QUESTION BANK Asynchronous Transfer Mode (CS-306

Short Answer Type Question Answers:
1. What is an ISDN? Ans: Circuit-switched network based on 64 kbit/s channels with a common user network interface for access to a variety of services. ISDNs have out-of-band signalling capabilities which allow for provision of new and improved services relative to ‘plain old telephony’. 2. What does B-ISDN denote? Ans: Broadband-ISDN, ATM based high speed network based on certain ISDN principles such as common access to many services via standardized user-network interfaces, out-of-band signalling, and ISDN numbering schemes. 3. What is the function of AAL? Ans: ATM Adaptation Layer. A limited no is AAL types (AAL 1-5) has been defined to link the ATM Layers to higher layers. AAL functions are segmentation and reassembly of information and other functions. 4. What does asynchronous mean in the term ATM? Ans: ATM is asynchronous in the sense that transmission capacity (ATM Cell) is provided for an individual connection only if actually demanded. 5. What is ATM virtual connection? Ans: ATM is a connection-oriented networking technique. Virtual connections are established link by link either by signalling protocols or by subscription. It is unidirectional and having dynamic bandwidth. 6. What is ATM cell? Ans: information unit of ATM: a cell is a fixed size slot comprising 53 octets 5 of which are allocated to cell header and 48 to the information field. 7. What is ATM cell header? Ans: the first 5 octets of an ATM cell containing address information and additional control data. 8. What is ATM –ARP? Ans: The protocol is used for address resolution between IP addresses and ATM addresses.

9. Define Payload. Ans: It is that part of ATM cell which carries actual user information. It is of 48 octets. 10. What are the important functions of TC – sublayer? Ans: Transmission convergence sublayer functions: • Header Error Control • Cell rate Decoupling • Cell Delineation • Cell Scrambling • Transmission Frame Adaptation 11. What do you understand by Cell Delineation? Ans: Cell Delineation is the mechanism that enables the receiver to recover the cell boundaries. 12. What do you understand by Cell Rate Decoupling? Ans: It is the mechanism to insert idle cells in order to adapt the rate of ATM cells to the payload capacity of the transmission system. 13. What is ATM connection oriented service? Ans: Prior to the exchange of data between two entities an end to end connection is established onto which all data are sent. 14. What is ATM connectionless service? Ans: ALL data are sent via a pre-established ATM virtual connection to a connectionless server which then establishes connections to the destinations. 15. What is ATM network-node/network-to-network interface? Ans: Several types interfaces exist: NNI between ATM nodes of a public network, PNNI between private network nodes, BICI between public networks, AINI to connect any two ATM networks which may employ different internal network protocols. 16. What do understand by BUS? Ans: It is broadcast and unknown server used for LAN emulation which transmits all broadcast/multicast and unknown traffic over the emulated LAN. 17. What is CDV? Ans: A quality of service parameter describing the variations of the cell transfer delays of a single connection. 18. What is CLP? Ans: A bit in the ATM cell header marking those cells which should be discarded prior to other cells in the case of congestion.

19. What is CBR? Ans: An ATM transfer capability with guaranteed cell loss ratio and cell transfer delay 20. What do you understand by Cell Scrambling ? Ans: Cell scrambling is the mechanism whereby the desired patterns in data are changed at the source and the changes reverted back at the destination. 21. What do you understand by Transmission Frame Adaptation? Ans: The cells may be carried on the physical layer either within a frame or just transported over the physical link as a bit sequence. When a framed transport is used, a structure is defined at the physical layer. The cells are mapped onto this structure and carried across the network. This mapping of cells into a framed physical layer structure is called transmission frame adaptation. 22. How can virtual channels/paths be identified? Ans: Virtual channels/paths can be identified by the values in the VCI and VPI fields of an ATM cell header respectively. 23. What is the difference between VP switching and VC switching? Ans: VP switches terminates VP links and therefore have to translate incoming VPIs to the corresponding outgoing VPIs according to the destination of the VP connection. VC switches terminates both VC links and VP links and therefore VPI and VCI translation is performed. As VC switching implies VP switching, in principle a VC switch can also handle mere VP switching. 24. What are the main network performance parameters defined for ATM networks? Ans: Main network performance parameters defined in ATM networks are: Cell Loss Ratio Cell Misinsertion Rate Cell Error Ratio Severely Errored cell block ratio Cell transfer delay 25. What is meant by QOS? Ans: A description/specification of the Quality of an ATM connection using a set of parameters like CLR, CDVT, and CTD bit rate. Different end user applications require ATM connections with different levels of QOS. Several ATM transfer capabilities have been specified each offering a different QOS. 26. What is ATM Data Exchange Interface (DXI)? Ans: The DXI allows a Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) such as router to be connected via Data Circuit Terminating Equipment (DCE) to an ATM Switch.

. What is an idle cell? Ans: A cell that is inserted/extracted by the physical layer in order to adapt the cell flow rate at the boundary between the ATM layer and the physical layer to the available payload capacity of the transmission system used. The HEC field contains the checksum calculated over the first four bytes of the cell header using a generator polynomial. 33. Define any two QOS parameters? Ans: • CLR: ratio of lost cells to sent cells • CTD: the time needed by a cell from its source to its destination. 31. What is the PTI field used for? Ans: Three bits of PTI in header are used for the Payload Type Identification. What is the HEC field used for? Ans: HEC field is used for error control.27. 34. 29. Ans: Main functions of ATM Layer are: • Cell multiplexing • Cell demultiplexing • VPI and VCI translation • Cell header generation/extraction 28. If the value of the CLP bit is 1 the cell is subject to discard. Dialing a number for establishing a call is one form of signalling. What planes and layers build up the B-ISDN/ATM PRM? Ans: Layers are: • Physical Layer • ATM Layer • ATM Adaptation Layer • Upper Layers Planes are: • User Plane • Control Plane 32. 35. What is cell multiplexing? Ans: Cells from individual VPs and VCs are multiplexed into one resulting cell stream by the cell multiplexing function. 30. Write functions of ATM layer. What do you understand by the term Signalling? Ans: A means of establishing connections on demand by end user equipment or network equipment. What is the CLP field used for? Ans: CLP field consists of one bit which is used explicitly to indicate the cell loss priority.

