Table of contents CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION..............................................................................1 1.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................1 1.

1.1 Importance of a management plan......................................................................1 1.2 Owner’s objectives of management...........................................................................2 1.3 Objectives of assessment...........................................................................................2 1.3.1General objective.....................................................................................................2 1.3.2 Specific objectives..............................................................................................2 1.4 Description of Study area...........................................................................................3 1.4.1 Location..................................................................................................................3 1.4.2 Climate....................................................................................................................3 1.4.4Geology and soils.................................................................................................4 1.4.7 Socio-economic characteristics of the area.........................................................5 CHAPTER TWO: STATUS OF THE FOREST RESOURCE...........................................6 2.1 Data and methods.......................................................................................................6 2.1.1 Study design and Sampling procedures..............................................................6 2.1.1.2 Area determination.......................................................................................6 2.1.2 Data Analysis......................................................................................................7 2.2.1 Species planted, Period of planting and Spacing pattern....................................8 2.2.3 Silvicultural treatments and forest protection.....................................................8 CHAPTER THREE: FUTURE MANAGEMENT PRESCRIPTIONS.............................11 3.1 Compartment Specifications....................................................................................12 3.1.1.2 Species Choice...........................................................................................12 3.1.1.3 Soil collection and mixing.........................................................................13 3.1.1.4 Bedding......................................................................................................13 3.1.1.5 Seed broadcasting .....................................................................................14 3.1.1.6 Pricking out................................................................................................14 3.1.1.8 Root pruning..............................................................................................14 3.1.1.9 Hardening off.................................................................................................14 3.1.2 Methods of clearing ....................................................................................16 3.1.3 Planting operations............................................................................................16 3.1.4 Silvicultural activities for Category A and B Compartments...........................18 3.1.4.1 Weeding and beating up.............................................................................18 3.1.4.2 Thinning: Timing and frequency ..............................................................18 3.1.5 Fire protection measures...................................................................................19 3.1.6 Diseases protection measures include;..............................................................19 3.1.7 Planned Harvesting operations/Harvesting Plan...............................................20 3.1.7.1 Year 3-First thinning..................................................................................20 3.1.7.2 Year 6-Second thinning.............................................................................20 3.1.7.3 Year 8-Third thinning................................................................................21 3.1.7.4 Year 15-Clear felling.................................................................................21 3.1.8 Rotation & Scheduling......................................................................................21 3.1.9 Reasons for sequencing of harvesting activities...............................................22 3.1.10 Tools and methods to be used.........................................................................22 3.4.11 Annual Allowable Cut (AAC)........................................................................23

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Chapter IV: Economic analysis of the Management options.............................................27 4.1 Management option A (Timber production)............................................................27 4.2 Management option B (Production of electric poles)..............................................27 4.3 Financial analysis.....................................................................................................27 4.4 NPV analysis............................................................................................................28 Chapter V: Miscellaneous Prescriptions............................................................................31 5.1 Biodiversity and ecological balance........................................................................31 5.2 Implementation and Monitoring..............................................................................31 5.2.1 Monitoring .......................................................................................................31 5.2.2 Infrastructure ....................................................................................................32 5.2.3 Road network...................................................................................................32 5.2.4 Logistics............................................................................................................32 5.2.5 Reports and records...........................................................................................32 Chapter VI: |Conclusion and Recommendations...............................................................34 6.1 Conclusion...............................................................................................................34 6.2 Recommendations....................................................................................................34 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................35 APPENDICES...................................................................................................................36 Appendix I: socio-economic data check list......................................................................36 Appendix III: Operating costs for timber production(Option 1).......................................37 Appendix IV: Operating costs for production of Electric poles (option 2).......................42 Appendix V: Revenues from logging for Prof.Banana’s plantation.............................46 Appendix VI, Revenues from Electric poles ................................................................47 Appendix VII: Status of the plantation..............................................................................50 Appendix VIII: showing data entry sheet for the different compartments........................50

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview Forest management is the application of appropriate technical forestry principles, practices, and business techniques for example accounting and cost/benefit analysis to the management of a forest to achieve the owner’s objectives. The plan is usually developed by a professional consulting forester and specifies all silvicultural practices and activities necessary to accomplish the merchantable production of a forest product and all practices that will minimize adverse environmental effects . Forest Management Plans are voluntary and are of great importance to forest landowners. Developing a Forest Management Plan helps landowners to clarify short and long term objectives for their property. Through the process, they inventory current conditions of their forest resources, determine which resource protection or enhancement measures would be beneficial on their property, and develop an organized sequence of activities to accomplish objectives. 1.1.1 Importance of a management plan Forest management plans are of great importance in management of forest resources in a variety of ways.  Institute practices to protect natural resources of the site including: soil, water, fish and wildlife, natural vegetation, recreation, and aesthetic resources.      Balance the economic, ecological and social values of forested parcels. Maintain healthy forest ecosystems through active management. Increase economic, environmental, and social benefits the property provides. Where feasible, coordinate forest management across property boundaries. Manage forest resources for long-term stewardship beyond the tenure of current ownership.  Maintain natural vegetation systems by addressing removal of noxious and invasive plant species.

