FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE

From SPANISH To PORTUGUESE
D E P A R T M E N T O F 5 T A T E
From SPANISH To PORTUGUESE
JACK L. ULSH
FOREIGN SERVItE INSTITUTE
WASHINGTON, O.C.
1971
o E P A R T M E N T O F 5 T A T E
For sale by the af Documents. U. S. Governrnent Prmtmg Ofhce
Washmgton, D. C., 20402 - Pnce $1
Stock Number 4400-1363
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
TABlE OF CONTENTS
Author' s Foreword ........•........•......................
Specia1 Note on Cognates ..•..............•...............
v
viii
Part I THE SOUNDS
The Vowe1s
Spanish Vowe1s with Counterparts in Portuguese .
1. Spanish ~ / Portuguese ~ .........•.............
2. Spanish unstressed 2 and ~ / Portuguese unstres-
sed ~ and .i .
Portuguese Vowe1s Not Occurring in Spanish .
1. Oral Vowe1s .
2. Nasal Vowe1s : .
1
1
1
4
8
8
13
The Diphthongs ....•...................................... 16
Spanish Diphthongs with Counterparts in Portuguese 16
Portuguese Diphthongs Not Occurring in Spanish 17
1. Oral Diphthongs 17
2. Nasal Diphthongs 18
Diphthongs Restricted to Some Dia1ects 20
The Consonants .......•..................•................ 21
Spanish Consonants with Counterparts in Portuguese 21
portuguese Consonants Not Occurring in Spanish 26
Observations on Major Brazi1ian Dia1ect Differences 28
Consonant C1usters ....................•............... 28
Part II THE GRAMMAR
Introduction
Word arder .
Word Order in Questions with Interrogative Words .
Word Order in Yes-No Questions .
Word order in Answers to Yes-No Questions .
Negation ................•................................
An Extra Negative •........••..........•...............
portuguese 'either/neither' ......••••..........•.•....
v
29
31
31
32
32
34
34
34
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Verbs .
Contractions .....•...•...............................•....
Usage of ser and estar ..•.•.......•.•.•...•..........•.
Two New Verb Categories .............•...•.•............
Verb Types ...................•...•.....................
Regular Verb Forms .
Irregular Verb Forms .•.................................
Verb Constructions .......................••......•.....
1. Spanish (ir + ~ + infinitive) vs. Portuguese
(ir + infinitive) ..•................•...........
2. Spanish (haber + past participle) vs. Portuguese
(ter + past participle) ........................•.
3. Spanish gustar vs. Portuguese gostar de .....•...
4. Spanish hacer vs. Portuguese haver in time ex-
46
47
48
48
49
49
51
51
52
35
39
39
39
44
46
preSSl.ons .
Spanish (estar + -ndo) vs. Portuguese (estar + ~
+ infinitive) .
Future Subjunctive ••...•.•.•.•..•...•.•.........
Personal Infinitive •......•...•••.....•........•
5.
L
2.
1. Placement .
2. Other Problems .
Direct Object Nouns .
Definite Article .
Nominals
Object
Gender
L
2.
pronouns .
ln Cognates .
ln the Number 'Two ' .
57
57
57
60
63
63
64
64
64
Part III HINTS ON VOCABULARY TRANSFER
Some Patterns of Correspondences •..••••.•.•.•...••........
Common Correspondences •................................
1. Sounds .
2. Word Endings .
Less Common Correspondences •....•...•....•.........•••.
False Cognates
part IV
SUPPLEMENTARY PRONUNCIATION EXERCI SES 81
vi
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
AUTHOR'S FOREWORD
Introduction
If you are like most Americans who already speak Spanish and
who are now about to learn portuguese, you want to know whether
your Spanish will help you or hinder you. You want to know
whether it will be an advantage or a disadvantage, an asset or
a liability. Since Spanish and Portuguese are so close, your
first inclination is to assume that the transition from one to
the other will be quite easy. But you cannot wholly accept this
idea, because friends who have already made the transition have
told you that your Spanish will interfere with your Portuguese.
They have warned you to expect considerable difficulty in keeping
your Spanish out of your Portuguese. You contrast these remarks
with the more favorable comments of other friends who have also
gone from Spanish to portuguese. They tell you how easy it was.
It is quite understandable, then, that you are not sure what to
believe.
We who supervise Portuguese instruction at the Foreign Service
Institute have observed that the majority of students who already
speak Spanish make better progress in Portuguese than those who
do noto Although the Spanish they know so well makes frequent and
unwanted intrusions on their portuguese, it also gives them consid-
erable insight into the new language. So much of what was learned
in Spanish is now applicable to Portuguese. Our conclusion is
that the advantages of this transfer factor far outweigh the
disadvantages of interference. We feel that Spanish is a distinct
asseto If Vou have wondered about the utility of your Spanish in
this new venture, and particularly if you have already started
Portuguese instruction and have found yourself blocked by Spanish
at every step, take heart! You will soon see that you have much
more going for you than against you.
vii
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Spanish and Portuguese long age separated from a cornrnon
ancestor and became identifiable as two distinct languages, but
they are still close enough to each other to enable us to use the
word 'conversion' when describing what the speaker of one language
does in order to achieve command of the other. An Arnerican speaker
of Spanish cannot help but go through a kind of conversion process
in his approach to Portuguese. His mind will not let him do other-
wise, for he is constantly reminded of the many correspondences
between the two languages, of the many areas where they are paral-
leI or nearly parallel. Inevitably and logically he sees the
primary task before him to be that of altering his Spanish patterns
50 as to fit the Portuguese moldo He is going to get at Portuguese
via Spanish. He is going to converto
This manual has grown out of a need to supply students with a
guide to making the Spanish to Portuguese conversion. It is
written in a casual, informal style, not unlike the conversational
style of the classroom, where much of its content had its origin
and initial expression. It is written for you, the student. It
provides an extensive, non-technical examination of those Spanish/
Portuguese correspondences that have proven most troublesome to
students, correspondences which you must be particularly aware of
if you wish to keep your portuguese separate from your Spanish.
This m a n ~ a l is not exhaustive in its approachi it does not attempt
to cover alI the differences between the two languages. It con-
centrates on the known trouble spots.
The terminology used in this manual takes the conversion
process into account. It recognizes the fact that in going from
Spanish to Portuguese you will see the latter in terms of the
former. You will compare nearly everything you learn in Portuguese
with its counterpart in Spanish.. The word 'conversion' is itself
a reflection of this frame of mind. When we talk about 'changing'
or 'modifying' Spanish patterns, when we say that a Spanish sound
viii
FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE
'drops out' of its Portuguese counterpart, or when we speak of a
'new' Portuguese sound, we are echoing the thoughts of students
before you. We are using terminology which reflects the point of
view of the American who is using Spanish as a springboard to
Portuguese.
An attempt to examine the distinctions between European and
Brazilian Portuguese is beyond the scope of this manual. ln any
case, such treatment would not be particularly useful to us, since
the special problems of the Spanish speaker are much the sarne
regardless of which kind of Portuguese ne is learning. On the
assumption that the majority of users will be studying standard
Brazilian Portuguese, I have elected to write about this variety.
However, students of European Portuguese will find that this manual
has nearly as much to offer them as it does to those who are studying
Brazilian Portuguese.
The manual is divided into four parts: 'The Sounds
'
, 'The
Grammar', 'Vocabulary Transferi, and 'Supplementary Pronunciation
Exercises'. We recommend that you read about the sounds and do
the pronunciation exercises at the very beginning of your Portuguese
course, for it is then that you will experience most of your inter-
ference from Spanish pronunciation. You may want to read the other
two parts in their entirety at any time, but we especially recommend
that you select for careful study the various subsections of these
two parts at such time as they fit in with the course of study you
are following. The Portuguese portions of all four parts are
available on tape.
Many of my colleagues have contributed in various ways to the
preparation of this manual. While I cannot name them all, I do
want to give special credit to Dr. Earl Stevick and Miss Madeline
E. Ehrman, both of whom read the original manuscript and offered
many useful suggestions.
ix
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Special Note 00 Cogoates
Spanish and portuguese share a huge quantity of words. We
will refer to these shared words as cognates, words that are
easily recognizable from one language to another.
probably upwards of 85 per cent of Portuguese vocabulary
consists of words which have a cognate in Spanish. Sometimes
the difference in cognates is not great, as, for example, the
slight change in vowel qualities that you will notice between
Spanish bonito and Portuguese bonito. At other times the dif-
ference may be quite pronounced, but the word will still be
readily recognizable. Consider, for example, Portuguese agora,
vs. Spanish ahora, and Portuguese chover vs. Spanish llover.
Rather drastic sound changes have been introduced in the
Portuguese words, but you should still recognize them as words
which have a first cousin in Spanish.
Cognates will be used frequently on the following pages to
illustrate certain correspondences between Spanish and Portuguese.
You are likely to get the impression from time to time that every
Spanish word has aPortuguese cognate. You should not let yourself
think this. Some of the most common words of portuguese do not
have a cognate in Spanish. As a rule it is difficult to predict
their occurrence. You can appreciate this by studying the follow-
ing examples.
a. portuguese amanhã and hoje are cognates for Spanish
manana and hoy. Knowing this, you might expect the
portuguese word for 'yesterday' to be a cognate too.
It is noto It is ontem, which does not resemble ayer
in the slightest.
x
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
b. Vou will readily recognize Portuguese camisa, blusa,
and sapato, since you already know these words in
Spanish. Vou are not likely, however, to know what
saia is until somebody or something tells you. It
is the word for Iskire, and it obviously is far removed
from the familiar Spanish falda.
Cognates do often fall into recognizable patterns (as shown
later in 2art III, 'Vocabulary Transferi), but it is very difficult
to be sure that you will find a cognate in a given case. Vou must
learn which words from your Spanish inventory have cognates and
which do noto
xi
FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE
PART I
THE SOUNDS
ln this section we will compare the sounds of Spanish with
the sounds of portuguese. We will illustrate our comments with
cognates in order to help you transfer vocabulary items from
Spanish into Portuguese.
The Vowels
Spanish Vowels with Counterparts in portuguese
You will recall that Spanish has just five vowels, ~ ~ i
o a n d ~ . These same five familiar vowel sounds, pronounced
essentially as you know them in Spanish, occur frequently in
portuguese, but they are interspersed with seven additional
vowel sounds, new ones that do not exist in Spanish. The
existence of these seven additional vowels and their several
diphthongs means that you must now learn to operate within a
more extensive vowel system. lt also means that you will have
to exercise considerable caution in transferring the five Spanish
vowels, particularly in cognates. You cannot do so as freely as
you would like, as you will discover on these pages.
ln addition to accommodating yourself to the seven new
vowels, you will also need to learn to handle some very common
variations of the familiar ~ , ~ a n d ~ . These variations occur
for the most part when these vowels occur at the ends of words
and are unstressed. We discuss each of these in turn below.
1. Spanish ~ / Portuguese ~
The portuguese ~ has a special variant, not occurring in
Spanish, which will probably cause you some problems during your
early days of study. We will arbitrarily elect to write this
1
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
variant for the moment like this: It is similar to a common
English vowel sound, the sort of lax, neutral 'uh'-type sound that
you and alI native-speakers of English say in the final, weak-
stressed syllable of words like 'sofa', 'comma', 'Anna', 'abbot'
when you utter these words in a normal, unaffected way. In your
early days of learning Spanish you had to break away from this
comfortable English habit and force yourself not to use this sound
in the final, weak-stressed syllable of Spanish words. You had to
learn to say and not in the last syllable of toma,
senoras, qanan, and many other words.
Now, in Portuguese, you will find that this sound does occur,
and with great frequency, in final, weak-stressed syllables. For
example, you will hear it in the last syllable of portuguese
toma, senhoras, which is precisely where you learned not to use it
in the corresponding Spanish words. It will be in just such easily
recognizable portuguese/Spanish cognate words as these, where the
final unstressed vowel in Spanish is that you will need to be
particularly careful to use the It requires a bit
of undoing of a familiar and comfortable pattern. Below are a
few cases in point.
Spanish (weak-stressed a
is underlined.)

senoras


ahora



portuquese (spelling is altered to
show weak-stressed



dias

nada


FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE
Of course the occurs in the final, weak-stressed syllable
of many non-cognate words as well. Here, too, you will have to
resist the tendency to use a Spanish
fala

fica
feira
lt is interesting to note that in European Portuguese and in
the rapid speech of some Brazilians there is a definite tendency
to pass over this sound very lightly, sometimes to the point of
dropping it.
The a is also heard in stressed syllables when the following
syllable begins with or nh sound. ln these cases the is
slightly nasalized. once again, interference from familiar,
cognate Spanish words is likely to be a problem.
Spanish
vamos
cama
bano


Portuguese



ganho
ana
The differences between Spanish a and portuguese may not
seem very great, but it is on just such small differences as
these--hundreds of them--that Spanish and portuguese are dis-
tinguishable as two separate languages.
Merely as an indication of the considerable frequency with
which you will need to perforrn this to change, we have
tabulated its presence below in some very basic, hence constantly
recurring, grammatical features of the two languages.
3
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Frequency check: Spanish / portuguese e
The Spanish unstressed sound marks many feminine nouns and
their agreeing adjectives etc.), the third person
singular present tense of verbs etc.), and the
singular subjunctives of -er and -ir verbs etc.).
In portuguese, you will find 2 in these positions.
Spanish portuquese
Nouns: casa case
senoras senhores
para
días
Adjectives: bonita bonite
car,2. care
Verbs: (3rd person singular, present tense of -ar verbs)

manda

tome
mande
trabalhe
(singular subjunctive of -er, -ir verbs)
aprenda
coma
aprend2
come
2. Spanish unstressed 2 and / portuguese unstressed and i
Spanish very commonly ends a word with an unstressed o or
an unstressed sound etc.) Since you
are accustomed to using these two sounds at the ends of words in
Spanish you will find that you will want to use them in this
position in portuguese, too, especially if you are dealing with
4
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
cognates. ln very careful, overly precise speech aPortuguese
speaker may occasionally end words with the unstressed Q and
sounds of his own language, but in normal, everyday speech he
will always use u and i sounds, respectively, instead. These
two features of Portuguese speech will be among the first to
strike your ears. The frequency check presented below will
indicate how often you will be required to focus on them.
Frequency check: (Spanish Q / portuguese
ln Spanish the unstressed Q sound marks many masculine nouns
and their agreeing adjectives (carrQ viejQ, etc.) as well as the
first person singular, present tense of most verbs (teng2, IlevQ,
etc.) ln portuguese, these functions are taken over by the un-
stressed sound (which, nonetheless, is written o in
spelling). Observe the change in the examples shown below, alI
cognates. We have altered the standard portuguese spelling to
emphasize the presence of the u sound.
Spanish portuguese
Nouns:
Adjectives:
carro carru
centro centru
estados estadus
libros livrus
cuatro
famoso famosu
bonitos bonitus
caros carus
FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE
Verbs: (first person singular, present tense):
tomQ tomu
llevo levu
tengQ tenhu
vivo vivu
Frequency check: (Spanish / portuguese
ln Spanish, an unstressed sound marks the 3rd person singular
of most -er and -ir verbs etc.), and the singular
subjunctive of most -ar verbs etc.). It also
occurs frequently as the last vowel in nouns and adjectives
etc.
ln portuguese these functions are assumed by the unstressed
i sound (which, nonetheless, is written in standard spelling,
just as it is in Spanish). Compare these sample cognates. We
have altered the Portuguese spelling to emphasize the presence
of the unstressed sound.
Spanish Portuguese
Verbs: (3rd person singular, -er, -ir verbs)

abre
mueve
cabe

abri
movi
cabi
(singular subjunctive of -ar verbs)

mande
pas.§.
6
fali
mandi

FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Adjectives: grandi
verde verdi
ese essi
Nouns: base basi
noche noiti
tardi
bi11ete bilheti
The shift from Spanish unstressed to portuguese unstressed
i is evident e1sewhere too. For examp1e, many Portuguese speakers
have the initia1 unstressed sy11ab1es is- and dis- where your
Spanish experience would lead you to expect the unstressed
and des-.
Spanish Portuguese ( spelling a1tered
to show i sound)
isperar
estar istar
isposo
escribir iscrever
descuido discuido
desdén disdém
destino distino
Additional practice with unstressed u and i is found in
Part IV, exercises 1, 2 and 3.
7
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Portuguese Vowels Not Occurring in Spanish
portuguese has seven vowels that do not occur in Spanish.
For examination purposes we can divide these new vowels into two
groups: oral vowels and nasal vowels.
1. Oral Vowels
We will look at the new oral vowels first. There are two
of them. Since they are somewhat difficult to identify in stand-
ard spelling we have chosen to write them for the moment like
this: (The use of capitals is deliberate.)
A. The oral vowel
This vowel is somewhat similar to the vowel in the English
words bet and set. To produce it, one must have a somewhat larger
opening between the tongue and the roof of the mouth than one needs
to produce the Perhaps for this reason it is sometimes referred
to as the 'open' in contrast to the which in turn may be
called 'closed'. Be careful, however, not to think of E as just
a variation of the 1t is another vowel altogether,
as different from e as a is Notice the difference the
'open' E makes in the following pairs of words.
with ' closed' e with 'open'

êste (this) Este (east)
sêlo (stamp) sElo (I seal, stamp)
gêlo (ice) gElo (I freeze)
cêrro (hill) cErro (I close)
sêde (thirst) sEde (headquarters)
sexta (sixth) sEsta (nap, siesta)
8
FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE
lnevitably some interference will arise out of the necessity
of accommodating two vowel sounds in an area where you are used to
dealing with only one. This will be a problem in the case of brand
new, non-cognate words. It will be even more of a problem in the
case of cognates. Many Spanish words with ~ (which we may consider
closed) will show up in Portuguese with the o p e n ~ . Among these
are Spanish words ending in stressed -elo
Spanish
papel
pincel
hotel
portuquese
papEl
pincEl
hotEl
ln most cases, though, you will find it difficult to predict
whether you will find an e or an E in the portuguese word. Check
these examples:
Spanish portuquese
closed ~ closed e
pelo pelo
mesa mesa
pena pena
pelar pelar
tenaz tenaz
menos menos
mero
sede
bella
fe
ella
es
cero
flecha
Portuquese
open ~
mEro
sEde
bEla

Ela
É
zEro
flEcha
9
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Let us look at this in another environment. You remember
that Spanish has a lot of words containing the diphthong ie. Most
of these (a rough estimate would put the figure at 95 per cent)
show up in Portuguese with the open AIthough this change
may be annoying to you because of the interference factor, you will
find that it is a very useful device to keep in mind, simpIy because
it is applicable to so many words. We are listing just a few of
them here.
Spanish portuguese
siete sEte
ciego cEgo
piedra pEdra
pieI pEle
mieI mEl
tierra tErra
pierde pErde
pie pt
fiesta fEsta
diez dEz
If Spanish ie is followed by or m in the sarne syllable, as
in siempre, the vowel in the Portuguese cognate word will most
likely be the nasal vowel (see page 13.) It will not be the
open
B. The oral vowel Q.
The other new oral vowel is Q, often called 'open' Q. once
again we can apply the term 'open' to refer to the fact that there
is more space--more of an 'opening'--between tongue and roof-of-
mouth for this vowel (the Q) than for in turn, is
often referred to as 'closed'. The 'closed' is very similar to
the Spanish
10
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
The Q and Q are quite different and quite separate vowels in
portuguese. Here are several pairs of words which will illustrate
this.
With closed o with open Q
(as underlined)
aVQ (grandfather)
"
(grandmother) avO
côro (chorus) cOro (1 blush)
almQço (lunch) almOço (1 eat lunch)
gôsto (taste) gOsto (1 like)
P Q ~ o
(well) pOsso (1 can)
Just as you will have some trouble learning the distribution
of ~ a n d ~ , so you will also have trouble learning the distribu-
tion of Q and Q. When is it one and when is it the other? Again,
the answer seems to be: Take each word as it comes along, and
learn it. Of course, your well-established habit of saying a
closed Spanish Q will tempt you to carry this sound over into
Portuguese too, particularly in cognates. ln the case of some
cognates, you will be right, as these examples show.
Spanish closed o Portuquese closed o
gota gôta
boca bôca
mozo môço
como corno
boba boba
popular popular
noticia notícia
But in the case of many other cognates you will have to
switch to the open Q, as the following examples show.
11
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Spanish closed
Q
Portuguese open Q
nota nOta
moda mOda
norte nOrte
obvio 6bvio
bota bOta
As you can see, there does not appear to be any pattern you
can follow.
Spanish has a large number of words that contain the diphthong
~ . Many, but not all, of these show up in Portuguese with the
open
Q.
Spanish portuguese
fuerte fOrte
luego lOgo
cuerda cOrda
puerta porta
nueve nOve
rueda rOda
muerte mOrte
escuela escOla
puede pOde
suelo sOlo
Spanish puerto and hueso, however, show up as porto and osso,
both containing the closed Q. So you will have to be careful not
to assume that every Spanish ~ will turn out to be an open Q in
portuguese. It is, nonetheless, a good rule of thumb. And, if
the Spanish ~ is followed by an m or n in the sarne syllable, as
in cuenta the Portuguese cognate will most likely have the nasal
vowel .2., as in cõta. (See page 13.)
12
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
For additional occurrences of both the O and the E sounds
see the sub-division on 'Irregular Verb Forms', pages 44-46.
2. Nasal Vowels
You know, of course, that Spanish has no such thing as a
nasal vowel. Nor does English, for that matter. So the process
of pronouncing a vowel 'through your nose', as the saying goes,
may be new to you. Rest assured, though, that it is not a par-
ticularly difficult thing for most people to learn to do.
Portuguese has five nasal vowels. They are:
e i õ ti and §
ln our modified spelling we will use the tilde (-). ln
standard spelling, nasal vowels are frequently signalled by the
presence of an m or n after the vowel in the same syllable, as
in vendo, sim, bom, ~ , and banda. ln addition, the tilde
designates many ~ and ~ sounds (the latter being written !).
It is important to remember that these nasal vowels are not
mere variations of their non-nasal, or oral, counterparts. They
are completely different vowels, every bit as distinct from the
non-nasals as ~ is from 2 and as i is from ~ '
The nasal vowels show up frequently in easily recognizable
Spanish/Portuguese cognate words. ln the Spanish version of
these words, you first pronounce the vowel, then you pronounce
an ~ or Q sound. ln portuguese, however, you simply nasalize
the vowel. That's all. You do not pronounce an m or an Q. If
you do, nobody will have any trouble understanding you, but your
Portuguese will be more Spanish than you should want it to be.
Be alert then to the changes you will have to make in such cognate
items as the following:
13
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Spanish a Portuguese nasal
~
cuando quando
(quãdu)
cuanto quanto
(quãtu)
banco banco
(bãcu)
cantar cantar
(cãtar)
mandar mandar
(mãdar)
andando andando
(ãdãdu)
(and other -ndo forms of -ar verbs)
Spanish e Portuguese nasal e
senda
vencer
mentir
vender
aprendiendo
senda
vencer
mentir
vender
aprendendo
(sede)
(vecer)
(metir)
(veder)
(aprededu)
Spanish i
{and other -ndo forms of -er verbs)
Portuguese nasal I
fin
pintar
insulto
importante
dirigiendo
fim
pintar
insulto
importante
dirigindo
(fi:)
(pitar)
(isultu)
(iportãti)
(dirigidu)
(and other -ndo forms of -ir verbs. )
14
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Spanish .2. Portuguese nasal õ
responder responder (respõder)
montana montanha (mõntanha)
donde onde
(õdi)
onza ones a
(ões
a
)
onda onda (õda)
Spanish
~
Portuguese nasal u
fundar fundar (fudar)
tumba tumba (tuba)
mundo mundo (mudu)
15
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
The Diphthongs
Spanish Diphthongs with Counterparts in portuguese
Most of the diphthongs that occur in Spanish also occur in
portuguese, but with different degrees of frequency. We will
not bother to treat all of them here, but will make just a few
comments about several of them.
Spanish ie and ue can be found in portuguese, but not nearly
so often as in Spanish. We have already seen that the Portuguese
open and open Q sounds frequently appear when you are accustomed
to hearing Spanish ie and ue.
On the other hand, the diphthongs ei and eu, which are sorne-
what limited in their occurrence in Spanish, are very common in
Portuguese.
You should be particularly mindful of the ei, since it often
appears in those positions where Spanish has a simple sound.
When this is the case, you will have to be doubly careful to add
the '-i-glide' to the sound and make it a genuine diphthong.
It will sound much like the of English bay. Compare these
examples:
Spanish