36. 43. What is MPOA? Ans: Multiprotocol over ATM. Why is there a need for LANE? Ans: (LAN Emulation) The basic operation of LANE is to set up a point to point ATM connection between two LANE end systems instead of broadcasting and filtering data frames. 44. What is CAC? Ans: An algorithm used in ATM switches which checks if enough resources within the switch and/or the network are available for carrying the requested connection without affecting other. Unless preestablished. 15/2 Mbits meeting the specified requirements on delay bit error rate etc.g. What do you mean by Meta-signalling? Ans: ATM uses out of band signalling via specific signalling channels. . . signalling channels are allocated by a Meta-signalling protocol via a predefined Meta signalling virtual channel. 42. What is CES? Ans: Circuit emulation service. What is SDH? Ans: Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. What is EFCI? Ans: A bit in the ATM cell header which might be set by network elements in case of congestion. Based on a set of ATM forum specifications for running a layer 3 protocols over ATM exploiting ATM’s quality of service offerings. Transport of a constant bit rate signal e. already established connections. What are ATM OAM functions? Ans: The operation and maintenance functions are: • Performance Monitoring • Defect and failure detection • System protection • Failure and performance information • Fault localization 37. End terminals are expected to lower their cell emission rate if this bit is set. 41. What is Policing? Ans: The set of actions taken by the network to delimit the actual cell rate of a connection entering that network to the negotiated cell rate. 40. for such signals. 39. 38. This allows the hierarchical mapping of quiet different information streams into a common transmission frame.

buffer space etc. 47. 49. among connections. What do you understand by MIB? Ans: Management Information Base. What is resource management? Ans: All actions taken for sharing network resources like transmission capacity. An abstract description of a specific network element or connection and transmission parameters which can be manipulated and evaluated for network management purposes. .Based on a set of ATM forum specifications for addressing. 50. An ATM transfer capability where the network controls the sender’s cell emission rate through the use of resource management cells. What is ABR? Ans: Available Bit Rate. What is PNNI? Ans: Private network-to-network interface. What is EPD? Ans: Early Packet Discard: In case of congestion ATM switches may discard entire data frames instead of single ATM cells. 48. 46.45. What is UPC/NPC? Ans: The set of actions taken by the network to delimit the actual cell rate of a connection entering that network to the negotiated cell rate. signalling and routing within a private network.

Supports connection-oriented services that require constant bit rates and have specific timing and delay requirements. 52. This function is performed by the AAL. Comment how an "AAL0" which refers to a 'null' AAL? Ans: Some folks talk about an "AAL0" which normally refers to a 'null' AAL. they have been merged into a single AAL which name is AAL3/4 for historical reasons.363. • 53. which is service-dependent. This tradeoff provides a smaller bandwidth overhead. This was previously known as Composite ATM or AALCU. It is a substantially lean AAL compared with AAL3/4 at the expense of error recovery and built in retransmission. Define briefly the various ATM Adaptation layers? Ans: Briefly the four ATM adaptation layers (AAL) have been defined: AAL1 . Two of these have now been merged into one. the case where the payload is directly inserted into a cell. and reduced implementation complexity.e. Some organizations have proposed AAL5 for use with both connection-oriented and connectionless services. How does AAL5 work? .2. This typically requires that the payload can always be fitted into a single cell so that the AAL is not needed for upper layer PDU delineation when the upper layer PDU bridges several cells. 54. What are the various ATM Adaptation layers? Ans: In order for ATM to support many kinds of services with different traffic characteristics and system requirements. i. it is necessary to adapt the different classes of applications to the ATM layer. Four types of AAL were originally recommended by CCITT. • AAL3/4 .Supports connection-oriented variable bit rate data services. Examples are constant bit rate services like DS1 or DS3 transport.This adaptation is a method for carrying voice over ATM.Medium and Long Answer Type Question Answers: ATM adaptation layers 51. The ITU spec which describes this is called ITU-T I.This AAL is intended for both connectionless and connection oriented variable bit rate services. It consists of variable size packets (max: 64 bytes) encapsulated within the ATM payload. Originally two distinct adaptation layers AAL3 and 4. simpler processing requirements. • AAL2 . • AAL5 .

The payload type in the last cell (i. That is.| CPCS | SAR | +--------------------+ 56. 2 bytes of packet length. How segmentation is done at SAR? Ans: SAR segments higher a layer PDU into 48 byte chunks that are fed into the ATM layer to generate 53 byte cells (carried on the same VCI). and then adds an 8-byte trailer such that the total length of the resultant PDU is a multiple of 48. The receiver's job is to verify that the packet has been received intact without errors and to put it back together again. The sender's job is to segment the packet and build the set of cells to be sent. Give the composition for AAL5. 58.) 57. This consists of the following: .e. adds padding if needed. One example is the SAAL developed for signalling. (The receiver may assume that the next cell received on that VCI is the beginning of a new packet. and 4 bytes of CRC. It takes an SSCS PDU. wherever the AAL5 trailer is) is marked to indicate that this is the last cell in a packet. Ans: AAL5 (like any other AAL) is composed of a common part (CPCS) and a service specific part (SSCS). 55. The common part is further composed of a convergence sublayer (CS) and a segmentation and reassembly (SAR) sublayer. it is a rulebook which sender and receiver agree upon for taking a long packet and dividing it up into cells. Give an example of service provided by SSCS. The trailer consist of a 2 bytes reserved. What is the role of CS? Ans: CS provides services such as padding and CRC checking.Ans: Here is is a very simplified view of AAL5 and AALs in general. AAL5 is a mechanism for segmentation and reassembly of packets. Ans: SSCS is service dependent and may provide services such as assured data transmission based on retransmissions.. +--------------------+ | | SSCS +--------------------+ | CS | | -----------------.

