4 Material Label The Material Label parameters define the material label location and the symbology of the label. Press the Add button. Description. The dialog is divided into two sections: Label Component and the Delimiter group box. 2. The Vertical Offset is the distance in master units from the lower edge of each material as illustrated in the graphic below. 2-46 Part II . Five Components can be labeled for each material.GeoTechnical Tools . as depicted below. When the Material Label option is selected.

Note this occurs when the text height is greater than the material height. Preferences 2-47 . as detailed in the graphic below.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Note the various offset values are applied differently when the text is shifted down. The right borehole utilizes text wrapping. Two sample boreholes illustrating the downward shift are illustrated below.

Bwn. The Construct Label As feature supports two options: ● Text String .GeoTechnical Tools . Steps to Develop a Borehole Label in Cross Section View: 1. 2. 2-48 Part II .Each of the components will be placed as single text string. the Component Delimiter key-in is unghosted and a character to separate the component labels is required. in addition to text parameters are supported. If this option is selected. Set the Horizontal and Vertical Offsets and Direction to left or right. Element symbology.Each label component acts as an individual text and requires an offset and the same justification applied to each one on an individual basis. All Components are placed with the same symbology. 3. One sample of a Text String Label is: S/Cobbles. Set the Construct Label As: option. The Justification will apply to the text string and the First Selected Component Horizontal and Vertical Offset will be utilized.5 ● Individual Components . specified in the right side of the dialog.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ The Label Direction option determines whether the label is placed to the left or right of the column. Activate the toggle of the desired Component to label about the borehole column in cross section view. Moist/1.

To place a delimiter. The Label Symbology controls the text level. The Label Offset is the distance from the end of the delimiter line to the justification of the component label. size and font for all of the active components and the label is drawn as a graphic group for ease in manipulation in the cross section file. The diagram below displays a borehole column in which the multiple material layers have been labeled. weight. The text label Justification applies to all components that are active. (in master units). The Construct Label As option has been set to Text String with a Component Delimiter of ‘/’. The Place Delimiter toggle is inactive. activate the Place Delimiter toggle in the upper left corner of the group box. (in master units). 5. The Material Spacing Offset is the distance from the material label origin (edge of the column) to the beginning of the delimiter line.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 4. color. Two Delimiter Constraint Options are supported: Preferences 2-49 . The Delimiter group box contains parameters for spacing and placing an optional delimiter.

the delimiter line is drawn at the defined offsets and symbology in all situations. enabling the placement of the delimiter in unique symbology from the text. Activate the Place Delimiter toggle. (in master units). Keyin the Material Spacing Offset which is the distance from the material label origin (edge of the column) to the beginning of the delimiter line. 2. Note Material 2-50 Part II . Numbers are utilized. Level.If the Place Delimiter toggle is active and this option is selected.If the Place Delimiter toggle is active and this option is selected. 3. Weight and Style are also defined within the group box. color and style. 4. weight. Set the Delimiter Constraint Option to either Always Construct or Conditionally Construct. Note the text justification is set in the upper part of this dialog. ● Conditionally Construct . Only the Components activated in the upper portion of the dialog are available within the Delimiter group box. Set the graphic symbology of the delimiter line including level.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ ● Always Construct . 1. however the Component used to draw the limited is specified just below the Borehole Spacing Offset. (in master units). the delimiter line is drawn at the defined offsets and symbology only when the text height is less than the material height. Keyin the Label Offset which is the distance from the end of the delimiter line to the justification of the component label. Color. One sample of delimiter lines is depicted below. Steps to Place a Delimiter from the Label to the Material: Note: All steps are within the Delimiter Group Box.GeoTechnical Tools . 5.

5 0 Hr. Preferences 2-51 .5. 2.6. the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection. Water Elev.1 Cell Placement Note: To determine the location of the cell. the beginning pointer will be at the center of the borehole column at the water elevation plus ½ the column width (the edge of the column). Water Elev. Water Elevation Label includes text for the Water Elevation and/or a cell or symbol representation. When the 0 Hr.__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 2./24 Hr. option is selected.6. as depicted below. The 0 Hr.

