PROGRAM PENINGKATAN KEBERKESANAN PELAKSANAAN KURIKULUM SAINS

BAHAN SUMBER PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN

FIZIK

USAHASAMA: BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM DAN JABATAN PELAJARAN NEGERI

PREFACE
As a nation that is progressing towards a developed nation status, Malaysia needs to create a society that is scientifically oriented, progressive, knowledgeable, having a high capacity for change, forward-looking, innovative and a contributor to scientific and technological development in the future. In line with this, there is a need to produce citizens who are creative, critical, inquisitive, open-minded and competent in science and technology. The primary and secondary school science curriculum is developed with the aim of producing such individuals. Teaching and learning strategies in the primary and secondary school science curriculum emphasized learning that helps pupils acquire knowledge and master scientific and thinking skills that will help them developed their minds to the optimum level. This can occur through various learning approaches such as inquiry-discovery, constructivism, contextual learning and mastery learning. Learning activities should therefore be geared towards activating pupils critical and creative thinking skills and not be confined to routine and rote learning. The teaching and learning process should enable students to acquire knowledge, master skills and developed scientific attitudes and noble values in an integrated manner. Feedback from science and mathematics teachers on their difficulties in teaching dry topics initiates the idea to produce this handbook. The Teacher’s Resource Handbook has been carefully designed for easy understanding and implementation. Activities suggested in the handbook commands active participation of pupils. Expert teachers were involved in producing the activities that are considered as best practice. This handbook provides many ideas for teachers to improve and enhance their teaching and learning strategies. Having gone through a trial run, the activities were well received by teachers as well as pupils. Please note that these activities are by no means exhaustive. They serve as exemplars with the intention of providing some guidance as to how learning outcomes can be achieved. Teachers are encouraged to explore the ideas contained in this handbook and develop their own models for teaching and learning practices. Ministry of Education would like to thank the Science and Mathematics officers from the Curriculum Development Division, Education State Departments, Education District Offices, Expert Teachers, Science teachers and to all those contributed in one way or another in developing the Teacher’s Resource Handbook. Support and commitment from all those involved have made this resource handbook for teachers a reality.

CONTRIBUTORS

1. Science Panels and the State Education Department Officers, Perlis. 2. Science Panels and the State Education Department Officers, Kedah. 3. Science Panels and the State Education Department Officers, Pulau Pinang. 4. Science Panels and the State Education Department Officers, Perak. 5. Science Panels and the State Education Department Officers, Selangor. 6. Science Panels and the State Education Department Officers, WP Kuala Lumpur. 7. Science Panels and the State Education Department Officers, WP Putrajaya. 8. Science Panels and the State Education Department Officers, Negeri Sembilan. 9. Science Panels and the State Education Department Officers, Melaka. 10. Science Panels and the State Education Department Officers, Johor. 11. Science Panels and the State Education Department Officers, Pahang. 12. Science Panels and the State Education Department Officers, Terengganu. 13. Science Panels and the State Education Department Officers, Kelantan. 14. Science Panels and the State Education Department Officers, Sarawak. 15. Science Panels and the State Education Department Officers, Sabah. 16. Science Panels and the State Education Department Officers, WP Labuan. 17. Science Officers of Curriculum Development Division, Ministry Of Education.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
page Preface Contributors Preamble How To Use The Resource Material The Enhancement Of The Effectiveness In The Implementation Of The Science Curriculum For Upper Form Elective Science iii iv i ii

Learning Area: 3. Forces and Pressure 3.1 Understanding Pressure. 3.2 Understanding Pressure In Liquid 3.3 Understanding Pressure and Atmospheric Pressure 3.4 Applying Pascal’s Principle 3.5 Applying Archimedes’ Principle 3.6 Understanding Bernoulli’s Principle Learning Area: 4. Heat 4.1 Understanding Thermal Equilibrium 4.2 Understanding Specific Heat Capacity 4.3 Understanding Specific Latent Heat 4.4 Understanding Gas Laws 1 7 10 13 15 23

THE ENHANCEMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SCIENCE CURRICULUM FOR UPPER FORM ELECTIVE SCIENCE

1. OBJECTIVE This resource material is produced to aid teachers in enhancing the effectiveness of curriculum implementation by focusing on increasing students’ interests and understanding of the subject matter. 2. FOCUS This resource material aims to assist teachers in enhancing the performance and quality of students’ achievement based on these aspects: • Students’ understanding and application of physics concepts • Students’ interest 3. CONTENT The resource material produced is not a module but a collection of tips and examples that can be used to guide teachers on how to enhance the effectiveness in teaching certain topics or concepts. It is also hoped to be able to solve problems usually encountered during teaching and learning sessions through the following approaches: • Inquiry-Discovery Using Scientific Investigation Experiment • Hands-On Activity • Effective Questioning Technique • Analogy

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