madera
manera

verdadero
caballero
dinero

16
Portuguese
queimar
deixar
madeira
maneira
primeiro
verdadeiro
cavalheiro
dinheiro
solteiro
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Notice that many of these Spanish words end in ero and
The ei diphthong is also to be found in these verb endings:
mandei, mandarei (cf. Spanish mand!,
falei, falarei (cf. Spanish
cantei, cantarei (cf. Spanish
and others of the sorte
(see exercise 7, Part IV.)
The most common occurrences of the diphthong are:
a.
b.
c.
d.
meu, seu
eu
deus, adeus
(the 3rd person,
singular, past
tense ending of
regular verbs)
venceu
valeu
bebeu
comeu
vendeu
(cf. Spanish mi, su)
(cf. Spanish Y2.)
(cf. Spanish dios, adiós)
(cf. Spanish venció)
(cf. Spanish valió)
(cf. Spanish bebió)
(cf. Spanish comió)
(cf. Spanish vendió)
Portuquese Diphthonqs Not occurrinq in Spanish
1. oral Diphthongs
Among the new diphthongs are three involving the open vowel
sounds E and Q.
Ei, as in papéis, hotéis
Eu, as in céu, chapéu
oi, as in dói, herói
Also new is in Note particularly its presence
in trabalhou, falou, mandou and similar past tense items where
Spanish has the single vowel -ó (cf. Spanish trabajQ, hablQ, mand2).
17
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
2. Nasal Diphthongs
The nasal vowels and Q combine with the vowel sounds i
and u to form four nasal diphthongs:
as in mãe, cães, pães
ei, (usually spelled as tem, bem, dizem
õi, as in põe, canções, botões, funções
as in não, pão, falam, saíram
(A fifth diphthong, ui, appears only in the word muito.)
The diphthong is very useful. It corresponds to the Spanish
verb endings -án, and It also corresponds to Spanish noun
endings -6n and -i6n. Observe the samples below. Additional
practice is available in exercises 4, 5 and 6, Part IV.
a. Third person plural verb forms:
Spanish

pasaban
pasarán

pasaron
van
dan
digan
reciban
están

b. Nouns:
lim6n
me16n
mont6n
18
portuguese (spelling)
passam
passav.9.!!l
passarão
passari.9.!!l
passar.9.!!l
vão
dão
dig.9.!!l
recebam
estão
são
limão

montão
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
salón
corazón
condición
destinación
sección
lección
salão
coração
condição
destinação
seção
lição
(Many other nouns ending in -ón and -ión in Spanish will end
in the diphthong -ãu in portuguese.)---
c. others:
tan
san
tão
são
The õi diphthong is heard in the common plural ending -ões,
which corresponds to Spanish -ones and -iones. Compare these
Spanish and Portuguese pluraIs of nouns listed in (b) above.
Spanish portuguese
limones limões
melones melões
montones montões
s a l ~ salões
c o r a z ~ corações
condiciones condições
destinaciones destinações
secciones seções
lecciones lições
The ei diphthong often corresponds to the Spanish verb-ending
-en. Compare:
Spanish
viven
venden
manden
vivies§!l
19
Portuguese (spelling)
vivem
vendem
mandem
vivessem
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Diphthongs Restricted to Some Dialects
It is striking to the ears of Spanish speakers that in the
speech of many Brazilians a stressed vowel before a final ~ sound
is glided toward the i sound. The result is a diphthong.
Standard Spelling
gás
mas 'but'
arroz
nós
feroz
eficaz
vez
luz
pus
avestruz
voz
maçãs
irmãs
manhãs
20
possible Pronunciation
[gais]
[mais]
[arrois]
[nois]
[ferois]
[eficais]
[veis]
[luis]
[puisJ
[avestruis ]
[vois]
[maçãis]
[irmãis]
[manhãis]
FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE
The Consonants
Spanish Consonants with Counterparts in Portuguese
You can carry the following Spanish consonant sounds over
into Portuguese with little or no modification.
b* d* g* P t k f s m n r (of
*A special word needs to be said about the and g sounds
starred above. These symbols refer only to the often-called
'hard' varieties of these sounds, as heard in bien, donde and
gano when these words occur first in an utterance. Portuguese
does not have the 'soft' varieties of these sounds that occur
between Spanish vowels and certain other places in that language.
presumably you remember what is meant by 'soft' and 'hard'
in this contexto You probably know, for example, that the of
Spanish nada is considerably 'softer' than either of donde.
It is something like the th of English 'this'. Sometimes the
Spanish speaker seems to pass over it so lightly, so softly, that
it alI but disappears, and you hear something which we might write
as na'a. None of this ever happens in Portuguese. The of the
Portuguese word nada is a firm--a sound much as we
English speakers understand and recognize a sound.
Likewise, the of Spanish suba is considered to be a soft
sound, since the speaker's lips do not close alI the way during
its production. But in the Portuguese word suba the lips are
closed alI the way on the b sound and the result is a sound which
is very nearly the sarne as our familiar English sound.
The sarne comparison can be drawn with regard to the g.
Observe, for example, the difference between the slightly soft
of Spanish and the harder g of Portuguese
21
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
So, to summarize, you will always want to use the hard
varieties of ~ , ~ and ~ in Portuguese, never the soft.
You will experience most of your trouble with easily recog-
nizable cognate words. Below are a few samples.
l
The Spanish
spelling has been slightly altered to show the soft ~ , ~ and ~
sounds.
Spanish
najifa
bojifa
ijifa
sejifa
mujifar
formajifo
comijifo
(And many other such
participial forms)
Portuquese
nada
boda
ida
sêda
mudar
formado
comido
10)60 lôbo
Cu)6a Cuba
sa)6er saber
sá)6ajifo sábado
ca)6er caber
entregar entregar
pegar pegar
digo digo
pago pago
Some Spanish consonants have counterparts in Portuguese
which, though similar, are different enough to warrant special
attention. We treat them below.
1 . . b dd b f d
Extenslve practlce on an can e oun
9 and 10, Part IV.
22
in exercises
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
1. Spanish rr / Portuguese rr (indicated here as
Portuguese has a counterpart of the Spanish multiple trilled
rr. For most Portuguese speakers the trilling is produced in the
back of the mouth with the uvula, rather than in the front of the
mouth with the tongue tipo ln the speech of many Brazilians,
particularly from the Rio area, the sound is much like a slightly
hoarse Spanish or English h sound with perhaps a bit of vocaliza-
tion added. For others it more nearly resembles the voiced French
Your best bet, of course, will be to imitate your native-
speaking instructor.
The appears where your Spanish experience would lead you
to expect it. Check below and in Part IV, exercise 13.
a. Initially
b. Between vowels
c. Finally



portuguese
Roupa
Revista
Rápido
Rio
Repita
Razâo
caRo
aRoz
coRe
gueRa
toRe
familiar cognate
Spanish
a. ropa
revista
rápido
río
repita
razón
b. carro
arroz
corre
guerra
torre
You should be particularly careful about this sound in
words, a few of which are given below.
23
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
c. senor senhoR
placer prazeR
dar daR
comer comeR
ir iR
And, of course, many other infinitives.
The ~ also appears in one place where you would not expect it:
before consonants. Remember that in Spanish only the single flap
~ , not the multiple trill rr, is normally heard before consonants.
Once again this new patterning will bear particular watching in
cognate words.
Spanish Portuguese
cuarto quaRto
carne caRne
tercero teRceiro
porque poRque
barba baRba
Carlos CaRlos
2. Spanish 1. / Portuguese 1 or L
You can safely use the Spanish 1 sound in Portuguese except
at the end of syllables. ln that location you will need to change
to a kind of 1 sound that is similar to the 1 sound often said by
English speakers in words like fool, milk. (It may sound to you
like a ~ or a ~ . ) We will indicate this sound with the symbol ~ .
Repeat after your instructor and be alert to it in cognate words.
Check below and in Part IV, exercise 12.
24
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
papeL maL aLguma
hoteL miL faLta
iguaL espanhoL úLtimo
taL soLteiro deLgado
3.
Spanish 11 / Portuguese lh.
If your Spanish 11 is the variety that has a definite 1
coloring to it, i.e. the kind that might be shown phonetically
as 1Y, you can safely carry it over into portuguese. If it is
the kind that resembles a strong English y sound, or if it is
the 'Argentinian' type 11, you cannot carry it over.
Obvious cognates:
milha
toalha
bilhete
falhar
4. Spanish li / portuguese nh
Less obvious cognates:
fôlha
coelho
olhar
velho
Although the Portuguese nh may be considered the counterpart
of Spanish ~ , the two sounds are not quite so similar as they
may first appear to be. Let us compare Spanish leno with Portuguese
lenho. ln the Spanish word you can feel your tongue making contact
with the roof of the mouth, just behind the upper front teeth. ln
the portuguese word the tongue approaches this position, but drops
away without making contacto The result is something which may
sound to you like a nasalized y sound. As usual, your best approach
is to carefully imitate a native modelo
lenho
unha
tenho
venho
senhor
senhora
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
portuguese Consonants Not occurring ln Spanish
1. (!) - We are using this symbo1 to represent a sound which is
not brand new to you since it occurs in Eng1ish. It is very
similar to the sh of 'shape'. It has severa1 spe11ings.
Examp1es: chega
acho
caixa
2. - This syrnbo1 a1so stands for a sound that resembles an
English sound. It is close to the of 'azure'.
Examples: iantar
a.9.ência

3. (y; - Whether or not a real y sound exists in Spanish (in most
dialects it does not), it certainly does exist in portuguese.
It often occurs where you have been used to saying a
or a ('soft') in Spanish. Check the cognates below.
see exercise 9, Part IV, for additional practice.
(' hard' )
Also
Spanish (Spe1ling altered
when necessary to
show or sound)
barrer
bamos
bisitar

bista




26
Portuguese
varrer
vamos
visitar
viver
vista
livro
haver
palavra
dever
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
plus Past II (Imperfect) forms
of regular verbs:
toma]6a
fumá]6amos
almorza]6an
etc.
tomava
fumávamos
almoçavam
etc.
4. - Though this sound may be heard occasionally in Spanish,
it is not considered by most laymen to be a Spanish sound. It
is very much aPortuguese sound, however, and you will need to
get used to using it. It is frequently found between vowels
and at the beginning of words. This may be particularly annoy-
ing when the words are cognates whose Spanish counterparts have
an sound in the sarne location.
Spanish sound)
(Between vowels)
casa
mesa
azul
preciso
riqueza
(Beginning of word)
cero
zona
portuguese sound)
casa
mesa
azul


zero
zona
The z sound also appears between vowels when the secnnd vowel
begins the next '\rlord, as in Isomos americanos/o For additiol1al
practice with the sound, see Part IV, exercise 11.
27
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Observations on Major Brazilian Dialect Differences
1. For many speakers, particularly in the Rio area, a d
before an i sound is modified to sound much like the
English i of 'judge'. Note that the i sound is often
represented in spelling by the letter ~ .
Examples: onde
de nada
dia
disco
2. Likewise, for most of these sarne speakers a t before
an i sound is modified to sound much like an English
or Spanish eh.
Examples:
Consonant Clusters
noite
leite
tia
tinha
The only combinations of Portuguese consonants that will be new
to you are initial ~ a n d ~ . They do not occur in Spanish, and they
are not very common in Portuguese either. You will find them in
just a few items like pneu (tire) and psicoloq1a (psychology), and
several related words. These clusters may sound strange at first,
but they are not particularly difficult to master.
Examples: pneu
pneumonia
28
psicologia
psic6logo
psiquiatria
FROM SPAN!SH TO PORTUGUESE
PART II
THE GRAMMAR
Introduction
You will find that you can carry much of your Spanish grammar
into Portuguese. For example, nearly alI of the major Portuguese
verb tenses are close copies of something you already know in
Spanish. The present tense, the two past tenses (past I and II,
or 'preterite' and 'imperfect', if you prefer), the present and
past subjunctives, the conditional, the future, the commands, and
most of the compound tenses alI Iook and sound very much like they
do in Spanish. And, more importantly, they usually behave that
way too. Thus, for example, if you have already won the battle
of the distribution of the two past tenses in Spanish, you will
not need to re-fight it in Portuguese. The rules that guided you
in the former are equally applicable in the latter. Likewise, if
you have learned to use the Spanish present tense as a substitute
for the future tense at those times when the future is rather
imminent (e.g. lo ~ manana), you should have no problem doing
the sarne thing in Portuguese. Verbs make up a large part of the
grammar of both languages, and the high incidence of direct
transfer from one to another will undoubtedly prove to be a most
usefuI tool.
There are other areas where Portuguese is a near mirror-image
of Spanish. Portuguese has the sarne rigid gender and number
reIationships between nouns and adjectives. The object pronoun
system is at times conveniently similar, at other times surpris-
ingIy different. (More about this later.) Most conjunctions,
prepositions and other relator-type words and expressions tend
29
FROM SPANISH ~ O PORTUGUESE
to operate as they do in Spanish. And so on. We could add other
areas of similarity, but you will soon discover them for yourself
as you progress through your course.
From what has just been said it would be easy for you to assume
that alI of Portuguese is put together like Spanish. But at the
sarne time you are sophisticated enough to suspect that this is not
likely to be the case, and you are right. That is precisely what
this section on grammar is alI about. There are a number of areas
where Portuguese does not structure itself like Spanish. Sometimes
the differences are major, sometimes they are minor, but always
they 100m as potential trouble spots for those who know Spanish.
On the following pages we will concentrate on the most significant
of these.
30
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Word Order
Word Order in Questions with Interrogative Words.
Notice the position of the verb and subject (actor) in
the following sentences.
L
Spanish
icuándo va María?
Portuguese
Quando Maria vai?
(or: Quando vai Maria?)
2. iDónde está Pablo?
3. iA qué hora sale e1 tren?
4. iCuánto gana él?
5. iCómo está su esposa?
Onde Paulo está?
(or: Onde está paulo?)
A que horas o trem sai?
(or: A que horas sai o trem?)
Quanto ê1e ganha?
(or: Quanto ganha êle?)
Como a sua espôsa está?
(or: Como está a sua espôsa?)
In questions beginning with interrogative words, where the
interrogative word itse1f is not the subject (actor) of the
sentence, most Spanish speakers wi11 place the actor after the
verbo In contrast, Portuguese speakers wi11 most 1ikely p1ace
the actor before the verb, though in many instances, as we have
indicated, the reverse pattern may also be heard. In both 1an-
guages, if the interrogative word is itself the subject of the
sentence, it can only precede the verbo
6. iQuién sabe?
7. l.Qué pasó?
31
Quem sabe?
O que passou?
FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE
word Order in ' Y e s ~ o ' Questions
-- - ~ - .
Now observe the order of actor and verb in these sentences.
Spanish
L i.Habla ella inglés? (or)
ó ElIa habla inglés?
2. óGanó usted mucho? (or)
ó Usted ganó mucho?
3. 4Está Teresa aqui?
(or)
ó Teresa está aqui?
portuquese
Ela fala inglês?
o senhor ganhou muito?
Teresa está aqui?
4. óTrabajan María y Olga en Rio? (or)
óMaría y Olga trabajan en Rio? Maria e Olga trabalham no
Rio?
As a Spanish speaker you are free to place the actor either
before or after the verb in 'yes-no' questions (those that can
be answered 'yes' or 'no'). ln Portuguese you have no such choice.
You must use the 'actor + verb' sequence.
Word Qrder i!!. fl"nswers !2. ' ~ - N o ' Questions.
Spanish
1. óTrajo su auto?
S1, lo traje.
2. óTiene un fósforo?
si, si tengo.
3. 4Es usted americano?
Sí, soy.
32
Portuquese
Trouxe o seu carro?
Trouxe s1m.
O senhor tem um fósforo?
Tenho S1m.
O senhor é americano?
Sou S1m.
FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE
4. óAlquilaron ellos la casa?
Si, la alquilaron.
5. óConoce usted a los Molina?
si, los conozco.
6. óEstán con prisa?
sí, están.
~
Eles alugaram a casa?
Alugaram sim.
o senhor conhece os Molina?
C o n h e ~ o .
Estão com pressa?
Estão.
Examples 1 through 4 above illustrate the positioning of the
affirmative answer 'yes' with regard to the verbo ln Spanish it
is most likely to appear before the verb, separated from it by a
pause. ln portuguese its most normal position is after the verb,
with little, if any, pause separating the two.
Examples 5 and 6 illustrate a common variant of the Portuguese
pattern: the omission of the 'yes'. This is possible in Spanish
too, of course, but it is much less frequent than in portuguese.
33
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Negation
Basically, the process of making a verb or an entire utterance
negative is the sarne in Portuguese as it is in Spanish. However,
you should be aware of the following rather unique features.
An 'extra' negative
Portuguese sometimes adds a seemingly redunàant negative (the
word não) to the end of an utterance. The effect is to mildly
emphasize the negative thought already expressed in the sentence.
a. Não, não falei não. 'NO, I didn't say (anything) . '
b. Não, não tem não. ' No, he doesn't have (it). '
c. Não, não faça isso., não. ' No, don't do that.
,
More likely than not, sentences ~ and b would be said in
response to 'yes-no' questions.
portuguese 'either / neither'
The sense of the Spanish negative tampoco is often rendered
in Portuguese as também não, which always precedes the verbo
Spanish
a. Yo tampoco quiero.
b. María no va tampoco.
c. No me gusta tampoco.
34
Portuguese
Eu também não quero.
Maria também não vai.
Eu também não gosto.
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Contractions
a + el = al
The only two contractions in Spanish are: de + el del
Portuguese has these two (in a somewhat different shape, to
be sure) plus quite a few more. All of them involve combinations
of the prepositions em, de, ~ and por with definite articles,
demonstratives, personal pronouns, and the words aqui and outro.
We have tabulated most of them below. An empty box indicates a
combination which does not contracto
CHART A: prepositions plus definite articles.
o os a as
em no nos na nas
de do* dos da das
a ao* aos à às
por pelo pelos pela pelas
*
Cf. Spanish: de + el =del
a + el = al
35
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
CHART B: prepositions plus indefinite articles
um uns uma umas
em num nuns numa numas
de dum duns duma dumas
a --- ---- ---- -----
por --- ---- ---- -----
CHART C: Prepositions plus demonstratives
êste(s) êsse(s) aquêle(s) isto, isso
esta(s)
essa(s) aquela(s) aquilo
em neste(s) nesse(s) naquele(s) nisto, nisso
nesta(s) nessa(s) naquela(s) naquilo
de dêste(s) dêsse(s)