If the option is set to Relative. a message is displayed in the cell display box. as the drawing scale utilizes the cross section scale. do not include the path and drive. Activate the Place Cell toggle. Set the symbology for the cell including the Level. 5. 4. the current active symbology is used to draw the cells. Define the Cell Library containing the cell. Set the Type option to Cell. toggle. If the cell is graphic.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ Manually enter the desired Cell Library or select via the File button. Weight and Style. If the option is set to Active. Note: If the library is stored on a central server and mounted by the users with various drive designations. Select the Cell to represent the water table elevation reading. 2. 6.GeoTechnical Tools . and all Preference settings are ignored. the element symbology at time of creation is utilized. Select the desired cell by pressing the Select button and highlighting the cell. The cell is displayed in the box to the right. Note the cell must be a point cell to utilize the symbology options. these parameters are used to draw the cell. 3. 2-52 Part II . Simply include the cell library within the users' MS_CELLLIST. Color. Steps to Place the Water Elevation Cell in Cross Section View: 1. If the cell is manually entered and cannot be found in the cell library. Activate the Place 0Hr (24 Hr) Water Elev. Include the Scale used at creation. Below the cell is element symbology parameters.

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® 2. as symbol fonts are drawn solid. Due to the nature of symbol fonts. the beginning pointer is the center of the borehole column at the water elevation plus ½ the column width (the edge of the column). First. Color. Activate the Place 0Hr Water Elev.2 Symbol Placement When the Draw As Symbol option is selected. the Cell group box changes to the Symbol group box.6. Key-in the Character to represent the Water Elevation Symbol. Below the Character is element symbology parameters: Level. Preferences 2-53 . These can be fixed or can vary with the cross section scale. The size of the symbol font is controlled by the Text Height and Text Width. 4. only one character is supported. the symbol text size is always 1.5. then manually enter the Character. and Weight. 2. Note there is no style.0 regardless of the drawing scale as the Preferences is set to TH/TW Fixed. select the desired (symbol) Font from the list. toggle. as depicted below. Set the Type to Symbol 3. For the dialog fragment shown above. To determine the location of the symbol. Steps to Place the Water Elevation Symbol about the Borehole Column in Cross Section View: 1.

then the Water Elevation Label origin will be on the right edge of the borehole column at the water elevation as shown below: Steps to Place the Water Elevation Label: 1.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ 5. weight. weight and color. and color.6. If the Justification of the Character is the Center Bottom.5. 8. 2. Define the symbol Height. Define the symbology of the Water Elevation Symbol including the level. Width. 7. 3. Set the Text Height. the Vertical Offset would be zero and the horizontal distance would be measured from the beginning pointer + the Horizontal Offset. then the Water Elevation Label origin will be on the left edge of the borehole column at the water elevation as shown below: If Label Direction option is set to Right of Column. Font and Justification of the Label. 2.3 Label Placement If Label Direction option is set to Left of Column. Weight and Justification. 4. Activate the Place Water Elevation Label toggle. 2-54 Part II . Enter the Horizontal and Vertical Offsets in master units. Set the Label symbology including level.GeoTechnical Tools .

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK®
2.6.6 24 Hr. Water Elevation

The 24 Hr. Water Elevation Dialog is functionally identical to the 0 Hr. Water Elevation, therefore, the documentation is not repeated.

2.6.7 Refusal
Refusal includes text for the Refusal and/or a cell or symbol representation. When the Refusal option is selected, the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection, as depicted below.

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GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________

2.6.7.1 Cell Placement
To place a cell, activate the Place Cell toggle at the top of the Cell group box. Identify the desired cell library by pressing the File button. If the library is stored on a central server and mounted by the users with various drive designations, do not include the path and drive. Simply include the cell library within the users' MS_CELLLIST. Select the desired cell by pressing the Select button and highlighting the cell. The cell is displayed in the box to the right. If the cell is manually entered and cannot be found in the cell library, a message is displayed in the cell display box. Include the Scale used at creation, as the drawing scale utilizes the cross section scale. Below the cell are element symbology parameters. Note: To determine the location of the cell, the beginning pointer is at the center of the borehole column at the water elevation plus ½ the column width (the edge of the column).

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Summary: Place the Refusal Cell: 1. Activate the Place Refusal toggle. 2. Set the Draw As option to Cell. 3. Activate the Place Cell toggle. 4. Define the Cell Library containing the cell. 5. Select the Cell to represent the water table elevation reading. 6. Set the symbology for the cell including the Level, Color, Weight and Style.

2.6.7.2 Symbol Placement
When the Draw As Symbol option is selected, the Cell group box changes to the Symbol group box, as depicted below.