| SSCS | SSCOP | +--------------------+ | CS | | -----------------. First. or because the CRC does not match what is calculated. 61.| CPCS | SAR | +--------------------+ 59.+--------------------+ | SSCF | | -----------------. How come an ATM cell is 53 bytes anyway? Ans: ATM cells are standardized at 53 bytes because it seemed like a good idea at the time! As it turns out. Questions about ATM cells 62. during the standardization process a conflict arose within the CCITT as to the payload size within an ATM cell. among other things. Which Layer assures data transfer? Ans: SSCOP is a general purpose data transfer layer providing. Any switch and adaptation equipment design must take this into consideration. The ATM standards specify that all ATM cells will be delivered in order. a bit error can occur within the payload.Different SSCFs may be prescribed for different services using the same SSCOP. assured data transfer. What can be the problems during cell transmission? Ans: There are two problems that can happen during transit. a cell could be lost. It is up to higher layer protocols to deal with lost and corrupted packets. The US wanted 64 byte payloads . 63. the receiver can detect the problem either because the length does not correspond with the number of cells received. In that case. 60. this cannot be detected except through the CRC mismatch. This can be done by using a SSCS which supports assured data transfer. as discussed above. Since cells do not have any explicit error correction/detection mechanism. Second. Are ATM cells delivered in order? Ans: Yes. What is SSCF? Ans: ASSCF is a coordination function that maps SSCOP services into those primitives needed specifically for signalling .

So 48 bytes payload plus 5 bytes header is 53 bytes total. What are various traffic parameters? Ans: There are a number of parameters and functions that need to be considered: PARAMETERS There are lots of traffic parameters that have been proposed for resource management.e.because it was felt optimal for US networks. Usually the specified behavior is a worst case or a worst case plus average case (i. 65. As far as the header goes.. CCITT chose 48 bytes as a compromise. this application will generate 100 Mbits/s of data for a maximum burst of 2 seconds and its average over any 10 second interval will be no more than 50 Mbit/s). The more important ones are: • • • • • • • mean bit rate peak bit rate variance of bit rate burst length burst frequency cell-loss rate cell-loss priority These parameters exist in three forms: • actual • measured. What are various functions to be considered during traffic shaping? Ans: FUNCTIONS (a) Acceptance Function (b) Policing Function . or estimated • declared (by the customer) 66. What do people mean by the term "traffic shaping"? Ans: Definition: Traffic shaping is forcing your traffic to conform to a certain specified behavior. The Europeans and Japanese wanted 32 payloads because it was optimal for them. so 5 bytes was chosen. at worst. ATM traffic shaping 64. 10% of payload was perceived as an upper bound on the acceptable overhead. In the end 48 bytes was chosen as a compromise.

The acceptance process is gone through by every switch in a virtual circuit. If the Policing function is the policeman. The policing function in some way estimates the parameters of the incoming traffic and takes some action if they measure traffic exceeding agreed parameters.(c) Charging Function (d) Traffic Shaping Function 67.CLP=0+1 cell flow (also called aggregate cell flow) . What is Traffic Shaping Function? Ans: Traffic shaping is something that happens in the customer premise equipment. 71. What is Charging Function? Ans: The function most ignored by traffic researchers. What is Acceptance Function? Ans: Each switch has the option of accepting a virtual circuit request based on the declared traffic parameters as given by the customer. An MPEG codec that was operating in a situation where delay wasn't a problem might operate in a CBR mode. whether it is 0 or 1. The following are the cell flows: • • • . etc. then the traffic shaper is the lawyer. it has to make sure the customer equipment keeps its promises. this function computes a charge from the estimated and agreed traffic parameters. and the charging function is the judge. If a downstream switch refuses to accept a connection. 69. What is Policing Function? Ans: Given that a switch at the edge of the network has accepted a virtual circuit request. Acceptance is given if the resulting traffic mix will not cause the switch to not achieve its quality of service goals.CLP=1 cell flow . The traffic shaper uses information about the policing and charging functions in order to change the traffic characteristics of the customer's stream to get the lowest charge or the smallest cell-loss. 70. an IP router attached to an ATM network might delay some cells slightly in order to reduce the peak rate and rate variance without affecting throughput. This action could be to drop the cells. an alternate route might be tried. mark them as being low cell-loss priority.CLP=0 cell flow . For example. 68. What is CLP=0+1 all about? Ans: The cell flow in a connection can be logically split into various cell flows depending on the CLP value of the cell. etc. but perhaps the most important for the success of any service! Basically.

What are the terms to be considered before establishing a connection? Ans: To establish a connection we have to specify Peak Cell Rate (PCR). for each cell flow. . a CLP=0 cell travels in 'CLP=0 cell flow' and 'CLP=0+1 cell flow' while a CLP=1 cell travels in 'CLP=1 cell flow' and 'CLP=0+1 cell flow'. So PCR. CLP=1 and CLP=0+1. Sustained Cell Rate (SCR). So logically. How the connection and cell flows can be represented? Ans: The connection and cell flows may be represented as follows: Connection | V ----------------------------------------| CLP=0 Cell Flow | --------------CLP=0+1 Cell Flow --------------| CLP=1 Cell Flow | --------------| --------------------------73. etc values of CLP=0 and CLP=1 cell flows. Usually CLP=0+1 values will be equal to or more than the sum of PCR. and Maximum Burst Size (MBS) in forward and backward directions.CLP=0+1 cell flow is for both CLP=0 cells and CLP=1 cells. SCR. 72. etc are not single values to a connection! We must specify these values for the cell flows CLP=0.

