PHP Introduction

PHP is a server-side scripting language.

What You Should Already Know
Before you continue you should have a basic understanding of the following: • • HTML/XHTML JavaScript

If you want to study these subjects first, find the tutorials on our Home page.

What is PHP?

PHP stands for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor PHP is a server-side scripting language, like ASP PHP scripts are executed on the server PHP supports many databases (MySQL, Informix, Oracle, Sybase, Solid, PostgreSQL, Generic ODBC, etc.) PHP is an open source software PHP is free to download and use

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

What is a PHP File?
PHP files can contain text, HTML tags and scripts PHP files are returned to the browser as plain HTML PHP files have a file extension of ".php", ".php3", or ".phtml" MySQL is a database server MySQL is ideal for both small and large applications MySQL supports standard SQL MySQL compiles on a number of platforms MySQL is free to download and use

What is MySQL?

PHP + MySQL
PHP combined with MySQL are cross-platform (you can develop in Windows and serve on a Unix platform) PHP runs on different platforms (Windows, Linux, Unix, etc.) PHP is compatible with almost all servers used today (Apache, IIS, etc.) PHP is FREE to download from the official PHP resource: www.php.net PHP is easy to learn and runs efficiently on the server side

Why PHP?
• •

Where to Start?
To get access to a web server with PHP support, you can: • • Install Apache (or IIS) on your own server, install PHP, and MySQL Or find a web hosting plan with PHP and MySQL support

• PHP Installation
• What do you Need?
• If your server supports PHP you don't need to do anything.

• •

• Download PHP
• • • • • •

Just create some .php files in your web directory, and the server will parse them for you. Because it is free, most web hosts offer PHP support. However, if your server does not support PHP, you must install PHP. Here is a link to a good tutorial from PHP.net on how to install PHP5: http://www.php.net/manual/en/install.php Download PHP for free here: http://www.php.net/downloads.php Download MySQL for free here: http://www.mysql.com/downloads/ Download Apache for free here: http://httpd.apache.org/download.cgi

• Download MySQL Database • Download Apache Server

• PHP Syntax

PHP code is executed on the server, and the plain HTML result is sent to the browser.

• Basic PHP Syntax
• •

A PHP scripting block always starts with <?php and ends with ?>. A PHP scripting block can be placed anywhere in the document. On servers with shorthand support enabled you can start a scripting block with <? and end with ?>. For maximum compatibility, we recommend that you use the standard form (<?php) rather than the shorthand form.

<?php ?> • A PHP file normally contains HTML tags, just like an HTML file, and some PHP scripting code. • Below, we have an example of a simple PHP script which sends the text "Hello World" to the browser: <html> <body> <?php echo "Hello World"; ?> </body> </html> • Each code line in PHP must end with a semicolon. The semicolon is a separator and is used to distinguish one set of instructions from another. • There are two basic statements to output text with PHP: echo and print. In the example above we have used the echo statement to output the text "Hello World". • Note: The file must have a .php extension. If the file has a .html extension, the PHP code will not be executed.

• Comments in PHP
• <html> <body> <?php //This is a comment /* This is a comment block */ ?>

In PHP, we use // to make a single-line comment or /* and */ to make a large comment block.

</body> </html>

PHP Variables
A variable is used to store information.

Variables in PHP
Variables are used for storing values, like text strings, numbers or arrays. When a variable is declared, it can be used over and over again in your script. All variables in PHP start with a $ sign symbol. The correct way of declaring a variable in PHP: $var_name = value; New PHP programmers often forget the $ sign at the beginning of the variable. In that case it will not work. Let's try creating a variable containing a string, and a variable containing a number: <?php $txt="Hello World!"; $x=16; ?>

PHP is a Loosely Typed Language
In PHP, a variable does not need to be declared before adding a value to it. In the example above, you see that you do not have to tell PHP which data type the variable is. PHP automatically converts the variable to the correct data type, depending on its value. In a strongly typed programming language, you have to declare (define) the type and name of the variable before using it. In PHP, the variable is declared automatically when you use it.

Naming Rules for Variables
• • • A variable name must start with a letter or an underscore "_" A variable name can only contain alpha-numeric characters and underscores (a-z, A-Z, 0-9, and _ ) A variable name should not contain spaces. If a variable name is more than one word, it should be separated with an underscore ($my_string), or with capitalization ($myString)

• PHP String Variables

A string variable is used to store and manipulate text.

• String Variables in PHP
• • •

• <?php $txt="Hello World"; echo $txt; ?> • The output of the code above will be: Hello World • Now, lets try to use some different functions and operators to manipulate the string.

String variables are used for values that contain characters. In this chapter we are going to look at the most common functions and operators used to manipulate strings in PHP. After we create a string we can manipulate it. A string can be used directly in a function or it can be stored in a variable. Below, the PHP script assigns the text "Hello World" to a string variable called $txt:

• To concatenate two string variables together. when it is important to know when the string ends. Let's see if we can find the string "world" in our string: • Complete PHP String Reference • • • • PHP Operators • For a complete reference of all string functions. (i. • • The strlen() function • The strpos() function • • • <?php echo strpos("Hello world!". to separate the two strings. " " . • • The strpos() function is used to search for a character/text within a string. and not 1. ?> • The output of the code above will be: Hello World! What a nice day! • If we look at the code above you see that we used the concatenation operator two times. • Arithmetic Operators Operator Description Example + Addition x=2 x+2 Subtraction x=2 5-x • PHP Operators Result 4 3 .) is used to put two string values together. use the concatenation operator: <?php $txt1="Hello World!". • • The Concatenation Operator • The strlen() function is used to return the length of a string. • This section lists the different operators used in PHP. If no match is found. • The concatenation operator (. echo $txt1 . ?> • The output of the code above will be: 12 • The length of a string is often used in loops or other functions.e. is that the first character position in the string is 0. and examples of use. $txt2="What a nice day!". If a match is found. The reason that it is 6 (and not 7). • Let's find the length of a string: <?php echo strlen("Hello world!"). in a loop. we would want to stop the loop after the last character in the string). it will return FALSE.• • There is only one string operator in PHP. This is because we had to insert a third string (a space character). $txt2. ?> • The output of the code above will be: 6 • The position of the string "world" in the example above is 6. for each function! Operators are used to operate on values. go to our complete PHP String Reference. this function will return the character position of the first match. The reference contains a brief description."world").

use this statement to execute some code if a condition is true and another code if the condition is false . You can use conditional statements in your code to do this.=y %= x%=y • Comparison Operators Operator Description == is equal to != is not equal <> is not equal > is greater than < is less than >= is greater than or equal to <= is less than or equal to • Logical Operators Operator && Description and x=4 x*5 15/5 5/2 5%2 10%8 10%2 x=5 x++ x=5 x-Is The Same As x=y x=x+y x=x-y x=x*y x=x/y x=x..use this statement to execute some code only if a specified condition is true if.. In PHP we have the following conditional statements: • • if statement .Else Statements Conditional statements are used to perform different actions based on different conditions.* / % ++ -- Multiplication Division Modulus (division remainder) Increment Decrement • Assignment Operators Operator Example = x=y += x+=y -= x-=y *= x*=y /= x/=y .y x=x%y Example 5==8 returns false 5!=8 returns true 5<>8 returns true 5>8 returns false 5<8 returns true 5>=8 returns false 5<=8 returns true Example x=6 y=3 20 3 2.. Conditional Statements Very often when you write code.else statement .5 1 2 0 x=6 x=4 (x < 10 && y > 1) returns true || or x=6 y=3 (x==5 || y==5) returns false ! not x=6 y=3 !(x==y) returns true PHP If. you want to perform different actions for different decisions.= x..

elseif.else statement to execute some code if a condition is true and another code if a condition is false.. Syntax if (condition) code to be executed if condition is true. otherwise it will output "Have a nice day!": <html> <body> <?php $d=date("D"). if ($d=="Fri") echo "Have a nice weekend!". Example The following example will output "Have a nice weekend!" if the current day is Friday. ?> </body> </html> If more than one line should be executed if a condition is true/false. else code to be executed if condition is false.• • if. in this syntax. if ($d=="Fri") echo "Have a nice weekend!". ?> </body> </html> Notice that there is no . The following example will output "Have a nice weekend!" if the current day is Friday: <html> <body> <?php $d=date("D").. The code is executed only if the specified condition is true..use this statement to select one of several blocks of code to be executed switch statement . the lines should be enclosed within curly braces: <html> .else statement . The if.....use this statement to select one of many blocks of code to be executed The if Statement Use the if statement to execute some code only if a specified condition is true...else Statement Use the if.... else echo "Have a nice day!".else. Syntax if (condition) code to be executed if condition is true.

..else statement to select one of several blocks of code to be executed.. and "Have a nice Sunday!" if the current day is Sunday.elseif..<body> <?php $d=date("D"). Example The following example will output "Have a nice weekend!" if the current day is Friday. if ($d=="Fri") { echo "Hello!<br />".. if ($d=="Fri") echo "Have a nice weekend!".. echo "Have a nice weekend!".elseif. echo "See you on Monday!". else code to be executed if condition is false.. else echo "Have a nice day!".. ?> </body> </html> PHP Switch Statement Conditional statements are used to perform different actions based on different conditions. elseif ($d=="Sun") echo "Have a nice Sunday!". Syntax if (condition) code to be executed if condition is true. Otherwise it will output "Have a nice day!": <html> <body> <?php $d=date("D").. elseif (condition) code to be executed if condition is true. . The PHP Switch Statement Use the switch statement to select one of many blocks of code to be executed.. } ?> </body> </html> The if.else Statement Use the if.

Use break to prevent the code from running into the next case automatically. If there is a match. Example <html> <body> <?php switch ($x) { case 1: echo "Number 1". which can store multiple values in one single variable.Syntax switch (n) { case label1: code to be executed if n=label1. . An array is a special variable. default: code to be executed if n is different from both label1 and label2. the block of code associated with that case is executed. } ?> </body> </html> PHP Arrays An array stores multiple values in one single variable. } This is how it works: First we have a single expression n (most often a variable). case 2: echo "Number 2". The value of the expression is then compared with the values for each case in the structure. $cars2="Volvo". break. What is an Array? A variable is a storage area holding a number or text. The problem is. $cars3="BMW". for example). case label2: code to be executed if n=label2. If you have a list of items (a list of car names. The default statement is used if no match is found. break. that is evaluated once. break. default: echo "No number between 1 and 3". break. a variable will hold only one value. case 3: echo "Number 3". storing the cars in single variables could look like this: $cars1="Saab". break.

An array where each ID key is associated with a value Multidimensional array ."Volvo". $cars[3]="Toyota"."BMW". each ID key is associated with a value. 1. In the following example we assign the index manually: $cars[0]="Saab". "Joe"=>34). what if you want to loop through the cars and find a specific one? And what if you had not 3 cars.However. With associative arrays we can use the values as keys and assign values to them. "Quagmire"=>30. " and " . echo $cars[0] . there are three kind of arrays: • • • Numeric array . And you can access the values by referring to the array name.". $cars[1]="Volvo". Each element in the array has its own index so that it can be easily accessed. but 300? The best solution here is to use an array! An array can hold all your variable values under a single name. 2. In the following example the index are automatically assigned (the index starts at 0): $cars=array("Saab".An array containing one or more arrays Numeric Arrays A numeric array stores each array element with a numeric index. Example 2 This example is the same as example 1. $cars[2]="BMW". Example In the following example you access the variable values by referring to the array name and index: <?php $cars[0]="Saab". There are two methods to create a numeric array. ?> The code above will output: Saab and Volvo are Swedish cars. $cars[1] . When storing data about specific named values. $cars[3]="Toyota". Associative Arrays An associative array. $cars[1]="Volvo". $cars[2]="BMW"."Toyota"). " are Swedish cars. but shows a different way of creating the array: $ages['Peter'] = "32". . Example 1 In this example we use an array to assign ages to the different persons: $ages = array("Peter"=>32.An array with a numeric index Associative array . a numerical array is not always the best way to do it. In PHP.

Example In this example we create a multidimensional array. echo "Peter is " . "Loretta". " years old. Multidimensional Arrays In a multidimensional array. And each element in the subarray can be an array. $ages['Peter'] .". each element in the main array can also be an array. "Junior" ) ). $ages['Joe'] = "34". $ages['Joe'] = "34".$ages['Quagmire'] = "30". The array above would look like this if written to the output: Array ( [Griffin] => Array ( [0] => Peter [1] => Lois [2] => Megan ) [Quagmire] => Array ( [0] => Glenn ) . ?> The code above will output: Peter is 32 years old. "Lois". "Quagmire"=>array ( "Glenn" ). The ID keys can be used in a script: <?php $ages['Peter'] = "32". "Megan" ). "Brown"=>array ( "Cleveland". and so on. $ages['Quagmire'] = "30". with automatically assigned ID keys: $families = array ( "Griffin"=>array ( "Peter".

[Brown] => Array ( [0] => Cleveland [1] => Loretta [2] => Junior ) ) Example 2 Lets try displaying a single value from the array above: echo "Is " . PHP Loops Often when you write code.loops through a block of code a specified number of times foreach . The reference contains a brief description. " a part of the Griffin family?". In PHP. go to our complete PHP Array Reference. you want the same block of code to run over and over again in a row.while . The loop will continue to run as long as i is less than. or while a specified condition is true.. Syntax while (condition) { code to be executed. The code above will output: Is Megan a part of the Griffin family? Complete PHP Array Reference For a complete reference of all array functions. for each function! PHP Looping .. Instead of adding several almost equal lines in a script we can use loops to perform a task like this. i will increase by 1 each time the loop runs: <html> <body> <?php $i=1. and examples of use. and then repeats the loop as long as a specified condition is true for . or equal to 5.While Loops Loops execute a block of code a specified number of times. we have the following looping statements: • • • • while . $families['Griffin'][2] . . } Example The example below defines a loop that starts with i=1.loops through a block of code while a specified condition is true do.loops through a block of code once.loops through a block of code for each element in an array The while Loop The while loop executes a block of code while a condition is true.

and the loop will continue to run as long as i is less than. and write some output. $i . Syntax do { code to be executed. } ?> </body> </html> Output: The The The The The number number number number number is is is is is 1 2 3 4 5 The do. $i++.while Statement The do.while($i<=5) { echo "The number is " . and repeat the loop while the condition is true. do { $i++. Then the condition is checked. It will then increment i with 1. echo "The number is " . or equal to 5: <html> <body> <?php $i=1.. ?> </body> </html> Output: The The The The number number number number is is is is 2 3 4 5 . "<br />"..while statement will always execute the block of code once.. } while (condition). } while ($i<=5).. $i . "<br />". it will then check the condition. Example The example below defines a loop that starts with i=1.

or while a specified condition is true. or have multiple expressions (separated by commas). If it evaluates to FALSE.For Loops Loops execute a block of code a specified number of times. $i++) { echo "The number is " . $i<=5. or equal to 5. } ?> </body> </html> Output: The The The The The number number number number number is is is is is 1 2 3 4 5 The foreach Loop The foreach loop is used to loop through arrays. The loop will continue to run as long as i is less than. PHP Looping . } Parameters: • • • init: Mostly used to set a counter (but can be any code to be executed once at the beginning of the loop) condition: Evaluated for each loop iteration. condition. Syntax for (init. the loop ends. Example The example below defines a loop that starts with i=1.The number is 6 The for loop and the foreach loop will be explained in the next chapter. the loop continues. increment: Mostly used to increment a counter (but can be any code to be executed at the end of the loop) Note: Each of the parameters above can be empty. $i . Syntax foreach ($array as $value) . increment) { code to be executed. i will increase by 1 each time the loop runs: <html> <body> <?php for ($i=1. The for Loop The for loop is used when you know in advance how many times the script should run. If it evaluates to TRUE. "<br />".

} ?> </body> </html> Output: one two three PHP Functions The real power of PHP comes from its functions. In PHP. you'll be looking at the next array value. foreach ($x as $value) { echo $value . the value of the current array element is assigned to $value (and the array pointer is moved by one) ."three"). PHP Functions In this chapter we will show you how to create your own functions. Example The following example demonstrates a loop that will print the values of the given array: <html> <body> <?php $x=array("one". "<br />". PHP Built-in Functions For a complete reference and examples of the built-in functions. A function will be executed by a call to the function. Syntax function functionName() { code to be executed.so on the next loop iteration."two". } PHP function guidelines: • Give the function a name that reflects what the function does . you can put it into a function. please visit our PHP Reference. You may call a function from anywhere within a page.{ code to be executed. Create a PHP Function A function will be executed by a call to the function. there are more than 700 built-in functions. } For every loop iteration. To keep the script from being executed when the page loads.

The function name can start with a letter or underscore (not a number)

Example

A simple function that writes my name when it is called:
<html> <body> <?php function writeName() { echo "Kai Jim Refsnes"; } echo "My name is "; writeName(); ?> </body> </html>

Output:
My name is Kai Jim Refsnes

PHP Functions - Adding parameters
To add more functionality to a function, we can add parameters. A parameter is just like a variable. Parameters are specified after the function name, inside the parentheses.
Example 1

The following example will write different first names, but equal last name:
<html> <body> <?php function writeName($fname) { echo $fname . " Refsnes.<br />"; } echo "My name is "; writeName("Kai Jim"); echo "My sister's name is "; writeName("Hege"); echo "My brother's name is "; writeName("Stale"); ?> </body> </html>

Output:
My name is Kai Jim Refsnes. My sister's name is Hege Refsnes. My brother's name is Stale Refsnes.

Example 2

The following function has two parameters:
<html> <body> <?php function writeName($fname,$punctuation) { echo $fname . " Refsnes" . $punctuation . "<br />"; } echo "My name is "; writeName("Kai Jim","."); echo "My sister's name is "; writeName("Hege","!"); echo "My brother's name is "; writeName("Ståle","?"); ?> </body> </html>

Output:
My name is Kai Jim Refsnes. My sister's name is Hege Refsnes! My brother's name is Ståle Refsnes?

PHP Functions - Return values
To let a function return a value, use the return statement.
Example <html> <body> <?php function add($x,$y) { $total=$x+$y; return $total; } echo "1 + 16 = " . add(1,16); ?> </body> </html>

Output:
1 + 16 = 17

PHP Forms and User Input
The PHP $_GET and $_POST variables are used to retrieve information from forms, like user input.

PHP Form Handling
The most important thing to notice when dealing with HTML forms and PHP is that any form element in an HTML page will automatically be available to your PHP scripts.
Example

The example below contains an HTML form with two input fields and a submit button:
<html> <body> <form action="welcome.php" method="post"> Name: <input type="text" name="fname" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" /> </form> </body> </html>

When a user fills out the form above and click on the submit button, the form data is sent to a PHP file, called "welcome.php": "welcome.php" looks like this:
<html> <body> Welcome <?php echo $_POST["fname"]; ?>!<br /> You are <?php echo $_POST["age"]; ?> years old. </body> </html>

Output could be something like this:
Welcome John! You are 28 years old.

The PHP $_GET and $_POST functions will be explained in the next chapters.

Form Validation
User input should be validated on the browser whenever possible (by client scripts). Browser validation is faster and reduces the server load. You should consider server validation if the user input will be inserted into a database. A good way to validate a form on the server is to post the form to itself, instead of jumping to a different page. The user will then get the error messages on the same page as the form. This makes it easier to discover the error.

