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A. PASCALS PRINCIPLE (10 MINUTES) i. Pascals principle states that pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted uniformly to every part of the fluid and to the walls of the container.

Water is ejected out in all directions with the same magnitude showing that water pressure is acting with the same magnitude in all directions.

ii. Mathematically, Pascals principle can be represented by the equation : F1 = F2 A1 A2 With F1 = input force, A1 = cross-sectional area of the input cylinder, F2 = output force, A2 = cross sectional area of the output cylinder. APPLICATIONS : A hydraulic jack is used to lift a car.

Assume, AI = 0.01m and A2 = 1m Explanation: Applied pressure, p = F1 /A1 = F1/ 0.01 Transmitted pressure, p = F2 / A2 = F2 / 1 By Pascals principle, F2/ 1 = F1/ 0.01 Hence, F2 = 100 F1.

Hydraulic system in car brake

A small force acting on the pedal can transmit a large force to stop the wheel. ACTIVITY A:

1. Figure shows a 10N weight balancing a X N weight placed on a bigger syringe. What is the value of X ?

2. Figure shows a glass barrel fitted with a plunger. The other end of the barrel is with holes of uniform size. a) State your observation when the plunger is pushed towards the bulbous end. b) State one inference concerning pressure applied on the water by the plunger.

3. A boy invented a machine to compress old newspaper. The machine consists of a hydraulic system with two pistons as shown in figure. Piston A has a smaller cross-sectional area compared to piston B. a) The function of this machine is based on a principle in physics. Name the principle. b) Explain why a small force exerted by the boy can result in a much bigger force acting on the old newspaper.

B. ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE (10 minutes) 1. Archimedes principle states that for a body immersed wholly or partially in a fluid, the upward buoyant force acting on the body is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.

2. The spring balance reading in (b)F2 , is less than the spring balance in (a), F1, due to the buoyant force of water on the stone. Buoyant force = Weight of liquid displaced F1 F2 = mg = hpg APPLICATIONS a. Buoyant force = weight of submarine.

The depth of a submarine in the sea depends on the magnitude of the buoyant force.

b. The rising and falling of the hot air balloon depends on the weight of air displaced.

c. Buoyant Force = weight of the ship.

d. How deep the ship sinks below the sea level depends on the density of sea water. It indicates whether the ship has entered a tropical ocean or an ocean in the temperate region.

e. A hydrometer helps to determine the density of the liquid tested.

ACTIVITY B ( minutes) : 1. Experiment: To find the relationship between weight of water displaced and the buoyant force. Statement of problem:

Since the density of iron is much higher than the density of sea water, why does a ship made of iron still float on the surface of the sea? Hypothesis:

Variables: a) Manipulated: ___________________________________________________ b) Responding: ___________________________________________________ c) Fixed: ________________________________________________________ Operational Definition: Buoyant force = weight of the object in air the apparent weight of the object in water. = ______________ Weight of water displaced = weight of beaker with displaced water weight of empty beaker. = W1 W2 Weight of water displaced = weight of beaker with displaced water weight of empty beaker. = B2 B1 Apparatus:


Procedure: 1. Weight of an empty beaker is recorded as B1. 2. A stone is suspended by a spring balance in air as shown in Figure. 3. The reading of the spring balance W 1 is recorded. 4. The stone is immersed completely in water in the eureka can. 5. The apparent weight W 2 is taken. 6. The water displaced is collected in a beaker as shown in Figure. 5

7. Weight of beaker with the displaced water, B2 is recorded.

Observation: Weight of stone in air = W 1 Weight of stone in water = W 2 Buoyant force = ____________ Weight of empty beaker = B1 Weight of beaker with displaced water = B2 Weight of water displaced = ___________ It is found that W 1 W2 = _____________ Conclusion: The weight of water displaced is equal to the __________________________. 2. An object of density 20 g cm -3 and mass 400 g is immersed in a liquid of density 1.5 g cm -3. Calculate Take g = 10 m s-2. a) the volume of the liquid displaced.

b) the mass of the liquid displaced.

c) the buoyant force experienced by the object.

C. BERNOULLIS PRINCIPLE ( minutes) Bernoullis principle states that when the velocity of a fluid is high, the pressure is low and when the velocity is low, the pressure is high.

The height of the water column shows the magnitude of the water pressure. The dotted line is the pressure gradient showing how the water pressure is decreasing gradually.

The velocity of water is highest when it is flowing through the narrowest part of the horizontal glass tube. Hence, its water pressure is the lowest. APPLICATIONS 1. Aerofoil

An aeroplane, with an aerofoil shape, experiences a lifting force which balances its weight.