Information about B-ISDN Ans: B-ISUP provides the signalling requirements to support basic bearer services and supplementary services (for Capability Set 1 and Capability Set 2 B-ISDN) for BISDN applications. In the ATM scenario. the introduction of this protocol meets the needs to support the Switched Virtual Connections (SVCs). Relationship between interface standards? Ans: 75.Questions about ATM protocols/standards 74. This protocol is . whereas initial ATM service supported only the Permanent Virtual Connections (PVCs).

This is done by: . open for future enhancements. • B-ISUP runs over this protocol stack: • SS7 MTP-Level 3 • Q. How to establish VPCs by signalling? Ans: ATM Forum UNI 4. Charge Number. Carrier Selection Information. This protocol takes many features from ANSI B-ISUP (T1. called "Compatibility Process". but many important changes have been introduced: the substitution of the concept of circuit (identified by the CIC) with that of Virtual Path/Virtual Circuit (VP/VC) • the substitution of the concept of connection with that of Virtual Path Connection (VPC) • a new structure of the protocol. especially those needed for routing signalling messages through different vendor networks (like the Exit Message and the Carrier Identification Code.2140 • Q. Information about B-ICI.648. Outgoing Facility Identifier. Originating Line Information parameters). which is now modular and.0 provides for switched VPs.164 and AESA addresses. 77.SAAL • ATM and contains a specific module.1-4). This is a standard interface (based on the ITU-T B-ISUP) which has been chosen by both ITU-T and ATM Forum for interconnecting *public* ATM networks (whereas P-NNI is the standard non-SS7 non-ITU-T based interface for interconnecting *private* ATM networks). • it can manage both E. • the possibility to manage point-to-multipoint connections/calls. ISUP). in terms of Supplementary Services. therefore. Ans: B-ICI stands for Broadband Inter Carrier Interface and is the broad term for the interface and B-ISUP stack as described and documented by ATM Forum. 76. for managing both unrecognized signalling information and networking issues with an N-ISUP (Narrowband ISUP.conceptually the natural evolution of the ISDN User Part (ISUP) in the Broadband field. i.e.

For instance. Currently they have worked on a protocol (called PNNI) for distributing link and node state information. among other things). What are various management information flows? Ans: The management information flows relate to the above network: M1 = flow between the private management system and the end ATM device M2 = flow between the private management system and the switches making up the local private ATM net M3 = the flow between the private management system and the public management system M4 = the flow between the switches in the public ATM network and the public management system M5 = the flow between two public management systems . Ideally the MIB can be used by SNMP or CMIP. and then the path information is added to the signalling message (SETUP) and routed along the path. no VCI" The ATM Forum also has a Private-NNI SWG. as its necessary to minimize the view of the topology of a network from the sources point of view (a topological hierarchy is used.• adding a new bearer class code point in bear Cap IE for "VP service". A management information flow exchanges information between an ATM management system and a part of a prototypical ATM network. the protocol is designed for source routing. but that’s basically the approach. where the first switch in the network has enough information about the topology of the network to determine a route. With regard to a carrier ATM network What is an "M4" management interface. 78. Ans: The ATM Forum Management WG defines "management information flows" M1 to M5. 79. The management information flow includes a conceptual view (requirements) and a MIB. to support intra-network routing and switching. and • adding a new pref/exc code point in connId IE for "exclusive VPCI. Overall. The overall protocol is considerably more complex than this. the M2 interface defines the information flow between a private ATM switch and the local private network management system. and a call setup procedure.

demultiplexing and switching a cell through the network. failure management. no matter if it is handling a virtual path or virtual circuit. use of Virtual Paths in an ATM network reduces the load on the control mechanisms because the function needed to set up a path through the network are performed only once for all subsequent Virtual Channels using that path. Why both VPI and VCI? Ans: The Virtual Path concept originated with concerns over the cost of controlling BISDN networks. For example. and remain for the duration of the connection. VPCI 80. The PNNI spec also has rules for this. which output port to forward a cell received on a given input port. and partially a function of the interface. the choice . just being completed by the ATM forum. The idea was to group connections sharing common paths through the network into identifiable units (the Paths). The choice of an outbound VPI/VCI value. Now the basic operation of an ATM switch will be the same. VCI. Using the VCI/VPI the ATM layer can asynchronously interleave (multiplex) cells from multiple connections. They are explicitly assigned at each segment (link between ATM nodes) of a connection when a connection is established. substituting these new values in the cell. VCIs and VPIs are not addresses. is partially a function of the switch architecture. The algorithms for selecting which switch output port a given input VPI/VCI should be mapped to is done at the time the call is set up. The switch must identify on the basis of the incoming cell's VPI.Management here including call setup. The connection identifier consists of two sub-fields. Call routing is addressed by protocols like P-NNI (private networknetwork interface). Within the switch designated as the one selecting the values. and is part of the overall call routing algorithm. 81. selects values. VCI. The UNI spec dictates which side of a link. Together they are used in multiplexing. Changing the trunk mapping of a single Virtual Path can effect a route change for every Virtual Channel using that path. What are VPI and VCI? Ans: ATM is a connection orientated protocol and as such there is a connection identifier in every cell header which explicitly associates a cell with a given virtual channel on a physical link. The port to be used depends on what other switches that port is connected to.Questions about VPI. or both. user or network. on the other hand. Network management actions would then be applied to the smaller number of groups of connections (paths) instead of a larger number of individual connections (VCI). routing. It must also determine what the new values the VPI/VCI are on this output link. the Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) and the Virtual Path Identifier (VPI). bandwidth allocation etc.