PHP $_GET Function
The built-in $_GET function is used to collect values in a form with method="get".

The $_GET Function
The built-in $_GET function is used to collect values from a form sent with method="get". Information sent from a form with the GET method is visible to everyone (it will be displayed in the browser's address bar) and has limits on the amount of information to send.

When to use method="post"? .w3schools. ?>. all variable names and values are displayed in the URL. there is an 8 Mb max size for the POST method. ?> years old.php" file can now use the $_POST function to collect form data (the names of the form fields will automatically be the keys in the $_POST array): Welcome <?php echo $_POST["fname"].php" file can now use the $_GET function to collect form data (the names of the form fields will automatically be the keys in the $_GET array): Welcome <?php echo $_GET["fname"]. the URL sent to the server could look something like this: http://www. Example <form action="welcome.com/welcome. ?> years old! When to use method="get"? When using method="get" in HTML forms. Note: This method should not be used when sending passwords or other sensitive information! However. Note: However. Information sent from a form with the POST method is invisible to others and has no limits on the amount of information to send. It should not be used with values exceeding 2000 characters.<br /> You are <?php echo $_GET["age"]. ?>!<br /> You are <?php echo $_POST["age"].com/welcome.Example <form action="welcome.w3schools.php?fname=Peter&age=37 The "welcome.php" method="post"> Name: <input type="text" name="fname" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" /> </form> When the user clicks the "Submit" button. it is possible to bookmark the page.ini file). Note: The get method is not suitable for very large variable values. This can be useful in some cases.php" method="get"> Name: <input type="text" name="fname" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" /> </form> When the user clicks the "Submit" button. the URL will look like this: http://www.php The "welcome. The $_POST Function The built-in $_POST function is used to collect values from a form sent with method="post". because the variables are displayed in the URL. by default (can be changed by setting the post_max_size in the php. PHP $_POST Function The built-in $_POST function is used to collect values in a form with method="post".

or "-" can also be inserted between the letters to add additional formatting: <?php echo date("Y/m/d") . echo date("Y. The PHP Date() Function The PHP date() function formats a timestamp to a more readable date and time. Specifies the format of the timestamp Optional. ?>!<br /> You are <?php echo $_REQUEST["age"]. "<br />". Example Welcome <?php echo $_REQUEST["fname"].05. A timestamp is a sequence of characters. ". can be found in our PHP Date reference. The PHP $_REQUEST Function The PHP built-in $_REQUEST function contains the contents of both $_GET. Here are some characters that can be used: • • • d .".Represents the day of the month (01 to 31) m . it is not possible to bookmark the page.m. "<br />". denoting the date and/or time at which a certain event occurred.11 2009-05-11 . Default is the current date and time PHP Date() . $_POST. because the variables are not displayed in the URL. and $_COOKIE. ?> years old.Represents a month (01 to 12) Y . Specifies a timestamp. Syntax date(format. However. echo date("Y-m-d") ?> The output of the code above could be something like this: 2009/05/11 2009.Format the Date The required format parameter in the date() function specifies how to format the date/time. like"/".Information sent from a form with the POST method is invisible to others and has no limits on the amount of information to send.Represents a year (in four digits) A list of all the characters that can be used in the format parameter. Other characters.d") . PHP Date() Function The PHP date() function is used to format a time and/or date.timestamp) Parameter format timestamp Description Required. The $_REQUEST function can be used to collect form data sent with both the GET and POST methods.

except how they handle errors: • • include() generates a warning. The mktime() function returns the Unix timestamp for a date. with the include() or require() function.Adding a Timestamp The optional timestamp parameter in the date() function specifies a timestamp. footers. When the header needs to be updated. use the include() function: <html> <body> <?php include("header. The two functions are identical in every way. called "header.0.date("Y/m/d".date("m").</p> . go to our complete PHP Date Reference. Syntax for mktime() mktime(hour. and examples of use. or when you add a new page to your site. you can simply change the menu file (instead of updating the links on all your web pages). the current date and time will be used. the include() function generates a warning. PHP include() Function The include() function takes all the content in a specified file and includes it in the current file.day. or menu file for all your web pages. for each function! PHP Include File Server Side Includes (SSI) You can insert the content of one PHP file into another PHP file before the server executes it.PHP Date() .month. and the script will stop These two functions are used to create functions.year.0.second. but the script will continue execution require() generates a fatal error.php"). If you do not specify a timestamp. but the script will continue execution. To include the header file in a page. or elements that will be reused on multiple pages. If an error occurs. Example 1 Assume that you have a standard header file. Server side includes saves a lot of work.minute. The Unix timestamp contains the number of seconds between the Unix Epoch (January 1 1970 00:00:00 GMT) and the time specified. echo "Tomorrow is ". $tomorrow).date("Y")). headers. This means that you can create a standard header.php". ?> The output of the code above could be something like this: Tomorrow is 2009/05/12 Complete PHP Date Reference For a complete reference of all date functions. you can only update the include file. ?> <h1>Welcome to my home page!</h1> <p>Some text.is_dst) To go one day in the future we simply add one to the day argument of mktime(): <?php $tomorrow = mktime(0.date("d")+1. The reference contains a brief description. footer.

If an error occurs. called "menu.php">Contact Us</a> All pages in the Web site should include this menu file. except that it handles errors differently. Error Example include() Function <html> <body> .php">References</a> <a href="/examples.php">Tutorials</a> <a href="/references.php").php">Home</a> <a href="/tutorials.</p> </body> </html> PHP require() Function The require() function is identical to include(). the include() function generates a warning.</p> </body> </html> If you look at the source code of the page above (in a browser). ?> </div> <h1>Welcome to my home page.</h1> <p>Some text. The require() generates a fatal error. and the script will stop. it will look like this: <html> <body> <div class="leftmenu"> <a href="/default.php">Examples</a> href="/about. but the script will continue execution.php">Tutorials</a> href="/references.php">Contact Us</a> </div> <h1>Welcome to my home page!</h1> <p>Some text.php". Here is how it can be done: <html> <body> <div class="leftmenu"> <?php include("menu.php">About Us</a> href="/contact.php">Home</a> href="/tutorials. that should be used on all pages: <a <a <a <a <a <a href="/default.php">References</a> href="/examples.</body> </html> Example 2 Assume we have a standard menu file.php">Examples</a> <a href="/about.php">About Us</a> <a href="/contact.

.php' (include_path='.include]: Failed opening 'wrongFile.php on line 5 Warning: include() [function. ..include]: failed to open stream: No such file or directory in C:\home\website\test.C:\php5\pear') in C:\home\website\test.php) [function. PHP File Handling The fopen() function is used to open files in PHP. echo "Hello World!". ?> </body> </html> Error message: Warning: include(wrongFile.<?php include("wrongFile. Error Example require() Function Now. <html> <body> <?php require("wrongFile. because scripts should not continue after an error.C:\php5\pear') in C:\home\website\test. echo "Hello World!".php on line 5 Fatal error: require() [function.require]: failed to open stream: No such file or directory in C:\home\website\test.require]: Failed opening required 'wrongFile.php"). let's run the same example with the require() function.php on line 5 Hello World! Notice that the echo statement is executed! This is because a Warning does not stop the script execution. ?> </body> </html> Error message: Warning: require(wrongFile.php' for inclusion (include_path='. because the script execution stopped after the fatal error. It is recommended to use the require() function instead of include().php) [function.php").php on line 5 The echo statement is not executed.

"r") or exit("Unable to open file!")."r"). Preserves file content by writing to the end of the file Write only. Returns FALSE and an error if file already exists Read/Write. The first parameter of this function contains the name of the file to be opened and the second parameter specifies in which mode the file should be opened: <html> <body> <?php $file=fopen("welcome."r").txt". ?> </body> </html> Closing a File The fclose() function is used to close an open file: <?php $file = fopen("test.txt". Creates a new file.Opening a File The fopen() function is used to open files in PHP. Starts at the beginning of the file Write only. . Example The following example generates a message if the fopen() function is unable to open the specified file: <html> <body> <?php $file=fopen("welcome. Starts at the beginning of the file Read/Write. Creates a new file. Opens and clears the contents of file. it returns 0 (false). ?> </body> </html> The file may be opened in one of the following modes: Modes r r+ w w+ a a+ x x+ Description Read only. or creates a new file if it doesn't exist Append.txt". Returns FALSE and an error if file already exists Note: If the fopen() function is unable to open the specified file. Opens and clears the contents of file. Opens and writes to the end of the file or creates a new file if it doesn't exist Read/Append. or creates a new file if it doesn't exist Read/Write.

Note: You cannot read from files opened in w. The feof() function is useful for looping through data of unknown length."r") or exit("Unable to open file!"). Create an Upload-File Form . until the end of file is reached: <?php $file = fopen("welcome. Example The example below reads a file character by character. Example The example below reads a file line by line. //Output a line of the file until the end is reached while(!feof($file)) { echo fgets($file). PHP File Upload With PHP. it is possible to upload files to the server. } fclose($file). Note: After a call to this function the file pointer moves to the next character. while (!feof($file)) { echo fgetc($file). "r") or exit("Unable to open file!"). "<br />". } fclose($file). ?> Reading a File Character by Character The fgetc() function is used to read a single character from a file. Reading a File Line by Line The fgets() function is used to read a single line from a file.//some code to be executed fclose($file). Note: After a call to this function the file pointer has moved to the next line. visit our PHP Filesystem Reference.txt". ?> PHP Filesystem Reference For a full reference of the PHP filesystem functions. and x mode! if (feof($file)) echo "End of file". until the end of file is reached: <?php $file=fopen("welcome. a. ?> Check End-of-file The feof() function checks if the "end-of-file" (EOF) has been reached.txt".

the name of the temporary copy of the file stored on the server $_FILES["file"]["error"] . The user may only upload . } else { echo "Upload: " . "type". Create The Upload Script The "upload_file. when viewed in a browser.the type of the uploaded file $_FILES["file"]["size"] . like the contents of a file.the error code resulting from the file upload This is a very simple way of uploading files. "tmp_name" or "error". $_FILES["file"]["error"] . The first parameter is the form's input name and the second index can be either "name". Only permit trusted users to perform file uploads. For example. Look at the following HTML form for uploading files: <html> <body> <form action="upload_file. Restrictions on Upload In this script we add some restrictions to the file upload. "size".php" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data"> <label for="file">Filename:</label> <input type="file" name="file" id="file" /> <br /> <input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" /> </form> </body> </html> Notice the following about the HTML form above: • • The enctype attribute of the <form> tag specifies which content-type to use when submitting the form. "<br />".the size in bytes of the uploaded file $_FILES["file"]["tmp_name"] .gif or . "<br />". For security reasons.the name of the uploaded file $_FILES["file"]["type"] . to be uploaded The type="file" attribute of the <input> tag specifies that the input should be processed as a file. " Kb<br />". you should add restrictions on what the user is allowed to upload. "multipart/form-data" is used when a form requires binary data.To allow users to upload files from a form can be very useful.jpeg files and the file size must be under 20 kb: <?php if ((($_FILES["file"]["type"] == "image/gif") || ($_FILES["file"]["type"] == "image/jpeg") . echo "Size: " . } ?> By using the global PHP $_FILES array you can upload files from a client computer to the remote server. there will be a browse-button next to the input field Note: Allowing users to upload files is a big security risk. echo "Stored in: " . ($_FILES["file"]["size"] / 1024) .php" file contains the code for uploading a file: <?php if ($_FILES["file"]["error"] > 0) { echo "Error: " . $_FILES["file"]["tmp_name"]. Like this: • • • • • $_FILES["file"]["name"] . "<br />". echo "Type: " . $_FILES["file"]["name"] . $_FILES["file"]["type"] .

echo "Stored in: " . } } } else { echo "Invalid file". $_FILES["file"]["name"]). "upload/" . echo "Type: " . $_FILES["file"]["name"])) { echo $_FILES["file"]["name"] . " Kb<br />". " already exists. } } else { echo "Invalid file". } else { echo "Upload: " .|| ($_FILES["file"]["type"] == "image/pjpeg")) && ($_FILES["file"]["size"] < 20000)) { if ($_FILES["file"]["error"] > 0) { echo "Error: " . } . "<br />". ". $_FILES["file"]["name"]. $_FILES["file"]["tmp_name"] . ($_FILES["file"]["size"] / 1024) . Saving the Uploaded File The examples above create a temporary copy of the uploaded files in the PHP temp folder on the server. "<br />". $_FILES["file"]["tmp_name"]. "<br />". echo "Stored in: " . echo "Temp file: " . $_FILES["file"]["error"] . "upload/" . echo "Type: " . "<br />". "<br />". if (file_exists("upload/" . $_FILES["file"]["type"] . } else { echo "Upload: " . $_FILES["file"]["name"] . } ?> Note: For IE to recognize jpg files the type must be pjpeg. for FireFox it must be jpeg. The temporary copied files disappears when the script ends. } else { move_uploaded_file($_FILES["file"]["tmp_name"]. echo "Size: " . To store the uploaded file we need to copy it to a different location: <?php if ((($_FILES["file"]["type"] == "image/gif") || ($_FILES["file"]["type"] == "image/jpeg") || ($_FILES["file"]["type"] == "image/pjpeg")) && ($_FILES["file"]["size"] < 20000)) { if ($_FILES["file"]["error"] > 0) { echo "Return Code: " . $_FILES["file"]["name"] . $_FILES["file"]["error"] . echo "Size: " . ($_FILES["file"]["size"] / 1024) . "<br />". "<br />". " Kb<br />". $_FILES["file"]["type"] .

we retrieve the value of the cookie named "user" and display it on a page: <?php // Print a cookie echo $_COOKIE["user"]. "Alex Porter". ?> <html> .. What is a Cookie? A cookie is often used to identify a user. you can both create and retrieve cookie values. value. In the example below. In the example above the expiration time is set to a month (60 sec * 60 min * 24 hours * 30 days). Note: This example saves the file to a new folder called "upload" PHP Cookies A cookie is often used to identify a user. $expire). domain).. How to Create a Cookie? The setcookie() function is used to set a cookie. Syntax setcookie(name. expire. it copies the file to the specified folder. <?php $expire=time()+60*60*24*30. "Alex Porter". setcookie("user". A cookie is a small file that the server embeds on the user's computer. // A way to view all cookies print_r($_COOKIE).. We also specify that the cookie should expire after one hour: <?php setcookie("user". and automatically decoded when received (to prevent URLencoding.. How to Retrieve a Cookie Value? The PHP $_COOKIE variable is used to retrieve a cookie value. Example 2 You can also set the expiration time of the cookie in another way. ?> <html> .?> The script above checks if the file already exists. path.. With PHP. time()+3600). if it does not. it will send the cookie too. Each time the same computer requests a page with a browser. . It may be easier than using seconds. use setrawcookie() instead). we will create a cookie named "user" and assign the value "Alex Porter" to it... Example 1 In the example below. Note: The setcookie() function must appear BEFORE the <html> tag. Note: The value of the cookie is automatically URLencoded when sending the cookie..

?> years old.php" when the user clicks on the "Submit" button: <html> <body> <form action="welcome. One method is to pass the data through forms (forms and user input are described earlier in this tutorial). else echo "Welcome guest!<br />". time()-3600).?> In the following example we use the isset() function to find out if a cookie has been set: <html> <body> <?php if (isset($_COOKIE["user"])) echo "Welcome " .<br /> You are <?php echo $_POST["age"].php" method="post"> Name: <input type="text" name="name" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" /> </form> </body> </html> Retrieve the values in the "welcome.php" file like this: <html> <body> Welcome <?php echo $_POST["name"]. ?>. you will have to use other methods to pass information from one page to another in your application. $_COOKIE["user"] . The form below passes the user input to "welcome. "". "!<br />". ?> </body> </html> How to Delete a Cookie? When deleting a cookie you should assure that the expiration date is in the past. Delete example: <?php // set the expiration date to one hour ago setcookie("user". ?> What if a Browser Does NOT Support Cookies? If your application deals with browsers that do not support cookies. </body> </html> PHP Sessions .

This is much like a Session. ?> </body> </html> Output: Pageviews=1 In the example below. we create a "views" variable. Session variables hold information about one single user. However.A PHP session variable is used to store information about. and set it to 1: <?php session_start(). else . If "views" has been set. $_SESSION['views']. A PHP session solves this problem by allowing you to store user information on the server for later use (i. But on the internet there is one problem: the web server does not know who you are and what you do because the HTTP address doesn't maintain state. PHP Session Variables When you are working with an application. username. shopping items. you open it. and are available to all pages in one application. you must first start up the session. etc). and assign a UID for that user's session. allow you to start saving user information.e. if(isset($_SESSION['views'])) $_SESSION['views']=$_SESSION['views']+1. we can increment our counter. It knows when you start the application and when you end. we create a simple page-views counter. ?> <html> <body> <?php //retrieve session data echo "Pageviews=". If "views" doesn't exist. // store session data $_SESSION['views']=1. The isset() function checks if the "views" variable has already been set. The UID is either stored in a cookie or is propagated in the URL. The computer knows who you are. Storing a Session Variable The correct way to store and retrieve session variables is to use the PHP $_SESSION variable: <?php session_start(). Starting a PHP Session Before you can store user information in your PHP session. Note: The session_start() function must appear BEFORE the <html> tag: <?php session_start(). session information is temporary and will be deleted after the user has left the website. ?> <html> <body> </body> </html> The code above will register the user's session with the server. or change settings for a user session. do some changes and then you close it. Sessions work by creating a unique id (UID) for each visitor and store variables based on this UID. If you need a permanent storage you may want to store the data in a database.

The program to be used is defined by the configuration settings in the php. In the example below we first declare the variables ($to. Specifies the receiver / receivers of the email Required. $from. ?> Note: session_destroy() will reset your session and you will lose all your stored session data. Specifies an additional parameter to the sendmail program Note: For the mail functions to be available. PHP requires an installed and working email system. PHP Sending E-mails PHP allows you to send e-mails directly from a script. $from.$_SESSION['views']=1. $subject. ?> You can also completely destroy the session by calling the session_destroy() function: <?php session_destroy().ini file. Lines should not exceed 70 characters Optional. $message.$subject. $headers = "From:" .headers.". $from = "someonelse@example. you can create a feedback-form on your website. Defines the message to be sent. and Bcc. PHP Simple E-Mail The simplest way to send an email with PHP is to send a text email. mail($to.".$headers). Each line should be separated with a LF (\n). The example below sends a text message to a specified e-mail address: . ?> PHP Mail Form With PHP. The PHP mail() Function The PHP mail() function is used to send emails from inside a script.com".com". Read more in our PHP Mail reference. Specifies the subject of the email. Note: This parameter cannot contain any newline characters Required. Specifies additional headers.subject.parameters) Parameter to subject message headers parameters Description Required. The unset() function is used to free the specified session variable: <?php unset($_SESSION['views']). $subject = "Test mail". echo "Views=". Syntax mail(to.$message. The additional headers should be separated with a CRLF (\r\n) Optional. then we use the variables in the mail() function to send an e-mail: <?php $to = "someone@example. Cc. $message = "Hello! This is a simple email message. $headers).message. $_SESSION['views']. ?> Destroying a Session If you wish to delete some session data. echo "Mail Sent. like From. you can use the unset() or the session_destroy() function.

