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Food Safety Hazard Analysis & Control Precautions Self Help Guidance Pack for Caterers

Premises Name: Address:

Proprietor:

This guidance pack is designed to help you understand and comply with the HACCP requirement of Regulation (EC) No 852/2004

The use of this pack will help you and your staff to maintain effective control over critical food safety steps in your operations. It will also enable you to show quickly and easily how you are trying to ensure food safety in your business and to comply with legal requirements.

THE HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT SELF HELP GUIDANCE PACK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES

Introduction This guidance pack has been put together to help you and your staff to maintain safe food systems in your operations. It will also help you to show how you are trying to ensure food safety in your business and to comply with legal requirements. What do you need to do? You need to look at the way you handle food to make sure that the food you provide to your customers is safe to eat. To do this you must: identify hazards that may be present and where they may occur decide whether they are critical to food safety introduce controls that will remove or reduce them review your operations regularly and particularly when changes occur to ensure new hazards are identified The types of hazard that you may find are:
Microbiological

harmful bacteria present in or on food foods being contaminated from other sources harmful bacteria being able to grow to dangerous levels harmful bacteria surviving a process meant to kill them e.g. cooking

Chemical Physical

toxic chemicals getting into food contamination of food by e.g. shards of glass, dirt, metal, pests, packaging etc.

The advice within the pack gives you practical information to assist you and provides examples of the sort of written documentation and records that you can use to monitor the controls that you put in place.

HOW TO USE THIS PACK


The following guidance will help you to begin the process to ensure the food you provide is safe to eat. Step 1: USING THE FLOW CHART Look at your menu to remind yourself of the different foods you prepare/cook. Consider all the steps that your foods go through from the receipt of raw ingredients to when you sell or serve them to your customers. Then, using a coloured or highlighting pen, mark over the steps on the flow diagram which any of your foods go through.

The flow diagram is intended to be of practical use to you, so if you find it helpful to make notes alongside the various steps then do so. Equally if you have many dishes you may find it useful to complete separate flow diagrams for different groups of dishes prepared in similar ways.

Step 2:

COMPLETING YOUR HAZARD CONTROL CHART

Now that your have identified the steps that your foods go through, you can take the process one step further. Think about the hazards (see the following pages for information on the types of hazard) that occur at each stage that you have highlighted on the flow diagram and list them in the first column alongside the step.

Remember, if you have not highlighted a particular step e.g. if you dont chill food down and then reheat it later, you will not need to make an entry in the hazard column for this step. For each hazard you have entered, you now need to decide how you are going to control it and monitoring arrangements should then be entered alongside the hazard in the relevant columns.

The checklist enclosed may help you to identify common controls that can be used, but remember that these are only examples and you need to consider your business and how you and your staff will make these arrangements in practice.

Dont forget that this pack is intended to be practical use to you and your staff, and you need to maintain and review your control and monitoring arrangements entered on your chart. To do this you must: Ensure you have all necessary items to carry out the controls etc e.g. thermometers, record sheets, labels etc Let staff know the controls and monitoring they are responsible for. Provide your staff with suitable and sufficient training and/or instruction to carry out these tasks and details of what to do if a control measure fails to meet the standard you have set. Regularly check to see that arrangements are being kept to. Review regularly to ensure controls are still relevant to the hazards identified.

SAMPLE CHECKLIST
Asking yourself the following questions may assist you in identifying potential hazards and deciding what action may be necessary. If the answer to a question is No you need to consider whether by not carrying out the activity foods are exposed to unacceptable risks. DELIVERY ACTIONS 1. Are food deliveries checked for damage/contamination? Yes 2. No Dont Know

Are the temperatures of chilled/high risk foods checked on arrival? Yes No Dont Know

3.

Are date codes checked on arrival? Yes No Dont Know

STORAGE 4. Are foodstuffs covered or wrapped to prevent contamination by bacteria, pests, chemicals, non food items? Yes 5. No Dont Know

Are raw and cooked/ready to eat foods stored separately to avoid cross contamination? Yes No Dont Know

6.

Are high-risk chilled foods kept below 8oC? Yes No Dont Know

7.

Is there a system of stock rotation for stored foods? Yes No Dont Know

8.

Are chemicals stored in a separate area? Yes No Dont Know

ACTIONS PREPARATION

9.