disto, disso
desta(s) dessa(s) daquela s) daquilo
a ------- ------- àquele(s) àquilo
àquela(s)
por ------- -------
---------
------
36
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
CHART D: Prepositions p1us pronouns
ê1e ela ê1es elas
em nê1e nela nê1es nelas
de dê1e dela dê1es delas
CHART E: Prepositions p1us certain adverbs and adjectives
aqui ali ai outro(s)
outra(s)
em ---- --- --
noutro(s)
noutra(s)
de daqui dali daí --------
To show you more c1ear1y what we are ta1king about, we have
1isted a few examp1es be10w. Compare the Portuguese with the
Spanish equiva1ent.
From Chart A:
Portuguese
(em
+
o
+
livro) ':: no livro
(de
+ ~
+
senhores)
=
dos senhores
(por +
.2- +
senhora) pela senhora
Spanish
en e1 1ibro
de los sefíores
por la sefíora
37
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
From Chart B:
portuguese
(em
+
um
+
livro)
=
num livro
(de
+
uma
+
senhora) duma senhora
( de
+
umas
+
senhoras)
=
dumas senhoras
Spanish
en un libra
de una senora
de unas senoras
From Chart C:
Portuguese Spanish
(em
+
êste
+
livro)
=
neste livro en este libra
(de
+
aquela
+
senhora)
=
daquela senhora de aquella senora
(
~ +
aquêles
+
senhores)
=
àqueles senhores a aquellos senore:
From Chart D:
Portuguese
(.§!!l
+
êle)
=
nêle
(de
+
ela)
=
dela
(de
+
êles)
=
dêles
Spanish
en él
de ella
de ellos
From Chart E:
portuguese
(.§!!l
+
outro
+
livro)
=
noutro livro
(.§!!l
+
outras
+
cidades)
=
noutras cidades
(de
+
aqui) daqui
Spanish
en otro libra
en otras c i u d a d e ~
de aquí
Learning to use these contractions will be one of your most
difficult challenges in learning Portuguese.
38
FROM SPAN!SH TO PORTUGUESE
Verbs
Verb Types
Portuguese and Spanish both have -er and -ir type verbs.
ln addition, portuguese has a fourth type, -or, which is represented
only by the irregular verb pôr (cf. Spanish poner) and its related
compounds. Most Portuguese cognates are of the sarne type as their
Spanish counterparts. However, watch out for the following common
verbs which are -ir type in Spanish but type in Portuguese.
Spanish portuguese
vivir viver
escribir escrever
batir bater
recibir receber
sufrir sofrer
ocurrir ocorrer
gemir gemer
hervir ferver
morir morrer
Regular Verb Forms
Portuguese regular verb forms are remarkably similar to
Spanish regular verb forms. The chart below enables you to make
a direct comparison of the major tense forms of three regular
verbs: mandar, comer and abrir. I Do not be misled by exact
duplication of spelling. Although some portuguese and Spanish
forms are spelled exactly their pronunciation is always
distinctively different.
,
both languages abrir is regular in alI forms except the
Past Participle: Spanish / Portuguese
39
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Spanish Portuguese
yo mando eu mando
como como
abro abro
- - - -
él manda êle manda
come come
abre abre
Present
- - - - - - - -
Tense
nosotros mandamos nós mandamos
comemos comemos
abrimos abrimos
- - -
- - - - -
ellos mandan êles mandam
comen comem
abren abrem
yo mandaba eu mandava
comía comia
abría abria
- - - -
él mandaba êle mandava
comía comia
Imperfect
abría abria
Tense
- - - - - - - -
nosotros mandábamos nós mandávamos
comíamos
~
com1amos
abríamos abríamos
---
- - - - - -
ellos mandaban êles mandavam
comían comiam
abrían abriam
40
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
yo mandé eu mandei
comí comi
abrí abri
él mandó êle mandou
comió comeu
Preterite
abrió abriu
Tense - - -
-
- - -
-
nosotros mandamos nós mandamos
comimos *comemos
abrimos abrimos
- - - - - - - -
ellos mandaron êles mandaram
comieron comeram
abrieron abriram
Future
Tense
yo
él
nosotros
ellos
mandaré
comeré
abriré
mandará
comerá
abrirá
mandaremos
comeremos
abriremos
mandarán
comerán
abrírán
êle
nós
êles
mandarei
comerei
abrirei
mandará
comerá
abrirá
mandaremos
comeremos
abri-l'emos
mandarão
comerão
abrirão
*This form is particularly difficult for a Spanish speaker to
remember sínce he assocíates it wíth the present tense.
41
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
yo
mandaría eu mandaria
comería comeria
abriría abriria
- - - - - - - -
él mandaría êle mandaria
comería comeria
Conditional
abriría abriria
Tense
- - - - - - - -
nosotros mandaríamos nós mandaríamos
comeríamos comeríamos
abriríamos abriríamos
- - - - - - - -
ellos mandarían êles mandariam
comerían comeriam
abrirían abririam
yo mande eu mande
coma coma
abra abra
- - - - - - - -
él mande êle mande
coma coma
abra abra
Present
- -
Subjunctive
- - - - - -
and nosotros mandemos nós mandemos
Command Form
comamos comamos
abramos abramos
-
...
- - - - - -
ellos manden êles mandem
coman comam
abran abram
42
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Past
Subjunctive
(compare the
portuguese
forms par-
ticularly
with the

forms. )
Gerund
Past
Participle
yo
él
nosotros
ellos
mandara/-se
comiera/-se
abriera/-se
mandara/-se
comiera/-se
abriera/-se
mandáramos/-semos
comiéramos/-semos
abriéramos/-semos
mandaran/-sen
comieran/-sen
abrieran/-sen
mandando
comiendo
abriendo
mandado
comido
**dirigido
eu
êle
nós
êles
mandasse
comesse
abrisse
mandasse
comesse
abrisse
mandássemos
comêssemos
abríssemos
mandassem
comessem
abrissem
mandando
*comendo
*abrindo
mandado
comido
**dirigido
*Notice the absence of diphthongs.
**The Past Participle of abrir cannot be used here
since it is irregular.
43
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Irreqular Verb Forms
Portuguese, like Spanish, has its fair share of irregular
verbs in alI tenses. You will quickly note that at times the
irregularities are very similar to those in Spanish, and that
at times they are quite different. For the most part, there is
no easy way to categorize or compare these cross-language cor-
respondences, or the lack of them. There are too many of them,
and they are too varied and unpredictable. For instance, when
you discover that 'I say' is diqo, which is the sarne as the
Spanish irregular form, you might analogize and guess that 'I do'
as faqo. But your guess would be wrong. The word is faço, which
is irregular, but in another way. And you know this only by
learning it. In most instances you are better off approaching
Portuguese irregular forms without reference to Spanish irregular
forms.
We must point out, however, two wide-ranging patterns of
irregularity that frequently have correspondences in Spanish.
ln many verbs, portuguese closed Q and closed ~ change to open
Q and open li, respectively, in stressed syllables of present tense
forms. In cognate verbs these changes correspond respectively to
the Spanish o to ue and e to ie changes. (The changes take place
- - - -
in a number of non-cognates as well.) We are listing below some
of the more common cognates. In some cases other irregularities
are also presento
portuquese
querer
quliro, qUlir(em)
pQder
PQ.sso, PQ.de(m)
44
Spanish
q u ~ r e r
quiero, quiere(n)
pQder
puedo, puede(n)
FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE
provar
prQvo, prQva(m)
almQçar
almQço, almQça(m)
mQstrar
mQstro, mQstra(m)




nevar

chQver
chOve
prQbar
pruebo, prueba(n)
almorzar
almuerzo, almuerza(n)
mostrar


niego, niega(n)

comienzo, comienza(n)
nevar
nieva
llover
llueve
(ln -ir verbs, these correspondences are observable
only in 3rd person forms.)

pref],re(m)
divertir

dQrmir
dQrme(m)

prefiere(n)
divertir
divierte(n)
dormir
duerme(n)
Notice below, however, that in verbs where the Spanish vowel-
to-diphthong change is followed by an in the sarne syllable, the
Portuguese cognate is likely to have a nasal vowel instead of an
open Q or],. (começar in the above list is an exception.) The
verbs that follow are irregular in Spanish, Only sentir and mentir
are irregular in portuguese. (The irregularity is the nasal Xin
the 1st person singular.)
45
FROM SPAN!SH TO PORTUGUESE
cõtar contar
CQto, cQta(m) cuento,
encQtrar encontrar
encQtro, encQtra(m) encuentro,
setir sentir
slto, siento, siente(n)
setar sentar
siento, sienta(n)
pensar
pienso, piensa(n)
metir mentir
mIto, miento, miente(n)
Verb Constructions
ln this section we examine several portuguese verb construc-
tions which differ slightly from their Spanish counterparts.
1. Spanish (ir + a + vs. Portuguese (ir + infinitive)
Spanish inserts an a between a form of the verb ir and a
following infinitive. portuguese does noto Observe these
examples:
Spanish
voy a comer
van a estudiar
iba a llegar
fueron a nadar
46
portuguese
vou comer
vão estudar
ia chegar
foram nadar
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
2. Spanish (haber + past participle) vs. Portuguese (ter + past
participle)
Spanish combines the verb haber with the -do form (the past
participle) of the main verb to form a series of tenses which
are traditionally called the 'perfect' tenses. We are refer-
ring to such items as:
he comido
habrá salido
habían escrito
habíamos trabajado
si hubiera hecho
portuguese has this kind of construction too, but it uses the
verb ter (cognate with Spanish tener) instead of haver.
The portuguese constructions are parallel to the Spanish
constructions most of the way. For example, we can say that
the following, under most circumstances, are equivalents.
Spanish
habían escrito
habríamos escrito
habrán escrito
si hubiera escrito
Portuguese
tinham escrito
teríamos escrito
terão escrito
se tivesse escrito
English
they had written
we would have written
they will have written
if I had written
Now, however, we come to a slight, but very important, excep-
tion. The present tense of Spanish haber + verb is usually
not the exact equivalent of the present tense of portuguese
ter + verbo Observe carefully:
Spanish:
portuguese:
Spanish:
portuguese:
he escrito
tenho escrito
hemos trabajado
temos trabalhado
47
I have written
I have been writing
We have worked
We have been working
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
The portuguese construction shows a kind of progression of
action from some point in the past, up to and into the presento
This is indicated in the English translation been + ... ing.
To express the equivalent of the above Spanish examples,
Portuguese would use the simple past I (preterite) tense.
Thus:
Spanish
he escrito
hemos trabajado
portuguese
escrevi
trabalhamos
3. Spanish gustar vs. Portuguese gostar (de)
As you know, in Spanish if you want to express the idea that
you like a certain thing you have to turn the thought around
and say that that thing is pleasing to you. But you do not
do this in Portuguese. You simply say that you like it, just
as you do in English. The item in question is not conceived
of, grammatically, as being 'pleasing to you', which is the
case in Spanish. Compare these examples. (Notice that the
preposition de must follow gostar.)
Spanish
Me gusta el libro.
Me gustan esas chicas.
Nos gusta viajar.
Les gusta estudiar.

Eu gosto do livro.
Eu gosto dessas meninas.
Nós gostamos de viajar.
gostam de estudar.
4. Spanish hacer vs. Portuguese haver in time expressions.
Spanish
1. a. Hace dos anos que
trabajo aquí.
b. Trabajo aqui desde
hace dos anos.
48
portuguese
Há dois anos que trabalho
aqui.
Trabalho aqui há dois anos.
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
2. a. Hace dos meses que llegué.
b. Llegué hace dos meses.
Há dois meses que cheguei.
Cheguei há dois meses.
The patterning in these portuguese utterances pretty closely
paraI leIs the patterning in the Spanish. The difference is
in the use of a form of haver (cf. Spanish haber) in a slot
where you are accustomed to using a form of hacer. portuguese
speakers can also use faz, from fazer, in these utterances,
but há seems to be preferred by mosto
5. [European portuguese only: Spanish estar + -ndo vs. Portuguese
estar + ~ + infinitive.
Spanish
El presidente está hablando.
Estoy leyendo.
Estaban almorzando.
Portuguese
O presidente está ~ falar.
Estou ~ ler.
Estavam a almoçar.
Although European portuguese uses the estar + -ndo construc-
tion on occasion, the estar + ~ + infinitive construction is
more common.
Usage of Ser and Estar
The distribution of ser and estar in portuguese is very
nearly the sarne as it is in Spanish. Observe these instances
of identical usage.
origin:
Time:
Possession:
Nouns:
Characteristics:
Passive voice:
Es de México.
Son las tres.
Son mios.
Es médico.
Son bonitas.
La carta fue
escrita hoy.
49
É. do México.
São três.
São meus.
É. médico.
São bonitas.
A carta foi
escrita hoje.
FROM SPANISh TO PORTUGUESE
Conditions: El carro está sucio.
La carta está escrita.
O carro está sujo.
A carta está escrita.
There is just one important area where there is a significant
difference in the distribution of these two verbs in the two lan-
guages - the area at times referred to, perhaps rather loosely,
as 'location'. You will remember that Spanish uses the verb estar
to state the location or position of a person or thing.
Juan está en California.
California está en los Estados Unidos.
Los ninos están en el centro.
El banco está en el centro.
ln speaking Portuguese you will need to decide whether the
location is fixed or transitory. If it is fixed, i.e& geograph-
ically fixed, ~ will be your choice.
A California é nos Estados Unidos.
O banco é no centro.
If it is not geographically fixed, but transitory or tem-
porary in nature, estar will be your choice.
Os meninos estão no centro.
João está na California.
Portuguese frequently uses the verb ficar in place of ~
to indicate fixed location. This is analogous to the Spanish
verb quedar (not quedarse) substituting for estar under the sarne
circumstances.
Spanish
El hotel está en la calle quince.
or
El hotel queda en la calle quince.
50
Portuguese
O hotel é na rua quinze.
O hotel fica na rua quinze.
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
&Dónde está Santo Domingo?
&Dónde queda Santo Domingo?
Two New Verb categories
1. Future subjunctive.
Onde é São Domingos?
or
Onde fica São Domingos?
One of the major differences between Portuguese grammar and
Spanish grammar is the fact that Portuguese has a very active
future subjunctive, whereas spanish does noto As you know, the
future subjunctive is quite rare in conversational Spanish, being
reserved, for the most part, for rather formal and literary speech.
This is not so in Portuguese. The Portuguese future subjunctive
is an everyday occurrence in the speech of nearly every native
speaker of the language.
Vou will soon see that in many instances Portuguese uses a
future subjunctive where Spanish uses a present subjunctive.
For example, Portuguese calls for a future subjunctive after
such conjunctions as quando, logo que, assim que, depois que,
~ , and others, when the reference is to future time. Spanish
would normally use a present subjunctive after the Spanish
equivalent of these conjunctions (except after si, of course)
when the reference is to future time. Compare these examples.
Spanish
(present subjunctive)
1. Cuando yo vaya, voy
por avión.
2. Tan pronto como sepamos,
se lo decimos.
51
portuguese
(future subjunctive)
Quando eu fôr, vou de
avião.
Logo que soubermos, lhe
dizemos.
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
3.
Pienso almorzar después Penso almoçar depois que
ellos salgan. êles " que sal.rem.
4. Voy a decirle cuando Vou dizer-lhe quando
llegue. chegar.
5.
Mientras ellos estén alli, Enquanto êles estiverem
no voy. lá, não vou.
After the word 'if', when the reference is to the future,
Portuguese again uses the future subjunctive. Spanish, you
recall, cannot use a present subjunctive under such circum-
stances. Normally, a simple present tense would be used.
Spanish
1. Si él viene, vamos a
comer juntos.
2. Voy si ~ posible.
3. Si usted no puede,
aviseme.
2. Personal infinitive
Portuguese
Se êle vier, vamos comer
juntos.
Vou se fôr possivel.
Se o senhor não puder,
avise-me.
We come now to another major structural difference. portuguese
can 'personalize' an infinitive by attaching certain 'actor-markers',
or endings, to it. Spanish does not do this.
The 'actor-markers' that Portuguese uses are the first and
third plural endings -mos and -em. There are no endings for
the singular. A sample verb paradigm would look like this:
1st
2nd, 3rd
Singular
chegar
chegar
Plural
chegarmos
chegarem
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
The problem, as usual, is not so much learning the forms as
it is when to use them. As a Spanish speaker you will have to
deal with conflicts that the Portuguese personal infinitive sets
up with some of your Spanish subjunctive patterns. ln other words,
the personal infinitive is very often used in Portuguese where a
subjunctive would be normal in Spanish. This is observable when
the verb in question follows after:
a. an impersonal expression
b. the verbs 'to tell' and 'to ask'
c. certain Spanish conjunctions (clause relators) which
may convert to prepositions in portuguese.
Let us examine each of these three categories separately.
a) After impersonal expressions
Spanish
(subjunctive)
1. Es mejor que hagamos eso
ahora.
2. Es difícil que salgamos
temprano.
3. Es natural que hablen
inglés.
4. Es posible que yo no venga.
5. Es preciso que estudien.
6. Es peor que haga eso.
7. No conviene que paguen
ahora.
Portuguese
(personal infinitive)
É melhor fazermos isso
agora.
É difícil sairmos cedo.
É natural falarem inglês.
;.. - 1
E p o s s ~ v e l eu nao vir.
É preciso (êles) estudarem.
É pior (êle) fazer isso.
l
Não é conveniente êles
pagarem agora.
lNotice there is no ending on these singular forms.
53
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Portuguese could also use a present subjunctive to express
most of the above ideas, just as Spanish does. Thus rephrased,
the first several utterances would be:
E melhor que façamos isso agora.
É difícil que saiamos cedo.
É natural que falem inglês.
É possível que eu não venha.
There may or may not be a slight tendency to prefer the
personal infinitive over the subjunctive in cases like these
where there is a choice. To prepare yourself for any eventuality,
we suggest that you learn to recognize and handle both patterns.
b) After 'to tell' and 'to request'
Spanish
(subjunctive)
1. Yo pedí que ellos se quedaran.
2. Juan pide que ayudemos.
3. Dígales a las ninas que pongan
la mesa.
4. Nos dijeron que saliéramos.
Portuguese
(personal infinitive)
Eu pedi para ficarem.
João pede para ajudarmos.
Diga para as meninas porem
a mesa.
Êles nos disseram para
sairmos.
When the verb in the main clause is 'to te11' or 'to request'
Spanish puts the verb in the other (subordinate) c1ause in the
subjunctive. Portuguese is very likely to use the personal in-
finitive, although, once again, the subjunctive is common. (EU
pedi que êles ficassem.), etc. As before, we suggest you learn
both patterns.
Notice that para is used to link the two clauses.
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
c) After certain Spanish conjunctions (or clause relators) which
roay convert to prepositions in Portuguese.
Spanish
(subjunctive)
1. Llegué sin que me vieran.
2. Vamos a trabajar hasta que
ellos llequen.
3. Tengo que quedarme aquí
hasta que estén listos
todos.
4. Van a salir antes de que
los conozcamos.
5. Explica todo para que
ellos comprendan.
Portuguese
(personal infinitive)
Cheguei sem êles me verem.
Vamos trabalhar até êles
chegarem.
Tenho que ficar aqui até
todos estarem prontos.
Vão sair antes de os
conhecermos.
Explica tudo para êles
compreenderem.
Spanish must use a subjunctive to express the above ideas.
Portuguese seems to prefer the personal infinitive) but will
often do as Spanish does and use a conjunction followed by
subjunctive.
For example: Cheguei sem que êles me vissem.
Vamos trabalhar até que êles cheguem.
Once again) we recommend that you learn both patterns.
Another area of conflict for you involves the Portuguese
personal infinitive and the Spanish infinitive. After preposi-
tions) Portuguese frequently uses the personal infinitive. Spanish
uses just the infinitive.
Spanish
(infinitive)
1. Después de comer) vamos a
mirar la televisión.
Portuguese
(personal infinitive)
Depoís de comermos) vamos
olhar televisão.
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
2. Ai salir de aquí, vamos
a casa.
3. Elias van a poner la mesa
antes de irse.
4. Por haber trabajado tanto,
están muy cansados.
56
Ao sairmos daqui, vamos
a casa.
Elas vão pôr a mesa antes
de irem.
Por terem trabalhado tanto,
estão muito cansados.
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
NominaIs
Object Pronouns
1. Placement
Your most formidable task in mastering the object pronouns
will be learning where to put them. In Spanish, the arrangement
of verb and object pronouns (direct, indirect and reflexive) is
a rather complex affair. In Portuguese it may seem even more so,
largely because of interference from Spanish. Let us check on
some specific cases.
A. Object pronouns with ~ conjugated verb form
Spanish
1. Ana se sienta.
2. Ella me conoce.
Portuguese
Ana se senta.
Ana senta-se.
Ela me conhece.
Ela conhece-me.
3.
pablo le dio un d61ar. Paulo lhe deu um dólar.
Paulo deu-lhe um dólar.
In utterances like those above, in which a noun or personal
pronoun precedes the conjugated verb, Spanish must put the object
pronoun before the conjugated verb formo Portuguese may put it
before or after, with a preference, in Brazilian portuguese, for
putting it before.
Now, notice these examples:
Spanish
4. Me levanté temprano.
l::;
Me conoce bien.
---.
6. Le dia un dólar.
portuguese
Levantei-me cedo.
Conhece-me bem.
Deu-lhe um dólar.
57
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
No noun or pronoun precedes the conjugated verb in these
examples. Spanish speakers, as always, must let the object
pronoun precede the verbo Most Portuguese speakers, however,
avoid beginning an utterance with an object pronoun, preferring
irstead to place it after the verb, as shown above.
Now, here are still more examples:
Spanish Portuguese
7.
No se levanta. Não se levanta.
8. No me conoce. Não me conhece.
9. l.Quién le dio un dólar? Quem lhe deu um dólar?
The rule in effect for these Portuguese sentences is that
if anything other than a noun or personal pronoun subject precedes
the verb, the object pronoun is placed before the verbo These
sentences and others like them fall right into the familiar Spanish
pattern, so in themselves they represent nothing strikingly new to
you. (However, compare them with examples 1, 2, and 3 above, where
the verb is preceded by a noun, and the object pronoun may therefore
either go before that verb or follow after it.)
B. Object QEonouns with an infinitive
Spanish
1. Juan va a levantarse.
Juan se va a levantar.
2. Juan quiere llevarme
al centro.
Juan me quiere llevar
al centro.
3. Juan puede eso.
Juan puede decir eso.
4.... para
58
Portuguese
João vai
João vai se levantar.
João quer levar-me ao
centro.
João quer me levar ao
centro.
João pode dizer-me isso.
João pode me dizer isso.
para receber-!!.Q2.
para nos receber.
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
ln verbal constructions containing an infinitive and an
auxiliary verb, Spanish puts object pronouns either after the
infinitive or before the auxiliary.
ln the same constructions, Portuguese puts object pronouns
either after the infinitive (like Spanish) or before the infinitive
(quite unlike Spanish).
C. Object pronouns with the present participle (the -ndo form)
Spanish Portuguese
L Juan está levantándose. João está
Juan se está levantando. João está