PHP Secure E-mails There is a weakness in the PHP e-mail script in the previous chapter. send email { //send email $email = $_REQUEST['email'] . visit our PHP Mail Reference. and how to validate user input to make it more secure. "$subject". the page reloads.php'> Email: <input name='email' type='text' /><br /> Subject: <input name='subject' type='text' /><br /> Message:<br /> <textarea name='message' rows='15' cols='40'> </textarea><br /> <input type='submit' /> </form>". display the form { echo "<form method='post' action='mailform.<html> <body> <?php if (isset($_REQUEST['email'])) //if "email" is filled out. "From:" . and sends the email Note: This is the simplest way to send e-mail. $message = $_REQUEST['message'] . but it is not secure. PHP E-mail Injections First. $email). send the email from the form When submit is pressed after the form is filled out. } else //if "email" is not filled out. } ?> </body> </html> This is how the example above works: • • • • First. sees that the email input is set. output the HTML form If it is set (after the form is filled out). check if the email input field is filled out If it is not set (like when the page is first visited). In the next chapter of this tutorial you can read more about vulnerabilities in e-mail scripts. PHP Mail Reference For more information about the PHP mail() function. send email { //send email . echo "Thank you for using our mail form". $subject = $_REQUEST['subject'] . mail("someone@example.com". $message. look at the PHP code from the previous chapter: <html> <body> <?php if (isset($_REQUEST['email'])) //if "email" is filled out.

php'> Email: <input name='email' type='text' /><br /> Subject: <input name='subject' type='text' /><br /> Message:<br /> <textarea name='message' rows='15' cols='40'> </textarea><br /> <input type='submit' /> </form>".person5@example.com". } ?> </body> </html> The problem with the code above is that unauthorized users can insert data into the mail headers via the input form.$email = $_REQUEST['email'] . $subject = $_REQUEST['subject'] . echo "Thank you for using our mail form". and now the header has an extra Cc:. What happens if the user adds the following text to the email input field in the form? someone@example. FILTER_SANITIZE_EMAIL). but now we have added an input validator that checks the email field in the form: <html> <body> <?php function spamcheck($field) { //filter_var() sanitizes the e-mail //address using FILTER_SANITIZE_EMAIL $field=filter_var($field. When the user clicks the submit button.person3@example. display the form { echo "<form method='post' action='mailform. "Subject: $subject". } else { return FALSE. and To: field. FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL)) { return TRUE. mail("someone@example.com %0ABTo:person6@example.com %0ABcc:person3@example. $message = $_REQUEST['message'] .com.com The mail() function puts the text above into the mail headers as usual. } } .com.com. The code below is the same as in the previous chapter. anotherperson4@example. } else //if "email" is not filled out. //filter_var() validates the e-mail //address using FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL if(filter_var($field. "From: $email" ). $message. the e-mail will be sent to all of the addresses above! PHP Stopping E-mail Injections The best way to stop e-mail injections is to validate the input.com%0ACc:person2@example. Bcc:.

An error message with filename. error handling is an important part.txt". "From: $email" ). if ($mailcheck==FALSE) { echo "Invalid input". display the form echo "<form method='post' action='mailform.php'> Email: <input name='email' type='text' /><br /> Subject: <input name='subject' type='text' /><br /> Message:<br /> <textarea name='message' rows='15' cols='40'> </textarea><br /> <input type='submit' /> </form>". $message. We will show different error handling methods: • • • Simple "die()" statements Custom errors and error triggers Error reporting Basic Error Handling: Using the die() function The first example shows a simple script that opens a text file: <?php $file=fopen("welcome. PHP Error Handling The default error handling in PHP is very simple. line number and a message describing the error is sent to the browser. $subject = $_REQUEST['subject'] ."r"). "Subject: $subject". } else {//send email $email = $_REQUEST['email'] . If your code lacks error checking code. This tutorial contains some of the most common error checking methods in PHP.if (isset($_REQUEST['email'])) {//if "email" is filled out. proceed //check if the email address is invalid $mailcheck = spamcheck($_REQUEST['email']).com". echo "Thank you for using our mail form". . $message = $_REQUEST['message'] . mail("someone@example. your program may look very unprofessional and you may be open to security risks. } ?> </body> </html> In the code above we use PHP filters to validate input: • • The FILTER_SANITIZE_EMAIL filter removes all illegal e-mail characters from a string The FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL filter validates value as an e-mail address You can read more about filters in our PHP Filter chapter. } } else {//if "email" is not filled out. PHP Error Handling When creating scripts and web applications.

but could also happen when running a script normally Fatal user-generated error. Specifies the error message for the user-defined error Optional.error_context) Parameter error_level error_message error_file error_line error_context Description Required. we test if the file exist before we try to access it: <?php if(!file_exists("welcome. and the error context): Syntax error_function(error_level. See table below for possible error report levels Required. This is like an E_ERROR but can be caught by a user defined handle (see also set_error_handler()) 1024 E_USER_NOTICE 4096 E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR .txt")) { die("File not found").php on line 2 To avoid that the user gets an error message like the one above."r"). simply stopping the script is not always the right way to go. and their values. Specifies the error report level for the user-defined error.?> If the file does not exist you might get an error like this: Warning: fopen(welcome. This is like an E_ERROR set by the programmer using the PHP function trigger_error() Non-fatal user-generated warning. Specifies an array containing every variable. This function must be able to handle a minimum of two parameters (error level and error message) but can accept up to five parameters (optionally: file.txt) [function. This is like an E_NOTICE set by the programmer using the PHP function trigger_error() Catchable fatal error. Must be a value number. Specifies the filename in which the error occurred Optional. in use when the error occurred Error Report levels These error report levels are the different types of error the user-defined error handler can be used for: Value Constant 2 E_WARNING 8 E_NOTICE 256 512 E_USER_ERROR E_USER_WARNING Description Non-fatal run-time errors.fopen]: failed to open stream: No such file or directory in C:\webfolder\test. However. The script found something that might be an error. } ?> Now if the file does not exist you get an error like this: File not found The code above is more efficient than the earlier code.txt". Execution of the script is not halted Run-time notices. This is like an E_WARNING set by the programmer using the PHP function trigger_error() User-generated notice.error_line. Specifies the line number in which the error occurred Optional. error_file. line-number. Let's take a look at alternative PHP functions for handling errors. Creating a Custom Error Handler Creating a custom error handler is quite simple. } else { $file=fopen("welcome. because it uses a simple error handling mechanism to stop the script after the error. We simply create a special function that can be called when an error occurs in PHP.error_message.

Set Error Handler The default error handler for PHP is the built in error handler. Now that we have created an error handling function we need to decide when it should be triggered. echo "Ending Script". die(). it gets the error level and an error message. that way the script can handle different errors in different ways. ?> The output of the code above should be something like this: Error: [8] Undefined variable: test Trigger an Error In a script where users can input data it is useful to trigger errors when an illegal input occurs. $errstr) { echo "<b>Error:</b> [$errno] $errstr". if ($test>1) { trigger_error("Value must be 1 or below"). Example In this example an error occurs if the "test" variable is bigger than "1": <?php $test=2. a second parameter could be added to specify an error level. We are going to make the function above the default error handler for the duration of the script. Since we want our custom function to handle all errors. In PHP. However. //trigger error echo($test).8191 E_ALL All errors and warnings. } //set error handler set_error_handler("customError").0) Now lets create a function to handle errors: function customError($errno. $errstr) { echo "<b>Error:</b> [$errno] $errstr<br />". except level E_STRICT (E_STRICT will be part of E_ALL as of PHP 6. the set_error_handler() only needed one parameter. It is possible to change the error handler to apply for only some errors. in this example we are going to use our custom error handler for all errors: set_error_handler("customError"). Example Testing the error handler by trying to output variable that does not exist: <?php //error handler function function customError($errno. this is done by the trigger_error() function. } ?> The output of the code above should be something like this: . } The code above is a simple error handling function. It then outputs the error level and message and terminates the script. When it is triggered.

By using the error_log() function you can send error logs to a specified file or a remote destination. The script found something that might be an error.E_USER_WARNING). $errstr) { echo "<b>Error:</b> [$errno] $errstr<br />". Errors that can not be recovered from. Possible error types: • • • E_USER_ERROR . lets take a look at error logging."From: webmaster@example. but could also happen when running a script normally Example In this example an E_USER_WARNING occurs if the "test" variable is bigger than "1".ini file. error_log("Error: [$errno] $errstr". depending on how the error_log configuration is set in the php. if ($test>1) { trigger_error("Value must be 1 or below". if a specific error occurs: <?php //error handler function function customError($errno.1. Execution of the script is not halted E_USER_NOTICE . $errstr) { echo "<b>Error:</b> [$errno] $errstr<br />". Send an Error Message by E-Mail In the example below we will send an e-mail with an error message and end the script.Notice: Value must be 1 or below in C:\webfolder\test. echo "Webmaster has been notified".Fatal user-generated run-time error. } ?> The output of the code above should be something like this: Error: [512] Value must be 1 or below Ending Script Now that we have learned to create our own errors and how to trigger them. } .com". //trigger error $test=2. "someone@example. } //set error handler set_error_handler("customError". Error Logging By default. User-generated run-time notice. you can specify what error level is triggered.php on line 6 An error can be triggered anywhere you wish in a script.Non-fatal user-generated run-time warning. echo "Ending Script".com"). die(). and by adding a second parameter.E_USER_WARNING). If an E_USER_WARNING occurs we will use our custom error handler and end the script: <?php //error handler function function customError($errno. Execution of the script is halted E_USER_WARNING . PHP sends an error log to the servers logging system or a file. Sending errors messages to yourself by e-mail can be a good way of getting notified of specific errors.Default.

and should not be used to jump to another place in the code at a specified point. } ?> The output of the code above should be something like this: Error: [512] Value must be 1 or below Webmaster has been notified And the mail received from the code above looks like this: Error: [512] Value must be 1 or below This should not be used with all errors.E_USER_WARNING). Basic Use of Exceptions When an exception is thrown. if ($test>1) { trigger_error("Value must be 1 or below". the code following it will not be executed. Exception handling is used to change the normal flow of the code execution if a specified error (exceptional) condition occurs.//set error handler set_error_handler("customError". Regular errors should be logged on the server using the default PHP logging system. and PHP will try to find the matching "catch" block.E_USER_WARNING). PHP Exception Handling Exceptions are used to change the normal flow of a script if a specified error occurs What is an Exception With PHP 5 came a new object oriented way of dealing with errors. Lets try to throw an exception without catching it: <?php //create function with an exception function checkNum($number) { if($number>1) { throw new Exception("Value must be 1 or below"). . a fatal error will be issued with an "Uncaught Exception" message. If an exception is not caught. This is what normally happens when an exception is triggered: • • • The current code state is saved The code execution will switch to a predefined (custom) exception handler function Depending on the situation. //trigger error $test=2. terminate the script execution or continue the script from a different location in the code Basic use of Exceptions Creating a custom exception handler Multiple exceptions Re-throwing an exception Setting a top level exception handler We will show different error handling methods: • • • • • Note: Exceptions should only be used with error conditions. the handler may then resume the execution from the saved code state. This condition is called an exception.

an exception is thrown 2.A function using an exception should be in a "try" block. an exception is "thrown" 2. } //catch exception catch(Exception $e) { echo 'Message: ' . Throw .This is how you trigger an exception. If it is.A "catch" block retrieves an exception and creates an object containing the exception information Lets try to trigger an exception with valid code: <?php //create function with an exception function checkNum($number) { if($number>1) { throw new Exception("Value must be 1 or below"). However if the exception triggers.php:6 Stack trace: #0 C:\webfolder\test.php on line 6 Try. the code will continue as normal. } //trigger exception in a "try" block try { checkNum(2). } //trigger exception checkNum(2). Proper exception code should include: 1. The checkNum() function is called in a "try" block . //If the exception is thrown. It checks if a number is greater than 1. The checkNum() function is created. Each "throw" must have at least one "catch" 3. this text will not be shown echo 'If you see this. Catch . ?> The code above will get an error like this: Fatal error: Uncaught exception 'Exception' with message 'Value must be 1 or below' in C:\webfolder\test.$e->getMessage(). throw and catch To avoid the error from the example above. Try . If the exception does not trigger. the number is 1 or below'. } ?> The code above will get an error like this: Message: Value must be 1 or below Example explained: The code above throws an exception and catches it: 1. we need to create the proper code to handle an exception. } return true.php(12): checkNum(28) #1 {main} thrown in C:\webfolder\test.} return true.

return $errorMsg.'</b> is not a valid E-Mail address'.': <b>'. Creating a Custom Exception Class Creating a custom exception handler is quite simple.$this->getMessage(). try { //check if if(filter_var($email. } } catch (customException $e) { //display custom message echo $e->errorMessage(). The "catch" block catches the exception and displays the error message .' in '. The custom exception class inherits the properties from PHP's exception class and you can add custom functions to it. and it inherits the properties and methods from the old class.. The $email variable is set to a string that is not a valid e-mail address 4. } ?> The new class is a copy of the old exception class with an addition of the errorMessage() function. } } $email = "someone@example. The "catch" block retrives the exception and creates an object ($e) containing the exception information 5. The "try" block is executed and an exception is thrown since the e-mail address is invalid 5. one way to get around the "every throw must have a catch" rule is to set a top level exception handler to handle errors that slip through.$this->getFile() . Since it is a copy of the old class. The customException() class is created as an extension of the old exception class. The exception within the checkNum() function is thrown 4. The class must be an extension of the exception class. This function returns an error message if an e-mail address is invalid 3. FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL) === FALSE) { //throw exception if email is not valid throw new customException($email). Lets create an exception class: <?php class customException extends Exception { public function errorMessage() { //error message $errorMsg = 'Error on line '. we can use the exception class methods like getLine() and getFile() and getMessage().com".3. The errorMessage() function is created. Example explained: The code above throws an exception and catches it with a custom exception class: 1..$this->getLine(). This way it inherits all methods and properties from the old exception class 2. The error message from the exception is echoed by calling $e->getMessage() from the exception object However. We simply create a special class with functions that can be called when an exception occurs in PHP.

} } catch (customException $e) { echo $e->errorMessage().com". These exceptions can use different exception classes and return different error messages: <?php class customException extends Exception { public function errorMessage() { //error message $errorMsg = 'Error on line '.Multiple Exceptions It is possible for a script to use multiple exceptions to check for multiple conditions. try { //check if if(filter_var($email.': <b>'. } } $email = "someone@example. The errorMessage() function is created. The "try" block is executed and an exception is not thrown on the first condition 5. } catch(Exception $e) { echo $e->getMessage(). but contains the string "example" 4.$this->getLine(). The $email variable is set to a string that is a valid e-mail address. } //check for "example" in mail address if(strpos($email. The customException() class is created as an extension of the old exception class. The second condition triggers an exception since the e-mail contains the string "example" 6. The "catch" block catches the exception and displays the correct error message If there was no customException catch. FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL) === FALSE) { //throw exception if email is not valid throw new customException($email).$this->getMessage(). the exception would be handled there . or nest multiple exceptions.else blocks.'</b> is not a valid E-Mail address'. This function returns an error message if an e-mail address is invalid 3.' in '. return $errorMsg. a switch.$this->getFile() . This way it inherits all methods and properties from the old exception class 2. "example") !== FALSE) { throw new Exception("$email is an example e-mail"). } ?> Example explained: The code above tests two conditions and throws an exception if any of the conditions are not met: 1.. only the base exception catch. It is possible to use several if.

if it does. but contains the string "example" 4. } } catch (customException $e) { //display custom message echo $e->errorMessage(). } ?> Example explained: The code above tests if the email-address contains the string "example" in it. The "catch" block catches the exception and re-throws a "customException" 7. "example") !== FALSE) { //throw exception if email is not valid throw new Exception($email). The exception is triggered since the e-mail contains the string "example" 6. you may wish to handle it differently than the standard way. The $email variable is set to a string that is a valid e-mail address. A script should hide system errors from users. } } catch(Exception $e) { //re-throw exception throw new customException($email). when an exception is thrown.'. try { try { //check for "example" in mail address if(strpos($email.com". return $errorMsg.Re-throwing Exceptions Sometimes. } } $email = "someone@example. The "customException" is caught and displays an error message . the exception is rethrown: 1.' is not a valid E-Mail address. It is possible to throw an exception a second time within a "catch" block. The "try" block contains another "try" block to make it possible to re-throw the exception 5. To make things easier for the user you can re-throw the exception with a user friendly message: <?php class customException extends Exception { public function errorMessage() { //error message $errorMsg = $this->getMessage(). The errorMessage() function is created. but is of no interest to the user. The customException() class is created as an extension of the old exception class. System errors may be important for the coder. This way it inherits all methods and properties from the old exception class 2. This function returns an error message if an e-mail address is invalid 3.

the top level exception handler triggered. <?php function myException($exception) { echo "<b>Exception:</b> " . Usually this comes from a user or another application (like a web service).If the exception is not caught in its current "try" block. What is external data? • • • • • Input data from a form Cookies Web services data Server variables Database query results Functions and Filters To filter a variable. you have to catch it. Set a Top Level Exception Handler The set_exception_handler() function sets a user-defined function to handle all uncaught exceptions. ?> The output of the code above should be something like this: Exception: Uncaught Exception occurred In the code above there was no "catch" block. PHP Filter PHP filters are used to validate and filter data coming from insecure sources. } set_exception_handler('myException'). You should always filter all external data! Input filtering is one of the most important application security issues. throw new Exception('Uncaught Exception occurred'). Instead.Filter several variables with the same or different filters filter_input . use one of the following filter functions: • • • filter_var() . Why use a Filter? Almost all web applications depend on external input. $exception->getMessage(). to help catch potential exceptions Each try block or "throw" must have at least one corresponding catch block Multiple catch blocks can be used to catch different classes of exceptions Exceptions can be thrown (or re-thrown) in a catch block within a try block A simple rule: If you throw something. Rules for exceptions • • • • Code may be surrounded in a try block. This function should be used to catch uncaught exceptions. To test.Filters a single variable with a specified filter filter_var_array() . What is a PHP Filter? A PHP filter is used to validate and filter data coming from insecure sources. The PHP filter extension is designed to make data filtering easier and quicker. By using filters you can be sure your application gets the correct input type. validate and filter user input or custom data is an important part of any web application.Get one input variable and filter it . it will search for a catch block on "higher levels". like user input.

$int_options = array( "options"=>array ( "min_range"=>0. "max_range"=>256 ) ). Since the integer is valid. For a complete list of functions and filters. if(!filter_var($var. } . FILTER_VALIDATE_INT. visit our PHP Filter Reference.Get several input variables and filter them with the same or different filters In the example below. In the example below.• filter_input_array . FILTER_VALIDATE_INT)) { echo("Integer is not valid"). Different filters have different options and flags. we validate an integer using the filter_var() function: <?php $int = 123. If we try with a variable that is not an integer (like "123abc"). we validate an integer using the filter_var() and the "min_range" and "max_range" options: <?php $var=300. the output will be: "Integer is not valid". } ?> The code above uses the "FILTER_VALIDATE_INT" filter to filter the variable. } else { echo("Integer is valid"). $int_options)) { echo("Integer is not valid"). the output of the code above will be: "Integer is valid". } else { echo("Integer is valid"). Validating and Sanitizing There are two kinds of filters: Validating filters: • • • • • • Are used to validate user input Strict format rules (like URL or E-Mail validating) Returns the expected type on success or FALSE on failure Are used to allow or disallow specified characters in a string No data format rules Always return the string Sanitizing filters: Options and Flags Options and flags are used to add additional filtering options to the specified filters. if(!filter_var($int.