Is outer packaging removed from food before it enters the preparation area Yes No Dont know

10. Are separate items of equipment/surfaces used for raw and cooked/ready to eat foods? Yes No Dont know

11. Are frozen foods thoroughly defrosted before cooking? Yes No Dont know

12. Are staff aware of good personal hygiene practices? Yes No Dont know

13. Are raw eggs used in the preparation of any products containing uncooked or lightly cooked eggs? Yes
COOKING

No

Dont know

14. Are foods adequately cooked to destroy harmful bacteria? (i.e. internal temp. to reach 75oC for at least 30 seconds) Yes No Dont know

15. Are joints of meat kept to a size below 2.5kg or 6lb.? Yes No Dont know

16. Are large quantities of gravy, stews etc, stirred regularly during cooking? Yes
COOLING

No

Dont know

17. Are foods cooled rapidly to below 10oC? Yes No Dont know

18. Are bulk foods (e.g. stews, rice) transferred to wide shallow containers to aid rapid cooling? Yes No Dont know

19. Are foods covered to prevent contamination by foreign bodies? Yes


COLD HOLD

No

Dont know

20. Are high-risk foods kept below 8oC? Yes No Dont Know

21. Are foods date coded for stock rotation? Yes No Dont Know

22. Are foods covered to prevent contamination? Yes


REHEATING

No

Dont Know

23. Is food thoroughly reheated? (i.e. to a temperature above 75oC) Yes No Dont Know

24. Are utensils/equipment clean and well maintained? Yes No Dont Know

HOT HOLD

25. Is hot food kept above 63oC? Yes No Dont Know

HOT AND COLD SERVICE

26. Is food displayed for service kept above 63oC or below 8oC? Yes No Dont Know

27. Is food displayed for service protected from contamination? Yes No Dont Know

POTENTIAL FOOD HAZARDS IN YOUR BUSINESS

Examples of hazards that can threaten the safety of the food in your business.
PURCHASE & DELIVERY 1. Chilled or frozen food delivered out of temperature control, i.e. 8oC or less (5oC or less recommended) for chilled foods -18oC or less for frozen foods. Food contamination: Micro-biological (food poisoning bacteria) Chemical Foreign body e.g. due to poor temperature control e.g. pesticides, or e.g. mice droppings, glass, paper, wood etc.

2.

3. 4. 5.

Food purchased very close to or beyond the Use By or Best Before dates, or without dates. Defective packaging on delivered food. Food purchased from dubious sources.

STORAGE 6. Chilled or frozen food stored out of temperature control or not in line with the manufacturers recommendations. Contamination & Cross Contamination:Microbiological Chemical Foreign Body 8. 9. 10. e.g. raw meat juices dripping on to ready to eat food, or food stored in WC, or not covering high risk food in the refrigerator. e.g. cleaning materials coming into contact with food. e.g. staples, cello tape, flaking paint, rodent droppings etc.

7.

Food stored in damp or humid conditions leading to mould growth or rusting of tins. Defective racking systems/storage conditions which may cause damage to fragile packaging. Inadequate stock rotation, e.g. food past its Use By date still in the refrigerator and available for use. Inadequate refrigeration provision. Inadequate pest proofing of storage areas, e.g. opening external doors to improve kitchen ventilation without insect screening.

11. 12.

POTENTIAL FOOD HAZARDS (CONT.) Examples of hazards which can threaten the safety of the food in your business.
PREPARATION 13. Inadequate thawing of foods prior to cooking. 14. 15. 16. Leaving food out at room temperature unnecessarily. Food preparation rooms, which are excessively hot due to poor ventilation. No continuous supply of hot water, soap and hygienic hand drying materials to all wash hand basins. Poor personal hygiene practices e.g. not washing hands between handling raw and cooked foods, not washing hands after eating, drinking, sneezing and/or smoking etc. Food handlers suffering from vomiting, diarrhoea, fever, abdominal pains etc. (symptoms of food poisoning) handling food, which can potentially pass food poisoning bacteria through that food to the consumer. (All staff have a responsibility to report illness to their manager who then has the responsibility to take appropriate action.) Using the same cloth for cleaning surfaces used for both raw, i.e. meat and poultry, and ready to eat foods. Infrequent use of sanitiser (a combined cleaning and disinfecting agent) on work surfaces and chopping boards. This is critical where equipment is used for both raw and cooked foods, in particular meat and poultry. Poor cleaning regime, which can lead to contamination of food from bacteria and pests. Physical contamination from e.g. flies, jewellery, broken glass, worn equipment etc.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21. 22.

COOKING 23. Not achieving adequate internal cooking temperatures, i.e. greater than 75oC for 30 seconds (particularly for high risk foods, e.g. poultry, meat and rice dishes), which may lead to the survival of harmful bacteria.

24.