levantando.
2. Juan está llevándome. João está
Juan
!!!§.
está llevando. João está

levando.
3.
Juan está diciéndole. João está dizendo-lhe.
Juan le está diciendo. João está lhe dizendo.
The situation with the -ndo forms is similar to that which
we have described for the infinitives. ln Spanish the object
pronoun may go after the participle or before the auxiliary verbo
ln Portuguese it may go after the participle (which is done in
Spanish), or before the participle (which is never done in Spanish).
59
FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE
2. Other Problems.
ln addition to handling the major problems of accurate place-
ment, you will need to make other adjustments in order to control
the complex of object pronouns in Portuguese.
A. Modification of infinitive and direct object pronoun.
Spanish
1. Pablo va a llevarla.
2. ElIa va a mandarlos.
3. Ellos van a hacerlo.
portuguese
Paulo vai levá-la.
Ela vai mandá-los.
~ l e s vão fazê-lo.
The Portuguese third person direct object pronouns ~ , os, ~ ,
as change their forms to lo, los, la, las when they follow an
infinitive. As such they look and sound suspiciously like the
comparable Spanish forms. Be sure to notice that in this con-
struction the infinitive loses i t s ~ . lt is almost as if the
~ changed to ~ .
B. Frequent omission of direct object pronoun in portuguese
Spanish
1. lQuién comprá los billetes?
Pablo los comprá.
2. Envuélvelo sin la caja.
60
Portuguese
Quem comprou os bilhetes?
Paulo comprou.
Embrulhe sem a caixa.
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
3.
Maria lo vio. Maria viu o senhor.
(Mary saw you) (Mary saw you)
4. Yo las llevo. Eu levo as senhoras.
(I'll take you) (I'll take you)
Spanish needs the object pronoun in these utterances.
Portuguese can do without it. When the direct object is
inanimate (as in numbers 1 and 2) the pronoun is often just
simply omitted. When the direct object is 'you' (as in numbers
3 and 4), o senhor, a senhora, etc. are usually used in preference
to the object pronouns.
C. Substitution of (.§. / para)
for indirect object pronouns
Spanish
Portuguese
L Ella le dio un Ela lhe deu um presente. (or)
regalO:
Ela deu um presente a lHe. (or)
---
Ela deu um presente para êle.
2. El me contó una
historia.
~ l e me contou urna história. (or)
~ l e contou urna história .§. mim. (or)
~ l e contou urna história para mim.
3. Quiero decirle. Quero dizer-lhe.
Quero dizer ~ senhor.
Quero dizer para Q senhor.
(or)
(or)
Portuguese speakers frequently use a prepositional phrase
with .§. or para in place of the indirect object pronoun. Spanish
can occasionally do this with para, with the meaning 'for', but
can not ordinarily do it with .§..
For example: Te tengo un regalito.
Tengo un regalito para ti.
61
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Notice that the prepositional phrase in Portuguese is used
in place of the object pronoun, and not as a redundant addition
to it. Such redundancies are common in Spanish, but they do not
occur in portuguese.
Spanish
1. ~ mí me parece.
2. Le doy esto ~ usted.
portuguese
Parece-me.
Dou-lhe isto.
Dou isto ao senhor.
(or)
3. Quiero decirle ~ Pablo... Quero dizer-lhe... (or)
Quero dizer para Paulo...
You will not say: Dou-lhe ~ ~ senhor, with both lhe
and ao senhor.
D. Spanish pronoun arrangements not appearing in Portuguese
a. Indirect and direct object pronouns combined
Spanish
1. Me 10 dio. (the check)
portuguese
Deu-me.
Deu-me o cheque.
(or)
2. Se la presté. (the pen) Emprestei-lhe. (or)
Emprestei-lhe a caneta.
In Spanish the combination of indirect and direct object
pronoun in utterances like those above is very common. In
portuguese it may occur but is almost always avoided in
everyday speech. Either the direct object pronoun is ornitted,
or the direct object ~ is used in its stead.
62
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
b. Reflexive and direct obiect pronouns combined
Spanish
1. Juan se lo comió. (the bread)
2. Me la tomé. (the milk)
3. Se las llevó Alicia. (the keys)
portuquese
(Nothing comparable)
(Nothing comparable)
(Nothing comparable)
c. Reflexive and indirect obiect pronouns combined
Spanish Portuquese
L Se me olvidó la llave. (Nothing comparable)
2. Se nos quedó en casa. (Nothing comparable)
3.
Se Ie cayeron unas tazas. (Nothing comparable)
Direct object Nouns
Spanish inserts a 'personal ~ ' before a personalized, direct
object noun. Portuguese does not have the 'personal ~ ' .
Spanish
1. Veo ~ María.
2. Conozco aI presidente.
Definite Article
portuquese
Vejo Maria.
Conheço o presidente.
portuguese may use the definite articIe along with the
possessive pronoun. Spanish does not do this.
Spanish
mi amigo
mis amigos
mi amiga
mie amigas
63
portuquese
2. meu amigo
os meus amigos
~ minha amiga
~ minhas amigas
FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE
Gender
1. Gender in cognates
Spanish Portuguese
el viaje a viagem
el paisaje a paisagem
el masaje a massagem
el mensaje a mensagem
el sabotaje a sabotagem
Spanish Portuguese
el color a côr
el do1or a dor
el árbol a árvore
el puente a ponte
el partido 'game' a partida
el equipo a equipe
la nariz o nariz
la leche o leite
la sonrisa o sorriso
la sal o sal
B. Others:
ln most cases, Portuguese cognates have the sarne gender as
their Spanish counterparts. There are some common exceptions to
this, however, and we will list some of them here.
A. Many Spanish masculine words ending in -aje are feminine
in portuguese and end in -agem.
For example:
2. Gender in the Number 'Two'.
portuguese has gender agreement for the number 'two'. Spanish
does noto Remembering to make this agreement in Portuguese is not
always as easy as it may seem.
Spanish Portuguese
dos libros
dos senoras
dois livros
duas senhoras
64
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
PART III
HINTS üN VOCABULARY TRANSFER
Much of your Portuguese vocabulary will come via direct
transfer from Spanish. Vocabulary transfer has been implicit in
our discussion of sounds in part I. We showed there how certain
correspondences can guide you in the processo We indicated, for
example, the great utility of knowing that Spanish ie and ue often
correspond to Portuguese ~ and Q, respectively, and that Spanish
-ión, - ~ and -an (the latter two both stressed and unstressed)
often correspond to the Portuguese nasal diphthong -ãu. In this
section we will examine other correspondences, many of them not
involving new sounds. We have attempted to separate the common
ones from those that occur only occasionally. We have reserved
a special place for those that involve word endings.
As a final note on vocabulary transfer we have listed several
items that can be transferred only with considerable caution: false
cognates.
Some Patterns of Correspondences
Common Correspondences
1. Sounds
• The Spanish h sound does not exist in portuguese. In cognate
words the h sound usually converts to one of three sounds:
~ , ~ or lho Study these groupings:
a. Spanish h
jefe
bajo
quejarse
embajada
caja
dejar
bruja
portuquese ~ (sh of English 'ship')
chefe
baixo
queixar-se
embaixada
caixa
deixar
bruxa
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
b. Spanish h Portuguese ~
( ~ of English 'azure' )
junio junho
julio julho
junto junto
juez juiz
generoso generoso
gente gente
joven jovem
ligera ligeira
jugar jogar
adjectivo adjetivo
sargento sargento
extranjero estrangeiro
jardín jardim
reloj relógio
viaje viagem
página página
c. Spanish h portuguese lh (11 of Spanish 'calle')
mujer mulher
orejas orelhas
mejor melhor
trabajar trabalhar
mojar molhar
escoger escolher
abeja abelha
viejo velho
ojo ôlho
aguja agulha
NOTE: Spanish jabón / portuguese sabão ( ~ of English 'sam')
Note also: Spanish ejemplo, ejercicio / portuguese
exemplo, exercício (where the ~ is pronounced like ~
of English 'zebra')
66

FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
Spanish 11 sometimes shows up as 1., sometimes as
~ ,
and
sometimes as lh
( ~
change) . Study these groupings:
a. Spanish 11 Portuguese 1
bello belo
cabello cabelo
llevar levar
gallina galinha
amarillo amarelo
ella ela
allí ali
villa vila
caballo cavalo
cal lar calar
fallecer falecer
b. Spanish 11 Portuguese ~
llorar chorar
llamar chamar
llegar chegar
llave chave
llover chover
llano chão
lleno cheio
c. Spanish
li
portuguese lh
fallar falhar
milla milha
millón milhão
toalla toalha
billete bilhete
Notice that Spanish 11 appears between vowels in the first
group (with the exception of llevar), and at the beginning
of the words in the second group.
67
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
• Spanish g often corresponds to Portuguese nh; and conversely,
Portuguese g often corresponds to Observe these
groupings.
a)
Spanish n Portuquese nh
dinero dinheiro
camino caminho
ganar ganhar
sobrina sobrinha
tocino toucinho
vino vinho
amanecer amanhecer
cocina cozinha
espina espinha
b) Spanish n Portuquese n
ano ano
pequeno pequeno
cana cana
ensenar ensinar
danar danar
pestana pestana
• portuguese inserts an Ksound in a number of words where
Spanish has the 'silent'
Spanish
higo
hígado
hacer
hormiga
hacienda
herir
68
Portuquese
figo
fígado
fazer
formiga
fazenda
ferir
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
humo fumo
hervir ferver
hierro ferro
hazana façanha
*hijo filho
*hoja fôlha
huracán furacão
almohada almofada

Spanish ch often corresponds to Portuguese

Spanish portuguese
aprovechar aproveitar
techo teto
noche noite
leche leite
luchar lutar
estrecho estreito
hecho feito
ocho oito
mucho muito
• Previously, in another context, we mentioned that sometimes
the Spanish sound corresponds to the Portuguese z sound.
Let us review that point.
Spanish
casa
cosa
blusa
música
acusar
portuguese sound underlined)
casa


música

*See grouping c. on page 66.)
69
veces
hacer
cocina
azul
zorro
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
vêzes
fazer
cozinha
azul
~ o r r o
• Spanish kt is often reduced to just ~ in Portuguese
Spanish Portuguese
acto ato
doctor doutor
dictador ditador
actual atual
contacto contato
carácter caráter
víctima vítima
perfecto perfeito
practicar praticar
arquitectura arquitetura
• Many Spanish words containing ks lose the k in the portuguese
cognate.
Spanish
acción
sección
lección
accidente
occidental
portuguese
ação
seção
lição
acidente
ocidental
There are exceptions. Note portuguese ficcão and succão,
both of which retain the k sound.
70
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
• Likewise, Spanish words containing mn are likely to lose the
~ in the Portuguese cognate.
Spanish portuguese
alumno
columna
himno
solemne
amnistía
indemnizar
calumnia
aluno
coluna
hino
solene
anistia
indenizar
calúnia
The ~ is retained in amnésia.
in other cases.
portuguese
prazer
praia
prato
prata
praça
praga
prazo
cumprir
empregar
sabre
branco
dobrar
nobre
obrigar
71
Spanish
sab1e
b1anco
doblar
noble
ob1igar
placer
playa
plato
plata
plaza
p1aga
p1azo
cumplir
emplear
• The 1 sound, as the second element of a Spanish cluster,
often changes to an ~ sound in Portuguese. This happens
quite frequently if the first element of the cluster is E,
much less frequently
FROM SPANLSH TO PORTUGUESE
flaco fraco
flota frota
iglesia igreja
esclavo escravo

Spanish -ano often corresponds to Portuguese -ão.
1
Spanish Portuguese
mano mão
hermano irmão
verano verão
anciano ancião
sano são
aldeano aldeão
Notice, however, portuguese puritano, and colombiano,
americano, venezuelano, persiano and many other nationalities •

Spanish -ana often corresponds to portuguese -ã
Spanish Portuguese
hermana irmã
manzana maçã
manana amanhã
alemana alemã
anciana anciã
aldeana aldeã
sana sã
Notice, however, Portuguese campana, puritana, banana, as
well as americana, colombiana and many other nationalities.
1
For other correspondences involving ão, see pages 18-19.
72
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
2. Word Endings
• Most Spanish adjectives ending in -ble will end in -vel in
Portuguese.
Spanish
horrible
terrible
favorable
notable
posible
indispensable
amable
agradable
portuguese
horrível
terrível
favorável
notável
possível
indispensável
amável
agradável
• portuguese equivalents of Spanish words ending in -dad
(or -tad) and -tud usually add an unstressed i sound. ln
addition, the t of Spanish -tad is likely to be a d in
Portuguese.
Spanish portuguese
verdad verdad.§:.
dignidad dignidad.§:.
facilidad facilidad.§:.
dificultad dificul-ªad.§:.
lealtad
leal-ªad.§:.
liber.:!:.ad liberdade
magnitud magnitud.§:.
actitud atitude
Some of the ~ notable exceptions:
aptitud
amistad
73
aptidão
amizade
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
• The sound of the Spanish endings -eza and -oso corresponds
to a sound in Portuguese.
Spanish portuguese
firmeza firmeza
riqueza
gentileza
fortaleza
poderoso poderoso
famoso famoso
amoroso amoroso
espantoso espantoso
• The Spanish diminutive endings -ito(a) and -cito(a) correspond
to Portuguese -inho(a) and -zinho(a)
Spanish portuguese
carrito carrinho
Pablito Paulinho
mesita mesinha
casita casinha
cafecito cafezinho
pobrecita pobrezinha
• The Spanish noun-ending -ero generally corresponds to the
Portuguese noun-ending -eiro. Notice the diphthong in the
portuguese forms.
Spanish
portero
cartero
minero
74
portuguese
porteiro
carteiro
mineiro
zapatero
vaquero
cocinero
FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE
sapateiro
vaqueiro
cozinheiro
• The Spanish words presencia, diferencia, licencia and sentencia
lose the ia diphthong in portuguese. Most other words ending
in -encia retain it. Thus:
but
Spanish
presencia
diferencia
licencia
sentencia
eficiencia
paciencia
inteligencia
providencia
esencia
competencia
Portuguese
presença
diferença
licença
sentença
eficiência
paciência
inteligência
providência
essência
competência
[Other word endings already discussed in other contexts
include Spanish -ción / Portuguese -tãO (see page 19),
and Spanish -aje ~ r t u g u e s e -agem see page 64).]
Less Common Correspondences
The correspondences listed below are found in a smaller
number of cognates than those listed above under 'Common Corre-
spondences.' The cognates themselves may, of course, be very
common words. ln some cases, the examples given may be the only
ones of their kind.
75
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE

Absence of I in portuguese
Spanish Portuquese
salir sair
volar voar
doler doer
saludar saudar
diablo diabo

Absence of n in Portuguese
Spanish Portuquese
comenzar começar
moneda moeda
defensa defesa
venado veado
amenaza ameaça
luna lua
crimen crime

Absence of I or n and adjacent vowel in Portuguese.
Spanish portuquese
color côr
dolor dor
poner pôr
tener ter
venir vir
general geral
sólo só
ganado gado
76
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
• Absence of r in Portuguese
Spanish
almorzar
sangre
rostro
• Absence of br in portuguese
Spanish
nombre
hombre
acostumbrarse
• n becomes 1 in Portuguese
Spanish
naranja
berenjena
• Reversal of vowel and consonant
Spanish
preguntar
apretar
Portuquese
almo<;;ar
sangue
rosto
portuguese
nome
homem
acostumar-se
portuguese
laranja
berinjela
Portuguese
perguntar
apertar
• Shift of diphthong, from after the consonant to before the
consonant.
Spanish
apio
barrio
novio
77
portuguese
aipo
bairro
noivo
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE

Vowel changes
L
Spanish

to portuguese i
Spanish Portuquese
eso isso
lingua
vingança
edad idade
profissional
ensenar ensinar
corrigir
vecino vizinho
2. Spanish to Portuguese o
Spanish Portuquese
j.Qgar
ocurrir ocorrer
sufrir sofrer
rutina rotina
cubrir cobrir
3.
Spanish .Q. to portuguese u
Spanish Portuguese
costar custar
s.Q.rpresa
sordo surdo
78
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE

Spanish vowel to portuguese diphthong
Spanish portuguese
casi quase
más mais
jamás jamais
caja caixa
bajo baixo
dos dois
cosa coisa
noche noite
poco pouco
tesoro tesouro

Spanish diphthong to portuguese vowel
Spanish portuguese
cuaderno caderno
antigua antiga
treinta trinta
veinte vinte

Changes in stress patterns (portuguese stress underlined.)
Spanish portuguese
policia policia
teléfono telef2.ne
limite lim,ite
nível nivel
79
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
False Cognates
Cognates are useful, but false or misleading ones are
troublesome. Here are several to watch out for.
Spanish Portuquese
exquisito
rubio
rojo
largo
rato
escoba
cena
apellido
sobrenombre
cuarto
cadera
escritorio
traer
reparar
acordar(se)
barata
(exquisite)
(blond)
(red)
(long)
(while, time)
(broom)
(supper)
(family name)
(nickname)
(room)
(hip)
(desk)
(to bring)
(to repare)
(to remember)
(cheap)
80
esquisito (rare, unusual)
ruivo (red head)
roxo (purple)
largo (wide)
rato (rat)
escôva (brush)
cena (scene)
apelido (nickname)
sobrenome (family name)
quarto (bedroom)
cadeira (chair)
escritório (office)
trair ~ t o betray)
reparar (to notice)
acordar (to awake)
barata (cockroach )
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
PART IV
SUPPLEMENTARY PRONUNCIATION EXERCI SES
The following exercises are provided on tape to give you
additional help in keeping your pronunciation free of Spanish.
They are keyed to the discussion of Portuguese sounds found in
part I. ln order to avoid involvement with extraneous details
and in order to permit maximum concentration on the point being
drilled, very close cognates have been selected. All examples
are Portuguese.
1. Portuguese weak-stressed sound (as
Part I, pages 1-4.)
(see
toma
pass-ª.
par-ª.

visit-ª.
muda
canta
manda
fuma
sala
sôp-ª.
bôc-ª.
missa
vist-ª.

esquin-ª.

81

com-ª.
abr-ª.
beb-ª.

respond-ª.
bonita

alt-ª.


barata

fria
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
2. Portuguese weak-stressed i sound (as underlined).
pages 4-7.)
bebe tome
come
vende
cabe mude

mande
base fase
bilhete

tarde esse
êste
mente

82
(See Part I,
FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE
3. Portuguese weak stressed u sound (as underlined). (see Part I,
pages 4-7.)
bebo bonito
tomQ lindo
como caro
abro barato
passQ alto
pagQ segundQ
comprQ quintQ
digQ fino
sigQ outro
vendQ cinco
permitQ quatrQ
vamos frio
tomamos sapatQ
passamQs minutQ
pagamQs banco
bebemQs medlnicQ
comemQs númerQ
abrimQs livro
83
FROM SPANISF. TO PORTUGUESE
4. The nasal diphthong ãu (as underlined). (See Part I, page 18.)
a. Unstressed
(Present)

tomam
pagam

mudam
mandam
visitam
fumam
(preterite)
passaram
tomaram






b. Stressed
(Future)
passarão
tomarão
pagarão
comprarão
(Imperfect)
passavam
tomavam
pagavam

mudavam
mandavam
visitavam
fumavam
(Conditional)
passariam
tomariam
pagariam

abririam

perderiam

seguirão
abrirão
perderão
beberão
84
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
5. The unstressed nasal diphthong ãu contrasted with the unstressed
diphthong ei. (See Part I, pages 18, also refer to future
subjunctive and personal infinitive, part II.)
(present) (present Subjunctive)
passam
tomam
pag-ª!!!


comprem
visitam
visitem
mandam
mandem
abrem

vendem
vendam
vivem

bebem
bebam
(preterite)
(Future Subjunctive
and
Personal
Infinitive)
passar-ª!!!






comprarem

mandarem
visitaram

abrir-ª!!!
abrirem


perderam



FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
6. The stressed nasal diphthongs ãu and õi.
18, 19.)
(See part I, pages
limão limões
melão melões
montão montões
salão salões





razão razões

invasão invasões
missão
missões
ladrão ladrões

7. The diphthongs ei and ou in preterite verb forms.
page 17.)
passei passou
tomei tomou
paguei pagou
mandei mandou
mudei mudou
comprei comprou
fumei fumou
cantei cantou
visitei visitou
falei falou
86
(See Part I,
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
8. The diphthongs ~ and iu in preterite verb forros, 3rd person
singular. (See Part I, page 17)
p a r e c ~ abriu
valeu pediu
comeu seguiu
bebeu durmiu
vendeu vestiu
escreveu mentiu
viveu viu
deu preferiu
deveu resistiu
9. Portuguese ~ and y sounds. The b and vare to be pronounced as
theyare in English. (See Part I, pages 21, 22; also page 26.)
beba
ver
cuba
vaca
bôba
voz
tubo valor
subo valer
subir
vender
caber
vários
receber ave
roubar uva
cobrar nôvo
pobre dever
obra
viver
cabeça
escrever
civil
palavra
revista
passava
pagava
tomava
mandava
estava
colaborava
vai, vou, vamos
vela, bela
87
FROM TO PORTUGUESE
10. The d is to be pronounced as it is in English.
(See Part l, pages 21, 22).
nada adulto
cada idéia
ida válido
vida s61ida
dedo resfriado
lado modêlo
modo pedido
todo parado
dado vestido
pedir estado
poder tomado
mudar entrada
candidato saída
universidade unida
88
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
11. Portuguese sound between vowels. The underlined consonants
should all be pronounced with a sound. The Spanish cognates
have an sound, (See part I, page 27. \
a, within words.
casa
coisa
mesa

camisa
frase
espô.ê.o

usar
acusar
abusar
pe.§.ar
c a.§.a r
pi.§.ar

atrasado
amoroso
fabuloso

maravilhoso
portugue.§.a
francesa

(

me.ê.
es

francêses
azul
fazer
rezar
zona
vazio
zero

onze
doze
treze
catorze




firmeza

vêzes
luzes


89
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
b. Across word boundaries
estamos aqui
comemos aqui
aqui
mais ou menos
mais interessante
menos interessante
ir
andar
estar
os americanos
os amigos

os Estados Unidos
vamos entrar
vamos esperar
vamos estar
vamos a Lima
vamos outra vez
vamos agora
,
visitamos o pais
tomamos outro
nos encontramos aqui
as americanas
as amigas
as
12. The Portuguese L sound in c10se cognates.
pages 24, 25).
so.!.
falso
sa.!.
falta
ta.!.
alta
mal alma
qua.!. solteiro
mi.!.
último
papel alguma
hotel delgado
Brasil O.!.ga
abril belsa
civil Silva
90
(See Part I,
FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE
nacional


difici1.
útil

13. The Portuguese sound in close cognates.
pages 23, 24).
rio dar
rico ir
.!:.epita
ser
.!:.evista estar
radio ver
.!:.ápido tomar
,E.0upa passa.!:.
rei paga.!:.
.!:.emete.!:.
come.!:.
,r.ec1ama,r.
beber
barba guerra
la.!:.go corrida
carne corra
carta cago
tarde tôrre
qua.!:.to arroz
Carlos c i gago
go,r.do barro
verde fôrro
terceiro barril
fi.!:.me burro
91
(See Part I,
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From

SPANISH To PORTUGUESE

JACK L. ULSH

FOREIGN SERVItE INSTITUTE
WASHINGTON, O.C.