The first thing we need to do is to confirm that the input data we are looking for exists. Check if an "email" input variable of the "GET" type exist 2. Then we filter the input data using the filter_input() function. check if it is a valid e-mail address Sanitize Input Let's try cleaning up an URL sent from a form. In the example below. If the input variable exists. If a flag is used it does not need to be in an array. In the example below. Since the integer is "300" it is not in the specified range. "email". Then we sanitize the input data using the filter_input() function. } else { echo "E-Mail is valid". the input variable "url" is sent to the PHP page: <?php if(!filter_has_var(INPUT_POST. } else { if (!filter_input(INPUT_GET. Validate Input Let's try validating input from a form. "url")) { echo("Input type does not exist"). FILTER_SANITIZE_URL). } ?> Example Explained The example above has an input (url) sent to it using the "POST" method: . "email")) { echo("Input type does not exist"). options must be put in an associative array with the name "options". "url".?> Like the code above. Check each filter to see what options and flags are available. the input variable "email" is sent to the PHP page: <?php if(!filter_has_var(INPUT_GET. and the output of the code above will be: "Integer is not valid". FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL)) { echo "E-Mail is not valid". For a complete list of functions and filters. } } ?> Example Explained The example above has an input (email) sent to it using the "GET" method: 1. First we confirm that the input data we are looking for exists. } else { $url = filter_input(INPUT_POST. visit our PHP Filter Reference.

Call the filter_input_array() function with the GET input variables and the array we just set 3. that input variable will be FALSE after the filter_input_array() function) The second parameter of the filter_input_array() function can be an array or a single filter ID. $result = filter_input_array(INPUT_GET. $filters). "options"=>array ( "min_range"=>1. "age" => array ( "filter"=>FILTER_VALIDATE_INT. "max_range"=>120 ) ). Check if the "url" input of the "POST" type exists 2. we can use the filter_var_array or the filter_input_array functions.<br />").com/".1. The received GET variables is a name. } else { echo("User input is valid").com/ Filter Multiple Inputs A form almost always consist of more than one input field. age and email) sent to it using the "GET" method: 1. To avoid calling the filter_var or filter_input functions over and over. ). sanitize (take away invalid characters) and store it in the $url variable If the input variable is a string like this "http://www. If the parameter is an array it must follow these rules: . an age and an e-mail address: <?php $filters = array ( "name" => array ( "filter"=>FILTER_SANITIZE_STRING ). } elseif(!$result["email"]) { echo("E-Mail is not valid. (If any of the input variables are invalid. If the input variable exists. Check the "age" and "email" variables in the $result variable for invalid inputs.W3ååSchøøools.<br />"). If the parameter is a single filter ID all values in the input array are filtered by the specified filter. } ?> Example Explained The example above has three inputs (name. the $url variable after the sanitizing will look like this: http://www. Set an array containing the name of input variables and the filters used on the specified input variables 2. "email"=> FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL.W3Schools. if (!$result["age"]) { echo("Age must be a number between 1 and 120. In this example we use the filter_input_array() function to filter three GET variables.

} $string = "Peter_is_a_great_guy!". FirstName. 12. 7. 17. Tables contain records (rows) with data. Address. Databases are useful when storing information categorically. 10. A database most often contains one or more tables. Each table is identified by a name (e.• • Must be an associative array containing an input variable as an array key (like the "age" input variable) The array value must be a filter ID or an array specifying the filter. Create a function to replace "_" to whitespaces 2. and City). 16. "Customers" and "Orders". The table above contains three records (one for each person) and four columns (LastName. Below is an example of a table called "Persons": LastName FirstName Address City Hansen Ola Timoteivn 10 Sandnes Svendson Tove Borgvn 23 Sandnes Pettersen Kari Storgt 20 Stavanger 13. " ".g. echo filter_var($string. What is MySQL? 6. 8. 9. A company may have a database with the following tables: "Employees". 5. The data in MySQL is stored in database objects called tables. MySQL is a database. flags and options Using Filter Callback It is possible to call a user defined function and use it as a filter using the FILTER_CALLBACK filter. we have full control of the data filtering. we use a user created function to convert all "_" to whitespaces: <?php function convertSpace($string) { return str_replace("_". $string). "Products". MySQL is the most popular open-source database system. "Customers" or "Orders"). This way. array("options"=>"convertSpace")). FILTER_CALLBACK. You can create your own user defined function or use an existing PHP function The function you wish to use to filter is specified the same way as an option is specified. In an associative array with the name "options" In the example below. With MySQL. ?> The result from the code above should look like this: Peter is a great guy! Example Explained The example above converts all "_" to whitespaces: 1.Database Tables 11. A table is a collection of related data entries and it consists of columns and rows. A query is a question or a request.PHP MySQL Introduction 4. Look at the following query: . 14. we can query a database for specific information and have a recordset returned. Call the filter_var() function with the FILTER_CALLBACK filter and an array containing our function 3.Queries 15.

The truth is that MySQL is the de-facto standard database for web sites that support huge volumes of both data and end users (like Friendster. Specifies the password to log in with. Create a Connection to a MySQL Database Before you can access data in a database. Visit our full PHP MySQL Reference for more details. Example In the following example we store the connection in a variable ($con) for later use in the script.html 23. if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . Yahoo. One great thing about MySQL is that it can be scaled down to support embedded database applications. this is done with the mysql_connect() function. Default value is "localhost:3306" Optional. The query above selects all the data in the "LastName" column from the "Persons" table. PHP MySQL Connect to a Database The free MySQL database is very often used with PHP."peter". mysql_error()). Perhaps it is because of this reputation that many people believe that MySQL can only handle small to medium-sized systems. you can download MySQL for free here: http://www.Download MySQL Database 22.username. 25. you must create a connection to the database.password). Specifies the username to log in with. In PHP. 26.Facts About MySQL Database 24. Google)."abc123"). Specifies the server to connect to.com/customers/ for an overview of companies using MySQL. 20. Default is "" Note: There are more available parameters. Syntax mysql_connect(servername. but the ones listed above are the most important. Default value is the name of the user that owns the server process Optional.mysql. 21. If you don't have a PHP server with a MySQL Database.SELECT LastName FROM Persons 18. Parameter servername username password Description Optional. and will return a recordset like this: LastName Hansen Svendson Pettersen 19. } // some code .com/downloads/index. Look at http://www. The "die" part will be executed if the connection fails: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost".mysql.

?> PHP MySQL Create Database and Tables A database holds one or multiple tables. Syntax CREATE DATABASE database_name To learn more about SQL. if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . ?> . mysql_error())."peter". mysql_error(). Create a Database The CREATE DATABASE statement is used to create a database in MySQL. } // some code mysql_close($con). use the mysql_close() function: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". mysql_error()).?> Closing a Connection The connection will be closed automatically when the script ends. } if (mysql_query("CREATE DATABASE my_db". To get PHP to execute the statement above we must use the mysql_query() function."abc123"). please visit our SQL tutorial. if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' ."peter".$con)) { echo "Database created". } mysql_close($con). Example The following example creates a database called "my_db": <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". To close the connection before."abc123"). This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection. } else { echo "Error creating database: " .

.$con). column_name2 data_type. e. "LastName" and "Age": <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost".."peter". varchar(15). mysql_error(). $con). you must specify the maximum length of the field. We must add the CREATE TABLE statement to the mysql_query() function to execute the command.Create a Table The CREATE TABLE statement is used to create a table in MySQL. ) To learn more about SQL. mysql_error()). Example The following example creates a table named "Persons". $sql = "CREATE TABLE Persons ( FirstName varchar(15). // Execute query mysql_query($sql..g.. . LastName varchar(15). Note: When you create a database field of type varchar. } // Create table mysql_select_db("my_db". ?> Important: A database must be selected before a table can be created. if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . please visit our SQL tutorial. Syntax CREATE TABLE table_name ( column_name1 data_type. mysql_close($con). } else { echo "Error creating database: " . } // Create database if (mysql_query("CREATE DATABASE my_db". The database is selected with the mysql_select_db() function. with three columns.$con)) { echo "Database created". Age int )". The column names will be "FirstName"."abc123"). column_name3 data_type.

.. To get PHP to execute the statements above we must use the mysql_query() function. Insert Data Into a Database Table The INSERT INTO statement is used to add new records to a database table. The primary key field is often an ID number. PRIMARY KEY(personID).. FirstName varchar(15). Syntax It is possible to write the INSERT INTO statement in two forms. go to our complete Data Types reference. PHP MySQL Insert Into The INSERT INTO statement is used to insert new records in a table.) VALUES (value1. column2. and is often used with the AUTO_INCREMENT setting. A primary key is used to uniquely identify the rows in a table.) To learn more about SQL. value3. Each primary key value must be unique within the table. Example In the previous chapter we created a table named "Persons". The first form doesn't specify the column names where the data will be inserted. Age int )". We will use the same table in this example. The following example adds two new records to the "Persons" table: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". if (!$con) { .) The second form specifies both the column names and the values to be inserted: INSERT INTO table_name (column1. The following example sets the personID field as the primary key field.$con).. To ensure that the primary key field cannot be null. only their values: INSERT INTO table_name VALUES (value1. the primary key field cannot be null because the database engine requires a value to locate the record.. AUTO_INCREMENT automatically increases the value of the field by 1 each time a new record is added. For a complete reference of all the data types available in MySQL. value3.. we must add the NOT NULL setting to the field. "Lastname" and "Age".."abc123").."peter". column3. please visit our SQL tutorial. with three columns.The data type specifies what type of data the column can hold.. mysql_query($sql. value2. Primary Keys and Auto Increment Fields Each table should have a primary key field. value2. "Firstname". Furthermore. Example $sql = "CREATE TABLE Persons ( personID int NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT. LastName varchar(15). This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection.

LastName.php". the form data is sent to "insert.'$_POST[age]')". ?> Insert Data From a Form Into a Database Now we will create an HTML form that can be used to add new records to the "Persons" table."abc123"). if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' .php" file connects to a database. mysql_query("INSERT INTO Persons (FirstName. Here is the HTML form: <html> <body> <form action="insert. mysql_error())."peter". LastName.'$_POST[lastname]'. Age) VALUES ('Peter'. 'Quagmire'. $con). if (!mysql_query($sql. 'Griffin'.$con)) { die('Error: ' . and a new record will be added to the "Persons" table. .php" method="post"> Firstname: <input type="text" name="firstname" /> Lastname: <input type="text" name="lastname" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" /> </form> </body> </html> When a user clicks the submit button in the HTML form in the example above. and retrieves the values from the form with the PHP $_POST variables. '33')"). } mysql_select_db("my_db". the mysql_query() function executes the INSERT INTO statement. The "insert. } mysql_select_db("my_db". Here is the "insert. $con). mysql_query("INSERT INTO Persons (FirstName. '35')"). Then. LastName.die('Could not connect: ' .php" page: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". Age) VALUES ('$_POST[firstname]'. $sql="INSERT INTO Persons (FirstName. Age) VALUES ('Glenn'. mysql_error()). mysql_error()). mysql_close($con).

This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection. if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . echo "<br />"."abc123"). $result = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM Persons"). Syntax SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name To learn more about SQL. Next. To get PHP to execute the statement above we must use the mysql_query() function."peter". we use the mysql_fetch_array() function to return the first row from the recordset as an array. The output of the code above will be: Peter Griffin Glenn Quagmire Display the Result in an HTML Table . The while loop loops through all the records in the recordset. " " . mysql_close($con) ?> PHP MySQL Select The SELECT statement is used to select data from a database. ?> The example above stores the data returned by the mysql_query() function in the $result variable. please visit our SQL tutorial. To print the value of each row. Example The following example selects all the data stored in the "Persons" table (The * character selects all the data in the table): <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". Each call to mysql_fetch_array() returns the next row in the recordset. we use the PHP $row variable ($row['FirstName'] and $row['LastName']). $row['LastName']. $con). while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) { echo $row['FirstName'] . } mysql_select_db("my_db". Select Data From a Database Table The SELECT statement is used to select data from a database. mysql_error()). } mysql_close($con).} echo "1 record added".

mysql_error()). please visit our SQL tutorial."abc123"). $row['LastName'] . "</td>". if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . $con)."peter". This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection. echo "<td>" . while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) { echo "<tr>". but will display the data in an HTML table: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost".The following example selects the same data as the example above. echo "</tr>". The WHERE clause The WHERE clause is used to extract only those records that fulfill a specified criterion. $row['FirstName'] . ?> The output of the code above will be: Firstna Lastna me me Glenn Peter Quagmir e Griffin PHP MySQL The Where Clause The WHERE clause is used to filter records. } echo "</table>". $result = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM Persons"). echo "<td>" . To get PHP to execute the statement above we must use the mysql_query() function. echo "<table border='1'> <tr> <th>Firstname</th> <th>Lastname</th> </tr>". Syntax SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE column_name operator value To learn more about SQL. . "</td>". } mysql_select_db("my_db". mysql_close($con).

"peter". } ?> The output of the code above will be: Peter Griffin PHP MySQL Order By Keyword The ORDER BY keyword is used to sort the data in a recordset. please visit our SQL tutorial. you can use the DESC keyword. $con). } mysql_select_db("my_db".Example The following example selects all rows from the "Persons" table where "FirstName='Peter': <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". and sorts the result by the "Age" column: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". $result = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM Persons ORDER BY age")."abc123"). } mysql_select_db("my_db". while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) { echo $row['FirstName'] . $con). if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . Syntax SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name ORDER BY column_name(s) ASC|DESC To learn more about SQL. if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' ."peter". $row['LastName']. The ORDER BY Keyword The ORDER BY keyword is used to sort the data in a recordset. If you want to sort the records in a descending order. mysql_error()). The ORDER BY keyword sort the records in ascending order by default. mysql_error())."abc123"). echo "<br />". " " . Example The following example selects all the data stored in the "Persons" table. . $result = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE FirstName='Peter'").

."abc123"). column2 PHP MySQL Update The UPDATE statement is used to modify data in a table. Syntax UPDATE table_name SET column1=value. $row['Age']. WHERE some_column=some_value Note: Notice the WHERE clause in the UPDATE syntax. please visit our SQL tutorial. column2=value2.while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) { echo $row['FirstName']. When ordering by more than one column. ?> The output of the code above will be: Glenn Quagmire 33 Peter Griffin 35 Order by Two Columns It is also possible to order by more than one column.. . This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection. If you omit the WHERE clause. $row['LastName']. Here is how it looks: FirstName Peter Glenn LastName Griffin Quagmire Age 35 33 The following example updates some data in the "Persons" table: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". To get PHP to execute the statement above we must use the mysql_query() function. The WHERE clause specifies which record or records that should be updated. echo " " . all records will be updated! To learn more about SQL. echo " " . Update Data In a Database The UPDATE statement is used to update existing records in a table. the second column is only used if the values in the first column are equal: SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name ORDER BY column1. } mysql_close($con). Example Earlier in the tutorial we created a table named "Persons". echo "<br />"."peter".. mysql_error()). if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' .

column2=value2. Update Data In a Database The UPDATE statement is used to update existing records in a table. mysql_query("UPDATE Persons SET Age = '36' WHERE FirstName = 'Peter' AND LastName = 'Griffin'"). Example Earlier in the tutorial we created a table named "Persons". $con). If you omit the WHERE clause.} mysql_select_db("my_db".. WHERE some_column=some_value Note: Notice the WHERE clause in the UPDATE syntax. Syntax UPDATE table_name SET column1=value.."abc123"). mysql_close($con). This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection. mysql_query("UPDATE Persons SET Age = '36' WHERE FirstName = 'Peter' AND LastName = 'Griffin'"). The WHERE clause specifies which record or records that should be updated. please visit our SQL tutorial. mysql_error()). } mysql_select_db("my_db". $con). ?> After the update."peter". the "Persons" table will look like this: FirstName Peter Glenn LastName Griffin Quagmire Age 36 33 PHP MySQL Update The UPDATE statement is used to modify data in a table. Here is how it looks: FirstName Peter Glenn LastName Griffin Quagmire Age 35 33 The following example updates some data in the "Persons" table: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . . all records will be updated! To learn more about SQL.. To get PHP to execute the statement above we must use the mysql_query() function.

Click Finish.''.g.mysql_close($con). 6. 4. with no username and no password. an MS Access database). click Select to locate the database. the instructions above will work. username. Double-click on the Data Sources (ODBC) icon inside. the "Persons" table will look like this: FirstName Peter Glenn LastName Griffin Quagmire Age 36 33 PHP Database ODBC ODBC is an Application Programming Interface (API) that allows you to connect to a data source (e. This function returns true if it is able to return rows. you have to have physical access to that server. or ask your web host to to set up a DSN for you to use. Create an ODBC Connection With an ODBC connection. and an optional cursor type. 7. you can connect to any database. on any computer in your network. Note that this configuration has to be done on the computer where your web site is located. The function takes two parameters: the ODBC result identifier and an optional row number: odbc_fetch_row($rs) Retrieving Fields from a Record . 2. 8. 3. Connecting to an ODBC The odbc_connect() function is used to connect to an ODBC data source. Example The following example creates a connection to a DSN called northwind. Choose the System DSN tab. In the next screen. password. It then creates an SQL and executes it: $conn=odbc_connect('northwind'. $sql="SELECT * FROM customers". but if your web site is located on a remote server. Click on Add in the System DSN tab. Click OK. The function takes four parameters: the data source name. otherwise false. 5. $rs=odbc_exec($conn. Give the database a Data Source Name (DSN). Retrieving Records The odbc_fetch_row() function is used to return records from the result-set. as long as an ODBC connection is available.$sql). Here is how to create an ODBC connection to a MS Access Database: 1. Open the Administrative Tools icon in your Control Panel. Select the Microsoft Access Driver. If you are running Internet Information Server (IIS) on your own computer. The odbc_exec() function is used to execute an SQL statement.''). ?> After the update.