Poor protection against cross contamination of cooked products by raw foods particularly raw meats and poultry.

FURTHER STORAGE 25. Hot Holding: - food stored at a temperature below 63oC, so allowing bacteria to multiply 26 Cooling: - cooked foods not being cooled to below 8oC as quickly as possible. It is recommended that this is achieved within 1.5 hours. Reheating: - not achieving a core temperature of greater than 75oC for 30 seconds

27.

GENERAL 28. Lack of training and/or instruction or supervision of staff may very well compromise the safety of food.

CONTROL & MONITORING OPTIONS


Examples of rules for a business to follow in order to ensure food hygiene and safety PURCHASE & DELIVERY 1. Check temperature of foods on delivery. For example, temperature readings can be written on the invoice on delivery. On occasion staff may have to refuse delivery because the temperature is unacceptable, for example, defrosted prawns. Check Use By and Best Before dates. Check packaging to ensure intact and in good condition. Use only reliable suppliers. Set specifications for foods delivered by supplier, for example, specifying long, thin joints of meat or specifying that custard tarts should be made using pasteurised eggs only. Consider actually visiting your supplier. This is not unusual, particularly where large volumes of food are purchased.

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

STORAGE 7. High-risk foods should not be kept at room temperature for longer than absolutely necessary. They should be stored below 8oC, (preferably below 5oC) or below 18oC if frozen. Take temperature readings using an appropriate thermometer and record findings and any actions taken. Date codes on foods to be checked (specify frequency) e.g. every day for chilled foods and once a month for dried and frozen foods, dependent upon the business. All ready-to-eat foods will be kept covered in the refrigerator at all times in order to protect against cross contamination and stored high up in the refrigerator or in separate area from raw meat products. Raw meats will be stored at the bottom of the refrigerator in trays, which prevent meat juices dripping onto other foods. Eggs will be stored under refrigeration in order to reduce the growth of Salmonella. Always check date code before using. No foods will be stored on the floor. Manager to monitor. No cleaning materials will be stored where they may come into contact with open food. Separate storage provision shall be made. Manager will monitor compliance. Dried foods will be decanted into sealable containers in order to protect from physical and chemical contamination. Date codes will than be transferred onto containers. Defective racking systems and the food room structure will be repaired as necessary in order to reduce the risk of physical contamination. Staff to report disrepair to manager. Items that are not directly connected with the food business will not be stored in food rooms in order to enable effective cleaning and to prevent physical contamination.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12. 13.

14.

15.

16.

CONTROL & MONITORING OPTIONS (Cont.)


Examples of rules for a business to follow in order to ensure food hygiene and safety PREPARATION 17. Ensure that all foods, which require thawing, are completely defrosted before cooking, in particular, joints of meat and poultry. Staff will wash their hands frequently and as required, particularly before preparing food, after handling raw meats and shell eggs, eating, drinking, coughing or visiting the WC. All wash hand basins shall be checked daily for cleanliness, antibacterial soap and means of hand drying. Staff with food poisoning symptoms will not be permitted to handle food (See FOOD HANDLERS: Fitness to Work information leaflet). All equipment and surfaces will be cleaned and sanitised regularly and as required. Separate cloths (different colours) will be used for cleaning surfaces used to prepare raw and ready to eat foods. External doors will be kept closed at all times during food preparation to prevent ingress of pests, particularly flies. Pest control measures to be employed e.g. insectocutor. Staff will be permitted to wear only wedding ring and sleeper earrings during food handling.

18.

19.

20. 21.

22.

23.

COOKING 24. 25. The centre of high-risk foods will be cooked to a temperature above 75oC. Ready to eat foods will continue to be separated from raw meats and unwashed vegetables prior to service.

FURTHER STORAGE 26. Hot Holding -Food will be stored above 63oC in the hot display unit. Temperatures will be checked at least once during service period. Be confident that your equipment can maintain food at safe temperatures. -All food will be protected from contamination during hot holding by enclosing in a unit separated from customers and keeping covered if possible. Cooling -Hot food will be cooled to below 8oC within 1.5 hours by either decanting into shallow containers or cutting into smaller pieces where possible and by cooling in a cool area (below 20oC).

27.

28.

Cold Service -Cold foods will be displayed below 8oC (preferably 5oC) and kept covered where possible. Reheating - The core temperature of all reheated foods will be above 75oC.

29.

CONTROL & MONITORING OPTIONS (Cont)


Examples of rules for a business to follow in order to ensure food hygiene and safety

GENERAL 30. All food handlers will be trained to at least the Foundation Certificate in Food Hygiene, level. Managers or those with supervisory responsibilities require additional training.