1) the Network allocates the VPI/VCI. it must respond with a Connection Identifier (VPI/VCI) in the first response to the User (see the section labeled "Connection Identifier Allocation/Selection -Origination in the ATM Forum UNI specification). The VPI/VCI A uses to send to B The VPI/VCI that B will receive from A The VPI/VCI B uses to send to A The VPI/VCI that A will receive from B? Ans: According to the ATM Forum UNI 3. are VPI/VCI spaces on all ports fully independent.1. Is it necessary to allocate same Bandwidth in both directions? .1 specification. With respect to the assignment of VPI/VCIs for an ATM Forum 3. Here is one way to look at the situation: each link in the ATM network can be split into two parts. 84.0/3. one always allocates the same VPI/VCI in both directions for a connection. Are VP and VC unidirectional? Ans: This has been discussed at some length in the past in this group. User A will request a VCC via a SETUP message. The range of valid VCCs is setup using ILMI. 83. 3. The rationale is simple: it is always the "network" side of the UNI that allocates all VCCs for communication on that UNI. In both cases (according to UNI 3. consider two users A and B which will communicate across a network. etc). Also. 4. However. the switch always knows which VCCs are available for use at the UNI. VCs and VPs can be considered unidirectional. what is the switch software's policy for value reuse. This may be considered a limitation of the signalling spec or a simplification. 82. In either case. The Network will either respond with (if there are no problems) a CALL PROCEEDING message or a CONNECT message. In this context. At the Called User side (B). Each directional sub link has the entire range of VCCs (pt-pt links can distinguish between directional data streams). the VCC can be bidirectional or unidirectional based on how the VCC was established. It is the master and the "user" is the slave. Are there really four VPI/VCIs that must be assigned by the call setup process: 1. the Network will allocate a Connection Identifier (VPI/VCI) for the Called user and will be SETUP message sent to the Called User.depends on switch internals (what space does it support. 2. Hence. one in each direction.

VPs and VCs must be bidirectional and some bandwidth must be allocated in both directions to order to support OAM flows. What is VPCI and how does it differ from VPI? Often in SVC context. we see the terminology VPCI used in Connection Identifier IE. thus wasting valuable link bandwidth.Ans: Nevertheless. ruining each such packet. This occurs because during congestion for example. the VPI and the VPCI have the same numerical value at the user side. VPCIs only have significance with regard to a given signalling virtual channel. are nevertheless transmitted on an already congested link. The Connection identifier information element contains the Virtual Path Connection Identifier (VPCI) and the Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI). The preceding and the remaining cells from such packets. The VPCI is used instead of the Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) since virtual path cross connects may be used in the access and multiple interfaces could be controlled by the signalling virtual channel. Questions about ATM efficiency 86. an important consideration is the impact of ATM cell loss on that protocol or at least the segmentation process. HLP congestion control mechanisms. ATM cell loss can cause the effective throughput of some HLPs to be arbitrarily poor depending on ATM switch buffer size. In fact. there is no constraint that the same bandwidth must be allocated in both directions. Some connections may assign the same parameters to both directions if the traffic flows are symmetrical but this is certainly no requirement. and packet size. each direction is an independent traffic stream and has its own traffic parameters and QoS. and ATM switch buffer can overflow which will cause cells to be dropped from multiple packets. 85. How does VPCI differ from VPI? Ans: "The Connection identifier information element is used in signalling messages to identify the corresponding user information flow. implementation wise. Both the user and the network must understand the relationship between the VPCI used in the signalling protocol and the actual VPI used for the user information flow. . which are ultimately discarded by the frame reassembly process in the receiver. What is Goodput? Ans: When ATM is used to transport cells originating from higher-level protocols (HLP). Maybe this is hidden from a user but it needs to be done just the same. If the signalling virtual channel only controls a single interface at the user side. Irrespective of all the above.

88. . 90. These two are actually ATM cell discard techniques which maximize "Goodput" by taking advantage of the notion that some types of ATM traffic are made up of large packets that are segmented into a series (or burst) of ATM/AAL5 cells. What is “early packet drop”? Ans: One method of increasing the efficiency of ATM over AAL5 is to drop all remaining cells for a given packet if one of the cells is lost. This functionality is sometimes referred to as "early packet drop. Implicitly this gives CLP=0 (not TAGed) cells priority in that the CLP=1 cells will be dropped first.87. for example. This notion holds true for classic IP over ATM and for LAN emulation (LANE). 91. Usually the last cell of the packet will be padded with dummy bytes (Cell padding) adding to inefficiency. PPD/EPD interaction with Traffic Policing? Ans: One action of traffic policing is to CLP=1 mark (TAG) cells which exceed a VCs specific traffic parameters. which can then trigger EPD/PPD. can be termed as GOODPUT. As these cells traverse an ATM network they will be discarded IF congestion occurs at some place in the network.512 bytes  Almost 70% of TCP datagrams are approximately 40 bytes (TCP ACKs)  Almost 80% of UDP datagrams are less than 48 bytes Unfortunately. What is Badput? The traffic represented by these "bad" cells may be termed as BADPUT.  Typical packet size on Internet is between 0 . However it is also possible for policing to be doing the right thing and. not tagging any cells. yet still output queues are congested and the need for EPD emerges. as determined by those cells which are successfully recombined at the receiver. How does ATM perform in transporting IP packets? Ans: It is important to consider payload size when estimating IP efficiency." 89. Correspondingly. It is the result of traffic policing and the operation of CLP tagging that causes cells to be discarded. the effective throughput. What is Partial/Early Packet Discard (PPD/EPD) Ans: PPD stands for Partial Packet Discard and EPD stands for Early Packet Discard. the transmission efficiency of ATM networks in transporting typical Internet Traffic does not seem all that encouraging. This is primarily because ATM chops a variable size packet into fixed-size 48-bytes cells.