} echo "<table><tr>".} $sql="SELECT * FROM customers". If you want to learn more about XML. You must define your own tags. echo "<th>Companyname</th>". } odbc_close($conn). The code line below returns the value of the first field from the record: $compname=odbc_result($rs. In XML.''). $conname=odbc_result($rs. and then display the data in an HTML table. The code line below returns the value of a field called "CompanyName": $compname=odbc_result($rs. while (odbc_fetch_row($rs)) { $compname=odbc_result($rs. echo "</table>". An XML file describes the structure of the data. echo "<tr><td>$compname</td>". This function takes two parameters: the ODBC result identifier and a field number or name. odbc_close($conn). <html> <body> <?php $conn=odbc_connect('northwind'. What is XML? XML is used to describe data and to focus on what data is.''. no tags are predefined."ContactName"). if (!$rs) {exit("Error in SQL"). An ODBC Example The following example shows how to first create a database connection. ?> </body> </html> PHP XML Expat Parser The built-in Expat parser makes it possible to process XML documents in PHP.$sql). echo "<td>$conname</td></tr>"."CompanyName"). $conn). $rs=odbc_exec($conn."CompanyName"). echo "<th>Contactname</th></tr>". Closing an ODBC Connection The odbc_close() function is used to close an ODBC connection.1). if (!$conn) {exit("Connection Failed: " . then a result-set.The odbc_result() function is used to read fields from a record. please visit our XML tutorial. What is Expat? .

because there is no Document Type Definition (DTD) associated with it. the Document Object Model (DOM) Event-based parser: Views an XML document as a series of events. However. Example <?php //Initialize the XML parser $parser=xml_parser_create(). and then parse the XML file.an XML document. It analyzes the whole document. Expat is fast and small. you will need an XML parser. value: Jani Close element: from The XML example above contains well-formed XML. and ignores any DTDs. non-validating XML parser. Because of this. eventbased parsers can access data faster than tree-based parsers. There is no installation needed to use these functions. Event-based parsers focus on the content of the XML documents. However. e. An XML File The XML file below will be used in our example: <?xml version="1.create and manipulate . define some handlers for different XML events. the example is not valid XML.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <note> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from> <heading>Reminder</heading> <body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body> </note> Initializing the XML Parser We want to initialize the XML parser in PHP. it calls a function to handle it • The Expat parser is an event-based parser.$element_name. //Function to use at the start of an element function start($parser. Note: XML documents must be well-formed or Expat will generate an error. Installation The XML Expat parser functions are part of the PHP core. and provides access to the tree elements. and a perfect match for PHP web applications. Expat is a non-validating parser. As an event-based. When a specific event occurs. not their structure.$element_attrs) { switch($element_name) { . this makes no difference when using the Expat parser.g. Look at the following XML fraction: <from>Jani</from> An event-based parser reports the XML above as a series of three events: • • • Start element: from Start CDATA section.To read and update . There are two basic types of XML parsers: • Tree-based parser: This parser transforms an XML document into a tree structure.

4096)) { xml_parse($parser. ?> The output of the code above will be: -. case "FROM": echo "From: ". xml_get_current_line_number($parser)))."char"). break."stop").Note -To: Tove From: Jani ."start". xml_error_string(xml_get_error_code($parser)). } //Free the XML parser xml_parser_free($parser).$element_name) { echo "<br />". //Specify data handler xml_set_character_data_handler($parser. } } //Function to use at the end of an element function stop($parser. break.$data) { echo $data. case "BODY": echo "Message: ".feof($fp)) or die (sprintf("XML Error: %s at line %d".xml". } //Specify element handler xml_set_element_handler($parser.case "NOTE": echo "-. break. //Read data while ($data=fread($fp. break. //Open XML file $fp=fopen("test. case "HEADING": echo "Heading: ".Note --<br />"."r"). } //Function to use when finding character data function char($parser. case "TO": echo "To: ".$data.

PHP XML DOM The built-in DOM parser makes it possible to process XML documents in PHP.an XML document. In case of an error. and provides access to the tree elements Event-based parser: Views an XML document as a series of events. There are two basic types of XML parsers: • • Tree-based parser: This parser transforms an XML document into a tree structure. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): * Core DOM .defines a standard set of objects for any structured document * XML DOM .defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents If you want to learn more about the XML DOM. Call the xml_parser_free() function to release the memory allocated with the xml_parser_create() function More PHP Expat Parser For more information about the PHP Expat functions. Add the xml_set_element_handler() function to specify which function will be executed when the parser encounters the opening and closing tags 4. When a specific event occurs.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents * HTML DOM . Create functions to use with the different event handlers 3. you will need an XML parser.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <from>Jani</from> The XML DOM sees the XML above as a tree structure: • • • Level 1: XML Document Level 2: Root element: <from> Level 3: Text element: "Jani" Installation . It analyzes the whole document. What is DOM? The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents.xml" with the xml_parse() function 6. XML. Look at the following XML document fraction: <?xml version="1. Initialize the XML parser with the xml_parser_create() function 2. XML Parsing To read and update . visit our PHP XML Parser Reference. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. it calls a function to handle it The DOM parser is an tree-based parser. add xml_error_string() function to convert an XML error to a textual description 7. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. Parse the file "test. please visit our XML DOM tutorial.Heading: Reminder Message: Don't forget me this weekend! How it works: 1. Add the xml_set_character_data_handler() function to specify which function will execute when the parser encounters character data 5.create and manipulate .

and loop through all elements of the <note> element: Example <?php $xmlDoc = new DOMDocument(). you will see the following HTML: <?xml version="1. " = " .0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <note> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from> <heading>Reminder</heading> <body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body> </note> Load and Output XML We want to initialize the XML parser. load the XML. "<br />". so we can output it. foreach ($x->childNodes AS $item) { print $item->nodeName .xml"). There is no installation needed to use these functions.The DOM XML parser functions are part of the PHP core. Looping through XML We want to initialize the XML parser.xml"). $xmlDoc->load("note. $item->nodeValue . Then the saveXML() function puts the internal XML document into a string.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <note> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from> <heading>Reminder</heading> <body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body> </note> The example above creates a DOMDocument-Object and loads the XML from "note. and output it: Example <?php $xmlDoc = new DOMDocument().xml" into it. An XML File The XML file below will be used in our example: <?xml version="1. $xmlDoc->load("note. ?> The output of the code above will be: Tove Jani Reminder Don't forget me this weekend! If you select "View source" in the browser window. $x = $xmlDoc->documentElement. load the xml. } ?> The output of the code above will be: . print $xmlDoc->saveXML().

Are accessed using associative arrays. you are better off using the Expat parser or the XML DOM. SimpleXML just takes a few lines of code to read text data from an element. it often contains white-spaces between the nodes. If you want to learn more about the XML DOM. SimpleXML converts the XML document into an object. and if you are not aware of them. they're placed inside an array Attributes . Using SimpleXML Below is an XML file: <?xml version="1. Installation As of PHP 5. When XML generates. If an element has more than one text node. like namespaces.Text data from elements are converted to strings. like this: • • • Elements . they will be arranged in the order they are found Reading XML files Extracting data from XML strings Editing text nodes or attributes SimpleXML is fast and easy to use when performing basic tasks like: • • • However. when dealing with advanced XML. PHP SimpleXML SimpleXML handles the most common XML tasks and leaves the rest for other extensions. they sometimes cause problems.0. where an index corresponds to the attribute name Element Data .0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <note> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from> <heading>Reminder</heading> <body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body> </note> We want to output the element names and data from the XML file above. Compared to DOM or the Expat parser.#text = to = Tove #text = from = Jani #text = heading = Reminder #text = body = Don't forget me this weekend! #text = In the example above you see that there are empty text nodes between each element. please visit our XML DOM tutorial. the SimpleXML functions are part of the PHP core. There is no installation needed to use these functions. The XML DOM parser treats these as ordinary elements. Load the XML file . When there's more than one element on one level. It is an easy way of getting an element's attributes and text. What is SimpleXML? SimpleXML is new in PHP 5. if you know the XML document's layout.Are converted to single attributes of the SimpleXMLElement object. Here's what to do: 1.

(which do not use AJAX) must reload the entire page if the content should change. without reloading the whole page. foreach($xml->children() as $child) { echo $child->getName() . AJAX allows web pages to be updated asynchronously by exchanging small amounts of data with the server behind the scenes. using the children() function 4. How AJAX Works AJAX is Based on Internet Standards AJAX is based on internet standards. Youtube. without reloading the whole page. Examples of applications using AJAX: Google Maps. "<br />". Output the element name and data for each child node Example <?php $xml = simplexml_load_file("test.xml"). echo $xml->getName() . "<br />". $child . and uses a combination of: . Classic web pages. Get the name of the first element 3. ": " . Gmail. and Facebook tabs. This means that it is possible to update parts of a web page. AJAX is a technique for creating fast and dynamic web pages. } ?> The output of the code above will be: note to: Tove from: Jani heading: Reminder body: Don't forget me this weekend! AJAX Introduction AJAX is about updating parts of a web page. What is AJAX? AJAX = Asynchronous JavaScript and XML.2. Create a loop that will trigger on each child node.

} else {// code for IE6. Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest(). we will demonstrate how AJAX can update parts of a web page. a JavaScript sends the letters off to a server and the server returns a list of suggestions. PHP .getElementById("txtHint"). return. the function "showHint()" is executed.XMLHTTP").and platform-independent! Google Suggest AJAX was made popular in 2005 by Google. AJAX PHP Example The following example will demonstrate how a web page can communicate with a web server while a user type characters in an input field: Example Start typing a name in the input field below: Top of Form First name: Bottom of Form Suggestions: Example Explained . } if (window.AJAX and PHP AJAX is used to create more interactive applications. visit our AJAX tutorial. If you want to learn more about AJAX. without reloading the whole page. IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. Chrome.• • • • XMLHttpRequest object (to exchange data asynchronously with a server) JavaScript/DOM (to display/interact with the information) CSS (to style the data) XML (often used as the format for transferring data) AJAX applications are browser. Google Suggest is using AJAX to create a very dynamic web interface: When you start typing in Google's search box. Start Using AJAX Today In our PHP tutorial. The function is triggered by the "onkeyup" event: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function showHint(str) { if (str. Opera.The HTML Page When a user types a character in the input field above.length==0) { document. The server script will be written in PHP.innerHTML="". with Google Suggest. } . Firefox.XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+.

value)" size="20" /> </form> <p>Suggestions: <span id="txtHint"></span></p> </body> </html> Source code explanation: If the input field is empty (str. . $a[]="Brittany".length==0). $a[]="Inga". $a[]="Cindy". $a[]="Linda". $a[]="Fiona". $a[]="Nina". $a[]="Petunia".onreadystatechange=function() { if (xmlhttp. $a[]="Diana".php". } </script> </head <body> <p><b>Start typing a name in the input field below:</b></p> <form> First name: <input type="text" onkeyup="showHint(this. $a[]="Kitty". $a[]="Ophelia".xmlhttp. The source code in "gethint.innerHTML=xmlhttp. and returns the corresponding name(s) to the browser: <?php // Fill up array with names $a[]="Anna".php?q="+str. $a[]="Eva". } } xmlhttp.php" checks an array of names.responseText. If the input field is not empty. the showHint() function executes the following: • • • • Create an XMLHttpRequest object Create the function to be executed when the server response is ready Send the request off to a file on the server Notice that a parameter (q) is added to the URL (with the content of the input field) The PHP File The page on the server called by the JavaScript above is a PHP file called "gethint.send(). $a[]="Cinderella".getElementById("txtHint"). $a[]="Doris"."gethint.open("GET". $a[]="Eve". $a[]="Hege".true).status==200) { document. xmlhttp. $a[]="Johanna".readyState==4 && xmlhttp. $a[]="Raquel". the function clears the content of the txtHint placeholder and exits the function. $a[]="Gunda". $a[]="Amanda".

$a[]="Wenche". ". set the response string to "no suggestion" 3. $a[]="Unni". for($i=0. } } } } // Set output to "no suggestion" if no hint were found // or to the correct values if ($hint == "") { $response="no suggestion". } //output the response echo $response. If no match were found.0. $a[]="Tove". $a[]="Sunniva".strlen($q)))) { if ($hint=="") { $hint=$a[$i]. $a[]="Vicky". $a[]="Violet". $a[]="Ellen". $a[]="Liza". the following happens: 1.$a[$i]. //get the q parameter from URL $q=$_GET["q"]. $a[]="Elizabeth". If one or more matching names were found. $i<count($a). //lookup all hints from array if length of q>0 if (strlen($q) > 0) { $hint="".$a[]="Evita". set the response string to all these names 4. $i++) { if (strtolower($q)==strtolower(substr($a[$i]." . AJAX Database Example .AJAX and MySQL AJAX can be used for interactive communication with a database. The response is sent to the "txtHint" placeholder PHP . Find a name matching the characters sent from the JavaScript 2. ?> Explanation: If there is any text sent from the JavaScript (strlen($q) > 0). } else { $hint=$hint. } else { $response=$hint.

IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. return.The HTML Page When a user selects a user in the dropdown list above. } if (window. } </script> </head> <body> <form> <select name="users" onchange="showUser(this.innerHTML="". } } xmlhttp.getElementById("txtHint")..php?q="+str.The MySQL Database The database table we use in the example above looks like this: id 1 2 3 4 FirstName Peter Lois Joseph Glenn LastName Griffin Griffin Swanson Quagmire Age 41 40 39 41 Hometown Quahog Newport Quahog Quahog Job Brewery Piano Teacher Police Officer Pilot Example Explained .status==200) { document.getElementById("txtHint"). Example Explained .true). } xmlhttp.open("GET".value)"> <option value="">Select a person:</option> <option value="1">Peter Griffin</option> .innerHTML=xmlhttp. Firefox. } else {// code for IE6.onreadystatechange=function() { if (xmlhttp.responseText."getuser.readyState==4 && xmlhttp. a function called "showUser()" is executed. Chrome..The following example will demonstrate how a web page can fetch information from a database with AJAX: Example Top of Form Bottom of Form Person info will be listed here. Opera. Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest().send().XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+.XMLHTTP"). xmlhttp. The function is triggered by the "onchange" event: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function showUser(str) { if (str=="") { document.

$row['Job'] . mysql_close($con). } mysql_select_db("ajax_demo". . if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . The source code in "getuser. echo "<td>" . and returns the result in an HTML table: <?php $q=$_GET["q"]. echo "<table border='1'> <tr> <th>Firstname</th> <th>Lastname</th> <th>Age</th> <th>Hometown</th> <th>Job</th> </tr>". $sql="SELECT * FROM user WHERE id = '". "</td>".$q. $result = mysql_query($sql). echo "<td>" .php" runs a query against a MySQL database. "</td>". mysql_error()). echo "<td>" . $con = mysql_connect('localhost'. $con).<option value="2">Lois Griffin</option> <option value="3">Glenn Quagmire</option> <option value="4">Joseph Swanson</option> </select> </form> <br /> <div id="txtHint"><b>Person info will be listed here. $row['FirstName'] . } echo "</table>". $row['LastName'] . echo "<td>" .</b></div> </body> </html> The showUser() function does the following: • • • • • Check if a person is selected Create an XMLHttpRequest object Create the function to be executed when the server response is ready Send the request off to a file on the server Notice that a parameter (q) is added to the URL (with the content of the dropdown list) The PHP File The page on the server called by the JavaScript above is a PHP file called "getuser. "</td>". "</td>". "</td>". 'peter'. echo "<td>" .php"."'". $row['Hometown'] . 'abc123'). echo "</tr>". $row['Age'] . while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) { echo "<tr>".

a function called "showCD()" is executed.readyState==4 && xmlhttp.XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+. Opera. the following happens: 1. PHP opens a connection to a MySQL server 2. Example Explained .open("GET". Firefox.The HTML Page When a user selects a CD in the dropdown list above. } } xmlhttp.php?q="+str..onreadystatechange=function() { if (xmlhttp. } else {// code for IE6.?> Explanation: When the query is sent from the JavaScript to the PHP file.getElementById("txtHint"). An HTML table is created. IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.status==200) { document.send(). AJAX XML Example The following example will demonstrate how a web page can fetch information from an XML file with AJAX: Example Top of Form Bottom of Form CD info will be listed here.XMLHTTP").innerHTML=xmlhttp. xmlhttp. and sent back to the "txtHint" placeholder PHP Example . The correct person is found 3."getcd.innerHTML="". Chrome.true). } xmlhttp.. filled with data.responseText. } </script> </head> <body> . The function is triggered by the "onchange" event: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function showCD(str) { if (str=="") { document.getElementById("txtHint").AJAX and XML AJAX can be used for interactive communication with an XML file. } if (window. Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest(). return.

$i++) { //Process only element nodes if ($cd->item($i)->nodeType==1) { echo("<b>" .xml". "cd_catalog. for ($i=0. echo($cd->item($i)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue).php".value)"> <option value="">Select a CD:</option> <option value="Bob Dylan">Bob Dylan</option> <option value="Bonnie Tyler">Bonnie Tyler</option> <option value="Dolly Parton">Dolly Parton</option> </select> </form> <div id="txtHint"><b>CD info will be listed here. } } ?> .. echo("<br />"). ":</b> "). $cd->item($i)->nodeName . and returns the result as HTML: <?php $q=$_GET["q"]. $xmlDoc->load("cd_catalog. $i++) { //Process only element nodes if ($x->item($i)->nodeType==1) { if ($x->item($i)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue == $q) { $y=($x->item($i)->parentNode)..$i<$cd->length.</b></div> </body> </html> The showCD() function does the following: • • • • • Check if a CD is selected Create an XMLHttpRequest object Create the function to be executed when the server response is ready Send the request off to a file on the server Notice that a parameter (q) is added to the URL (with the content of the dropdown list) The PHP File The page on the server called by the JavaScript above is a PHP file called "getcd.xml"). for ($i=0. $i<=$x->length-1. The PHP script loads an XML document. $x=$xmlDoc->getElementsByTagName('ARTIST'). $xmlDoc = new DOMDocument(). } } } $cd=($y->childNodes).<form> Select a CD: <select name="cds" onchange="showCD(this. runs a query against the XML file.

the following happens: 1."livesearch.php?q="+str. } if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+.status==200) { document. Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest().getElementById("livesearch").style.getElementById("livesearch"). } </script> . return. Chrome.xml). Output the album information (send to the "txtHint" placeholder) PHP Example . To make this example small and simple. Firefox.XMLHTTP").getElementById("livesearch").send().AJAX Live Search AJAX can be used to create more user-friendly and interactive searches.border="0px". the function "showResult()" is executed.onreadystatechange=function() { if (xmlhttp.getElementById("livesearch").true). } else {// code for IE6. AJAX Live Search The following example will demonstrate a live search.open("GET".innerHTML=xmlhttp.border="1px solid #A5ACB2". remove characters to see a broader result Top of Form Search for a W3Schools page in the input field below: Bottom of Form The results in the example above are found in an XML file (links.When the CD query is sent from the JavaScript to the PHP page. IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. Opera. where you get search results while you type. PHP creates an XML DOM object 2. only eight results are available. xmlhttp.length==0) { document.The HTML Page When a user types a character in the input field above. document. document. Find all <artist> elements that matches the name sent from the JavaScript 3.responseText.innerHTML="". Live search has many benefits compared to traditional searching: • • • Results are shown as you type Results narrow as you continue typing If results become too narrow. } } xmlhttp. Example Explained .readyState==4 && xmlhttp.style. } xmlhttp. The function is triggered by the "onkeyup" event: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function showResult(str) { if (str.