2. Bunsen burner.

Air rushes in due to the lower pressure in a Bunsen burner. Air supports burning. 3. Carburettor

Air rushes in due to the lower pressure in a near the jet of the car engine. The mixture of air and petrol helps in burning. ACTIVITY C: ( minutes) 1. A horizontal tube AB with both ends closed with rubber stoppers is fixed with three vertical tubes P, Q and R as shown in figure. Water of density 1 000 kg m-3 is poured into tube P until water reaches level W.

a) i. What are the heights of water levels for tube Q and tube R respectively? ii. By neglecting atmospheric pressure, calculate the pressure caused by water column at point X. iii. If the cross-sectional area of tube P is 4 x 10-5 m2, calculate the force acted by the column of water in tube P. b) If the rubber stoppers at both ends of tube AB are taken away so that water can flow uniformly from end A to end B, then water at tube P rises until level Y as shown in figure. i. Mark on the figure above, the possible water levels for tube Q and tube R. ii. Give reasons for your answer in (b) (i). c) The apparatus is modified so that the middle part of the horizontal tube becomes narrower as shown in figure. Water flows uniformly from end A to end B of the tube and it is found that the water level of tube and it is found that the water level of tube P is at Z.

i. Mark on the figure above, the possible water levels of tube Q and tube R. ii. Compare the velocity of water at E and F. iii. State the principle which relates velocity and pressure of water along the horizontal tube.

ASSESTMENT 1. Which of the following does not make use of Pascals principle? A Hydraulic jack B Bicycle pump C Hydraulic brake D Syringe 2. Which of the following statements is not true? A Pressure of liquid acts in all direction. B When a pressure is applied to a liquid in an enclosed container, the pressure is transmitted throughout the liquid. C When pressure is transmitted in a liquid, the further the transmission, the lower the pressure. D The pressure transmitted in a liquid can result in a bigger output force compared with input force

3. The figure 1 shows a simple hydraulic system. Push

Figure 1 What are the force and pressure at Y compared to the force and pressure at X? Force at Y compared to X Pressure at Y compared to X Smaller Smaller Equal Equal Larger Equal Larger Larger




Which of the following does not function based on Archimedes principle? A A submarine B A race car C A hydrometer D An ocean liner

5. A block of wood 10-3 m3 is half immersed in water. If the density of water is 1000 kg m-3 and the acceleration due to gravity is 10 kg-1, what is the weight of the block of the wooden air? A 0N B 0.5 N C 1.0 N D 5.0 N E 10.0 N 6. Which of the following does not operate based on Bernoullis principle? A A Bunsen burner B A submarine C Wind surfing D A whistle with ball- bearing Structured Question Question 1 and 2 are based on Figure 2

Figure 2 1. Figure 2 shows the structure of a simple hydraulic jack where a small force F1 is used to produce a bigger force F2, A1 and A2 are the crosssectional areas of the pistons. (a) A force of 1000 N is applied to smaller piston. (i) What is the pressure exerted on the piston?

[1 mark]



What is the force multiplier of this hydraulic jack?

[1 mark]


How much force is exerted on the larger piston?

[1 mark]


What is the principle been applied in (a)(iii)?

[1 mark]

2. The smaller piston is pushed down a distance of d1 = 100 cm and this has resulted in the larger piston moving up a bit. (i) How much has larger piston moved? [2 marks]


What is the assumption made in obtaining the answer in (b)(ii)? [1 mark]

3. Figures 3 and 4 show a same ship sailing in two different locations.


Figure 3 (a) What is meant by buoyant force?

Figure 4 [1 mark]


Using figures above, compare the buoyant forces acting of the ship at the two different locations. State the relationship between density and the volume of the water displaced. [ 5 marks]


Figure 5 shows a concrete cylinder attached to a spring balance. It is lowered into a beaker so that it is partially immersed.

Figure 5 Explain what happens to the reading of the spring balance if the concrete cylinder is raised slightly. [2 marks]


Answer (Assesment) Objective questions 1. D 2. D 3. C 4. B 5. E 6. B Structured question 1. (a) (i) Pressure , P = F = 1000 = 200 Ncm-2 A 5 (ii) Force multiplier = F2 = A2 = 100 = 20 times 5 F1 A1 (iii) Force F2 = 20 F1 = 20 (1000) = 20000 N (iv) Pascals principle 2. (i) Volume, A1d1 = A2 d2 5(100) = 100d2 d2 = 5000 = 5 cm 100 The pressure from the smaller piston is fully transferred to the larger piston.


3. (a) Buoyant force is an upward force resulting from an object being wholly or partially immersed in a fluid. (b) The buoyant forces at both the locations are the same This is because the buoyant force is of equal magnitude with the weight of the ship which is unchanged The density of water is higher than fresh water The buoyant force of a floating ship is equal to the weight of the water displaced. The higher the density of the water, the smaller the volume of water displaced. (c) The readings becomes bigger This is because the buoyant force is reduced as less water is displaced by concrete cylinder.