The efficiency drops considerably as the payload size nears 48-bytes. The organizations who worked on it thought LANE would be needed for two key reasons Allow an ATM network to be used as a LAN backbone for hubs. point-to-point. 92. IP datagram 40 bytes 576 bytes 1500 bytes Efficiency ~ 42% ~ 92% ~ 97% Questions about Emulation and Interoperability 93. Give some of the commonly used datagram sizes. 95. bridges. What are three main areas required to emulate 802 LANs? LANE defines the three main areas required to emulate 802 LANs (connectionless. network-defined telephone-like addresses). switching hubs (also sometimes called Ethernet switches or Token Ring switches) and the bridging feature in routers. Does LANE replace Routers? Ans: LANE does not replace routers or routing.The type of Physical link. (SONET/DS3 etc) does not seem to have any effect on the efficiency factor. 94. . complete with MAC address. unchanged protocol stack. Note that the LAN-attached device has a conventional. What is the ATM Forum's LAN Emulation all about? Ans: The ATM Forum has published their LAN Emulation (LANE) V1. but provides a complementary MAClevel service which matches the trend to MAC-layer switching in the hubs and wire closets of large LANs. Ans: Following table gives an indication of this for some of the commonly used datagram sizes. Here are the basics on the requirements and general approach. Reference that spec for complete details. broadcast/multicast. etc. for example) without requiring the traffic to pass through a more complex device such as a router. 802 hardwired MAC addresses) over ATM networks (connection-oriented. Allow end stations connected to "legacy" LANs to communicate though a LAN-to-ATM hub/bridge/switch with an ATM-attached device (a file server.0 specification.

• Same for how to "flood" (bridging term) packets across ATM. How does LANE work? Ans: Here is a brief on how LANE works with ATM: • • • LANE Client (LEC) Software resides on End System LANE Server (LES) Software resides on the Switch On boot the ATM adapter registers with the local switch and exchanges management information. 97. through Ethernet/ATM devices to reach Ethernet end stations. The LEC now queries the LES for the broadcast/Unknown Server (BUS) for multi. Switch also provides its ATM address. LEC establishes VCC with BUS and registers its ATM/IP/MAC Address to multicast distribution tree.96. using a LANE server with point-to-point circuits inbound and point-to-multipoint circuits back out to the clients. How LANE emulate 802 LANs? Ans: LANE specifies: The address resolution procedures and protocols used to first discover the ATM address that corresponds to a given MAC station address (whether the station is directly ATM-attached. LANE also defines how an ATM adapter in a host can present an Ethernet or Token Ring logical interface to the protocol stack above. • The protocols and procedures to send broadcast and multicast 802 packets over the network. At this point the 2 ATM addresses are known so the LEC establishes a virtual circuit connection (VCC) with the LES. This enables applications and LAN protocols which were implemented to run above the aforesaid Ethernet or TR LANs to operate without change over an ATM network. or sitting behind an Ethernet/ATM device) and then to set up a virtual circuit between the end points (or to the Ethernet/ATM device in front of the Ethernet end station). .cast. 98. The LEC Registers its ATM/IP/MAC Address with the LES and joins the Emulated LAN. LES provides BUS address. Can lane work on Token Ring? Ans: LANE also works for Token Ring so substitute Token Ring for Ethernet in the above. The LES adds the new LEC to the ARP distribution tree. • The packet formats/encapsulations. Switch provides a prefix to the ATM adapter which in combination with the MAC address of the adapter becomes the ATM address of the adapter. even those which have not sent a packet yet (thus making the Ethernet switch aware of them).

provides the standard interface between routers and DSUs without requiring a bunch of proprietary agreements. What is ATM/Frame Relay service interworking? A third mapping is used for ATM/Frame Relay service interworking. The SMDS DXI is simple because the router does the frame (SMDS level 3) and the DSU does the cells (SMDS level 2). The ATM DXI is a little more complicated since it has to accommodate AAL3/4 and/or AAL5 (possibly concurrently).e.g. Specs on how Frame Relay frames gets mapped to ATM cells.1 of the ATM Forum's B-ICI spec (network interworking allows Frame Relay end users to communicate with each other over an ATM network). The remainder of the DXI frame gets an AAL 5 CPCS trailer and is chopped up into cells by standard AAL 5 rules. 102.99. 100. This version allows for conversion between the RFC 1490 multiprotocol encapsulation and the RFC 1483 multiprotocol encapsulation. It uses AAL5 with the RFC 1483 encapsulation within the network. a 10-bit DLCI). add the AAL-5 CPCS trailer. In this case frames are mapped using AAL 5 and the FRSSCS (Frame Relay specific service-specific convergence sublayer). The HDLC DXI frame address (called DFA in the spec) gets stripped off and the 10 bits of the "DLCI" get mapped in a funny way to the VPI and VCI of the ATM cells. This is not strictly a Frame Relay to ATM mapping but rather uses an HDLC frame structure identical to that of Frame Relay frames with a two-byte address field (i. What is SMDSDXI? Ans: The DXI. 103. Ans: There are at least four. The spec defines additional details such as the mapping between FECN/BECN/DE in the Frame Relay header and EFCI/CLP bits in the ATM cell headers. and segment the result into ATM cells using AAL 5 SAR rules. the essentials of the mapping are quite simple to describe: remove the flags and FCS from a Frame Relay frame. Routers will handle frames and packets but not typically fragment them into cells. How Mapping is done in ATM DXI mode? Ans: A second mapping is ATM DXI (data exchange interface) mode 1a. 101. It allows a Frame Relay user to communicate with a user of a different service (e. then. Despite the long-winded name. DSUs will fragment frames into cells as the information is mapped to the digital transmission facility. One is the mapping defined for Frame Relay/ATM network interworking as defined in Version 1. What is DXI? Ans: The ATM DXI (Data Exchange Interface)is basically the functional equivalent of the SMDS DXI. . SMDS/CBDS) across the ATM network.