$q)) { if ($hint=="") { $hint="<a href='" . The source code in "livesearch. for($i=0. "' target='_blank'>" . If the input field is not empty.</head> <body> <form> <input type="text" size="30" onkeyup="showResult(this. $i<($x->length). $i++) { $y=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('title'). $x=$xmlDoc->getElementsByTagName('link'). $z->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue . "<br /><a href='" . //lookup all links from the xml file if length of q>0 if (strlen($q)>0) { $hint="". $z->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue . the showResult() function executes the following: • • • • Create an XMLHttpRequest object Create the function to be executed when the server response is ready Send the request off to a file on the server Notice that a parameter (q) is added to the URL (with the content of the input field) The PHP File The page on the server called by the JavaScript above is a PHP file called "livesearch. $y->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue .php". } else { $hint=$hint . the function clears the content of the livesearch placeholder and exits the function.php" searches an XML file for titles matching the search string and returns the result: <?php $xmlDoc=new DOMDocument(). //get the q parameter from URL $q=$_GET["q"]. "</a>". "' target='_blank'>" .length==0). if ($y->item(0)->nodeType==1) { //find a link matching the search text if (stristr($y->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue. $xmlDoc->load("links.xml"). .value)" /> <div id="livesearch"></div> </form> </body> </html> Source code explanation: If the input field is empty (str. $z=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('url').

innerHTML="". The function is triggered by the "onchange" event: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function showRSS(str) { if (str.getElementById("rssOutput"). } } } } } // Set output to "no suggestion" if no hint were found // or to the correct values if ($hint=="") { $response="no suggestion".XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+. } if (window. Chrome. where the RSS-feed is loaded into a webpage without reloading: Top of Form Select an RSS-feed: Bottom of Form RSS-feed will be listed here. If more than one match is found. } else { $response=$hint. Firefox. AJAX RSS Reader The following example will demonstrate an RSS reader.. Safari .The HTML Page When a user selects an RSS-feed in the dropdown list above. ?> If there is any text sent from the JavaScript (strlen($q) > 0).length==0) { document. "</a>".. Opera. return. a function called "showResult()" is executed. } //output the response echo $response. all matches are added to the variable If no matches are found. Example Explained . the following happens: • • • • Load an XML file into a new XML DOM object Loop through all <title> elements to find matches from the text sent from the JavaScript Sets the correct url and title in the "$response" variable.AJAX RSS Reader An RSS Reader is used to read RSS Feeds. the $response variable is set to "no suggestion" PHP Example .$y->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue .

php": <?php //get the q parameter from URL $q=$_GET["q"].status==200) { document.com/news?ned=us&topic=h&output=rss")..com/id/3032091/device/rss/rss.google. } </script> </head> <body> <form> <select onchange="showRSS(this.innerHTML=xmlhttp..getElementById("rssOutput")."getrss. //get elements from "<channel>" . } $xmlDoc = new DOMDocument(). } xmlhttp.php?q="+str. } } xmlhttp.responseText.readyState==4 && xmlhttp.send().onreadystatechange=function() { if (xmlhttp.msn.xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest().xml").XMLHTTP").value)"> <option value="">Select an RSS-feed:</option> <option value="Google">Google News</option> <option value="MSNBC">MSNBC News</option> </select> </form> <br /> <div id="rssOutput">RSS-feed will be listed here. } elseif($q=="MSNBC") { $xml=("http://rss. xmlhttp.true). $xmlDoc->load($xml). //find out which feed was selected if($q=="Google") { $xml=("http://news. IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.</div> </body> </html> The showResult() function does the following: • • • • • Check if an RSS-feed is selected Create an XMLHttpRequest object Create the function to be executed when the server response is ready Send the request off to a file on the server Notice that a parameter (q) is added to the URL (with the content of the dropdown list) The PHP File The page on the server called by the JavaScript above is a PHP file called "getrss.msnbc.open("GET". } else {// code for IE6.

$i<=2.AJAX Poll AJAX Poll The following example will demonstrate a poll where the result is shown without reloading. "</a>"). "'>" . "</p>"). //output elements from "<channel>" echo("<p><a href='" . Do you like PHP and AJAX so far? Top of Form Yes: No: Bottom of Form Example Explained . echo($channel_desc . $channel_title .$channel=$xmlDoc->getElementsByTagName('channel')->item(0). "</p>"). echo ("<p><a href='" .The HTML Page When a user choose an option above. for ($i=0. $item_title . "</a>"). The function is triggered by the "onclick" event: <html> . $i++) { $item_title=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('title') ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue. $item_desc=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('description') ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue. $item_link=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('link') ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue. $item_link . echo("<br />"). a function called "getVote()" is executed. //get and output "<item>" elements $x=$xmlDoc->getElementsByTagName('item'). $channel_desc = $channel->getElementsByTagName('description') ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue. "'>" . $channel_link = $channel->getElementsByTagName('link') ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue. $channel_title = $channel->getElementsByTagName('title') ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue. echo ("<br />"). $channel_link . echo ($item_desc . the following happens: • • • • • Check which feed was selected Create a new XML DOM object Load the RSS document in the xml variable Extract and output elements from the channel element Extract and output elements from the item element PHP Example . } ?> When an RSS-feed is sent from the JavaScript.

XMLHTTP").value)" /> </form> </div> </body> </html> The getVote() function does the following: • • • • Create an XMLHttpRequest object Create the function to be executed when the server response is ready Send the request off to a file on the server Notice that a parameter (vote) is added to the URL (with the value of the yes or no option) The PHP File The page on the server called by the JavaScript above is a PHP file called "poll_vote.true).readyState==4 && xmlhttp.responseText. Opera.txt". } else {// code for IE6. xmlhttp.value)" /> <br />No: <input type="radio" name="vote" value="1" onclick="getVote(this."poll_vote. } xmlhttp. Chrome.php": <?php $vote = $_REQUEST['vote']. .getElementById("poll"). $content = file($filename). Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest().innerHTML=xmlhttp.<head> <script type="text/javascript"> function getVote(int) { if (window.open("GET".send(). } </script> </head> <body> <div id="poll"> <h3>Do you like PHP and AJAX so far?</h3> <form> Yes: <input type="radio" name="vote" value="0" onclick="getVote(this.php?vote="+int. Firefox.XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+. IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. //get content of textfile $filename = "poll_result.status==200) { document.onreadystatechange=function() { if (xmlhttp. } } xmlhttp.

It is stored like this: 0||0 .$insertvote). $yes = $array[0]. $no = $array[1].//put content in array $array = explode("||". ?>% </td> </tr> </table> The value is sent from the JavaScript. } //insert votes to txt file $insertvote = $yes. ?>' height='20'> <?php echo(100*round($no/($no+$yes).2)).txt" file 4.2)).2)). $content[0]). Get the content of the "poll_result. if ($vote == 0) { $yes = $yes + 1."w"). fclose($fp).txt) is where we store the data from the poll. $fp = fopen($filename. fputs($fp."||".gif" width='<?php echo(100*round($yes/($no+$yes). ?> <h2>Result:</h2> <table> <tr> <td>Yes:</td> <td> <img src="poll. } if ($vote == 1) { $no = $no + 1. Output a graphical representation of the poll result The Text File The text file (poll_result. ?>' height='20'> <?php echo(100*round($yes/($no+$yes).gif" width='<?php echo(100*round($no/($no+$yes).$no. Put the content of the file in variables and add one to the selected variable 3. and the following happens: 1.txt" file 2. Write the result to the "poll_result. ?>% </td> </tr> <tr> <td>No:</td> <td> <img src="poll.2)).

which 4 returns new values Merges one or more arrays into one array 4 Merges one or more arrays into one array 4 Sorts multiple or multi-dimensional arrays 4 Inserts a specified number of items. and returns the value of 4 . PHP Array Functions PHP Array Introduction The array functions allow you to manipulate arrays. Note: Remember to allow your web server to edit the text file. with an additional user-made function check. and returns the differences Compares array keys. PHP supports both simple and multi-dimensional arrays. with an additional user-made 5 function check. and returns the differences 4 Compares array keys and values. and returns the differences 4 Compares array keys. and returns the matches Compares array keys. and returns the matches 4 Compares array keys and values. to an 4 array Deletes the last element of an array 4 Calculates the product of the values in an array 5 Inserts one or more elements to the end of an array 4 Returns one or more random keys from an array 4 Returns an array as a string. with an additional user-made function check. using a user-defined function 4 Returns an array in the reverse order 4 Searches an array for a given value and returns the key 4 Removes the first element from an array. and returns the matches 4 Compares array keys.5 and returns the matches Checks if the specified key exists in the array 4 Returns all the keys of an array 4 Sends each value of an array to a user-made function. Installation The array functions are part of the PHP core. and returns the matches 5 Compares array keys and values. the second number represents the "No" votes. with an additional user-made 5 function check. Function array() array_change_key_case() array_chunk() array_combine() array_count_values() array_diff() array_diff_assoc() array_diff_key() array_diff_uassoc() array_diff_ukey() array_fill() array_filter() array_flip() array_intersect() array_intersect_assoc() array_intersect_key() array_intersect_uassoc() array_intersect_ukey() array_key_exists() array_keys() array_map() array_merge() array_merge_recursive() array_multisort() array_pad() array_pop() array_product() array_push() array_rand() array_reduce() array_reverse() array_search() array_shift() Description PHP Creates an array 3 Returns an array with all keys in lowercase or uppercase 4 Splits an array into chunks of arrays 4 Creates an array by using one array for keys and another for its 5 values Returns an array with the number of occurrences for each value 4 Compares array values. with a specified value.5 and returns the differences Fills an array with values 4 Filters elements of an array using a user-made function 4 Exchanges all keys with their associated values in an array 4 Compares array values. just the web server (PHP).The first number represents the "Yes" votes. There are also specific functions for populating arrays from database queries. There is no installation needed to use these functions. Do NOT give everyone access. PHP Array Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. and returns the differences 5 Compares array keys and values.

and compares array values in a user-made function. and compares array values in a user-made function.array_slice() array_splice() array_sum() array_udiff() array_udiff_assoc() array_udiff_uassoc() array_uintersect() array_uintersect_assoc() array_uintersect_uassoc() array_unique() array_unshift() array_values() array_walk() array_walk_recursive() arsort() asort() compact() count() current() each() end() extract() in_array() key() krsort() ksort() list() natcasesort() natsort() next() pos() prev() range() reset() rsort() shuffle() sizeof() sort() uasort() uksort() usort() the removed element Returns selected parts of an array Removes and replaces specified elements of an array Returns the sum of the values in an array Compares array values in a user-made function and returns an array Compares array keys. and returns an array Compares array keys and array values in user-made functions. Constant CASE_LOWER CASE_UPPER Description PHP Used with array_change_key_case() to convert array keys to lower case Used with array_change_key_case() to convert array keys to upper case . or properties in an object Returns the current element in an array Returns the current key and value pair from an array Sets the internal pointer of an array to its last element Imports variables into the current symbol table from an array Checks if a specified value exists in an array Fetches a key from an array Sorts an array by key in reverse order Sorts an array by key Assigns variables as if they were an array Sorts an array using a case insensitive "natural order" algorithm Sorts an array using a "natural order" algorithm Advance the internal array pointer of an array Alias of current() Rewinds the internal array pointer Creates an array containing a range of elements Sets the internal pointer of an array to its first element Sorts an array in reverse order Shuffles an array Alias of count() Sorts an array Sorts an array with a user-defined function and maintain index association Sorts an array by keys using a user-defined function Sorts an array by values using a user-defined function 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 5 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 PHP Array Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. and returns an array Compares array keys and array values in user-made functions. and returns an array Compares array values in a user-made function and returns an array Compares array keys. and returns an array Removes duplicate values from an array Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array Returns all the values of an array Applies a user function to every member of an array Applies a user function recursively to every member of an array Sorts an array in reverse order and maintain index association Sorts an array and maintain index association Create array containing variables and their values Counts elements in an array.

C.SORT_ASC SORT_DESC SORT_REGULAR SORT_NUMERIC SORT_STRING SORT_LOCALE_STRING COUNT_NORMAL COUNT_RECURSIVE EXTR_OVERWRITE EXTR_SKIP EXTR_PREFIX_SAME EXTR_PREFIX_ALL EXTR_PREFIX_INVALID EXTR_PREFIX_IF_EXISTS EXTR_IF_EXISTS EXTR_REFS Used with array_multisort() to sort in ascending order Used with array_multisort() to sort in descending order Used to compare items normally Used to compare items numerically Used to compare items as strings Used to compare items as strings. Installation The windows version of PHP has built-in support for the calendar extension. the calendar functions will work automatically. on which Easter falls for a 3 specified year Converts a French Republican date to a Julian day count 3 Converts a Gregorian date to a Julian day count 3 Returns the day of a week 3 Returns a month name 3 Converts a Julian day count to a French Republican date 3 Converts a Julian day count to a Gregorian date 3 Converts a Julian day count to a Jewish date 3 Converts a Julian day count to a Julian date 3 Converts a Julian day count to a Unix timestamp 4 Converts a Jewish date to a Julian day count 3 Converts a Julian date to a Julian day count 3 Converts a Unix timestamp to a Julian day count 4 PHP Calendar Constants . you must first convert to Julian day count. Function cal_days_in_month() cal_from_jd() cal_info() cal_to_jd() easter_date() easter_days() FrenchToJD() GregorianToJD() JDDayOfWeek() JDMonthName() JDToFrench() JDToGregorian() jdtojewish() JDToJulian() jdtounix() JewishToJD() JulianToJD() unixtojd() Description PHP Returns the number of days in a month for a specified year and calendar 4 Converts a Julian day count into a date of a specified calendar 4 Returns information about a given calendar 4 Converts a date to Julian day count 4 Returns the Unix timestamp for midnight on Easter of a specified year 3 Returns the number of days after March 21.). then to the calendar format. PHP Calendar Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. you will have to compile PHP with --enable-calendar to get the calendar functions to work. So. The standard it is based on is the Julian day count (Julian day count is a count of days starting from January 1. based on the current locale 4 PHP Calendar Functions PHP Calendar Introduction The calendar functions are useful when working with different calendar formats. if you are running the Linux version of PHP. 4713 B. Note that the Julian day count is not the same as the Julian calendar! Note: To convert between calendar formats. However.

This option is used by date_sunrise() and date_sunset() Specifies the default timezone (available since PHP_INI_ALL PHP 5.1) PHP Date / Time Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function.PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant.2333" date. This option is used by date_sunrise() and date_sunset() Specifies the default sunset zenith (available PHP_INI_ALL since PHP 5).default_longitude "35.7667" date. Note: These functions depend on the locale settings of the server! Installation The date/time functions are part of the PHP core.ini.83" "90. This option is used by date_sunrise() and date_sunset() Specifies the default sunrise zenith (available PHP_INI_ALL since PHP 5). There is no installation needed to use these functions. Runtime Configuration The behavior of the date/time functions is affected by settings in php. Function Description PHP .default_latitude "31.sunset_zenith date.83" "" Description Changeable Specifies the default latitude (available since PHP_INI_ALL PHP 5). Date/Time configuration options: Name Default date. Constant CAL_GREGORIAN CAL_JULIAN CAL_JEWISH CAL_FRENCH CAL_NUM_CALS CAL_DOW_DAYNO CAL_DOW_SHORT CAL_DOW_LONG CAL_MONTH_GREGORIAN_SHORT CAL_MONTH_GREGORIAN_LONG CAL_MONTH_JULIAN_SHORT CAL_MONTH_JULIAN_LONG CAL_MONTH_JEWISH CAL_MONTH_FRENCH CAL_EASTER_DEFAULT CAL_EASTER_ROMAN CAL_EASTER_ALWAYS_GREGORIAN CAL_EASTER_ALWAYS_JULIAN CAL_JEWISH_ADD_ALAFIM_GERESH CAL_JEWISH_ADD_ALAFIM CAL_JEWISH_ADD_GERESHAYIM Description Gregorian calendar Julian calendar Jewish calendar French Republican calendar PHP 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 PHP Date / Time Functions PHP Date / Time Introduction The date/time functions allow you to extract and format the date and time on the server. This option is used by date_sunrise() and date_sunset() Specifies the default longitude (available since PHP_INI_ALL PHP 5).sunrise_zenith date.timezone "90.

There is no installation needed to use these functions. 14-Aug-05 16:13:03 UTC) RFC 1123 (example: Sun. Function chdir() chroot() dir() closedir() getcwd() opendir() readdir() rewinddir() Description Changes the current directory Changes the root directory of the current process Opens a directory handle and returns an object Closes a directory handle Returns the current directory Opens a directory handle Returns an entry from a directory handle Resets a directory handle PHP 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 . 14 Aug 2005 16:13:03 +0000) RSS (Sun. PHP Directory Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. 14 Aug 2005 16:13:03 UTC) RFC 850 (example: Sunday.checkdate() date_default_timezone_get() date_default_timezone_set() date_sunrise() date_sunset() date() getdate() gettimeofday() gmdate() gmmktime() gmstrftime() idate() localtime() microtime() mktime() strftime() strptime() strtotime() time() Validates a Gregorian date Returns the default time zone Sets the default time zone Returns the time of sunrise for a given day / location Returns the time of sunset for a given day / location Formats a local time/date Returns an array that contains date and time information for a Unix timestamp Returns an array that contains current time information Formats a GMT/UTC date/time Returns the Unix timestamp for a GMT date Formats a GMT/UTC time/date according to locale settings Formats a local time/date as integer Returns an array that contains the time components of a Unix timestamp Returns the microseconds for the current time Returns the Unix timestamp for a date Formats a local time/date according to locale settings Parses a time/date generated with strftime() Parses an English textual date or time into a Unix timestamp Returns the current time as a Unix timestamp 3 5 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 4 3 3 3 5 3 3 PHP Date / Time Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. Installation The directory functions are part of the PHP core. Constant DATE_ATOM DATE_COOKIE DATE_ISO8601 DATE_RFC822 DATE_RFC850 DATE_RFC1036 DATE_RFC1123 DATE_RFC2822 DATE_RSS DATE_W3C Description Atom (example: 2005-08-15T16:13:03+0000) HTTP Cookies (example: Sun. 14 Aug 2005 16:13:03 UTC) RFC 2822 (Sun. 14 Aug 2005 16:13:03 UTC) World Wide Web Consortium (example: 2005-0814T16:13:03+0000) PHP PHP Directory Functions PHP Directory Introduction The directory functions allow you to retrieve information about directories and their contents. 14 Aug 2005 16:13:03 UTC) ISO-8601 (example: 2005-08-14T16:13:03+0000) RFC 822 (example: Sun. 14-Aug-05 16:13:03 UTC) RFC 1036 (example: Sunday.

This is like an PHP 4 4 4 4 . and modify the way the errors can be logged. Errors that cannot be recovered from. Constant DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR PATH_SEPARATOR Description PHP 3 4 PHP Error and Logging Functions PHP Error and Logging Introduction The error and logging functions allows error handling and logging. The script found something that might be an error. The logging functions allow users to log applications and send log messages to email. to a file or to a remote destination Specifies which errors are reported Restores the previous error handler Restores the previous exception handler Sets a user-defined function to handle errors Sets a user-defined function to handle exceptions Creates a user-defined error message Alias of trigger_error() PHP 4 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 5 4 4 PHP Error and Logging Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. The error functions allow users to define error handling rules. PHP Error and Logging Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. This is like an E_WARNING in the PHP core Fatal compile-time errors. Installation The error and logging functions are part of the PHP core. Parse errors should only be generated by the parser Run-time notices. but could also happen when running a script normally Fatal errors at PHP startup. There is no installation needed to use these functions. Value Constant 1 E_ERROR 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 E_WARNING E_PARSE E_NOTICE E_CORE_ERROR E_CORE_WARNING E_COMPILE_ERROR E_COMPILE_WARNING Description Fatal run-time errors. Execution of the script is halted Non-fatal run-time errors. This is like an E_ERROR in the PHP core Non-fatal errors at PHP startup. This is like an E_ERROR generated by the Zend Scripting Engine Non-fatal compile-time errors. Function debug_backtrace() debug_print_backtrace() error_get_last() error_log() error_reporting() restore_error_handler() restore_exception_handler() set_error_handler() set_exception_handler() trigger_error() user_error() Description Generates a backtrace Prints a backtrace Gets the last error occurred Sends an error to the server error-log. Execution of the script is not halted Compile-time parse errors. system logs or other machines.scandir() Lists files and directories inside a specified path 5 PHP Directory Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant.