1971
o E P A R T M E N T
Stock Number 4400-1363

O

F

5

T

A T

E

For sale by the ~uperlntendent af Documents. U. S. Governrnent Prmtmg Ofhce Washmgton, D. C., 20402 - Pnce $1

FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE

. ....FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE TABlE OF CONTENTS Author' s Foreword . .. .. . portuguese 'either/neither' . . . ... . . . ... . . . .. . v Specia1 Note on Cognates . . . . An Extra Negative •.. . . 2. ... . . . .. .. . . .•. . . ...... .. ... . • . . . . . . ... ... . .••. .. . . . . . Spanish Consonants with Counterparts in Portuguese portuguese Consonants Not Occurring in Spanish Observations on Major Brazi1ian Dia1ect Differences Consonant C1usters .. .. . .. Part II Introduction Word arder Word Order in Questions with Interrogative Words Word Order in Yes-No Questions Word order in Answers to Yes-No Questions THE GRAMMAR . . . . • . .. ... .•.. v . Spanish unstressed 2 and ~ / Portuguese unstressed ~ and . . .•.. .. .. .... Oral Diphthongs Nasal Diphthongs Diphthongs Restricted to Some Dia1ects The Consonants . .. . . . . . .. 2. . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . .. . . .. . . Oral Vowe1s Nasal Vowe1s THE SOUNDS 1 1 1 Portuguese Vowe1s Not Occurring in Spanish 1. . .. .. . . . . .•. . . .. . . . . .i . . . .. ... viii Part I The Vowe1s Spanish Vowe1s with Counterparts in Portuguese 1. .••••.. . . .. .. ... . . ... .. . .. . . .. . . . . .. . Spanish ~ / Portuguese ~ . Spanish Diphthongs with Counterparts in Portuguese Portuguese Diphthongs Not Occurring in Spanish 1. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . : 4 8 8 13 16 16 17 17 18 20 21 21 26 28 28 The Diphthongs . . . .. .. .. . . . • . . . . ... . .. . . .. .•. . . • .. . 29 31 31 32 32 34 34 34 Negation . .. . ... 2. .. . . • ... . ..... . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . • .. .. ... . . • .. .. .. . .•. .

. . ... . . .. False Cognates part IV SUPPLEMENTARY PRONUNCIATION EXERCI SES vi 81 .. .. . ..ons . .•. . . .. . . . . . . . .•.. . ..•. . .. . . . . . . Common Correspondences • .•••.. . ..... . .. . .•.•. .. . . . . . Regular Verb Forms . Spanish (estar + -ndo) vs...•.. Personal Infinitive •. ..•. Placement Other Problems . Irregular Verb Forms .. 4.•. . Spanish (ir + ~ + infinitive) vs. 5.. .. . . .. .. .. . . . . . .•. Less Common Correspondences •.•.. . . . 35 39 39 39 44 46 46 2.. . ...•. • . . ... .. .. . . . . • . .. . . . . Verbs . Spanish hacer vs. ... . • . . . . ..•. . .. . . . 2. . .... .• Object pronouns 1. . . . . Portuguese (ir + infinitive) . Spanish (haber + past participle) vs. ... . . . Portuguese (estar + ~ + infinitive) . .. Sounds Word Endings . . .. . . . .•.•.•. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . ..•. .. . ... .. • .. . 3. . . . . . .. . .. .•. . 2. ..FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Contractions ... . • .. . . .... .•. 1. . .. . .. . . . . . .. 47 48 48 49 49 51 51 52 57 57 57 Usage of ser and estar .. . . . Portuguese (ter + past participle) .. .. L 2. . .. . . . Portuguese gostar de .. . ...••.. . .. . . . . .•. .. . . . . . • ..•. • . . . . Verb Types .. • . . . • • . . . .••••.. .•••. . .. .. . . . . . . .... .. .. . Spanish gustar vs. . 1. ..•.. Nominals Future Subjunctive ••.. . .•...•. . . .•. . . .. . ..... . ln Cognates ln the Number 'Two ' 63 63 64 64 64 Part I I I HINTS ON VOCABULARY TRANSFER Some Patterns of Correspondences •. . . .•. . • .. Two New Verb Categories ... Portuguese haver in time expreSSl. . . . . ..•. .. . • . .. .. 60 Direct Object Nouns Definite Article Gender L 2. . . Verb Constructions . . . . . ...

your But you cannot wholly accept this first inclination is to assume that the transition from one to the other will be quite easy. then. and particularly if you have already started Portuguese instruction and have found yourself blocked by Spanish at every step. in Spanish is now applicable to Portuguese. They have warned you to expect considerable difficulty in keeping your Spanish out of your Portuguese. gone from Spanish to portuguese. We who supervise Portuguese instruction at the Foreign Service Institute have observed that the majority of students who already speak Spanish make better progress in Portuguese than those who do noto Although the Spanish they know so well makes frequent and So much of what was learned Our conclusion is unwanted intrusions on their portuguese. take heart! You will soon see that you have much vii more going for you than against you. believe.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE AUTHOR'S FOREWORD Introduction If you are like most Americans who already speak Spanish and who are now about to learn portuguese. a liability. because friends who have already made the transition have told you that your Spanish will interfere with your Portuguese. disadvantages of interference. it also gives them considerable insight into the new language. asseto You contrast these remarks with the more favorable comments of other friends who have also They tell you how easy it was. . you want to know whether your Spanish will help you or hinder you. an asset or Since Spanish and Portuguese are so close. idea. that you are not sure what to that the advantages of this transfer factor far outweigh the We feel that Spanish is a distinct If Vou have wondered about the utility of your Spanish in this new venture. You want to know whether it will be an advantage or a disadvantage. It is quite understandable.

It is written for you. An Arnerican speaker of Spanish cannot help but go through a kind of conversion process His mind will not let him do otherwise. This man~al is not exhaustive in its approachi it does not attempt It con- to cover alI the differences between the two languages. for he is constantly reminded of the many correspondences between the two languages. He is going to converto This manual has grown out of a need to supply students with a guide to making the Spanish to Portuguese conversion. but they are still close enough to each other to enable us to use the word 'conversion' when describing what the speaker of one language does in order to achieve command of the other. centrates on the known trouble spots. informal style. correspondences which you must be particularly aware of if you wish to keep your portuguese separate from your Spanish. where much of its content had its origin and initial expression. not unlike the conversational style of the classroom. non-technical examination of those Spanish/ Portuguese correspondences that have proven most troublesome to students. or 'modifying' Spanish patterns. The terminology used in this manual takes the conversion process into account. The word 'conversion' a reflection of this frame of mind. former.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Spanish and Portuguese long age separated from a cornrnon ancestor and became identifiable as two distinct languages. It provides an extensive. the student. It is written in a casual. of the many areas where they are paralleI or nearly parallel. 50 Inevitably and logically he sees the He is going to get at Portuguese primary task before him to be that of altering his Spanish patterns as to fit the Portuguese moldo via Spanish. . It recognizes the fact that in going from Spanish to Portuguese you will see the latter in terms of the You will compare nearly everything you learn in Portuguese is itself When we talk about 'changing' with its counterpart in Spanish . when we say that a Spanish sound viii . in his approach to Portuguese.

Earl Stevick and Miss Madeline E. However. and 'Supplementary Pronunciation We recommend that you read about the sounds and do the pronunciation exercises at the very beginning of your Portuguese course. The manual is divided into four parts: Exercises'. Ehrman. Many of my colleagues have contributed in various ways to the preparation of this manual. While I cannot name them all. both of whom read the original manuscript and offered many useful suggestions. or when we speak of a 'new' Portuguese sound. since the special problems of the Spanish speaker are much the sarne regardless of which kind of Portuguese ne is learning. I do want to give special credit to Dr. You may want to read the other two parts in their entirety at any time.FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE 'drops out' of its Portuguese counterpart. we are echoing the thoughts of students before you. students of European Portuguese will find that this manual has nearly as much to offer them as it does to those who are studying Brazilian Portuguese. for it is then that you will experience most of your interference from Spanish pronunciation. ln any case. 'The Sounds ' . Portuguese. 'The We are using terminology which reflects the point of view of the American who is using Spanish as a springboard to Grammar'. An attempt to examine the distinctions between European and Brazilian Portuguese is beyond the scope of this manual. such treatment would not be particularly useful to us. 'Vocabulary Transferi. The Portuguese portions of all four parts are available on tape. ix . but we especially recommend that you select for careful study the various subsections of these two parts at such time as they fit in with the course of study you are following. I have elected to write about this variety. On the assumption that the majority of users will be studying standard Brazilian Portuguese.

a. you might expect the portuguese word for 'yesterday' to be a cognate too. It is ontem. which does not resemble ayer in the slightest. but the word will still be Consider. Rather drastic sound changes have been introduced in the Portuguese words. Spanish ahora. At other times the difference may be quite pronounced. portuguese amanhã and hoje are cognates for Spanish manana and hoy. Portuguese agora. the slight change in vowel qualities that you will notice between Spanish bonito and Portuguese bonito. It is noto Knowing this. You are likely to get the impression from time to time that every Spanish word has aPortuguese cognate. have a cognate in Spanish. You should not let yourself Some of the most common words of portuguese do not As a rule it is difficult to predict You can appreciate this by studying the follow- x . but you should still recognize them as words which have a first cousin in Spanish. Cognates will be used frequently on the following pages to illustrate certain correspondences between Spanish and Portuguese. their occurrence.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Special Note 00 Cogoates We Spanish and portuguese share a huge quantity of words. for example. probably upwards of 85 per cent of Portuguese vocabulary consists of words which have a cognate in Spanish. for example. ing examples. vs. as. Sometimes the difference in cognates is not great. and Portuguese chover vs. readily recognizable. think this. will refer to these shared words as cognates. words that are easily recognizable from one language to another. Spanish llover.

since you already know these words in Spanish. but it is very difficult to be sure that you will find a cognate in a given case. Vou will readily recognize Portuguese camisa. to know what It saia is until somebody or something tells you. Vou are not likely. is the word for Iskire. from the familiar Spanish falda.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE b. however. blusa. 'Vocabulary Transferi). and sapato. and it obviously is far removed Cognates do often fall into recognizable patterns (as shown later in 2art III. which do noto Vou must learn which words from your Spanish inventory have cognates and xi .

FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE

PART I

THE SOUNDS

ln this section we will compare the sounds of Spanish with the sounds of portuguese. Spanish into Portuguese. We will illustrate our comments with cognates in order to help you transfer vocabulary items from

The Vowels
Spanish Vowels with Counterparts in portuguese You will recall that Spanish has just five vowels, o
and~.

~ ~

i

These same five familiar vowel sounds, pronounced

essentially as you know them in Spanish, occur frequently in portuguese, but they are interspersed with seven additional vowel sounds, new ones that do not exist in Spanish. The existence of these seven additional vowels and their several diphthongs means that you must now learn to operate within a more extensive vowel system. lt also means that you will have You cannot do so as freely as to exercise considerable caution in transferring the five Spanish vowels, particularly in cognates. you would like, as you will discover on these pages. ln addition to accommodating yourself to the seven new vowels, you will also need to learn to handle some very common variations of the familiar and are unstressed. 1. Spanish ~ /
~, ~ and~.

These variations occur

for the most part when these vowels occur at the ends of words We discuss each of these in turn below.

Portuguese ~
~

The portuguese early days of study.

has a special variant, not occurring in We will arbitrarily elect to write this

Spanish, which will probably cause you some problems during your

1

FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE

variant for the moment like this:

~.

It is similar to a common

English vowel sound, the sort of lax, neutral 'uh'-type sound that you and alI native-speakers of English say in the final, weakstressed syllable of words like 'sofa', 'comma', 'Anna', 'abbot' when you utter these words in a normal, unaffected way. In your early days of learning Spanish you had to break away from this comfortable English habit and force yourself not to use this sound in the final, weak-stressed syllable of Spanish words. learn to say
~,

You had to toma,

and not

~,

in the last syllable of

~,

senoras, qanan, and many other words. Now, in Portuguese, you will find that this sound does occur, and with great frequency, in final, weak-stressed syllables. example, you will hear it in the last syllable of portuguese in the corresponding Spanish words. final unstressed vowel in Spanish is particularly careful to use the few cases in point. Spanish (weak-stressed a is underlined.)
cas~

For
~,

toma, senhoras, which is precisely where you learned not to use it It will be in just such easily
~,

recognizable portuguese/Spanish cognate words as these, where the that you will need to be It requires a bit Below are a
Portuguese~.

of undoing of a familiar and comfortable pattern.

portuquese

(spelling is altered to show weak-stressed ~.)
cas~

senoras
par~

senhor~s
par~

d~s

dias
agor~

ahora
nad~
cabez~
tom~

nada
cabeq~ tom~

~ or nh sound. you will have to ~.2. Spanish (~) vamos cama bano g~no Portuguese (~) v~mos c~m~ b~nho ganho ana ~ ~n. The differences between Spanish a and portuguese may not seem very great. 3 . interference from familiar. weak-stressed syllable Here.FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE Of course the ~ occurs in the final. cognate Spanish words is likely to be a problem. sometimes to the point of dropping it. ln these cases the ~ is once again. of many non-cognate words as well. we have tabulated its presence below in some very basic. Merely as an indication of the considerable frequency with which you will need to perforrn this ~ to ~ change. ~. grammatical features of the two languages. resist the tendency to use a Spanish fala obrigad~ fica feira lt is interesting to note that in European Portuguese and in the rapid speech of some Brazilians there is a definite tendency to pass over this sound very lightly. hence constantly recurring. The a is also heard in stressed syllables when the following syllable begins with slightly nasalized. too. but it is on just such small differences as these--hundreds of them--that Spanish and portuguese are distinguishable as two separate languages.

vuel~. etc.) Since you are accustomed to using these two sounds at the ends of words in Spanish you will find that you will want to use them in this position in portuguese. -ir verbs) aprenda coma ap rend2 come 2. and the singular subjunctives of -er and -ir verbs (viv~. especially if you are dealing with 4 . etc. sal~. too.). you will find 2 in these positions. sep~. In portuguese.). present tense of -ar verbs) tom~ tome mande trabalhe manda trabaj~ (singular subjunctive of -er.). portuquese case senhores par~ di~s bonite care Verbs: (3rd person singular. Spanish Nouns: casa senoras para días Adjectives: bonita car. Spanish unstressed 2 and ~ / portuguese unstressed ~ and i Spanish very commonly ends a word with an unstressed o or an unstressed ~ sound (com~. etc.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Frequency check: Spanish ~ / ~ portuguese e sound marks many feminine nouns and The Spanish unstressed their agreeing adjectives (cas~ bonit~.2. the third person singular present tense of -~ verbs (mand~. ban~. viv~. etc.

emphasize the presence of the u sound. everyday speech he i sounds. overly precise speech aPortuguese ~ speaker may occasionally end words with the unstressed Q and will always use u and strike your ears. IlevQ. is written o in s~andard spelling). These two features of Portuguese speech will be among the first to The frequency check presented below will indicate how often you will be required to focus on them. Spanish Nouns: carro centro estados libros Adjectives: cuatro famoso bonitos caros portuguese carru centru estadus livrus quatr~ famosu bonitus carus . these functions are taken over by the unObserve the change in the examples shown below. alI We have altered the standard portuguese spelling to stressed ~ sound (which.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE cognates. but in normal. Frequency check: (Spanish Q / portuguese ~) ln Spanish the unstressed Q sound marks many masculine nouns and their agreeing adjectives (carrQ viejQ. cognates. etc.) as well as the first person singular. respectively. ln very careful. nonetheless. present tense of most verbs (teng2. instead. sounds of his own language. etc.) ln portuguese.

grand~. of the unstressed ~ Compare these sample cognates. 6 .). just as it is in Spanish). -ir verbs) aprend~ aprend~ abre mueve cabe abri movi cabi (singular subjunctive of -ar verbs) habl~ fali mandi pass~ mande pas. nonetheless.§. is written ~ in standard spelling. and the singular subjunctive of most -ar verbs (mand~. -er. an unstressed sound marks the 3rd person singular It also of most -er and -ir verbs (aprend~. etc. present tense): tomQ llevo tengQ vivo tomu levu tenhu vivu portuguese ~) ~ Frequency check: (Spanish ~ / ln Spanish. etc. sal~. ln portuguese these functions are assumed by the unstressed i sound (which.FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE Verbs: (first person singular. billet~ verd~). We have altered the Portuguese spelling to emphasize the presence sound. Portuguese Spanish Verbs: (3rd person singular. trabaj~. occurs frequently as the last vowel in nouns and adjectives (hombr~ etc.).

and dis. exercises 1. 7 . many Portuguese speakers ~- have the initia1 unstressed sy11ab1es is. to portuguese unstressed For examp1e. 2 and u and i is found in 3.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Adjectives: grand~ grandi verdi essi basi noiti tardi bilheti ~ verde ese Nouns: base noche tard~ bi11ete The shift from Spanish unstressed i is evident e1sewhere too. ~sperar estar ~sposo escribir descuido desdén destino Additional practice with unstressed Part IV.where your Spanish experience would lead you to expect the unstressed and des-. Spanish Portuguese ( spelling a1tered to show i sound) isperar istar isposo iscrever discuido disdém distino ~.

The oral vowel This vowel is somewhat similar to the vowel in the English words bet and set. not to think of E as just 1t is another vowel altogether. For examination purposes we can divide these new vowels into two groups: 1. however. oral vowels and nasal vowels.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Portuguese Vowels Not Occurring in Spanish portuguese has seven vowels that do not occur in Spanish.) ~. siesta) 8 . which in turn may be Be careful. ard spelling we have chosen to write them for the moment like ~. To produce it. as different from e as a is 'open' E makes in the following pairs of words. in contrast to the portuguese~. There are two of them. this: A. Since they are somewhat difficult to identify in stand(The use of capitals is deliberate. with ' closed' e êste sêlo gêlo cêrro sêde sexta (this) (stamp) (ice) (hill) (thirst) (sixth) with 'open' ~ Este sElo gElo cErro sEde sEsta (east) (I seal. one must have a somewhat larger Perhaps for this reason it is sometimes referred opening between the tongue and the roof of the mouth than one needs to as the 'open' called 'closed'. stamp) (I freeze) (I close) (headquarters) (nap.Q. to produce the ~. ~. a variation of the ~. Oral Vowels We will look at the new oral vowels first. Notice the difference the from~.

new.FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE lnevitably some interference will arise out of the necessity of accommodating two vowel sounds in an area where you are used to dealing with only one. are Spanish words ending in stressed -elo Spanish papel pincel hotel portuquese papEl pincEl hotEl ln most cases. these examples: Spanish closed ~ pelo mesa pena pelar tenaz menos mero sede bella fe ella es cero flecha portuquese closed e pelo mesa pena pelar tenaz menos mEro sEde bEla Portuquese open ~ Check fÉ Ela É zEro flEcha 9 . though. case of cognates. you will find it difficult to predict whether you will find an e or an E in the portuguese word. This will be a problem in the case of brand It will be even more of a problem in the Among these Many Spanish words with ~ (which we may consider closed) will show up in Portuguese with the open~. non-cognate words.

you will find that it is a very useful device to keep in mind. The oral vowel Q. open ~. simpIy because it is applicable to so many words. The~. Spanish siete ciego piedra pieI mieI tierra pierde pie fiesta diez If Spanish ie is followed by in siempre. You remember Most that Spanish has a lot of words containing the diphthong ie. The other new oral vowel is Q. often referred to as 'closed'. them here. 13. as the vowel in the Portuguese cognate word will most (see page likely be the nasal vowel ~. ~ in turn. of these (a rough estimate would put the figure at 95 per cent) AIthough this change may be annoying to you because of the interference factor. the Spanish ~. show up in Portuguese with the open vowel~.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Let us look at this ~ in another environment. We are listing just a few of portuguese sEte cEgo pEdra pEle mEl tErra pErde pt fEsta dEz ~ or m in the sarne syllable. often called 'open' Q. once again we can apply the term 'open' to refer to the fact that there is more space--more of an 'opening'--between tongue and roof-ofmouth for this vowel (the Q) than for the~.) It will not be the B. is The 'closed' is very similar to 10 .

so you will also have trouble learning the distribuWhen is it one and when is it the other? Again. particularly in cognates. Spanish closed o gota boca mozo como boba popular noticia Portuquese closed o gôta bôca môço corno boba popular notícia But in the case of many other cognates you will have to switch to the open Q. cognates. learn it. 11 . your well-established habit of saying a ln the case of some closed Spanish Q will tempt you to carry this sound over into Portuguese too. as these examples show. as the following examples show. this. Take each word as it comes along. and tion of Q and Q.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE The Q and Q are quite different and quite separate vowels in portuguese. the answer seems to be: Of course. you will be right. With closed o (as underlined) aVQ Here are several pairs of words which will illustrate with open Q (grandfather) (chorus) (lunch) (taste) (well) " avO cOro almOço gOsto pOsso (grandmother) (1 blush) (1 eat lunch) (1 like) (1 can) côro almQço gôsto PQ~o Just as you will have some trouble learning the distribution of ~ and~.

but not all. both containing the closed Q. of these show up in Portuguese with the open Q. show up as porto and osso. Spanish has a large number of words that contain the diphthong ~.) the Portuguese cognate will most likely have the nasal as in cõta. if It is. as (See page 13.. there does not appear to be any pattern you can follow. 12 . the Spanish in cuenta vowel ~ So you will have to be careful not ~ will turn out to be an open Q in And. a good rule of thumb. nonetheless. to assume that every Spanish portuguese. Spanish fuerte luego cuerda puerta nueve rue da muerte escuela puede suelo portuguese fOrte lOgo cOrda porta nOve rOda mOrte escOla pOde sOlo Spanish puerto and hueso.2. Many.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Spanish closed Q nota moda norte obvio bota Portuguese open Q nOta mOda nOrte 6bvio bOta As you can see. . however. is followed by an m or n in the sarne syllable.

non-nasals as ~ are completely different vowels. They are: § 44-46. an ~ ln the Spanish version of these words. counterparts. ln portuguese. you first pronounce the vowel. that it is not a particularly difficult thing for most people to learn to do. Portuguese has five nasal vowels. Rest assured. but your Portuguese will be more Spanish than you should want it to be. They It is important to remember that these nasal vowels are not mere variations of their non-nasal. pages 2. however. Be alert then to the changes you will have to make in such cognate items as the following: 13 . may be new to you. ~. you simply nasalize You do not pronounce an m or an Q. you do. ln addition. e i õ ti and ln our modified spelling we will use the tilde (-). every bit as distinct from the is from 2 and as i is from ~' The nasal vowels show up frequently in easily recognizable Spanish/Portuguese cognate words.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE For additional occurrences of both the O and the E sounds see the sub-division on 'Irregular Verb Forms'. Nasal Vowels You know. as in vendo. of course. bom. So the process of pronouncing a vowel 'through your nose'. Nor does English. ln standard spelling. and banda. as the saying goes. sim. nobody will have any trouble understanding you. That's all. If the vowel. that Spanish has no such thing as a nasal vowel. then you pronounce or Q sound. for that matter. nasal vowels are frequently signalled by the presence of an m or n after the vowel in the same syllable. or oral. though. the tilde designates many ~ and ~ sounds (the latter being written !).

FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Spanish a cuando cuanto banco cantar mandar andando Portuguese nasal ~ quando quanto banco cantar mandar andando (quãdu) (quãtu) (bãcu) (cãtar) (mãdar) (ãdãdu) (and other -ndo forms of -ar verbs) Spanish e senda vencer mentir vender aprendiendo Portuguese nasal e senda vencer mentir vender aprendendo (sede) (vecer) (metir) (veder) (aprededu) {and other -ndo forms of -er verbs) Spanish i fin pintar insulto importante dirigiendo Portuguese nasal fim pintar insulto importante dirigindo I (fi:) (pitar) (isultu) (iportãti) (dirigidu) (and other -ndo forms of -ir verbs. ) 14 .

FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Spanish .2. responder montana donde onza onda Portuguese nasal õ responder montanha onde ones a onda (respõder) (mõntanha) (õdi) (ões a ) (õda) Spanish fundar tumba mundo ~ Portuguese nasal u fundar tumba mundo (fudar) (tuba) (mudu) 15 .

open ~ We will not bother to treat all of them here. Spanish ie and ue can be found in portuguese. which are sornewhat limited in their occurrence in Spanish. since it often appears in those positions where Spanish has a simple ~ sound. but will make just a few We have already seen that the Portuguese and open Q sounds frequently appear when you are accustomed to hearing Spanish ie and ue.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE The Diphthongs Spanish Diphthongs with Counterparts in portuguese Most of the diphthongs that occur in Spanish also occur in portuguese. comments about several of them. the diphthongs ei and eu. On the other hand. You should be particularly mindful of the ei. you will have to be doubly careful to add the '-i-glide' to the ~ sound and make it a genuine diphthong. It will sound much like the -~ of English bay. When this is the case. Compare these examples: Spanish qu~mar Portuguese queimar deixar madeira maneira primeiro verdadeiro cavalheiro dinheiro solteiro d~jar madera manera prim~ro verdadero caballero dinero solt~ro 16 . but not nearly so often as in Spanish. but with different degrees of frequency. are very common in Portuguese.

d.) (cf. as in papéis. 17 . hablar~) (cf. Spanish Y2. Spanish cant~. oi. Spanish comió) (cf. hotéis as in céu. Eu. mandar~) (cf. Spanish trabajQ. mand2). past tense ending of regular -~ verbs) venceu valeu bebeu comeu vendeu (cf. The ei diphthong is also to be found in these verb endings: mandei. mandarei falei. cantar~) (see exercise 7. su) (cf. chapéu as in dói. adiós) c. Part IV. mandou and similar past tense items where Spanish has the single vowel -ó (cf.~. oral Diphthongs Among the new diphthongs are three involving the open vowel sounds E and Q. (cf. seu eu deus.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Notice that many of these Spanish words end in ero and ~. Spanish mand!. falarei cantei. hablQ.as Also new is in ~. Spanish vendió) Portuquese Diphthonqs Not occurrinq in Spanish 1. herói ~. Spanish bebió) (cf. Ei. Spanish dios. Spanish valió) (cf. singular.) ~ The most common occurrences of the a. falou. adeus (the 3rd person. Spanish venció) (cf. Spanish habl~. diphthong are: meu. cantarei and others of the sorte (cf. Spanish mi. Note particularly its presence in trabalhou. b.

!!l passar.!!l passarão passari.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE 2.!!l vão dão dig. Nouns: lim6n me16n mont6n limão mel~ montão 18 . ei. It corresponds to the Spanish Additional verb endings -án.9. falam. Part IV. as in mãe. pão. pães (usually spelled ~). Nasal Diphthongs The nasal vowels ~. appears only in the word muito. ~. õi.) The ~u diphthong is very useful. Third person plural verb forms: Spanish pas~ portuguese (spelling) passam passav. bem.9.!!l recebam estão são pasaban pasarán pasarí~ pasaron van dan digan reciban están s~ b. It also corresponds to Spanish noun endings -6n and -i6n. -~. 5 and 6. ~. funções as in não. dizem as in põe. saíram (A fifth diphthong. and Q combine with the vowel sounds i and u to form four nasal diphthongs: ~. botões. and -~. canções.9. tem. practice is available in exercises 4. Observe the samples below. cães. ui.9. as in~. a.

Compare these Spanish and Portuguese pluraIs of nouns listed in (b) above.)--c.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE salón corazón condición destinación sección lección salão coração condição destinação seção lição (Many other nouns ending in -ón and -ión in Spanish will end in the diphthong -ãu in portuguese. which corresponds to Spanish -ones and -iones. Compare: Spanish viven venden manden vivies§!l Portuguese (spelling) vivem vendem mandem vivessem 19 . Spanish limones melones montones sal~ coraz~ portuguese limões melões montões salões corações condições destinações seções lições condiciones destinaciones secciones lecciones The ei diphthong often corresponds to the Spanish verb-ending -en. others: tan san tão são The õi diphthong is heard in the common plural ending -ões.

possible Pronunciation [gais] [mais] [arrois] [nois] [ferois] [eficais] [veis] [luis] [puisJ [avestruis ] [vois] [maçãis] [irmãis] [manhãis] Standard Spelling gás mas 'but' arroz nós feroz eficaz vez luz pus avestruz voz maçãs irmãs manhãs 20 . The result is a diphthong.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Diphthongs Restricted to Some Dialects It is striking to the ears of Spanish speakers that in the speech of many Brazilians a stressed vowel before a final is glided toward the ~ sound i sound.

~ of Spanish suba is considered to be a soft sound. English speakers understand and recognize a Likewise. ~ These symbols refer only to the often-called Portuguese 'hard' varieties of these sounds. b* d* g* P t k (of~) f s m n r (of pe~o) and g sounds *A special word needs to be said about the starred above. It is something like the th of English 'this'. that the ~ ~ of is considerably 'softer' than either of donde. that it alI but disappears. the difference between the slightly soft ~ of Spanish ~ and the harder g of Portuguese ~. Observe. donde and gano when these words occur first in an utterance. so softly.FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE The Consonants Spanish Consonants with Counterparts in Portuguese You can carry the following Spanish consonant sounds over into Portuguese with little or no modification. and you hear something which we might write as na'a. ~. 'hard'--~ ~ The ~ of the Portuguese word nada is a firm--a sound much as we sound. 21 . None of this ever happens in Portuguese. the its production. Sometimes the Spanish speaker seems to pass over it so lightly. presumably you remember what is meant by 'soft' and 'hard' in this contexto Spanish nada You probably know. for example. The sarne comparison can be drawn with regard to the g. does not have the 'soft' varieties of these sounds that occur between Spanish vowels and certain other places in that language. since the speaker's lips do not close alI the way during But in the Portuguese word suba the lips are ~ closed alI the way on the b sound and the result is a sound which is very nearly the sarne as our familiar English sound. as heard in bien. for example.

1 Extenslve practlce on b an dd can b e f oun d in exercises . to summarize. Spanish najifa bojifa ijifa sejifa mujifar formajifo comijifo 10)60 Cu)6a sa)6er sá)6ajifo ca)6er entregar pegar digo pago (And many other such participial forms) Portuquese nada boda ida sêda mudar formado comido lôbo Cuba saber sábado caber entregar pegar digo pago ~. though similar. You will experience most of your trouble with easily recognizable cognate words. you will always want to use the hard varieties of ~. . ~ and ~ in Portuguese. 22 . never the soft. 9 and 10. ~ and ~ Some Spanish consonants have counterparts in Portuguese which. We treat them below. Part IV. l The Spanish spelling has been slightly altered to show the soft sounds. are different enough to warrant special attention.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE So. Below are a few samples.

carro arroz corre guerra torre portuguese Roupa Revista Rápido Rio Repita Razâo caRo aRoz coRe gueRa toRe 23 . Portuguese has a counterpart of the Spanish multiple trilled rr. Spanish a. c. (~oupa. Spanish rr / Portuguese rr (indicated here as ~). exercise 13. the sound is much like a slightly hoarse Spanish or English h sound with perhaps a bit of vocalization added. For others it more nearly resembles the voiced French Your best bet. b. ropa revista rápido río repita razón b. will be to imitate your native- speaking instructor. ~uim) to expect it. rather than in the front of the mouth with the tongue tipo particularly from the Rio area. come~) You should be particularly careful about this sound in familiar cognate words. of course.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE 1. Initially Between vowels Finally (ca~o. ~. The ~ appears where your Spanish experience would lead you Check below and in Part IV. back of the mouth with the uvula. For most Portuguese speakers the trilling is produced in the ln the speech of many Brazilians. a few of which are given below. ga~afa) (senho~. a.

24 . of course. exercise 12. not the multiple trill rr. Check below and in Part IV. ln that location you will need to change (It may sound to you to a kind of 1 sound that is similar to the 1 sound often said by English speakers in words like fool. is normally heard before consonants. Repeat after your instructor and be alert to it in cognate words. like a ~ or a ~. many other infinitives. senor placer dar comer ir senhoR prazeR daR comeR iR And. Spanish cuarto carne tercero porque barba Carlos Portuguese quaRto caRne teRceiro poRque baRba CaRlos 2. / Portuguese 1 or L You can safely use the Spanish 1 sound in Portuguese except at the end of syllables. milk. Spanish 1. The ~. Once again this new patterning will bear particular watching in cognate words.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE c. ~ also appears in one place where you would not expect it: Remember that in Spanish only the single flap before consonants.) We will indicate this sound with the symbol ~.

you cannot carry it over.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE papeL hoteL iguaL taL maL miL espanhoL soLteiro aLguma faLta úLtimo deLgado 3. Spanish 11 / Portuguese lh. is to carefully imitate a native modelo lenho unha tenho venho senhor senhora As usual. ~. Spanish li / portuguese nh Although the Portuguese nh may be considered the counterpart of Spanish lenho. you can safely carry it over into portuguese. but drops sound to you like a nasalized y sound. Obvious cognates: milha toalha bilhete falhar Less obvious cognates: fôlha coelho olhar velho 4. away without making contacto The result is something which may the portuguese word the tongue approaches this position. or if it is the 'Argentinian' type 11.e. just behind the upper front teeth. If your Spanish 11 is the variety that has a definite 1 coloring to it. your best approach . If it is the kind that resembles a strong English y sound. ln the Spanish word you can feel your tongue making contact with the roof of the mouth. i. the two sounds are not quite so similar as they Let us compare Spanish leno with Portuguese ln may first appear to be. the kind that might be shown phonetically as 1Y.

Whether or not a real y sound exists in Spanish (in most dialects it does not). it certainly does exist in portuguese.9. similar to the sh of 'shape'. iantar a. Examples: of 'azure'. (~) . (' hard' ) Also see exercise 9. It has severa1 spe11ings. (!) - We are using this symbo1 to represent a sound which is It is very not brand new to you since it occurs in Eng1ish.ência ~oão 3. It often occurs where you have been used to saying a or a ~ ~ ('soft') in Spanish. Check the cognates below. Spanish (Spe1ling altered when necessary to show ~ or ~ sound) Portuguese barre r bamos bisitar bi~ir varrer vamos visitar viver vista livro haver palavra dever bista li~ro ha~er pala~ra de~er 26 . (y.This syrnbo1 a1so stands for a sound that resembles an It is close to the ~ English sound.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE portuguese Consonants Not occurring ln Spanish 1. for additional practice. . Part IV. Examp1es: chega acho caixa 2.

27 . exercise 11. however. as in Isomos americanos/o practice with the ~ For additiol1al sound. see Part IV. (~) - Though this sound may be heard occasionally in Spanish. It it is not considered by most laymen to be a Spanish sound. an ~ This may be particularly annoy- ing when the words are cognates whose Spanish counterparts have sound in the sarne location. tomava fumávamos almoçavam etc. Spanish (~ sound) (Between vowels) casa mesa azul preciso riqueza (Beginning of word) cero zona zero zona casa mesa azul preci~o rique~a portuguese (~ sound) The z sound also appears between vowels when the secnnd vowel begins the next '\rlord.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE plus Past II (Imperfect) forms of regular -~ verbs: toma]6a fumá]6amos almorza]6an etc. 4. It is frequently found between vowels is very much aPortuguese sound. and you will need to and at the beginning of words. get used to using it.

and These clusters may sound strange at first. just a few items like pneu (tire) and psicoloq1a (psychology). Examples: pneu pneumonia psicologia psic6logo psiquiatria 28 . Examples: noite leite tia tinha Consonant Clusters The only combinations of Portuguese consonants that will be new to you are initial ~ and~. particularly in the Rio area.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Observations on Major Brazilian Dialect Differences 1. For many speakers. a d before an English i sound is modified to sound much like the Note that the i sound is often ~. Likewise. i of 'judge'. and they You will find them in are not very common in Portuguese either. for most of these sarne speakers a t before an i sound is modified to sound much like an English or Spanish eh. but they are not particularly difficult to master. several related words. onde de nada dia disco represented in spelling by the letter Examples: 2. They do not occur in Spanish.

There are other areas where Portuguese is a near mirror-image of Spanish. you have learned to use the Spanish present tense as a substitute for the future tense at those times when the future is rather imminent (e. in the former are equally applicable in the latter.FROM SPAN!SH TO PORTUGUESE PART II THE GRAMMAR Introduction You will find that you can carry much of your Spanish grammar into Portuguese. the commands. Verbs make up a large part of the grammar of both languages. Spanish. you should have no problem doing the sarne thing in Portuguese. lo ~ manana). (More about this later. reIationships between nouns and adjectives. they usually behave that Thus. the conditional. For example. And. the two past tenses (past I and II. ingIy different. and the high incidence of direct transfer from one to another will undoubtedly prove to be a most use fuI tool.) system is at times conveniently similar. if of the distribution of the two past tenses in Spanish. the future. way too. nearly alI of the major Portuguese verb tenses are close copies of something you already know in The present tense. at other times surprisprepositions and other relator-type words and expressions tend 29 . Portuguese has the sarne rigid gender and number The object pronoun Most conjunctions. for example.g. you will not need to re-fight it in Portuguese. more importantly. if you have already won the battle The rules that guided you Likewise. the present and past subjunctives. or 'preterite' and 'imperfect'. and most of the compound tenses alI Iook and sound very much like they do in Spanish. if you prefer).

From what has just been said it would be easy for you to assume that alI of Portuguese is put together like Spanish. And so on.FROM SPANISH ~O PORTUGUESE to operate as they do in Spanish. We could add other areas of similarity. On the following pages we will concentrate on the most significant of these. likely to be the case. 30 . but you will soon discover them for yourself as you progress through your course. sometimes they are minor. the differences are major. But at the sarne time you are sophisticated enough to suspect that this is not That is precisely what Sometimes There are a number of areas where Portuguese does not structure itself like Spanish. this section on grammar is alI about. but always they 100m as potential trouble spots for those who know Spanish. and you are right.

if the interrogative word is itself the subject of the 6. 31 . Portuguese speakers wi11 most 1ikely p1ace In both 1anthe actor before the verb. most Spanish speakers wi11 place the actor after the verbo In contrast. where the interrogative word itse1f is not the subject (actor) of the sentence. iCuánto gana él? Quanto ê1e ganha? (or: Quanto ganha êle?) 5. Spanish L Portuguese Quando Maria vai? (or: Quando vai Maria?) icuándo va María? 2. iDónde está Pablo? Onde Paulo está? (or: Onde está paulo?) 3. iCómo está su esposa? Como a sua espôsa está? (or: Como está a sua espôsa?) In questions beginning with interrogative words.Qué pasó? Quem sabe? O que passou? 7. though in many instances. Notice the position of the verb and subject (actor) in the following sentences. sentence.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Word Order Word Order in Questions with Interrogative Words. iQuién sabe? l. as we have indicated. iA qué hora sale e1 tren? A que horas o trem sai? (or: A que horas sai o trem?) 4. the reverse pattern may also be heard. it can only precede the verbo guages.

Spanish 1. You must use the 'actor + verb' sequence. fl"nswers !2.FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE word -- Order in 'Yes~o' Questions . ~- Now observe the order of actor and verb in these sentences. Spanish L portuquese (or) Ela fala inglês? (or) i. Portuquese Trouxe o seu carro? Trouxe s1m. 4Está Teresa aqui? ó Teresa está aqui? Teresa está aqui? 4. soy. 4Es usted americano? Sí. lo traje. Word Qrder i!!. si tengo. 2. O senhor é americano? Sou S1m. O senhor tem um fósforo? Tenho S1m. óTrajo su auto? S1. óTiene un fósforo? si. '~-No' Questions. ln Portuguese you have no such choice. 32 .Habla ella inglés? ó ElIa habla inglés? 2. óTrabajan María y Olga en Rio? (or) óMaría y Olga trabajan en Rio? Maria e Olga trabalham no Rio? As a Spanish speaker you are free to place the actor either before or after the verb in 'yes-no' questions (those that can be answered 'yes' or 'no'). ó Ganó usted mucho? ó Usted ganó mucho? o (or) senhor ganhou muito? 3. 3.

is most likely to appear before the verb. with little. but it is much less frequent than in portuguese. sí. separated from it by a ln portuguese its most normal position is after the verb. están. óAlquilaron ellos la casa? Si. 33 . This is possible in Spanish too. Estão com pressa? Estão. óConoce usted a los Molina? o senhor conhece os Molina? si. óEstán con prisa? Conhe~o. pause separating the two. los conozco. Examples 1 through 4 above illustrate the positioning of the ln Spanish it affirmative answer 'yes' with regard to the verbo pause. Examples 5 and 6 illustrate a common variant of the Portuguese pattern: the omission of the 'yes'. Eles alugaram a casa? Alugaram sim.FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE 4. la alquilaron. of course. 6. if any. ~ 5.

María no va tampoco. b. the process of making a verb or an entire utterance negative is the sarne in Portuguese as it is in Spanish. Não. Não. No me gusta tampoco. Maria também não vai. Yo tampoco quiero. não faça isso. ' . An 'extra' negative Portuguese sometimes adds a seemingly redunàant negative (the word não) to the end of an utterance.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Negation Basically. sentences response to 'yes-no' questions. he doesn't have (it). ' No. b. which always precedes the verbo Spanish a. However. ' ' No. c. I didn't say (anything) . c. não. and b would be said in portuguese 'either / neither' The sense of the Spanish negative tampoco is often rendered in Portuguese as também não. 34 . The effect is to mildly emphasize the negative thought already expressed in the sentence. Eu também não gosto. don't do that. Não. Portuguese Eu também não quero. não falei não. 'NO. não tem não. ~ More likely than not.. a. you should be aware of the following rather unique features.

de. and the words aqui and outro.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Contractions The only two contractions in Spanish are: de + el a + el del = al Portuguese has these two (in a somewhat different shape. We have tabulated most of them below. Spanish: de + el a + el = del = al 35 . o em de a por no do* ao* pelo os nos dos aos pelos a na da à pela as nas das às pelas *Cf. An empty box indicates a demonstratives. personal pronouns. to be sure) plus quite a few more. of the prepositions em. combination which does not contracto CHART A: prepositions plus definite articles. ~ All of them involve combinations and por with definite articles.

isso aquilo nisto. disso daquilo àquilo de daquela s) àquele(s) àquela(s) a ------------- por ------- --------- ------ 36 .FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE CHART B: prepositions plus indefinite articles um em de a por num dum uns nuns duns uma numa duma ---- umas numas dumas ----- ------- --------- ---- CHART C: Prepositions plus demonstratives êste(s) esta(s) em neste(s) nesta(s) dêste(s) desta(s) êsse(s) essa(s) nesse(s) nessa(s) dêsse(s) dessa(s) ------- aquêle(s) aquela(s) naquele(s) naquela(s) daqUele~s) isto. nisso naquilo disto.