Layer 3 protocols meaning things like IP and IPX. establishing ATM connections when needed. LANE basically connects together a single legacy LAN subnet across ATM. Within an LIS. but it doesn't make the concept as obvious as one might wish. an IP router must be used . Route servers would also be able to forward packets on to the exit point on behalf of the edge device while they are establishing their own ATM virtual circuits.following the classical IP routing mode. Route Servers would be able to map a host address into the information needed by the edge device to establish a connection across the ATM network. What is the proposed architecture of ATM connectivity? Ans: The proposed architecture consists of edge devices and route servers. but would not be involved directly in routing. As such. For communicating out a LIS. will use the ATM Forum LAN Emulation for its layer 2 forwarding.0 addresses. 107. IP addresses map directly into ATM Forum UNI 3. MPOA. operating at layer 2 and 3. What is MPOA? Ans: The ATM Forum's Multiprotocol Over ATM (MPOA) sub working group is developing an approach to support seamless transport of layer 3 protocols across ATM networks. Info about classical IP over ATM Ans: RFC1483 defines the encapsulation of IP datagrams (or other protocols) directly in AAL5.104. RFC1577 defines the ATMARP protocol for logical IP subnets (LISs). Edge devices would query a Route Server when an unknown host address is encountered. defined in RFC1577. What is a Logical IP Subnet (LIS) and how does it differ from any other subnet? Ans: RFC1577 is the document which defines LIS. Classical IP and ARP over ATM. That would be the layer 3 address of the optimal exit point from the ATM network as well as the ATM address of that exit point. It considers the application of ATM as a direct replacement for the "wires" and local LAN segments connection IP end-stations and routers operating in the "classical" LAN-based paradigm. A comprehensive document. 105. is targeted towards making IP run over ATM in the most efficient manner utilizing as many of the facilities of ATM as possible. MPOA can be seen as an evolution beyond LANE. although the info is in there in section 3. . An edge device (not necessarily user equipment) would forward packets between the LAN and ATM networks.) 106. MPOA will take this further by allowing direct ATM connectivity between hosts in different subnets. (This last part is LANE.

but does not use static routes to determine its path through the ATM network. Define PVC. So PVC is a VC which is statically mapped at every point in the ATM network. If any equipment fails. Ans: First let’s define the three terms.The short Ans is that Logical IP subnets are identical. 109. However. A SVC is established by UNI signalling methods. even though they are both attached to the same ATM physical network. So a Soft PVC is a VC that is programmed to be present at all times (like a PVC). and SVC. Also. or may just have a workstation somewhere sending proprietary configuration commands when it detects a failure. the PNNI 1. PVC in the usual meaning is a VC that is not signaled by the end points. and there was a desire to define at least the standard or "Classical" means of running IP over ATM before all those issues were resolved. Historically this feature pretty much required a singlevendor network. in all "protocol" aspects. Failure of a link causes a Soft PVC to route around the outage and remain available. unless the underlying physical network (SONET. or communications between two systems in different IP subnets on a common ATM network (as well as other connection-oriented networks) were found to be complex. Both of the endpoint (user) VC values are manually provisioned. This second limitation was a significant factor in the creation of RFC1577. 110. The issues of "cut-through routing". Define Soft PVC. PVC. just as on an Ethernet or other conventional media. A vendor may employ signalling (invisibly to the endpoints) within the network. to conventional LAN etc media subnets. but the route through the network can be automatically revised if there is a failure. . ATM signalling and SVC 108. Soft PVC. The link-by-link route through the network is also manually provisioned. A Soft PVC also has manually provisioned endpoint (user) VC values (which as defined above do not change). the SVC is broken and would have to be reconnected. the PVC is down. A failure of any link that PVC crosses results in the failure of the PVC. for example) can re-route below ATM. So an SVC is a demand connection initiated by the user. two ATMattached systems not in the same LIS cannot communicate via RFC1577 except through a router. If a switch in the path fails. with ATM-level connectivity available (PVC or SVC) between them. The key aspects that matter in this context are that ATM-attached systems in the same LIS have the same network numbers and subnet masks. Define SVC.0 spec defines a standard way of doing this which does not require a vendor proprietary solution.

or a human network operator. I have not been able to find information about how connections in the ATM layer of ATM are set up.0 (approved in 1996) • If the connection is set up by manual means. an IP-ATM end station. . If the connection is set up via Switched Virtual Circuits (SVC's). 112. a direct video-overATM application. then the protocol used is most likely most commonly referenced via the ATM Forum's specs: • UNI 3. plus any relevant ATM switches along the path. UNI 3. Since ATM is connection oriented the AAL somehow must signal to the ATM layer that it wants to have a connection open to another host.1 (the update for Q.2931 compatibility. With a Soft PVC the called party cannot drop the connection. no functional changes) • UNI 4. uses AAL5) which defines a protocol which includes the end stations. How is this signalling done? Ans: Actually. The difference between a SVC and a Soft PVC is that a SVC is established on an "as needed" basis through user signalling. There are various entities above AAL that could determine a connection is needed. Differentiate between PVC. by the way. it's not the AAL layer that originates the request for a connection (although if one were a strict believer in network layering.0 (most commonly in use for ATM/data interoperability today). then the management interface of your nearby switch is most relevant. AAL just defines how information of a given type is packaged for transporting over the ATM network. including the LAN Emulation Client. There is a signalling protocol (which. From that perspective a Soft PVC is considered more robust that a simple PVC.111. Soft PVC and SVC? Summarizing. one might assume so :-). the difference between a PVC and a Soft PVC is that a Soft PVC will be automatically rerouted if a switch or link in the path fails.