256 512 1024 2048 4096 6143

E_USER_ERROR E_USER_WARNING E_USER_NOTICE E_STRICT E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR E_ALL

E_WARNING generated by the Zend Scripting Engine Fatal user-generated error. This is like an E_ERROR set by 4 the programmer using the PHP function trigger_error() Non-fatal user-generated warning. This is like an 4 E_WARNING set by the programmer using the PHP function trigger_error() User-generated notice. This is like an E_NOTICE set by the 4 programmer using the PHP function trigger_error() Run-time notices. PHP suggest changes to your code to help 5 interoperability and compatibility of the code Catchable fatal error. This is like an E_ERROR but can be 5 caught by a user defined handle (see also set_error_handler()) All errors and warnings, except of level E_STRICT 5

PHP Filesystem Functions
PHP Filesystem Introduction
The filesystem functions allow you to access and manipulate the filesystem.

Installation
The filesystem functions are part of the PHP core. There is no installation needed to use these functions.

Runtime Configuration
The behavior of the filesystem functions is affected by settings in php.ini. Filesystem configuration options: Name allow_url_fopen user_agent Default "1" NULL Description Allows fopen()-type functions to work with URLs (available since PHP 4.0.4) Defines the user agent for PHP to send (available since PHP 4.3) Sets the default timeout, in seconds, for socket based streams (available since PHP 4.3) Defines the anonymous FTP password (your email address) When set to "1", PHP will examine the data read by fgets() and file() to see if it is using Unix, MS-Dos or Mac line-ending characters (available since PHP 4.3) Changeable PHP_INI_SYSTEM PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL

default_socket_timeout "60" from ""

auto_detect_line_endings "0"

Unix / Windows Compatibility
When specifying a path on Unix platforms, the forward slash (/) is used as directory separator. However, on Windows platforms, both forward slash (/) and backslash (\) can be used.

PHP Filesystem Functions
PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. Function basename() chgrp() chmod() chown() clearstatcache() copy() delete() Description Returns the filename component of a path Changes the file group Changes the file mode Changes the file owner Clears the file status cache Copies a file See unlink() or unset() PHP 3 3 3 3 3 3

dirname() disk_free_space() disk_total_space() diskfreespace() fclose() feof() fflush() fgetc() fgetcsv() fgets() fgetss() file() file_exists() file_get_contents() file_put_contents fileatime() filectime() filegroup() fileinode() filemtime() fileowner() fileperms() filesize() filetype() flock() fnmatch() fopen() fpassthru() fputcsv() fputs() fread() fscanf() fseek() fstat() ftell() ftruncate() fwrite() glob() is_dir() is_executable() is_file() is_link() is_readable() is_uploaded_file() is_writable() is_writeable() link() linkinfo() lstat() mkdir() move_uploaded_file() parse_ini_file() pathinfo() pclose() popen() readfile() readlink() realpath()

Returns the directory name component of a path Returns the free space of a directory Returns the total size of a directory Alias of disk_free_space() Closes an open file Tests for end-of-file on an open file Flushes buffered output to an open file Returns a character from an open file Parses a line from an open file, checking for CSV fields Returns a line from an open file Returns a line, with HTML and PHP tags removed, from an open file Reads a file into an array Checks whether or not a file or directory exists Reads a file into a string Writes a string to a file Returns the last access time of a file Returns the last change time of a file Returns the group ID of a file Returns the inode number of a file Returns the last modification time of a file Returns the user ID (owner) of a file Returns the permissions of a file Returns the file size Returns the file type Locks or releases a file Matches a filename or string against a specified pattern Opens a file or URL Reads from an open file, until EOF, and writes the result to the output buffer Formats a line as CSV and writes it to an open file Alias of fwrite() Reads from an open file Parses input from an open file according to a specified format Seeks in an open file Returns information about an open file Returns the current position in an open file Truncates an open file to a specified length Writes to an open file Returns an array of filenames / directories matching a specified pattern Checks whether a file is a directory Checks whether a file is executable Checks whether a file is a regular file Checks whether a file is a link Checks whether a file is readable Checks whether a file was uploaded via HTTP POST Checks whether a file is writeable Alias of is_writable() Creates a hard link Returns information about a hard link Returns information about a file or symbolic link Creates a directory Moves an uploaded file to a new location Parses a configuration file Returns information about a file path Closes a pipe opened by popen() Opens a pipe Reads a file and writes it to the output buffer Returns the target of a symbolic link Returns the absolute pathname

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rename() rewind() rmdir() set_file_buffer() stat() symlink() tempnam() tmpfile() touch() umask() unlink()

Renames a file or directory Rewinds a file pointer Removes an empty directory Sets the buffer size of an open file Returns information about a file Creates a symbolic link Creates a unique temporary file Creates a unique temporary file Sets access and modification time of a file Changes file permissions for files Deletes a file

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PHP Filesystem Constants
PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. Constant GLOB_BRACE GLOB_ONLYDIR GLOB_MARK GLOB_NOSORT GLOB_NOCHECK GLOB_NOESCAPE PATHINFO_DIRNAME PATHINFO_BASENAME PATHINFO_EXTENSION FILE_USE_INCLUDE_PATH FILE_APPEND FILE_IGNORE_NEW_LINES FILE_SKIP_EMPTY_LINES Description PHP

PHP Filter Functions
PHP Filter Introduction
This PHP filters is used to validate and filter data coming from insecure sources, like user input.

Installation
The filter functions are part of the PHP core. There is no installation needed to use these functions.

PHP Filter Functions
PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. Function filter_has_var() filter_id() filter_input() filter_input_array() filter_list() filter_var_array() filter_var() Description Checks if a variable of a specified input type exist Returns the ID number of a specified filter Get input from outside the script and filter it Get multiple inputs from outside the script and filters them Returns an array of all supported filters Get multiple variables and filter them Get a variable and filter it PHP 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

PHP Filters
ID Name FILTER_CALLBACK FILTER_SANITIZE_STRING FILTER_SANITIZE_STRIPPED FILTER_SANITIZE_ENCODED Description Call a user-defined function to filter data Strip tags, optionally strip or encode special characters Alias of "string" filter URL-encode string, optionally strip or encode special

except letters. Function ftp_alloc() ftp_cdup() ftp_chdir() ftp_chmod() ftp_close() ftp_connect() ftp_delete() ftp_exec() ftp_fget() ftp_fput() ftp_get_option() ftp_get() Description Allocates space for a file to be uploaded to the FTP server Changes the current directory to the parent directory on the FTP server Changes the current directory on the FTP server Sets permissions on a file via FTP Closes an FTP connection Opens an FTP connection Deletes a file on the FTP server Executes a program/command on the FTP server Downloads a file from the FTP server and saves it to an open file Uploads from an open file and saves it to a file on the FTP server Returns runtime behaviors of the FTP connection Downloads a file from the FTP server PHP 5 3 3 5 4 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 . "true".. except digits and +Remove all characters. delete. "false". except digits. FALSE for "0". digits and $-_. you will have to compile PHP with --enable-ftp (PHP 4+) or --with-ftp (PHP 3) to get the FTP functions to work. optionally from the specified range Return TRUE for "1".FILTER_SANITIZE_SPECIAL_CHARS FILTER_SANITIZE_EMAIL FILTER_SANITIZE_URL FILTER_SANITIZE_NUMBER_INT FILTER_SANITIZE_NUMBER_FLOAT FILTER_SANITIZE_MAGIC_QUOTES FILTER_UNSAFE_RAW FILTER_VALIDATE_INT FILTER_VALIDATE_BOOLEAN FILTER_VALIDATE_FLOAT FILTER_VALIDATE_REGEXP FILTER_VALIDATE_URL FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL FILTER_VALIDATE_IP characters HTML-escape '"<>& and characters with ASCII value less than 32 Remove all characters. "off". digits and !#$ %&'*+-/=?^_`{|}~@. the FTP functions will work automatically.and optionally . and get information on files from file servers. NULL otherwise Validate value as float Validate value against regexp. These functions are meant for detailed access to an FTP server. if you are running the Linux version of PHP. login and close connections. optionally with required components Validate value as e-mail Validate value as IP address. PHP FTP Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. a Perl-compatible regular expression Validate value as URL. "no". rename. The FTP functions became available with PHP 3. as well as upload. Not all of the FTP functions will work with every server or return the same results./?:@&= Remove all characters. download. So. The FTP functions are used to open. optionally strip or encode special characters Validate value as integer. except letters. consider using the ftp:// wrapper with the Filesystem functions. If you only wish to read from or write to a file on an FTP server. optionally only IPv4 or IPv6 or not from private or reserved ranges PHP FTP Functions PHP FTP Introduction The FTP functions give client access to file servers through the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Installation The windows version of PHP has built-in support for the FTP extension.{}|\\^~[]`<>#%". However.[] Remove all characters. +. and "". "on" and "yes".+! *'().eE Apply addslashes() Do nothing.

Constant FTP_ASCII FTP_TEXT FTP_BINARY FTP_IMAGE FTP_TIMEOUT_SEC FTP_AUTOSEEK FTP_AUTORESUME FTP_FAILED FTP_FINISHED FTP_MOREDATA Description PHP 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 Determine resume position and start position for get and put requests automatically Asynchronous transfer has failed Asynchronous transfer has finished Asynchronous transfer is still active PHP HTTP Functions PHP HTTP Introduction The HTTP functions let you manipulate information sent to the browser by the Web server. before any other output has been sent. PHP HTTP Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. Installation The directory functions are part of the PHP core.ftp_login() ftp_mdtm() ftp_mkdir() ftp_nb_continue() ftp_nb_fget() ftp_nb_fput() ftp_nb_get() ftp_nb_put() ftp_nlist() ftp_pasv() ftp_put() ftp_pwd() ftp_quit() ftp_raw() ftp_rawlist() ftp_rename() ftp_rmdir() ftp_set_option() ftp_site() ftp_size() ftp_ssl_connect() ftp_systype() Logs on to an FTP connection Returns the last modified time of a specified file Creates a new directory on the FTP server Continues retrieving/sending a file (non-blocking) Downloads a file from the FTP server and saves it to an open file (nonblocking) Uploads from an open file and saves it to a file on the FTP server (nonblocking) Downloads a file from the FTP server (non-blocking) Uploads a file to the FTP server (non-blocking) Lists the files in a specified directory on the FTP server Turns passive mode on or off Uploads a file to the FTP server Returns the current directory name Alias of ftp_close() Sends a raw command to the FTP server Returns a detailed list of files in the specified directory Renames a file or directory on the FTP server Removes a directory on the FTP server Sets runtime options for the FTP connection Sends a SITE command to the server Returns the size of the specified file Opens a secure SSL-FTP connection Returns the system type identifier of the FTP server 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 5 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 PHP FTP Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. Function header() headers_list() headers_sent() setcookie() Description Sends a raw HTTP header to a client Returns a list of response headers sent (or ready to send) Checks if / where the HTTP headers have been sent Sends an HTTP cookie to a client PHP 3 5 3 3 . There is no installation needed to use these functions.

6.setrawcookie() Sends an HTTP cookie without URL encoding the cookie value 5 PHP HTTP Constants None. XSLT and DOM functions.g.org PHP libxml Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function.17) 5 PHP Mail Functions PHP Mail Introduction The mail() function allows you to send emails directly from a script.g. .6. Download at xmlsoft. only available in 5 the DOMDocument->save() and DOMDocument->saveXML() functions Substitute entities 5 Do not show error reports 5 Stop network access while loading documents 5 Do not show warning reports 5 Drop the XML declaration when saving a document 5 Remove excess namespace declarations 5 Use XInclude substitution 5 Get recoverable errors 5 Get fatal errors 5 Get no errors 5 Get simple warnings 5 Get libxml version (e. 20605 or 20617) 5 Get dotted libxml version (e. PHP libxml Functions PHP libxml Introduction The libxml functions and constants are used together with SimpleXML. <br/> to <br></br>). This may improve the 5 application performance Set default DTD attributes 5 Load external subset 5 Validate with the DTD 5 Remove blank nodes 5 Set CDATA as text nodes 5 Change empty tags (e. 2.5 or 2.g. Installation These functions require the libxml package. Function libxml_clear_errors() libxml_get_errors() libxml_get_last_error() libxml_set_streams_context() libxml_use_internal_errors() Description Clear libxml error buffer Retrieve array of errors Retrieve last error from libxml Set the streams context for the next libxml document load or write Disable libxml errors and allow user to fetch error information as needed PHP 5 5 5 5 5 PHP libxml Constants Function LIBXML_COMPACT LIBXML_DTDATTR LIBXML_DTDLOAD LIBXML_DTDVALID LIBXML_NOBLANKS LIBXML_NOCDATA LIBXML_NOEMPTYTAG LIBXML_NOENT LIBXML_NOERROR LIBXML_NONET LIBXML_NOWARNING LIBXML_NOXMLDECL LIBXML_NSCLEAN LIBXML_XINCLUDE LIBXML_ERR_ERROR LIBXML_ERR_FATAL LIBXML_ERR_NONE LIBXML_ERR_WARNING LIBXML_VERSION LIBXML_DOTTED_VERSION Description PHP Set small nodes allocation optimization.

PHP requires an installed and working email system. PHP Math Functions PHP Math Introduction The math functions can handle values within the range of integer and float types. Installation The mail functions are part of the PHP core. There is no installation needed to use these functions.ini file.3 Windows only: Specifies the "from" address to PHP_INI_ALL be used in email sent from PHP Unix systems only: Specifies where the PHP_INI_SYSTEM sendmail program can be found (usually /usr/sbin/sendmail or /usr/lib/sendmail) PHP Mail Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. PHP Math Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. Installation The math functions are part of the PHP core. Function ezmlm_hash() mail() Description Calculates the hash value needed by the EZMLM mailing list system Allows you to send emails directly from a script PHP 3 3 PHP Mail Constants None. Function abs() acos() acosh() asin() asinh() atan() atan2() atanh() base_convert() bindec() Description Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number Returns the arctangent of a number as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.ini file. The program to be used is defined by the configuration settings in the php.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number Converts a number from one base to another Converts a binary number to a decimal number PHP 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 . PHP_INI_ALL Available since PHP 4. Runtime Configuration The behavior of the mail functions is affected by settings in the php. There is no installation needed to use these functions.Requirements For the mail functions to be available. Mail configuration options: Name SMTP smtp_port sendmail_from sendmail_path Default "localhost" "25" NULL NULL Description Changeable Windows only: The DNS name or IP address PHP_INI_ALL of the SMTP server Windows only: The SMTP port number.

718) Returns Euler's constant (approx.14159) Returns PI/2 (approx.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. 0. 0. 1. 1. 2.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.577) Returns the natural logarithm of PI (approx. 1. 0.ceil() cos() cosh() decbin() dechex() decoct() deg2rad() exp() expm1() floor() fmod() getrandmax() hexdec() hypot() is_finite() is_infinite() is_nan() lcg_value() log() log10() log1p() max() min() mt_getrandmax() mt_rand() mt_srand() octdec() pi() pow() rad2deg() rand() round() sin() sinh() sqrt() srand() tan() tanh() Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer 3 Returns the cosine of a number 3 Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number 4 Converts a decimal number to a binary number 3 Converts a decimal number to a hexadecimal number 3 Converts a decimal number to an octal number 3 Converts a degree to a radian number 3 x Returns the value of E 3 Returns the value of Ex . 3. 0.772) Returns 2/square root of PI (approx.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. 0.144) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.636) Returns the square root of PI (approx.434) Returns PI (approx.318) Returns 2/PI (approx. 2.785) Returns 1/PI (approx. 0. 1.570) Returns PI/4 (approx.1) 4 Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number 3 Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number 3 Returns log(1+number) 4 Returns the number with the highest value of two specified numbers 3 Returns the number with the lowest value of two specified numbers 3 Returns the largest possible value that can be returned by mt_rand() 3 Returns a random integer using Mersenne Twister algorithm 3 Seeds the Mersenne Twister random number generator 3 Converts an octal number to a decimal number 3 Returns the value of PI 3 Returns the value of x to the power of y 3 Converts a radian number to a degree 3 Returns a random integer 3 Rounds a number to the nearest integer 3 Returns the sine of a number 3 Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number 4 Returns the square root of a number 3 Seeds the random number generator 3 Returns the tangent of an angle 3 Returns the hyperbolic tangent of an angle 4 PHP Math Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant.1 4 Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer 3 Returns the remainder (modulo) of the division of the arguments 4 Returns the maximum random number that can be returned by a call to 3 the rand() function Converts a hexadecimal number to a decimal number 3 Returns the length of the hypotenuse of a right-angle triangle 4 Returns true if a value is a finite number 4 Returns true if a value is an infinite number 4 Returns true if a value is not a number 4 Returns a pseudo random number in the range of (0. Constant M_E M_EULER M_LNPI M_LN2 M_LN10 M_LOG2E M_LOG10E M_PI M_PI_2 M_PI_4 M_1_PI M_2_PI M_SQRTPI M_2_SQRTPI Description Returns e (approx. 1.128) PHP 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 .

ini) Changeable PHP_INI_ALL highlight. functions were only placed here because none of the other categories seemed to fit.g.keyword highlight. configuration options: Name ignore_user_abort Default "0" Description FALSE indicates that scripts will be terminated as soon as they try to output something after a client has aborted their connection Color for highlighting a string in PHP syntax Color for highlighting PHP comments Color for syntax highlighting PHP keywords (e. 1.g.comment highlight.bg highlight.732) 4 4 4 PHP Misc.default highlight. There is no installation needed to use these functions.414) Returns the square root of 3 (approx. Misc.0. 0.0. Installation The misc functions are part of the PHP core.M_SQRT1_2 M_SQRT2 M_SQRT3 Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.5 Returns the value of a constant Defines a constant Checks whether a constant exists Prints a message and exits the current script Evaluates a string as PHP code Prints a message and exits the current script Returns the capabilities of the user's browser Outputs a file with the PHP syntax highlighted Outputs a string with the PHP syntax highlighted Sets whether a remote client can abort the running of a script Packs data into a binary string Deprecated in PHP 5.ini file. Functions PHP Miscellaneous Introduction The misc. Function connection_aborted() connection_status() connection_timeout() constant() define() defined() die() eval() exit() get_browser() highlight_file() highlight_string() ignore_user_abort() pack() php_check_syntax() php_strip_whitespace() show_source() sleep() time_nanosleep() time_sleep_until() uniqid() unpack() Description Checks whether the client has disconnected Returns the current connection status Deprecated in PHP 4. Runtime Configuration The behavior of the misc functions is affected by settings in the php.5 Returns the source code of a file with PHP comments and whitespace removed Alias of highlight_file() Delays code execution for a number of seconds Delays code execution for a number of seconds and nanoseconds Delays code execution until a specified time Generates a unique ID Unpacks data from a binary string PHP 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 5 5 4 3 5 5 3 3 . browscap. Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. 1.html browscap "#DD0000" "#FF8000" "#007700" "#FFFFFF" "#0000BB" "#000000" NULL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_SYSTEM PHP Misc.string highlight. parenthesis and semicolon) Color for background Default color for PHP syntax Color for HTML code Name and location of browser-capabilities file (e.