Please Note: All options are given purely as examples; they are not intended to be an exhaustive list. Some items may go beyond the legal requirements of the Food Safety Act 1990 and the food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995, but are included as they are recognised as good practice within the food industry.

DEFINITIONS
Hazard The potential to cause harm / endanger the safety and quality of food

Risk

Likelihood of hazard to occur

Hazard Analysis

Identifying hazards, the steps at which they could occur, and the introduction of measures to control them. Ref: Industry Guide to Good Hygiene Practice: Catering Guide

High Risk food

Ready to eat foods. Those, which readily support the growth of food poisoning organisms, e.g. cooked meats, prepared salads, soft cheeses and cook/freeze dishes.

Cross Contamination

The transfer of germs from contaminated (usually raw) foods to other ready to eat foods. This may be by: Direct contact, i.e. stored next to each other Dripping. One e.g. raw meat or poultry, stored above the other Food handlers who handle one then the other Equipment and work surfaces, used first for contaminated food. Ref: Industry Guide to Good Hygiene Practice: Catering Guide Thoroughly heated, i.e. greater than 75oC.

Piping Hot

Control

A step / procedure / measure which eliminates or reduced the effects of a hazard.

Critical Control Point

Point or procedure, at which control is applied to prevent, eliminate or reduce an identified food safety hazard. Without which there may be a real risk of hazardous food being consumed.

Use By Date

Date mark required on microbiologically perishable pre-packed foods. (Food Labelling Regulations 1996. It is an offence to sell food after the Use By date.) Ref: Industry Guide to Good Hygiene Practice: Catering Guide

INFECTION REPORTING/PERSONAL HYGIENE AGREEMENT


I agree to report to my Manager/Supervisor* (*name of individual) as soon as possible by telephone if necessary, and make myself available for medical examination if required:

1. If I suffer an illness involving: (a) Vomiting (b) Diarrhoea (c) Septic skin lesions (boils, infected cuts etc) (d) Discharge from my eyes, nose or any other site.

2. After returning and before commencing work following an illness involving vomiting and/or diarrhoea or any of the above conditions. 3. After returning from a holiday during which an attack of vomiting and/or diarrhoea of two or more days duration occurred. 4. If a member of my household is suffering from vomiting and/or diarrhoea.

I have received, read (or had explained to me) and understand the personal hygiene rules and infection reporting requirements for food handling staff and agree to abide by them.

Name of Employee: ____________________________

Signed: Date:

____________________________ ____________________________

TO BE COMPLETED ON FIRST DAY OF EMPLOYMENT OR BEFORE COPY TO BE RETAINED BY THE EMPLOYEE.

PERSONAL HYGIENE RULES

As a food handler you must: 1. Wash and dry your hands thoroughly:

Before starting work, and after breaks Before and after handling food After going to the toilet After handling rubbish

2. Report any illness to your supervisor/manager. 3. Not work if you are suffering from diarrhoea and/or vomiting. 4. Not handle food if you have scaly, weeping or infected skin, which cannot be totally covered during food handling. 5. Ensure cuts and abrasions on exposed areas are totally covered with a distinctively coloured waterproof dressing. 6. Not smoke, eat or chew gum whilst handling food or in food handling areas. 7. Wear clean protective clothing, including appropriate hair covering. 8. Not wear nail varnish or false nails 9. Not wear jewellery (other than a plain wedding band and sleeper earrings). 10. Keep your work area, especially surfaces and utensils clean.

WEEKLY FOOD SAFETY AUDIT CHECKLIST


UNIT _________________ DATE ______________________ AUDIT BY __________________ ITEM 1 2 3
DELIVERY DAILY CHECKS

YES NO

ACTION TO BE BE COMPLETION DONE TAKEN DATE

DAILY DELIVERY TEMPERATURES CHECKED? THERMOMETERS AND DAILY TEMPERATURE CHECKS WALK-IN COLD ROOM/ FREEZER Floors Walls Shelves Tray storage containers Food storage Light Ceiling Door/seals Stocking Temperature

4
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10

5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

DRY STORES Floors/walls/ceiling Stocking Loose dry goods Light

6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5

MAIN KITCHEN AREA Ovens Mixers Pot rack/storage racks Grills Canopy

Wrexham County Borough Council has produced this form for use by caterers/food retailers. It has been reproduced by Caerphilly County Borough Council.