113. Ans: What does a point-point SVC call setup trace look like? .

114. This enables End Systems that do not understand ATM Signalling to set up signal and set up SVC calls with the help of the Proxy Sig Agent. Ans: What does a point to multipoint SVC call setup trace look like? 115. What is proxy signalling? Ans: Proxy signalling capability allows a user. . to perform signalling for one or more users that do not support Signalling. called the Proxy Signalling Agent (PSA).

the PSA now understands that the SVC call is destined for UNI interface 10 on VPI=0. Cells which are delayed beyond the value specified by CTD(cell transfer delay) are assumed to be significantly less value to the application. The consistent availability of a fixed quantity of bandwidth is considered appropriate for CBR service.84 Mb/s (for efficient carrying of T3 signals). UBR? Ans: CBR (constant bit rate) The CBR service classs is intended for real-time applications. the way payloads are mapped into these respective building blocks differ (which makes sense. ATM Physical Level Questions. as would be appropriate for voice and video applications. The following table shows how the US STS and the European STM levels compare: Questions about ATM service types 117. and SDH is based on the STM-1 at 155. ABR. those requring tightly constrained delay and delay variation. For CBR. Whats the difference between SONET and SDH? Ans:SONET and SDH are very close. Probably the major difference between them is that SONET is based on the STS-1 at 51.e.PSA uses VPI/VPCI mapping to determine the destination User (that does not support signalling). i. VBR. if the signaled VPCI is 1.52 Mb/s (for efficient carrying of E4 signals). but with just enough differences that they don't really interoperate. 116. As such. VPCI 1 2 UNI interface ID 10 11 VPI 0 0 Referring to the VPI/VPCI table above. What is the meaning of CBR. the following ATM attributes are specified: • PCR/CDVT(peak cell rate/cell delay variation tolerance) . given how the European and North American PDHs differ).

as would be appropriate for voice and video applications. Cells which are delayed beyond the value specified by CTD are assumed to be of significantly less value to the application.e. For those cells which are transferred. i. For non-real time VBR. the following ATM attributes are specified: • • • • PCR/CDVT CLR CTD/CDV SCR and BT(sustainable cell rate and burst tolerance) Non-real time VBR The non-real time VBR service class is intended for non-real time applications which have 'bursty' traffic characteristics and which can be characterized in terms of a GCRA. the following attributes are supported: • • • • PCR/CDVT CLR CTD SCR and BT 119. Real-time VBR service may support statistical multiplexing of real-time sources. Sources are expected to transmit non-continuous bursts of cells. those which do not require tightly constrained delay and delay variation. Non-real time VBR service supports statistical multiplexing of connections. What is the meaning of VBR? Real time VBR The real time VBR service class is intended for real-time applications. those requiring tightly constrained delay and delay variation. Sources are expected to transmit at a rate which varies with time. What is the meaning of UBR? Ans: UBR (unspecified bit rate) The UBR service class is intended for delay-tolerant or non-real-time applications. i. such as traditional computer communications applications. it expects a bound on the cell transfer delay. or may provide a consistently guaranteed QoS. UBR service supports a high degree of statistical . Equivalently the source can be described "bursty".• • • Cell Loss Rate CTD/CDV CLR may be unspecified for CLP=1. 118.e. For real time VBR...

multiplexing among sources. However it is expected that resources will be provisioned for UBR service in such a way as to make it usable for some set of applications. phone calls) Class B is VBR with timing (e.g. they may wish to increase their information transfer rate if there is extra bandwidth available within the network.Statistical Bit Rate How does ATM differ from SMDS? Ans: SMDS is the Switched Multi-megabit Data Service. The packets themselves may or may not be transported within the network on top of a connection. For UBR. PCR/CDVT What is the meaning of ABR? Ans: ABR (available bit rate) Many applications have the ability to reduce their information transfer rate if the network requires them to do so. the following ATM attributes are specified: • 120. SMDS provides a datagram service.164 (ISDN) addresses. Likewise. To support traffic from such sources in an ATM network will require facilities different from those for Peak Cell Rate of Sustainable Cell Rate traffic.oriented ATM service. Therefore SMDS is a connectionless packet switched *service*.Deterministic Bit Rate SBR . pocketsize phone calls) Class C is VBR without accurate timing Class D is connectionless VBR without accurate timing Class X is UBR Class Y is ABR 122. 121. Transport of cells in UBR service is not necessarily guaranteed by mechanisms operating at the cell level. UBR service includes no notion of a per-VC allocated bandwidth resource. SMDS uses E. not a cell-relay service. There may not be deterministic parameters because the users are willing to live with unreserved bandwidth. a service offering interface from Bell core. where a packet has about a 40octet header plus up to 9188 octets of data. What are different names for similar services classes? • • • • • • Class A is CBR with accurate timing (e. UBR service may be considered as interpretation of the common term "best effort service".g. Ans: What are DBR and SBR? • • DBR . .

Note that while DQDB is used as the access protocol. The payload itself has a 2-octet header. plus a 2-octet trailer. DQDB itself *is* a form of cell relay.6 Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB) access across the SMDS user-network interface.However. An SMDS cell therefore is nearly identical in form to an AAL3/4 cell. either DQDB or AAL3/4 may be used for the switch-to-switch interface. . The lower layers of SMDS fragment the packets into cells with a 5-octet header and 48-octet payload. 44-octets of data. the SMDS Subscriber Network Interface is currently defined to use IEEE 802.

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