PHP needs access to the MySQL client library. Available since PHP 4. When set to "1".ini file) should be set to the directory where the PHP extensions are located.default_host mysql. Use the --with-mysql=DIR configure option to include MySQL support and download headers and libraries from www.ini.dll must be enabled inside of php. and in order for PHP to talk to MySQL this file needs to be available to the Windows systems PATH. Note: For full functionality of MySQL versions greater than 4. Available PHP_INI_ALL since PHP 4. For compiling.dll cannot be found by the system.com.dll or libmysql.dll'".dll is included in the Windows PHP distribution. Runtime Configuration The behavior of the MySQL functions is affected by settings in the php./php_mysql. If you would like to install both the mysql extension and the mysqli extension you should use the same client library to avoid any conflicts. Installation on Linux Systems PHP 5+: MySQL and the MySQL library is not enabled by default. this is because php_mysql.max_links mysql.allow_persistent "1" mysql.default_port mysql. so the php_mysql. Note: If you get the following error when starting the web server: "Unable to load dynamic library '.ini file.usleep() Delays code execution for a number of microseconds 3 PHP Misc. MySQL configuration options: Name Default mysql. Also. you must compile PHP with MySQL support.trace_mode mysql.max_persistent mysql.3 The default TCP port number to use PHP_INI_ALL The default socket name to use.mysql. Installation For the MySQL functions to be available. the PHP extension_dir setting (in the php. An example extension_dir value is c:\php\ext. A file named libmysql. Installation on Windows Systems PHP 5+: MySQL is not enabled by default. To enable any PHP extension. warnings and PHP_INI_ALL SQL-errors will be displayed. use the MySQLi extension instead. Constant CONNECTION_ABORTED CONNECTION_NORMAL CONNECTION_TIMEOUT __COMPILER_HALT_OFFSET__ Description PHP 5 PHP MySQL Functions PHP MySQL Introduction The MySQL functions allows you to access MySQL database servers.0.default_user "-1" "-1" "0" NULL NULL NULL NULL Description Changeable Whether or not to allow persistent PHP_INI_SYSTEM connections The maximum number of persistent PHP_INI_SYSTEM connections per process The maximum number of connections per PHP_INI_SYSTEM process (persistent connections included) Trace mode. Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant..default_socket mysql.1 The default server host to use (doesn't apply PHP_INI_ALL in SQL safe mode) The default user name to use (doesn't apply in PHP_INI_ALL SQL safe mode) .1. use --with-mysql=DIR (the optional DIR points to the MySQL directory).

default_passwordNULL mysql.connect_timeout "60" The default password to use (doesn't apply in PHP_INI_ALL SQL safe mode) Connection timeout in seconds PHP_INI_ALL Resource Types There are two resource types used in the MySQL extension. Lists MySQL table fields. Use mysql_query() 3 instead Moves the record pointer 3 Returns a database name from a call to mysql_list_dbs() 3 Deprecated. Creates a new MySQL database. Lists tables in a MySQL database. The first one is the link_identifier for a database connection. Use mysql_query() 3 instead . Note: Most MySQL functions accept link_identifier as the last optional parameter. If it is not provided. Use 4 mysql_real_escape_string() instead Returns a row from a recordset as an associative array and/or a 3 numeric array Returns a row from a recordset as an associative array 4 Returns column info from a recordset as an object 3 Returns the length of the contents of each field in a result row 3 Returns a row from a recordset as an object 3 Returns a row from a recordset as a numeric array 3 Returns the flags associated with a field in a recordset 3 Returns the maximum length of a field in a recordset 3 Returns the name of a field in a recordset 3 Moves the result pointer to a specified field 3 Returns the name of the table the specified field is in 3 Returns the type of a field in a recordset 3 Free result memory 3 Returns MySQL client info 4 Returns MySQL host info 4 Returns MySQL protocol info 4 Returns MySQL server info 4 Returns information about the last query 4 Returns the AUTO_INCREMENT ID generated from the previous 3 INSERT operation Lists available databases on a MySQL server 3 Deprecated. Use mysql_query() instead 3 Lists MySQL processes 4 Deprecated. Use mysql_query() 3 instead Returns the error number of the last MySQL operation 3 Returns the error description of the last MySQL operation 3 Deprecated. the second is a resource which holds the result of a query. PHP MySQL Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function.mysql. Sends a MySQL query. Changes the user of the current MySQL connection 3 Returns the name of the character set for the current connection 4 Closes a non-persistent MySQL connection 3 Opens a non-persistent MySQL connection 3 Deprecated. Use mysql_select_db() and 3 mysql_query() instead Deprecated. Deletes a MySQL database. the last opened connection is used. Function mysql_affected_rows() mysql_change_user() mysql_client_encoding() mysql_close() mysql_connect() mysql_create_db() mysql_data_seek() mysql_db_name() mysql_db_query() mysql_drop_db() mysql_errno() mysql_error() mysql_escape_string() mysql_fetch_array() mysql_fetch_assoc() mysql_fetch_field() mysql_fetch_lengths() mysql_fetch_object() mysql_fetch_row() mysql_field_flags() mysql_field_len() mysql_field_name() mysql_field_seek() mysql_field_table() mysql_field_type() mysql_free_result() mysql_get_client_info() mysql_get_host_info() mysql_get_proto_info() mysql_get_server_info() mysql_info() mysql_insert_id() mysql_list_dbs() mysql_list_fields() mysql_list_processes() mysql_list_tables() Description PHP Returns the number of affected rows in the previous MySQL 3 operation Deprecated. Escapes a string for use in a mysql_query.

3 4. Constant MYSQL_CLIENT_COMPRESS MYSQL_CLIENT_IGNORE_SPACE MYSQL_CLIENT_INTERACTIVE MYSQL_CLIENT_SSL Description Use compression protocol Allow space after function names PHP 4. Installation The SimpleXML functions are part of the PHP core.3 the MySQL client library) The mysql_fetch_array() function uses a constant for the different types of result arrays.mysql_num_fields() mysql_num_rows() mysql_pconnect() mysql_ping() mysql_query() mysql_real_escape_string() mysql_result() mysql_select_db() mysql_stat() mysql_tablename() mysql_thread_id() mysql_unbuffered_query() Returns the number of fields in a recordset Returns the number of rows in a recordset Opens a persistent MySQL connection Pings a server connection or reconnects if there is no connection Executes a query on a MySQL database Escapes a string for use in SQL statements Returns the value of a field in a recordset Sets the active MySQL database Returns the current system status of the MySQL server Deprecated. Use mysql_query() instead Returns the current thread ID Executes a query on a MySQL database (without fetching / buffering the result) 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 PHP MySQL Constants Since PHP 4. with normal property selectors and array iterators. The following constants are defined: Constant MYSQL_ASSOC MYSQL_BOTH MYSQL_NUM Description PHP Columns are returned into the array with the fieldname as the array index Columns are returned into the array having both a numerical index and the fieldname as the array index Columns are returned into the array having a numerical index (index starts at 0) PHP SimpleXML Functions PHP SimpleXML Introduction The SimpleXML functions lets you convert XML to an object.3 it has been possible to specify additional flags for the mysql_connect() and mysql_pconnect() functions: PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. like any other object. This object can be processed. There is no installation needed to use these functions.3 Allow interactive timeout seconds of inactivity before 4. Some of these functions requires the newest PHP build. Returns the table name of field.3 closing the connection Use SSL encryption (only available with version 4+ of 4. Function __construct() addAttribute() addChild() asXML() attributes() children() Description Creates a new SimpleXMLElement object Adds an attribute to the SimpleXML element Adds a child element the SimpleXML element Gets an XML string from a SimpleXML element Gets a SimpleXML element's attributes Gets the children of a specified node PHP 5 5 5 5 5 5 . PHP SimpleXML Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function.

PHP String Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. Installation The string functions are part of the PHP core.getDocNamespaces() getName() getNamespace() registerXPathNamespace() simplexml_import_dom() simplexml_load_file() simplexml_load_string() xpath() Gets the namespaces of an XML document Gets the name of a SimpleXML element Gets the namespaces from XML data Creates a namespace context for the next XPath query Gets a SimpleXMLElement object from a DOM node Gets a SimpleXMLElement object from an XML document Gets a SimpleXMLElement object from an XML string Runs an XPath query on XML data 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 PHP SimpleXML Constants None PHP String Functions PHP String Introduction The string functions allow you to manipulate strings. There is no installation needed to use these functions. Function addcslashes() addslashes() bin2hex() chop() chr() chunk_split() convert_cyr_string() convert_uudecode() convert_uuencode() count_chars() crc32() crypt() echo() explode() fprintf() get_html_translation_table() hebrev() hebrevc() html_entity_decode() htmlentities() htmlspecialchars_decode() htmlspecialchars() implode() join() levenshtein() localeconv() ltrim() md5() md5_file() Description Returns a string with backslashes in front of the specified characters Returns a string with backslashes in front of predefined characters Converts a string of ASCII characters to hexadecimal values Alias of rtrim() Returns a character from a specified ASCII value Splits a string into a series of smaller parts Converts a string from one Cyrillic character-set to another Decodes a uuencoded string Encodes a string using the uuencode algorithm Returns how many times an ASCII character occurs within a string and returns the information Calculates a 32-bit CRC for a string One-way string encryption (hashing) Outputs strings Breaks a string into an array Writes a formatted string to a specified output stream Returns the translation table used by htmlspecialchars() and htmlentities() Converts Hebrew text to visual text Converts Hebrew text to visual text and new lines (\n) into <br /> Converts HTML entities to characters Converts characters to HTML entities Converts some predefined HTML entities to characters Converts some predefined characters to HTML entities Returns a string from the elements of an array Alias of implode() Returns the Levenshtein distance between two strings Returns locale numeric and monetary formatting information Strips whitespace from the left side of a string Calculates the MD5 hash of a string Calculates the MD5 hash of a file PHP 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 5 4 3 3 4 3 5 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 .

4 insensitive) Compares two strings using a "natural order" algorithm (case.4 sensitive) String comparison of the first n characters (case-insensitive) 4 String comparison of the first n characters (case-sensitive) 4 Searches a string for any of a set of characters 5 Returns the position of the first occurrence of a string inside 3 another string (case-sensitive) Finds the last occurrence of a string inside another string 3 Reverses a string 3 Finds the position of the last occurrence of a string inside 5 another string (case-insensitive) Finds the position of the last occurrence of a string inside 3 another string (case-sensitive) Returns the number of characters found in a string that contains 3 only characters from a specified charlist .metaphone() money_format() nl_langinfo() nl2br() number_format() ord() parse_str() print() printf() quoted_printable_decode() quotemeta() rtrim() setlocale() sha1() sha1_file() similar_text() soundex() sprintf() sscanf() str_ireplace() str_pad() str_repeat() str_replace() str_rot13() str_shuffle() str_split() str_word_count() strcasecmp() strchr() strcmp() strcoll() strcspn() strip_tags() stripcslashes() stripslashes() stripos() stristr() strlen() strnatcasecmp() strnatcmp() strncasecmp() strncmp() strpbrk() strpos() strrchr() strrev() strripos() strrpos() strspn() Calculates the metaphone key of a string 4 Returns a string formatted as a currency string 4 Returns specific local information 4 Inserts HTML line breaks in front of each newline in a string 3 Formats a number with grouped thousands 3 Returns the ASCII value of the first character of a string 3 Parses a query string into variables 3 Outputs a string 3 Outputs a formatted string 3 Decodes a quoted-printable string 3 Quotes meta characters 3 Strips whitespace from the right side of a string 3 Sets locale information 3 Calculates the SHA-1 hash of a string 4 Calculates the SHA-1 hash of a file 4 Calculates the similarity between two strings 3 Calculates the soundex key of a string 3 Writes a formatted string to a variable 3 Parses input from a string according to a format 4 Replaces some characters in a string (case-insensitive) 5 Pads a string to a new length 4 Repeats a string a specified number of times 4 Replaces some characters in a string (case-sensitive) 3 Performs the ROT13 encoding on a string 4 Randomly shuffles all characters in a string 4 Splits a string into an array 5 Count the number of words in a string 4 Compares two strings (case-insensitive) 3 Finds the first occurrence of a string inside another string (alias 3 of strstr()) Compares two strings (case-sensitive) 3 Locale based string comparison 4 Returns the number of characters found in a string before any 3 part of some specified characters are found Strips HTML and PHP tags from a string 3 Unquotes a string quoted with addcslashes() 4 Unquotes a string quoted with addslashes() 3 Returns the position of the first occurrence of a string inside 5 another string (case-insensitive) Finds the first occurrence of a string inside another string (case.3 insensitive) Returns the length of a string 3 Compares two strings using a "natural order" algorithm (case.

0 otherwise Set to 1 if the extended DES-based encryption with a 9 character salt is supported. 0 otherwise0 PHP XML Parser Functions PHP XML Parser Introduction The XML functions lets you parse. XML is a data format for standardized structured document exchange. . 0 otherwise Set to 1 if the MD5 encryption with a 12 character salt starting with $1$ is supported. For standard DES encryption. 0 otherwise Set to 1 if the Blowfish encryption with a 16 character salt starting with $2$ or $2a$ is supported. the length is 2 Set to 1 if the standard DES-based encryption with a 2 character salt is supported.3 sensitive) Splits a string into smaller strings 3 Converts a string to lowercase letters 3 Converts a string to uppercase letters 3 Translates certain characters in a string 3 Returns a part of a string 3 Compares two strings from a specified start position (binary 5 safe and optionally case-sensitive) Counts the number of times a substring occurs in a string 4 Replaces a part of a string with another string 4 Strips whitespace from both sides of a string 3 Converts the first character of a string to uppercase 3 Converts the first character of each word in a string to 3 uppercase Writes a formatted string to a specified output stream 5 Outputs a formatted string 4 Writes a formatted string to a variable 4 Wraps a string to a given number of characters 4 PHP String Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant.strstr() strtok() strtolower() strtoupper() strtr() substr() substr_compare() substr_count() substr_replace() trim() ucfirst() ucwords() vfprintf() vprintf() vsprintf() wordwrap() Finds the first occurrence of a string inside another string (case. Constant CRYPT_SALT_LENGTH CRYPT_STD_DES CRYPT_EXT_DES CRYPT_MD5 CRYPT_BLOWFISH HTML_SPECIALCHARS HTML_ENTITIES ENT_COMPAT ENT_QUOTES ENT_NOQUOTES CHAR_MAX LC_CTYPE LC_NUMERIC LC_TIME LC_COLLATE LC_MONETARY LC_ALL LC_MESSAGES STR_PAD_LEFT STR_PAD_RIGHT STR_PAD_BOTH Description PHP Contains the length of the default encryption method for the system. but not validate. More information on XML can be found in our XML Tutorial. XML documents.

Function utf8_decode() utf8_encode() xml_error_string() xml_get_current_byte_index() xml_get_current_column_number() xml_get_current_line_number() xml_get_error_code() xml_parse() xml_parse_into_struct() xml_parser_create_ns() xml_parser_create() xml_parser_free() xml_parser_get_option() xml_parser_set_option() xml_set_character_data_handler() xml_set_default_handler() xml_set_element_handler() xml_set_end_namespace_decl_handler() xml_set_external_entity_ref_handler() xml_set_notation_decl_handler() xml_set_object() xml_set_processing_instruction_handler() xml_set_start_namespace_decl_handler() xml_set_unparsed_entity_decl_handler() Description PHP Decodes an UTF-8 string to ISO-8859-1 3 Encodes an ISO-8859-1 string to UTF-8 3 Gets an error string from the XML parser 3 Gets the current byte index from the XML 3 parser Gets the current column number from the XML 3 parser Gets the current line number from the XML 3 parser Gets an error code from the XML parser 3 Parses an XML document 3 Parse XML data into an array 3 Create an XML parser with namespace support 4 Create an XML parser 3 Free an XML parser 3 Get options from an XML parser 3 Set options in an XML parser 3 Set handler function for character data 3 Set default handler function 3 Set handler function for start and end element 3 of elements Set handler function for the end of namespace 4 declarations Set handler function for external entities 3 Set handler function for notation declarations 3 Use XML Parser within an object 4 Set handler function for processing instruction 3 Set handler function for the start of namespace 4 declarations Set handler function for unparsed entity 3 declarations PHP XML Parser Constants Constant XML_ERROR_NONE (integer) XML_ERROR_NO_MEMORY (integer) XML_ERROR_SYNTAX (integer) XML_ERROR_NO_ELEMENTS (integer) XML_ERROR_INVALID_TOKEN (integer) XML_ERROR_UNCLOSED_TOKEN (integer) XML_ERROR_PARTIAL_CHAR (integer) XML_ERROR_TAG_MISMATCH (integer) XML_ERROR_DUPLICATE_ATTRIBUTE (integer) . if the document is not well formed it will end with an error message. Because it is an event-based. Expat is an event-based parser. non validating parser. Installation The XML functions are part of the PHP core. When an event occurs. it views an XML document as a series of events. However. There is no installation needed to use these functions. Expat is a non-validating parser.This extension uses the Expat XML parser. The XML parser functions lets you create XML parsers and define handlers for XML events. PHP XML Parser Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. Expat is fast and well suited for web applications. and ignores any DTDs linked to a document. it calls a specified function to handle it.

these libraries must be installed: • • The ZZIPlib library by Guido Draheim: Download the ZZIPlib library The Zip PELC extension: Download the Zip PELC extension Installation on Linux Systems PHP 5+: Zip functions and the Zip library is not enabled by default and must be downloaded from the links above. Function zip_close() zip_entry_close() zip_entry_compressedsize() zip_entry_compressionmethod() zip_entry_filesize() zip_entry_name() zip_entry_open() zip_entry_read() zip_open() zip_read() Description Closes a ZIP file Closes an entry in the ZIP file Returns the compressed size of an entry in the ZIP file Returns the compression method of an entry in the ZIP file Returns the actual file size of an entry in the ZIP file Returns the name of an entry in the ZIP file Opens an entry in the ZIP file for reading Reads from an open entry in the ZIP file Opens a ZIP file Reads the next entry in a ZIP file PHP 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 PHP Zip File Constants NONE . Use the --with-zip=DIR configure option to include Zip support. PHP Zip File Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function.ini. An example extension_dir value is c:\php\ext. Installation For the Zip file functions to work on your server.ini file) should be set to the directory where the PHP extensions are located.dll and the ZZIPlib library must be downloaded from the link above. php_zip. the PHP extension_dir setting (in the php.dll must be enabled inside of php. Installation on Windows Systems PHP 5+: Zip functions is not enabled by default. so the php_zip.XML_ERROR_JUNK_AFTER_DOC_ELEMENT (integer) XML_ERROR_PARAM_ENTITY_REF (integer) XML_ERROR_UNDEFINED_ENTITY (integer) XML_ERROR_RECURSIVE_ENTITY_REF (integer) XML_ERROR_ASYNC_ENTITY (integer) XML_ERROR_BAD_CHAR_REF (integer) XML_ERROR_BINARY_ENTITY_REF (integer) XML_ERROR_ATTRIBUTE_EXTERNAL_ENTITY_REF (integer) XML_ERROR_MISPLACED_XML_PI (integer) XML_ERROR_UNKNOWN_ENCODING (integer) XML_ERROR_INCORRECT_ENCODING (integer) XML_ERROR_UNCLOSED_CDATA_SECTION (integer) XML_ERROR_EXTERNAL_ENTITY_HANDLING (integer) XML_OPTION_CASE_FOLDING (integer) XML_OPTION_TARGET_ENCODING (integer) XML_OPTION_SKIP_TAGSTART (integer) XML_OPTION_SKIP_WHITE (integer) PHP Zip File Functions PHP Zip File Introduction The Zip files functions allows you to read ZIP files. To enable any PHP extension.

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