CHECKLIST (Continued) UNIT ________________________ DATE ________________________ AUDIT BY ____________________


ITEM 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 Food preparation area Food service area Fryers Stock pot Refrigerators Freezers Microwave Floors Refuse bins, lids Lights Free standing equipment Ventilation Cutlery/crockery/service/ Dishes, etc WASH HANDBASINS Soap, towel and nail brush WASH UP AREA Dish washing machines Dish washing temperature Chemical supplies Pot wash sinks PERSONAL HYGIENE Staff Jewellery PEST CONTROL Infestation Flies Records REFUSE DISPOSAL Internal External NOTICES Cleaning schedule Now wash your hands notice For hand washing only notice No smoking notice OTHER AREAS PARTICULAR TO THE UNIT

YES NO ACTION TO BE COMPLETION DATE TAKEN DATE

7 7.1 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 9 9.1 9.2 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 11 11.1 11.2 12 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 13

RECORD OF FREEZER TEMPERATURES


FREEZER TEMPERATURE SHOULD BE 18O OR COLDER DATE TIME TEMP. INITS. DATE TIME TEMP. INITS.

PRODUCT INTAKE FORM

Date

Supplier

Product and Quantity Condition Date Code

Temp. Accept (oC) /Reject

Comment

Signed

Notes:

All deliveries should be checked immediately, and details recorded. Fresh meat should be between 0oC and +4oC All frozen product should be 18oC or colder.

Ensure the thermometer probe is clean before and after use.

PROBE/THERMOMETER CHECKING LOG


Probe/Thermometer details: . Date:

Reading in iced water

Reading in boiling water

Signature
Note: The readings in iced water should be 1oC to +1oC; if outside this range, the unit should be repaired. The readings in boiling water should be between 99oC and 101oC; if outside this range, the unit should be repaired.

Probe/Thermometer details: Date:

Thermometer reading in iced water

Thermometer reading in boiling water Signature


Note: The readings in iced water should be 1oC to +1oC; if outside this range the unit should be repaired. The readings in boiling water should be between 99oC and 101oC; if outside this range the unit should be repaired.

WEEKLY TEMPERATURE LOG: CHILL STORAGE


Week Commencing: _____________________________________________ Chiller Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Action Signed

NOTES: Best practice is for stored product to be between 0oC and +4oC. Target store temperature less than or equivalent to 5oC. If action is required report to the Manager and call an engineer.

RECORD SHEET FOR HOT HOLDING TEMPERATURES


Make sure you check temperature at the thickest part of the Joint/Poultry. Always ensure probe is disinfected before use

KEEP FOOD HOT ABOVE +63oC

Date

Time Foodstuff

Temp. Inits

Date

Time Foodstuff

Temp Inits

RECORD SHEET FOR COOKING AND REHEATING TEMPERATURES

Make sure you check temperature at the thickest part of the Joint/Poultry. Always ensure probe is disinfected before use.

TEMPERATURE TO REACH AT LEAST

+75oC

Date

Time Foodstuff

Temp. Inits

Date

Time Foodstuff

Temp Inits

Hazard Analysis Sources of further information


Industry Guide to Good Hygiene Practice: Catering Guide, ISBN 0900 103 000 Price 3.60. From HMSO publications PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT Tel; 0171 873 9090. Assured Safe Catering Department of Health. IBSN 011 321688 2 Price 6.50 From HMSO publications PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT. Tel: 0171 873 9090. SAFE (Systematic Assessment of Food Environment) Available from British Hospitality Association, Queens House, 55-56 Lincolns Inn Fields, London WC2A 3BH. Tel: 0171 404 7744. Price 5.50. Food Handlers Fitness to Work BAPS, Health Publications Unit, DSS Distribution Centre, Heywood Stores, Manchester Road, Heywood, Lancashire. OL10 2PZ. HMSO publications can also be obtained from accredited agents.

For further information/advice contact: Caerphilly County Borough Council Council Offices, Blackwood Road, Pontllanfraith, Blackwood, NP12 2YW

Telephone 01495 226622

Completed by:

Date:
MONITORING HOW CAN I CHECK?

CONTROL MEASURES/TARGETS WHAT CAN I DO ABOUT IT?

FLOW DIAGRAM & HAZARD CONTROL CHART FOR US BY SMALL CATERERS (Restaurants, takeaways etc). Name & Address:

Hot Purchase/Receipt

Cold

FOOD SAFETY HAZARD WHAT CAN GO WRONG?

Storage

Preparation

Cooking

Cooling

Cold Hold

Cold Hold

Reheat

Hot Hold

Hot Serve/Display/Deliver

Cold Serve/Display/Deliver

Over Production

Over Production