+ senhora) (em no livro dos senhores pela senhora en e1 1ibro de los sefíores por la sefíora = 37 .2. From Chart A: Portuguese Spanish ':: Compare the Portuguese with the + o + livro) (de + ~ + senhores) (por + . we have 1isted a few examp1es be10w. Spanish equiva1ent.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE CHART D: Prepositions p1us pronouns ê1e em de nê1e dê1e ela nela dela ê1es nê1es dê1es elas nelas delas CHART E: Prepositions p1us certain adverbs and adjectives aqui ali ai outro(s) outra(s) noutro(s) noutra(s) em ---- --dali -daí de daqui -------- To show you more c1ear1y what we are ta1king about.

§!!l + outras + cidades) (de + aqui) = noutro livro = noutras cidades daqui Learning to use these contractions will be one of your most difficult challenges in learning Portuguese.§!!l + outro + livro) (.§!!l + êle) (de + ela) (de + êles) = nêle = dela = dêles From Chart E: portuguese Spanish en otro libra en otras de aquí ciudade~ (.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE From Chart B: portuguese (em + um (de + uma Spanish livro senhoras en un libra de una senora de unas senoras + livro) + senhora) ( de + umas + senhoras) = num duma senhora = dumas From Chart C: Portuguese (em + êste (de + aquela Spanish en este libra de aquella senora a aquellos senore: ( ~ + livro) + senhora) + aquêles + senhores) = neste livro = daquela senhora = àqueles senhores From Chart D: Portuguese Spanish en él de ella de ellos (. 38 .

-or. portuguese viver escrever bater receber sofrer ocorrer gemer ferver morrer Regular Verb Forms Portuguese regular verb forms are remarkably similar to Spanish regular verb forms. Spanish poner) and its related compounds.FROM SPAN!SH TO PORTUGUESE Verbs Verb Types Portuguese and Spanish both have -~. portuguese has a fourth type. comer and abrir. I alike~ duplication of spelling. verbs: The chart below enables you to make Do not be misled by exact their pronunciation is always a direct comparison of the major tense forms of three regular mandar. forms are spelled exactly distinctively different. which is represented only by the irregular verb pôr (cf. verbs which are -ir type in Spanish but Spanish vivir escribir batir recibir sufrir ocurrir gemir hervir morir type in Portuguese. Most Portuguese cognates are of the sarne type as their However. Although some portuguese and Spanish . watch out for the following common -~ Spanish counterparts. ~In both languages abrir is regular in alI forms except the Past Participle: Spanish abie~to / Portuguese abertp~ 39 . ln addition. -er and -ir type verbs.

...ellos mandan comen abren êles ..mandam comem abrem yo mandaba comía abría eu mandava comia abria .FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Spanish yo mando como abro eu Portuguese mando como abro .mandavam comiam abriam mandaban comían abrían 40 ..él mandaba comía Imperfect Tense nosotros abría êle mandava comia abria .......mandábamos comíamos abríamos nós ...él manda come abre Present Tense nosotros êle manda come abre ..mandamos comemos abrimos nós ..êles ..mandamos comemos abrimos ..mandávamos com1amos abríamos ~ --ellos .

.ellos mandaron comieron abrieron êles ..mandaram comeram abriram yo mandaré comeré abriré mandarei comerei abrirei êle mandará comerá abrirá nós mandaremos comeremos abri-l'emos êles mandarão comerão abrirão él mandará comerá abrirá Future Tense nosotros mandaremos comeremos abriremos ellos mandarán comerán abrírán *This form is particularly difficult for a Spanish speaker to remember sínce he assocíates it wíth the present tense. 41 ...mandamos *comemos abrimos mandamos comimos abrimos .- nós .FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE yo mandé comí abrí eu mandei comi abri él mandó comió abrió êle mandou comeu abriu Preterite Tense nosotros ....

ellos mandarían comerían abrirían êles ....mandaríamos comeríamos abriríamos ...él mandaría comería Conditional Tense nosotros abriría êle ...FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE yo mandaría comería abriría eu mandaria comeria abriria -.él mande coma abra Present Subjunctive and Command Form êle ...- mandemos comamos abramos ......mande coma abra ..mandaria comeria abriria .mandaríamos comeríamos abriríamos nós .nosotros mandemos comamos abramos nós - ....ellos manden coman abran êles ... ....mandem comam abram 42 .mandariam comeriam abririam yo mande coma abra eu mande coma abra .

43 . **The Past Participle of abrir cannot be used here since it is irregular.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE yo mandara/-se comiera/-se abriera/-se eu mandasse comesse abrisse él mandara/-se comiera/-se abriera/-se êle mandasse comesse abrisse Past Subjunctive nosotros (compare the portuguese forms particularly with the Spanish-~ mandáramos/-semos comiéramos/-semos abriéramos/-semos nós mandássemos comêssemos abríssemos ellos mandaran/-sen comieran/-sen abrieran/-sen êles mandassem comessem abrissem forms. ) mandando Gerund comiendo abriendo mandando *comendo *abrindo mandado Past Participle comido **dirigido mandado comido **dirigido *Notice the absence of diphthongs.

There are too many of them. there is irregularities are very similar to those in Spanish. qUlir(em) pQder PQ. ~ And you know this only by In most instances you are better off approaching Portuguese irregular forms without reference to Spanish irregular change to open Q and open li. no easy way to categorize or compare these cross-language correspondences. but in another way. puede(n) 44 . two wide-ranging patterns of irregularity that frequently have correspondences in Spanish. you might analogize and guess that 'I do' But your guess would be wrong. forms. learning it.sso. which Spanish irregular form. has its fair share of irregular verbs in alI tenses. and they are too varied and unpredictable. are also presento portuquese querer quliro. or the lack of them.de(m) We are listing below some In some cases other irregularities Spanish qu~rer quiero.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Irreqular Verb Forms Portuguese. You will quickly note that at times the For the most part. which is the sarne as the The word is faço. like Spanish. respectively. portuguese closed Q and closed forms. when is diqo. For instance. however. We must point out. you discover that 'I say' as faqo.) of the more common cognates. quiere(n) pQder puedo. in stressed syllables of present tense In cognate verbs these changes correspond respectively to the Spanish o to ue and e to ie changes. ln many verbs. PQ. - - - - (The changes take place in a number of non-cognates as well. and that at times they are quite different. is irregular.

the The Portuguese cognate is likely to have a nasal vowel instead of an (começar in the above list is an exception. comienza(n) nevar nieva llover llueve nevar n~va chQver chOve (ln -ir verbs. mQstra(m) n~gar prQbar pruebo. n~ga(m) co~çar niego. niega(n) com~nzar com~ço.FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE provar prQvo. are irregular in portuguese. com~ça(m) comienzo. prQva(m) almQçar almQço.. prueba(n) almorzar almuerzo. m~stra(n) n~gar n~go.) pref~rir pref~rir pref].) (The irregularity is the nasal verbs that follow are irregular in Spanish. the 1st person singular. these correspondences are observable only in 3rd person forms. that in verbs where the Spanish vowelto-diphthong change is followed by an open Q or]. ~ in the sarne syllable.) Only sentir and mentir X in 45 . almQça(m) mQstrar mQstro. however. almuerza(n) mostrar m~stro.re(m) divertir div~rte(m) prefiere(n) divertir divierte(n) dormir duerme(n) dQrmir dQrme(m) Notice below.

Portuguese (ir + infinitive) Spanish inserts an a between a form of the verb ir and a following infinitive. siente(n) sentar s~ta(m) siento. examples: Spanish voy a comer van a estudiar iba a llegar fueron a nadar portuguese vou comer vão estudar ia chegar foram nadar portuguese does noto Observe these 46 . miente(n) metir mIto. c~nta(n) encontrar encuentro. p~sar p~so. Spanish (ir + a + infinitiv~ vs. s~te(m) setar s~to. contar cuento. 1. cQta(m) encQtrar encQtro. sienta(n) pensar p~sa(m) pienso. piensa(n) mentir miento. m~te(m) Verb Constructions ln this section we examine several portuguese verb constructions which differ slightly from their Spanish counterparts. enc~ntra(n) sentir siento.FROM SPAN!SH TO PORTUGUESE cõtar CQto. encQtra(m) setir slto.

For example. we can say that the following. ring to such items as: he comido habrá salido habían escrito habíamos trabajado si hubiera hecho portuguese has this kind of construction too. under most circumstances. Spanish habían escrito habríamos escrito habrán escrito si hubiera escrito Portuguese tinham escrito teríamos escrito terão escrito se tivesse escrito English they had written we would have written they will have written if I had written We are refer- Now. but it uses the verb ter (cognate with Spanish tener) instead of haver. we come to a slight.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE 2. The portuguese constructions are parallel to the Spanish constructions most of the way. Spanish (haber + past participle) vs. Portuguese (ter + past participle) Spanish combines the verb haber with the -do form (the past participle) of the main verb to form a series of tenses which are traditionally called the 'perfect' tenses. exception. but very important. however. The present tense of Spanish haber + verb is usually Observe carefully: he escrito tenho escrito hemos trabajado temos trabalhado I have written I have been writing We have worked We have been working not the exact equivalent of the present tense of portuguese ter + verbo Spanish: portuguese: Spanish: portuguese: 47 . are equivalents.

ing. as you do in English. preposition de must follow gostar. Eu gosto dessas meninas. Hace dos anos que trabajo aquí. Les gusta estudiar. But you do not You simply say that you like it. portuguese Há dois anos que trabalho aqui. Me gustan esas chicas.) Spanish Me gusta el libro. up to and into the presento This is indicated in the English translation been + . 48 . Portuguese haver in time expressions. Spanish hacer vs. portu~uese Eu gosto do livro. Nos gusta viajar. as being 'pleasing to you'. To express the equivalent of the above Spanish examples.. 3. Portuguese would use the simple past I Thus: Spanish he escrito hemos trabajado portuguese escrevi trabalhamos (preterite) tense. in Spanish if you want to express the idea that you like a certain thing you have to turn the thought around and say that that thing is pleasing to you. Trabalho aqui há dois anos. grammatically. Nós gostamos de viajar. Trabajo aqui desde hace dos anos. a. ~les gostam de estudar. which is the Compare these examples. do this in Portuguese. 4. case in Spanish.. Spanish gustar vs.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE The portuguese construction shows a kind of progression of action from some point in the past. just The item in question is not conceived (Notice that the of. b. Portuguese gostar (de) As you know. Spanish 1.

the estar + more common. Estaban almorzando.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE 2. Usage of Ser and Estar The distribution of ser and estar in portuguese is very nearly the sarne as it is in Spanish. Hace dos meses que llegué. from fazer. Son mios. Son bonitas. São bonitas. Es médico. Spanish haber) in a slot where you are accustomed to using a form of hacer. Llegué hace dos meses. A carta foi escrita hoje. Although European portuguese uses the estar + -ndo construction on occasion. La carta fue escrita hoy. Há dois meses que cheguei. ~ falar. médico. Estavam a almoçar. b. in these utterances. ler. Portuguese + infinitive. The difference is portuguese in the use of a form of haver (cf. of identical usage. Cheguei há dois meses. Portuguese O presidente está Estou ~ Spanish El presidente está hablando. São meus. origin: Time: Possession: Nouns: Characteristics: Passive voice: Es de México. a. 49 . 5. É. Estoy leyendo. do México. The patterning in these portuguese utterances pretty closely paraI leIs the patterning in the Spanish. [European portuguese only: estar + ~ Spanish estar + -ndo vs. Son las tres. São três. but há seems to be preferred by mosto speakers can also use faz. Observe these instances ~ + infinitive construction is É.

ically fixed. La carta está escrita. or El hotel queda en la calle quince. estar will be your choice. O banco é no centro. Spanish El hotel está en la calle quince. O hotel fica na rua quinze.e& geograph- will be your choice. ln speaking Portuguese you will need to decide whether the location is fixed or transitory. O carro está sujo. but transitory or temporary in nature. João está na California. A carta está escrita. Portuguese frequently uses the verb ficar in place of to indicate fixed location. El banco está en el centro. Los ninos están en el centro. California está en los Estados Unidos. Os meninos estão no centro. There is just one important area where there is a significant difference in the distribution of these two verbs in the two languages the area at times referred to. circumstances. ~ This is analogous to the Spanish verb quedar (not quedarse) substituting for estar under the sarne 50 . If it is not geographically fixed.FROM SPANISh TO PORTUGUESE Conditions: El carro está sucio. A California é nos Estados Unidos. Juan está en California. perhaps rather loosely. You will remember that Spanish uses the verb estar as 'location'. to state the location or position of a person or thing. i. ~ If it is fixed. Portuguese O hotel é na rua quinze.

Tan pronto como sepamos. Spanish would normally use a present subjunctive after the Spanish equivalent of these conjunctions (except after si. for the most part. the future subjunctive is quite rare in conversational Spanish. lhe dizemos. vou de avião. For example. speaker of the language.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE &Dónde está Santo Domingo? Onde é São Domingos? or &Dónde queda Santo Domingo? Onde fica São Domingos? Two New Verb categories 1. being reserved. Future subjunctive. assim que. This is not so in Portuguese. One of the major differences between Portuguese grammar and Spanish grammar is the fact that Portuguese has a very active future subjunctive. Portuguese calls for a future subjunctive after such conjunctions as quando. Spanish (present subjunctive) 1. 2. The Portuguese future subjunctive is an everyday occurrence in the speech of nearly every native and others. logo que. of course) when the reference is to future time. for rather formal and literary speech. 51 . Vou will soon see that in many instances Portuguese uses a future subjunctive where Spanish uses a present subjunctive. Logo que soubermos. Compare these examples. se lo decimos. when the reference is to future time. Cuando yo vaya. ~. depois que. voy por avión. portuguese (future subjunctive) Quando eu fôr. whereas spanish does noto As you know.

The 'actor-markers' that Portuguese uses are the first and third plural endings -mos and -em. Se o senhor não puder. Spanish 1. stances. 5. Spanish. a simple present tense would be used. vamos comer juntos. to it. avise-me. Penso almoçar depois que êles sal. Personal infinitive We come now to another major structural difference. Pienso almorzar después que ellos salgan. Si él viene. Si usted no puede. Vou se fôr possivel. posible. or endings. portuguese can 'personalize' an infinitive by attaching certain 'actor-markers'. the singular. no voy. Portuguese again uses the future subjunctive. you recall.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE 3. Mientras ellos estén alli.rem. 4. aviseme. After the word 'if'. when the reference is to the future. 2. 2. Spanish does not do this. There are no endings for A sample verb paradigm would look like this: Singular 1st 2nd. 3. não vou. 3rd chegar chegar Plural chegarmos chegarem . Voy a decirle cuando llegue. Enquanto êles estiverem lá. vamos a comer juntos. cannot use a present subjunctive under such circumNormally. Voy si ~ Portuguese Se êle vier. " Vou dizer-lhe quando chegar.

.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE The problem. l Não é conveniente êles pagarem agora. É pior (êle) fazer isso. the verb in question follows after: a. is not so much learning the forms as it is when to use them. Es posible que yo no venga... Portuguese (personal infinitive) É melhor fazermos isso agora. Es difícil que salgamos temprano. 6. 7. subjunctive would be normal in Spanish. b. a) After impersonal expressions Spanish (subjunctive) 1. 3. deal with conflicts that the Portuguese personal infinitive sets up with some of your Spanish subjunctive patterns. lNotice there is no ending on these singular forms. the personal infinitive is very often used in Portuguese where a This is observable when Let us examine each of these three categories separately. 53 . No conviene que paguen ahora. É difícil sairmos cedo. 2. Es mejor que hagamos eso ahora. an impersonal expression the verbs 'to tell' and 'to ask' certain Spanish conjunctions (clause relators) which may convert to prepositions in portuguese. 1 E poss~vel eu nao vir. É natural falarem inglês. As a Spanish speaker you will have to ln other words. c. 4. Es natural que hablen inglés. 5. as usual. É preciso (êles) estudarem. Es peor que haga eso. Es preciso que estudien.

the first several utterances would be: E melhor que façamos isso agora. João pede para ajudarmos. the subjunctive is common. É natural que falem inglês. b) After 'to tell' and 'to request' Spanish Portuguese (personal infinitive) Eu pedi para ficarem. Notice that para is used to link the two clauses. To prepare yourself for any eventuality.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Portuguese could also use a present subjunctive to express most of the above ideas. É possível que eu não venha. Êles nos disseram para sairmos. Dígales a las ninas que pongan la mesa. (subjunctive) 1. we suggest you learn finitive. both patterns. pedi que êles ficassem. Juan pide que ayudemos. When the verb in the main clause is 'to te11' or 'to request' Spanish puts the verb in the other (subordinate) c1ause in the subjunctive. There may or may not be a slight tendency to prefer the personal infinitive over the subjunctive in cases like these where there is a choice. 2. 3. .). Thus rephrased. although. once again. etc. just as Spanish does. 4. Yo pedí que ellos se quedaran. É difícil que saiamos cedo. Portuguese is very likely to use the personal in(EU As before. Diga para as meninas porem a mesa. we suggest that you learn to recognize and handle both patterns. Nos dijeron que saliéramos.

For example: Cheguei sem que êles me vissem. Portuguese seems to prefer the personal infinitive) but will often do as Spanish does and use a conjunction followed by subjunctive. Llegué sin que me vieran. . After preposi- tions) Portuguese frequently uses the personal infinitive. Explica todo para que ellos comprendan. Van a salir antes de que los conozcamos. Spanish Portuguese (personal infinitive) Depoís de comermos) vamos olhar televisão.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE c) After certain Spanish conjunctions (or clause relators) which roay convert to prepositions in Portuguese. Portuguese (personal infinitive) Cheguei sem êles me verem. Spanish (infinitive) 1. Another area of conflict for you involves the Portuguese personal infinitive and the Spanish infinitive. Tengo que quedarme aquí hasta que estén listos todos. Vamos a trabajar hasta que ellos llequen. Once again) we recommend that you learn both patterns. Tenho que ficar aqui até todos estarem prontos. Vamos trabalhar até êles chegarem. Spanish must use a subjunctive to express the above ideas. Vamos trabalhar até que êles cheguem. 2. Vão sair antes de os conhecermos. 3. 4. Spanish (subjunctive) 1. Explica tudo para êles compreenderem. uses just the infinitive. 5. Después de comer) vamos a mirar la televisión.

Elias van a poner la mesa antes de irse. 4. vamos a casa. Ao sairmos daqui.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE 2. Elas vão pôr a mesa antes de irem. Por terem trabalhado tanto. estão muito cansados. Por haber trabajado tanto. 3. están muy cansados. vamos a casa. 56 . Ai salir de aquí.

Ella me conoce. Ela conhece-me.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE NominaIs Object Pronouns 1. Portuguese may put it before or after. Ana senta-se. the arrangement of verb and object pronouns (direct. Le dia un dólar. notice these examples: Spanish portuguese Levantei-me cedo. Conhece-me bem. Ela me conhece. 3. Object pronouns with Spanish 1. Placement Your most formidable task in mastering the object pronouns will be learning where to put them. some specific cases. Me levanté temprano. 6. Let us check on largely because of interference from Spanish. Paulo deu-lhe um dólar. 2. indirect and reflexive) is In Portuguese it may seem even more so. A. Deu-lhe um dólar. in which a noun or personal pronoun precedes the conjugated verb. for 4. a rather complex affair. Spanish must put the object pronoun before the conjugated verb formo putting it before. with a preference. Ana se sienta. ~ In Spanish. In utterances like those above. in Brazilian portuguese. pablo le dio un d61ar. l::. 57 . Now. Me conoce bien. ---. conjugated verb form Portuguese Ana se senta. Paulo lhe deu um dólar.

Juan va a levantarse. para nos receber. 3. Portuguese João vai levantar-~. (However. . João quer levar-me ao centro. 4. .Quién le dio un dólar? The rule in effect for these Portuguese sentences is that if anything other than a noun or personal pronoun subject precedes the verb. . here are still more examples: Spanish Portuguese Não se levanta. preferring irstead to place it after the verb. Spanish speakers. João pode dizer-me isso. Juan puede Juan ~ decir~ eso. Não me conhece. Juan quiere llevarme al centro. 2. recibir~. Juan se va a levantar. pronoun precede the verbo avoid beginning an utterance with an object pronoun. João pode me dizer isso. Now. puede decir eso. as shown above. where the verb is preceded by a noun. so in themselves they represent nothing strikingly new to you. and the object pronoun may therefore either go before that verb or follow after it. 8. João vai se levantar. however. No me conoce. the object pronoun is placed before the verbo These sentences and others like them fall right into the familiar Spanish pattern. Object QEonouns with an infinitive Spanish 1. Juan me quiere llevar al centro. 2. compare them with examples 1. No se levanta. Quem lhe deu um dólar? 7. para 58 . l.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE No noun or pronoun precedes the conjugated verb in these examples. João quer me levar ao centro.Q2. as always. para receber-!!. 9. must let the object Most Portuguese speakers. and 3 above.) B.

ln the same constructions. Spanish puts object pronouns either after the infinitive or before the auxiliary. Object pronouns with the present participle (the -ndo form) Spanish L Portuguese João está João está João está João está levantando-~. The situation with the -ndo forms is similar to that which we have described for the infinitives. ~ levando. 59 . João está lhe dizendo. Juan está llevándome. está llevando. levando-~. Juan !!!§. Portuguese puts object pronouns either after the infinitive (like Spanish) or before the infinitive (quite unlike Spanish). ln Spanish the object pronoun may go after the participle or before the auxiliary verbo ln Portuguese it may go after the participle (which is done in Spanish). 2. C.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE ln verbal constructions containing an infinitive and an auxiliary verb. Juan está diciéndole. Juan está levantándose. or before the participle (which is never done in Spanish). ~ levantando. Juan se está levantando. Juan le está diciendo. 3. João está dizendo-lhe.

