Abigaile Mia V.

Javier ENT 272 T-1L

July 1, 2011 Dr. Pio A. Javier


BIOLOGY Taxonomy Andrallus spinidens was discovered in 1787 by Fabricius and was placed into synonym with Andrallus aculeata Ettenrieder and Audinetia arculeata Ettenrieder in 1862. A. spinidens is a non-specific predator of lepidopterous larvae mainly seen in rice fields (Thomas, 1994). Description The adult is brown. Its scutellum is darker brown with yellow apical. Its hemelytra is dark brown, with submarginal yellowish stripes running along entire length. The rostrum crassate reaches metacoxae. Its juga and tylus are subequal in length. The anterolateral prothoracic margin is thick and rugulose. The humeral angles of its pronotum laterally produced into a bidentate, spinose projection. The posterior angles of pronotum has no hook or tooth. The males with a pair of glandular pubescent patches on ventral side of abdomen compared with the female (Pawar, 1976). Life stages Egg Stage Eggs were attached and laid randomly on all the side of cages or petri dishes. Eggs are shaped irregular or elongated. The number of eggs per mass ranged from 7 to 96 with an average of 50 for 20 masses. Incubation of the egg lasted for 7 days (Table 1). When laid, eggs are creamy white. As the eggs were nearly ready to hatch, they become increasingly reddish.

The first instar nymphs were gregarious and tend to congregate on the eggs. nymphs become aggressive predators.6 4 3.6 5. attacking almost any size larvae. As they molt to the next instar. 1982).4 . Developmental period (days) of Andrallus spinidens Stage Eggs First nymphal instar Second nymphal instar Third nymphal instar Fourth nymphal instar Fifth nymphal instar Range (days) 7 2-3 4 3-4 3-5 4-8 Mean (days) 7 2. The second to fifth instars feed on a variety of lepidopteran larvae.Nymphal Stage The nymphal stage has five instars.4 3.0 days. The nymphal development has an average of 19. After molting. The gregarious behavior of the younger instars appeared to play an important part in feeding. Table 1. second to fifth instar nymphs feed almost continually until few hours before the next molt. Sometimes all stages are found feeding together (Table 1 and Figure 1) (Manley. with the solitary behaviour most strongly expressed in the fifth instar. The second to third instar nymphs are with gregarious behavior while fourth to fifth instar nymphs are mostly solitary. There is no feeding observed in the first instar but water is taken readily from damp cotton.

third instar. . fifth instar. 1982). The time required for the pentatomids about 1-4 minutes for successful attack. Larvae which were successful in escaping early attacks from predators are greatly weakened and usually unable to resist later attacks. A. A. Larvae which were able to escape the first few attacks would show a general weakening over time. loss of coordination and shaking (Oetting. Lateral view of egg. adult. fourth instar. If one or two younger instar pentatomid nymphs were unable to subdue a larva. E. B. Andrallus spinidens. second instar. the younger nymphs are observed feeding on larvae abandoned by older nymphs or adults. spinidens use poison to kill its prey. the entire group will help to attack and kill even the very large larvae (Manley. Behavior Frequently. first instar. 1971). F. C. D. Both hunting and feeding may take place s a group.Figure 1. G.

they allow the young instars to feed on the prey of the larger nymphs. First is that.Succesful predation and survival Andrallus spinidens is an impressive predator stink bug capable of attacking and killing large larvae of lepidopterans by sucking the juices from the larva’s body (Fig. spinidens is mixed-aged groups. Second is its aggressive feeding behavior. Among other pentatomids. Figure 2. spinidens has relatively short life cycle. it has the ability to feed continually for several hours.. A. First is that A. Chilo suppressalis. spinidens have these three behavior characteristic which contribute for the survival of the younger instar. Spodoptera litura or Mythimna separata). And lastly is the apparent attraction of nymphs on a fresh killed larva by other nymphs (Rajandra et al. Observations of field population along with laboratory studies indicate that A. There are three factors which favor predation of A. the females were separated from the eggs. 1971). Andrallus spinidens sucking the body of Spodoptera exigua larva. spinidens is of major usefulness in connection with outbreak or moderate to high density conditions of lepidopterans.g. 2). Living larvae will be given to each pentatomid daily. where its short life cycle and continuous feeding ability should operate to make it useful control agent. Second is that when the population of A. . Adults and nymphs were fed moth larvae of various lepidopteran species (e. Female pentatomids previously exposed in the males were placed in individual petri dishes for egg collection. (1) MASS REARING BY MANLEY (1982) Populations of Andrallus spinidens were collected in the rice field and placed in a rearing cage with larvae of lepidopterans with cotton soaked in 10% honey solution. After eggs were laid. it is a gregarious feeder. spinidens. Lastly.