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First, select the desired (symbol) Font from the list, then manually enter the Character. Due to the nature of symbol fonts, only one character is supported. The size of the symbol font is controlled by the Text Height and Text Width. These can be fixed or can vary with the profile scale. For the dialog fragment shown above, the symbol text size is always 1.0 regardless of the drawing scale as the Preferences is set to TH/TW Fixed. Below the Character is element symbology parameters: Level, Color, and Weight. Note there is no style, as symbol fonts are drawn solid. Summary: Steps to Place the Refusal Symbol 1. Activate the Place Refusal toggle. 2. Set the Draw As option to Symbol. 3. Key-in the Character to represent the Refusal Symbol. 4. Define the Vertical and Horizontal Offsets, in terms of master units. To determine the location of the symbol, the beginning pointer is the center of the borehole column at the water elevation plus ½ the column width (the edge of the column). If the Justification of the Character is the Center Bottom, the Vertical Offset would be zero and the horizontal distance would be measured from the beginning pointer + the Horizontal Offset.

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5. Define the symbology of the refusal Symbol including the level, weight and color. 6. Define the symbol Height, Weight and Justification of the symbol font.

2.6.7.3 Label Placement
If Label Direction option (in the upper right corner) is set to Left of Column, then the Refusal Label origin is left of the borehole column at the refusal elevation as shown below:

If Label Direction option is set to Right of Column, then the Refusal Label origin is right of the borehole column at the refusal elevation as shown below:

Steps to Place the Refusal Label: 1. Activate the Place Refusal Label toggle. 2. Define the Horizontal and Vertical Offsets in master units. 3. Define the label symbology including Level, Weight, and Color. 4. Set the Text Height, Width, Font and Justification of the Label.

2.6.8 SPT Label
The SPT Label options define the placement of Standard Penetration Count (SPT) Data as a Label about the Borehole Column. When the SPT Label option is selected, the dialog dynamically changes to reflect the selection, as depicted below.

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GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________

The SPT Count Label may be placed either right or left of the column by selecting the Label Direction option in the upper right corner of the dialog. The example below illustrates the left of column option.

The Horizontal Offset is measured from the edge of the column. The Vertical Offset is measured from the SPT Data elevation.

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Two options for Count Format are supported: ● Total Count - An example of a Total Count is 10. ● Individual Count - Examples of an Individual Count format is 10-3-6 or 10/3/6. NOTE: The Character Delimiter option is available only if the Count Format Option is set to Individual Count. Samples of the Character Delimiter are: ● 10-3-6 where the – (hyphen) is the delimiter. ● 10/3/6 where the / (slash) is the delimiter. Steps to Place the SPT Count Label about the borehole column: 1. Activate the Place SPT Count Label toggle. 2. Select the Label Direction about the Borehole Column: Left or Right of Column. Note: The following steps are within the SPT Count Label group box: 3. Set the graphical symbology for the SPT Count Label including, the Level, Weight, Color, Font, Text Size, Text Justification. 4. Enter the Horizontal and Vertical Offset distances in master units. 5. Set the Count Format (Total or Individual Count).

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If the Label Direction is LT. Locate the Label Origin from the midpoint of the borehole column at the Depth of Cover plus ½ the Column width. Note the Character Delimiter option is only be available if the Count Format Option is set to Individual Count. 3. the Label Origin will be located on the right edge of the boring column. Steps to Place the SPT Label with Delimiter Type – Line Only 1. Keyin the Character Delimiter.GeoTechnical Tools . and Style. Weight. Activate the toggle to Place Delimiter. Locate the Label Origin from the midpoint of the borehole column at the Depth of Cover plus ½ the Column width. Define the symbology of the Delimiter line including the Level. Draw the Delimiter Type –Line from the Label Origin to a location on the text block that is determined to be the Text Width distance from the center of the Text (Spacing Offset). 2. 2. If the Label Direction is RT. the Label Origin will be located on the left edge of the boring column. 3.GEOPAK®__________________________________________________________ 6. Place the text at a Horizontal and Vertical Offset from this Label Origin. 2-62 Part II . Select the Delimiter Option (Line Only or Line & Ellipse) 3. 2. Steps to Place a Delimiter with the SPT Label about the Borehole Column in Cross Section View: Note: The following steps are within the Delimiter group box: 1. If the Label Direction is RT. Steps to Place the SPT Label with Delimiter Type – Line & Ellipse 1. If the Label Direction is LT. Place the text at a Horizontal and Vertical Offset from this Label Origin. Color. Draw the Delimiter Type – Line & Ellipse from the Label Origin to a location on the ellipse that is determined to be the Text Width distance from the center of the Text plus the Label Spacing. the Label Origin will be located on the right edge of the boring column. the Label Origin will be located on the left edge of the boring column.

__________________________________________________________GEOPAK® Preferences 2-63 .

GEOPAK® _________________________________________________________________________________________ .