~ struction the infinitive loses changed to ~. ~. lt is almost as if the B. A. ln addition to handling the major problems of accurate place- ment. Pablo va a llevarla. os. los. Envuélvelo sin la caja. la. ~les 3. Portuguese Quem comprou os bilhetes? Paulo comprou. Modification of infinitive and direct object pronoun. Spanish 1. las when they follow an As such they look and sound suspiciously like the Be sure to notice that in this conits~. you will need to make other adjustments in order to control the complex of object pronouns in Portuguese. 2. ElIa va a mandarlos. Ellos van a hacerlo.FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE 2. 60 . comparable Spanish forms. ~. vão fazê-lo. Ela vai mandá-los. Frequent omission of direct object pronoun in portuguese Spanish 1. as change their forms to lo. lQuién comprá los billetes? Pablo los comprá. 2. Other Problems. portuguese Paulo vai levá-la. Embrulhe sem a caixa. The Portuguese third person direct object pronouns infinitive.

can not ordinarily do it with .§.§. Ela deu um presente a lHe. (I'll take you) 4. When the direct object is (as in numbers inanimate (as in numbers 1 and 2) the pronoun is often just When the direct object is 'you' 3 and 4). Maria lo vio. Substitution of (. (or) (or) L Ella le dio un regalO: --- 2. C. For example: Te tengo un regalito. with the meaning 'for'. (Mary saw you) Maria viu o senhor. etc. simply omitted. Yo las llevo. (I'll take you) Spanish needs the object pronoun in these utterances. Portuguese can do without it.§.§. Tengo un regalito para ti. but 61 . Spanish can occasionally do this with para. ~le contou urna história .. a senhora. or para in place of the indirect object pronoun. mim. / Spanish para) for indirect object pronouns Portuguese Ela lhe deu um presente. Ela deu um presente para êle. Quero dizer-lhe. El me contó una historia. are usually used in preference to the object pronouns. Quero dizer para Q senhor. (Mary saw you) Eu levo as senhoras.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE 3. ~le me contou urna história. o senhor. Quiero decirle. (or) (or) ~le contou urna história para mim. Portuguese speakers frequently use a prepositional phrase with . 3. Quero dizer ~ (or) (or) senhor.

with both lhe and ao senhor. (or) mí me parece.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE Notice that the prepositional phrase in Portuguese is used in place of the object pronoun. 2. Quero dizer para Paulo . Quero dizer-lhe. Dou-lhe isto. Dou isto ao senhor. (or) (or) In Spanish the combination of indirect and direct object pronoun in utterances like those above is very common. ~ portuguese Parece-me. Spanish pronoun arrangements not appearing in Portuguese a. 2. and not as a redundant addition to it. D. but they do not occur in portuguese.. Quiero decirle ~ Pablo .. Se la presté.. portuguese it may occur but is almost always avoided in everyday speech.. Me 10 dio. Deu-me o cheque. 3.. ~ Le doy esto usted. Either the direct object pronoun is ornitted. 62 . (the pen) Emprestei-lhe. (or) You will not say: Dou-lhe ~~ senhor. Indirect and direct object pronouns combined Spanish 1.. Emprestei-lhe a caneta. Such redundancies are common in Spanish. ~ In or the direct object is used in its stead. (the check) portuguese Deu-me. Spanish 1.

3. Portuguese does not have the 'personal Spanish portuquese Vejo Maria. Se nos quedó en casa. 1. 2. Reflexive and direct obiect pronouns combined Spanish 1.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE b. Spanish does not do this. Veo ~ María. Spanish mi amigo mis amigos mi amiga mie amigas portuquese 2. Me la tomé. Definite Article portuguese may use the definite articIe along with the possessive pronoun. Se las llevó Alicia. Reflexive and indirect obiect pronouns combined Spanish L Portuquese (Nothing comparable) (Nothing comparable) (Nothing comparable) Se me olvidó la llave. Se Ie cayeron unas tazas. Direct object Nouns Spanish inserts a 'personal object noun. meu amigo os meus amigos ~ minha amiga minhas amigas ~ 63 . Conheço o presidente. 2. 2. Conozco aI presidente. Juan se lo comió. direct ~'. (the bread) (the keys) portuquese (Nothing comparable) (Nothing comparable) (Nothing comparable) (the milk) 3. c. ~' before a personalized.

however. A. Others: Spanish el color el do1or el árbol el puente el partido 'game' el equipo la nariz la leche la sonrisa la sal 2. portuguese has gender agreement for the number 'two'. Gender in the Number 'Two'. and we will list some of them here. For example: Spanish el viaje el paisaje el masaje el mensaje el sabotaje B. Portuguese cognates have the sarne gender as their Spanish counterparts. does noto always as easy as it may seem. Spanish dos libros dos senoras Portuguese dois livros duas senhoras Spanish Remembering to make this agreement in Portuguese is not Portuguese a viagem a paisagem a massagem a mensagem a sabotagem Portuguese a côr a dor a árvore a ponte a partida a equipe o nariz o leite o sorriso o sal 64 . There are some common exceptions to this. Many Spanish masculine words ending in -aje are feminine in portuguese and end in -agem. Gender in cognates ln most cases.FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE Gender 1.

the great utility of knowing that Spanish ie and ue often and Q. correspondences can guide you in the processo correspond to Portuguese ~ example. and that Spanish In this -ión. Vocabulary transfer has been implicit in We showed there how certain We indicated.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE PART III HINTS üN VOCABULARY TRANSFER Much of your Portuguese vocabulary will come via direct transfer from Spanish. • Sounds The Spanish h sound does not exist in portuguese. respectively. for our discussion of sounds in part I. As a final note on vocabulary transfer we have listed several items that can be transferred only with considerable caution: false cognates. section we will examine other correspondences. involving new sounds. many of them not We have attempted to separate the common We have reserved ones from those that occur only occasionally. -~ and -an (the latter two both stressed and unstressed) often correspond to the Portuguese nasal diphthong -ãu. Spanish h jefe bajo quejarse embajada caja dejar bruja portuquese ~ (sh of English 'ship') chefe baixo queixar-se embaixada caixa deixar bruxa . ~ or lho Study these groupings: a. Some Patterns of Correspondences Common Correspondences 1. a special place for those that involve word endings. In cognate words the h sound usually converts to one of three sounds: ~.

FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE

b.

Spanish h junio julio junto juez generoso gente joven ligera jugar adjectivo sargento extranjero jardín reloj viaje página

Portuguese junho julho junto juiz generoso gente jovem ligeira jogar adjetivo sargento estrangeiro jardim relógio viagem página

~

(~ of English 'azure' )

c.

Spanish h mujer orejas mejor trabajar mojar escoger abeja viejo ojo aguja

portuguese lh mulher orelhas melhor trabalhar molhar escolher abelha velho ôlho agulha

(11 of Spanish 'calle')

NOTE:

Spanish jabón / portuguese sabão (~ of English 'sam') Note also: Spanish ejemplo, ejercicio / portuguese exemplo, exercício (where the ~ is pronounced like ~ of English 'zebra')

66

FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE

Spanish 11 sometimes shows up as 1., sometimes as ~, and sometimes as lh (~ change) . Study these groupings: a. Spanish 11 bello cabello llevar gallina amarillo ella allí villa caballo cal lar fallecer b. Spanish 11 llorar llamar llegar llave llover llano lleno c. Spanish fallar milla millón toalla billete Portuguese 1 belo cabelo levar galinha amarelo ela ali vila cavalo calar falecer Portuguese chorar chamar chegar chave chover chão cheio
~

li

portuguese lh falhar milha milhão toalha bilhete

Notice that Spanish 11 appears between vowels in the first group (with the exception of llevar), and at the beginning of the words in the second group.

67

FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE

Spanish g often corresponds to Portuguese nh; and conversely, Portuguese g often corresponds to groupings. a) Spanish n dinero camino ganar sobrina tocino vino amanecer cocina espina b) Spanish n ano pequeno cana ensenar danar pestana Portuquese nh dinheiro caminho ganhar sobrinha toucinho vinho amanhecer cozinha espinha Portuquese n ano pequeno cana ensinar danar pestana
Spanish~.

Observe these

portuguese inserts an

K sound

in a number of words where

Spanish has the 'silent' Spanish higo hígado hacer hormiga hacienda herir

printed~.

Portuquese figo fígado fazer formiga fazenda ferir

68

Spanish casa cosa blusa música acusar *See grouping c. Let us review that point. in another context.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE humo hervir hierro hazana *hijo *hoja huracán almohada fumo ferver ferro façanha filho fôlha furacão almofada • Spanish ch often corresponds to Portuguese ~. we mentioned that sometimes the Spanish ~ sound corresponds to the Portuguese z sound. on page portuguese (~ sound underlined) casa coi~a blu~a música acu~ar 66. Spanish aprovechar techo noche leche luchar estrecho hecho ocho mucho portuguese aproveitar teto noite leite lutar estreito feito oito muito • Previously.) 69 .

Spanish acción sección lección accidente occidental There are exceptions. portuguese ação seção lição acidente ocidental Note portuguese ficcão and succão. 70 .FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE veces hacer cocina azul zorro vêzes fazer cozinha azul ~orro • Spanish kt is often reduced to just Spanish acto doctor dictador actual contacto carácter víctima perfecto practicar arquitectura ~ in Portuguese Portuguese ato doutor ditador atual contato caráter vítima perfeito praticar arquitetura • Many Spanish words containing ks lose the k in the portuguese cognate. both of which retain the k sound.

Spanish alumno columna himno solemne amnistía indemnizar calumnia portuguese aluno coluna hino solene anistia indenizar calúnia The ~ is retained in amnésia. much less frequently in other cases. as the second element of a Spanish cluster. • The 1 sound. Spanish placer playa plato plata plaza p1aga p1azo cumplir emplear sab1e b1anco doblar noble ob1igar 71 portuguese prazer praia prato prata praça praga prazo cumprir empregar sabre branco dobrar nobre obrigar . often changes to an ~ sound in Portuguese. Spanish words containing mn are likely to lose the ~ in the Portuguese cognate.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE • Likewise. This happens quite frequently if the first element of the cluster is E.

puritana. Portuguese campana. and colombiano. colombiana and many other nationalities. portuguese puritano. americano. as well as americana. however. venezuelano. 1 Spanish mano hermano verano anciano sano aldeano Portuguese mão irmão verão ancião são aldeão Notice. persiano and many other nationalities • • Spanish -ana often corresponds to portuguese -ã Spanish hermana manzana manana alemana anciana aldeana sana Portuguese irmã maçã amanhã alemã anciã aldeã sã Notice.FROM SPANLSH TO PORTUGUESE flaco flota iglesia esclavo fraco frota igreja escravo • Spanish -ano often corresponds to Portuguese -ão. banana. 1 For other correspondences involving ão. 72 . however. see pages 18-19.

§:. leal-ªad. facilidad.§:. dignidad. Spanish horrible terrible favorable notable posible indispensable amable agradable portuguese horrível terrível favorável notável possível indispensável amável agradável • portuguese equivalents of Spanish words ending in -dad (or -tad) and -tud usually add an unstressed i sound.§:. dificul-ªad.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE 2. liberdade magnitud.:!:.§:.§:.ad magnitud actitud Some of the ~ portuguese verdad.§:. Spanish verdad dignidad facilidad dificultad lealtad liber. ln addition. the t of Spanish -tad is likely to be a d in Portuguese. atitude notable exceptions: aptidão amizade aptitud amistad 73 . • Word Endings Most Spanish adjectives ending in -ble will end in -vel in Portuguese.

Spanish portero cartero minero portuguese porteiro carteiro mineiro Notice the diphthong in the 74 .FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE • The ~ sound of the Spanish endings -eza and -oso corresponds to a ~ sound in Portuguese. portuguese forms. Spanish firmeza riqueza gentileza fortaleza poderoso famoso amoroso espantoso portuguese firmeza rique~a gentile~a fortale~a poderoso famoso amoroso espantoso • The Spanish diminutive endings -ito(a) and -cito(a) correspond to Portuguese -inho(a) and -zinho(a) Spanish carrito Pablito mesita casita cafecito pobrecita portuguese carrinho Paulinho mesinha casinha cafezinho pobrezinha • The Spanish noun-ending -ero generally corresponds to the Portuguese noun-ending -eiro.

75 . The cognates themselves may. and Spanish -aje ~rtuguese -agem see page 64). of course.] -tãO Less Common Correspondences The correspondences listed below are found in a smaller number of cognates than those listed above under 'Common Correspondences.' common words. diferencia. in -encia retain it. be very ln some cases. licencia and sentencia lose the ia diphthong in portuguese. the examples given may be the only ones of their kind. Spanish presencia diferencia licencia sentencia but eficiencia paciencia inteligencia providencia esencia competencia eficiência paciência inteligência providência essência competência Thus: Portuguese presença diferença licença sentença Most other words ending [Other word endings already discussed in other contexts include Spanish -ción / Portuguese (see page 19).FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE zapatero vaquero cocinero sapateiro vaqueiro cozinheiro • The Spanish words presencia.

Spanish color dolor poner tener venir general sólo ganado portuquese côr dor pôr ter vir geral só gado 76 .FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE • Absence of I in portuguese Portuquese sair voar doer saudar diabo Spanish salir volar doler saludar diablo • Absence of n in Portuguese Spanish comenzar moneda defensa venado amenaza luna crimen Portuquese começar moeda defesa veado ameaça lua crime • Absence of I or n and adjacent vowel in Portuguese.

ar sangue rosto • Absence of br in portuguese Spanish nombre hombre acostumbrarse portuguese nome homem acostumar-se • n becomes 1 in Portuguese Spanish naranja berenjena portuguese laranja berinjela • Reversal of vowel and consonant Spanish preguntar apretar Portuguese perguntar apertar • Shift of diphthong.. from after the consonant to before the consonant. Spanish apio bar rio novio portuguese aipo bairro noivo 77 .FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE • Absence of r in Portuguese Spanish almorzar sangre rostro Portuquese almo<.

to portuguese u Spanish costar s.Q. Spanish .rpresa sordo Portuguese custar s~rprêsa surdo 78 . Spanish ~ to Portuguese o Portuquese j.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE • Vowel changes L Spanish ~ to portuguese i Portuquese isso lingua vingança idade profissional ensinar corrigir vizinho Spanish eso l~ngua v~nganza edad prof~sional ensenar corr~gir vecino 2.Qgar ocorrer sofrer rotina cobrir Spanish j~gar ocurrir sufrir rutina cubrir 3.Q.

FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE • Spanish vowel to portuguese diphthong Spanish casi más jamás caja bajo dos cosa noche poco te soro portuguese quase mais jamais caixa baixo dois coisa noite pouco tesouro • Spanish diphthong to portuguese vowel Spanish cuaderno antigua treinta veinte portuguese caderno antiga trinta vinte • Changes in stress patterns (portuguese stress underlined.ne lim.) Spanish policia teléfono limite nível portuguese policia telef2.ite nivel 79 .

but false or misleading ones are troublesome. time) (broom) (supper) (family name) (nickname) (room) (hip) (desk) (to bring) (to repare) (to remember) (cheap) esquisito ruivo roxo largo rato escôva cena apelido sobrenome quarto cadeira escritório trair reparar acordar barata (rare.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE False Cognates Cognates are useful. Here are several to watch out for. Portuquese (exquisite) (blond) (red) (long) (while. unusual) (red head) (purple) (wide) (rat) (brush) (scene) (nickname) (family name) (bedroom) (chair) (office) ~to Spanish exquisito rubio rojo largo rato escoba cena apellido sobrenombre cuarto cadera escritorio traer reparar acordar(se) barata betray) (to notice) (to awake) (cockroach ) 80 .

1. ln order to avoid involvement with extraneous details All examples and in order to permit maximum concentration on the point being drilled. very close cognates have been selected. gôt~ fria 81 . abr-ª. are Portuguese. par-ª. They are keyed to the discussion of Portuguese sounds found in part I. bôc-ª. pag~ dig~ com-ª. pages ~ sound (as und~lined). missa vist-ª. segund~ passad~ barata fin~ esquin-ª. beb-ª. sig~ visit-ª. muda canta manda fuma sala sôp-ª. (see 1-4. bonita car~ alt-ª.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE PART IV SUPPLEMENTAR Y PRONUNCIATION EXERCI SES The following exercises are provided on tape to give you additional help in keeping your pronunciation free of Spanish. Portuguese weak-stressed Part I.) toma pass-ª. águ~ respond-ª.

FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE 2. Portuguese weak-stressed i sound (as underlined).) (See Part I. pages 4-7. bebe come vende cabe respond~ val~ tome pagu~ pass~ mude compr~ mande base bilhete tarde part~ fase qu~ esse êste grav~ mente tanqu~ verd~ 82 .

Portuguese weak stressed u sound (as underlined).FROM SPANlSH TO PORTUGUESE 3.) (see Part I. pages 4-7. bebo tomQ como abro passQ pagQ comprQ digQ sigQ vendQ permitQ vamos tomamos passamQs pagamQs bebemQs comemQs abrimQs bonito lindo caro barato alto segundQ quintQ fino outro cinco quatrQ frio sapatQ minutQ banco medlnicQ númerQ livro 83 .

The nasal diphthong ãu (as underlined). Stressed (Future) passarão tomarão pagarão comprarão seguirão abrirão perderão beberão 84 . TO PORTUGUESE 4.FROM SPANISF. a. Unstressed (Present) pass~ (See Part I.) (Imperfect) passavam tomavam pagavam comprav~ tomam pagam compr~ mudam mandam visitam fumam (preterite) passaram tomaram pagar~ comprar~ mudavam mandavam visitavam fumavam (Conditional) passariam tomariam pagariam comprari~ abrir~ seguir~ perder~ beber~ abririam seguiri~ perderiam beberi~ b. page 18.

The unstressed nasal diphthong ãu contrasted with the unstressed diphthong ei. pages 18. part II.) (present) passam tomam pag-ª!!! compr~ (present Subjunctive) pass~ tom~ pagu~ comprem visitem mandem abr~ visitam mandam abrem vendem vivem bebem (preterite) vendam viv~ bebam (Future Subjunctive and Personal Infinitive) passar~ passar-ª!!! tomar~ pagar~ comprar~ tomar~ pagar~ comprarem mandarem visitar~ mandar~ visitaram abrir-ª!!! seguir~ abrirem seguir~ perder~ perderam beber~ beber~ .FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE 5. (See Part I. 19~ also refer to future subjunctive and personal infinitive.

) limão melão montão salão cora~ão condi~ão destina~ão limões melões montões salões cora~ões condi~ões destina~ões se~ão li~ão se~ões li~ões razão a~ão razões a~ões invasão missão ladrão dire~ão invasões missões ladrões dire~ões 7.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE 6. The diphthongs ei and ou in preterite verb forms.) passei tomei paguei mandei mudei comprei fumei cantei visitei falei passou tomou pagou mandou mudou comprou fumou cantou visitou falou 86 . 19. 17. pages 18. The stressed nasal diphthongs ãu and õi. page (See Part I. (See part I.

pages 21. Portuguese ~ theyare in English. 22. also page 26.) ver vaca voz valor valer vender vários ave uva nôvo dever viver escrever civil palavra revista passava pagava tomava mandava estava colaborava vai. ~ and iu in preterite verb forros. page 17) abriu pediu seguiu durmiu vestiu mentiu viu preferiu resistiu and y sounds. The diphthongs singular. 3rd person (See Part I. bela 87 . The b and vare to be pronounced as parec~ valeu comeu bebeu vendeu escreveu viveu deu deveu 9. beba cuba bôba tubo subo subir caber receber roubar cobrar pobre obra cabeça (See Part I. vou. vamos vela.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE 8.

portuguese~. The d is to be pronounced as it is in English. (See Part l. nada cada ida vida dedo lado modo todo dado pedir poder mudar candidato universidade adulto idéia válido s61ida resfriado modêlo pedido parado vestido estado tomado entrada saída unida 88 . 22). pages 21.FROM SPA~ISH TO PORTUGUESE 10.

§.§.ê.§.o espô~a onze doze treze catorze quin~e pobre~a usar acusar abusar pe.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE 11.§. page 27.es inglê~es francêses 89 . (See part I. \ within words.ê. Portuguese have an a. casa coisa mesa blu~a azul fazer rezar zona vazio zero ra~ão camisa frase espô.ar Bra~il triste~a fortale~a atrasado amoroso fabuloso famo~o firmeza rique~a maravilhoso portugue. The Spanish cognates should all be pronounced with a sound.a r pi. ~ ~ sound between vowels.a francesa inglê~a ( pa~~es vêzes luzes feli~es cru~es me. ~ The underlined consonants sound.ar c a.

!.!.ga belsa Silva (See Part I. Across word boundaries estamos aqui comemos aqui visitamo~ vamos entrar vamos esperar vamos estar vamos a Lima vamos outra vez vamos agora visitamos o pais tomamos outro nos encontramos aqui as americanas as amigas as espô~as aqui mais ou menos mais interessante menos interessante podemo~ podemo~ podemo~ . papel hotel Brasil abril civil falso falta alta alma solteiro último alguma delgado O. 25). so. sa.!. pages 24. mi.!. ta. 90 .!.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE b. mal qua.!. ir andar estar os americanos os amigos o~ espô~os os Estados Unidos 12. The Portuguese L sound in c10se cognates.

.ápido .do verde terceiro fi.!:. rio rico . GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1971 o - 432 606 (141) .me ~ sound in close cognates.emete.evista radio .!:. s.!:.r. dar ir ser estar ver tomar passa.0upa rei . útil ági~ 13. paga.FROM SPANISH TO PORTUGUESE nacional espanho~ fáci~ difici1.!:.to Carlos go.!:. beber guerra corrida corra cago tôrre arroz c i gago barro fôrro barril burro 91 R u. come.ec1 ama.!:.epita .!:.!:. (See Part I.r.!:.go carne carta tarde qua. 24). The Portuguese pages 23.!:.E. barba la.!:.r.

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