agricultural practices should be . which provide hiding places. S. Spodoptera litura. After molting. (2) MASS REARING BY MOHAGHEGH and MAAFI (2007) A colony of A. and provided with wet cotton plugs fitted into small plastic dishes (2.5 cm diameter) as moisture sources. some wild individuals were added. Galleria mellonella and Ephestia kuehniella are attacked by both nymphs and adults of the predator in rice.First instar nymphs were given damp cotton and left in the container with the eggs until they molt. Fourth and fifth instars were moved to plastic boxes in approximate groups of 200 and 100 individuals. The predator were reared on late instars of G. About 1. spinidens are drastically hampered by chemical treatments. As first instar nymphs do not eat prey. To keep the predator colony at an acceptable quality level. Helicoverpa armigera.5 cm) covered with a metalscreened lid. in Plexiglas containers. and the total population of the bugs were maintained at 50 adults for each generation. Mythimna separata. prey were given to second instar nymphs. 1982). Since natural populations of A. exigua . mellonella as prey. All containers were covered with mesh screen lids. maize and soybean fields.5 cm x 6. frugiperda. oviposition sites and absorb excreta of the predator. respectively. Second and third instars were housed in groups of about 400 and 200 nymphs. S. they were moved to individual dishes and reared to adults (Manley. 1982). spinidens were established with about 70 adults collected from harvested rice fields. It attacks non-specific larva that it sees in the field. Scirpophaga incertulas) and Melanitis leda (Manley. HOST RANGE Andrallus spinidens is abundant predator in rice fields associated with outbreaks of lepidopteran larvae such as stem borers (Chilo suppressalis. Fifty (25 females and 25 males) adults were placed in a 26 cm x 19 cm x 7. respectively. supplied with excess prey and water.5 cm x 19. Other larvae of lepiodopterans such as Naranga aenescens.000 eggs were placed in a Plexiglas container (13. The containers were cleaned and predators were provided with new prey and water every day or as needed.5 cm plastic box. and furnished with several paper towels.

Zool.V. Taxonomic synopsis of the Old World asopine genera (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). and M. Ent. Ent. Soc. Bom. Global IOBC Bull. PATEL. Hist. YONKE. 2: 36. 1976. J. 1982. 1971. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) on live and frozen prey. J. News. The predatory stinkbug. LITERATURE CITED MANLEY. and T. Appl. 42 (1): 15–20 OETTING.R.).oriented towards conservation of this beneficial insect. Insecta Mundi 8: 145–212. RAJANDRA. G.A. Andrallus spinidens (Fabricius) (Asopinae: Pentatomidae: Hemiptera) as a predator of insect pests of rice in Himachal Pradesh. 68 (2): 15-18. M. 1994. THOMAS. 2003. MOHAGHEGH. D. Biology and life history of the rice field predator Andrallus spinidens F. Studies on the life history of a predatory bug.K.K. Immature stages and biology of Podisus placidus and Stiretrus fimbriatus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). J. Andrallus spinidens (F. Can.C. Andrallus spinidens (Fabr. PAWAR. rearing and potential in Iran. Mohaghegh and Maafi 2007). 1971.): its occurrence. D. and R. Entomol. R. 2003. Nat. The predator can also be a promising biocontrol agent against defoliator caterpillars in greenhouses (Mohaghegh. 103: 1505-1516. B. Reproduction of the predatory stinkbug Andrallus spinidens (F. MAAFI. . A. Rice Entomologists Newsletter 4: 23-24. 93:19-24. India. MOHAGHEGH. 2007.

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