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1.2 Owner’s objectives of management  To produce building poles in after three years of Eucalyptus plantation establishment.  To produce fencing poles after four to six years of Eucalyptus plantation establishment.  To produce electric poles after eight to ten years of Eucalyptus plantation establishment.  To produce timber after fifteen years of Eucalyptus plantation establishment.

1.3 Objectives of assessment 1.3.1General objective  To prepare a forest management plan for Professor Banana’s plantation for the next 10 years. 1.3.2 Specific objectives  To produce a map showing the extent and stratification of the plantation.  To estimate/compute the standing volume of the plantation.  To prepare a cost-benefit analysis for management of forest for electric poles alone, for timber production alone or a combination of electric poles and timber.  To document the implications of socio-economic issues on plantation management.

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1.4 Description of Study area 1.4.1 Location The area is located in Kidukulu village, Buhanika sub county, Bugahya county, Hoima district. The district is located in the mid-western parts of the country being bordered by Bundibugyo and Kibaale districts to the south, Kiboga to the east, Masindi to the north and Lake Albert to west and shares an international boundary with the Democratic Republic of Congo. The district lies between latitudes 1000’N and 2000’N and longitudes 30030’E and 31045’E. It covers a total land area of 5,932.7 (5775) (DIP,2003)km2, 38%of which is occupied by water bodies and 12% forests A detailed map developed (using the GPS co-ordinates) showing the boundaries of Prof. Banana’s plantation in Hoima district is shown below.

1.4.2 Climate Rainfall and Temperature

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Kidukuru village in Hoima district receives a total rainfall of about 700 to 1000mm per annum with a bi-modal distribution, that is, wetter months are March-May and AugustNovember. Rainfall is distributed fairly evenly through out the year, with two dry spells occurring in June/July and December/January, and this defines a well marked wet and dry seasons. However, these seasons are no longer reliable as they were in the past. Mean annual temperature is 280C. Temperatures are generally high ranging between 150C to 320C. 1.4.3 Topography and Hydrology Kidukuru village on the hill is 30 to 50m or more above the valleys, and generally Hoima district lies within an altitude range of 621 m and 1,158 m above sea level. This makes it one of the lowest and hottest areas in the country. Generally, the district has an area of 5,932 sq km, of which 2,268.6 sq km is occupied by water bodies, mostly Lake Albert, and 712.3 sq km is forest. Other water bodies in the district include; Rivers Howa, Wambabya, Hoima and Waki (draining into Lake Albert) and River Kafu which forms a boundary with Kibaale District and drains into Lake Kyoga. Compared to the other neighbouring districts, Hoima has got substantial surface water resources (about 38% of the total area).

1.4.4Geology and soils

The largest proportion of the district is made of sedimentary beds geological series mainly represented by tillites and phyllites with subsidiary amounts of sandstones and conglomerates as basal members. These rocks are generally classified under Precambrian era which are part of the dissected African surface. . Rift valley and the associated geology occurs in areas affected by rift valley faulting and their distribution follows the weathered detritus that had accumulated prior to faulting which has been removed by post rift valley geological erosion. Therefore the rocks consists of quartzites stones. Other rocks affected by post rift valley erosion include quartzites, granites and schists. These occur along the south-eastern boundary in Buhinga, Buhanika and

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Kyabigambire sub-counties. Along Lake Albert shores in Buseruka sub-county is a broad tract of river and lake alluvium laid down as rift valley floor deposits. The soils are mainly yellowish-red clay loams on sedimentary beds and they occupy parts of Bugahya and Buhaguzi counties. There are also dark brown, black loams found on flat areas of the village and these are mainly of low to medium productivity. Their depth depends on the vegetation cover and landuse. They are suitable for coffee and maize. On the other hand, greyish-black sands which are base deficient and acidic, generally occupy valley floors. These alluvial soils are of low productivity.

1.4.6 Vegetation and Wildlife Vegetation in Kidukuru village varies from medium altitude moist forests, forest-savanna mosaic, savanna, swamps to post-cultivation communities. The forest-savanna mosaic is the most widespread and consists of a mixture of forest remnants, incoming savanna trees and a grass layer dominated by Pennisetum Purpureum (elephant grass). Generally wild life population in Kidukuru village is low. This is partly due to habitat loss for these animals due to agricultural encroachment. Wild life is mainly concentrated in areas that have fairly heavy vegetation and in many cases thinly populated. Monkeys, baboons, antelopes and pigs are known to exist.

1.4.7 Socio-economic characteristics of the area Population Hoima district has got a population of 341,700 people comprising approximately 49.7% females and 50.3% males. Hoima district is designated as a rural locality with a large proportion of its people comprising rural dwellers and very few urban dwellers. The residents are predominantly peasant cultivators though some fishing is carried out on Lake Albert

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CHAPTER TWO: STATUS OF THE FOREST RESOURCE 2.1 Data and methods 2.1.1 Study design and Sampling procedures

2.1.1.1 House hold interview This approach was used to capture socio-economic data of the surrounding communities to assess their attitude and perception towards the plantation establishment. A check list (Appendix.I) was developed to collect the above information. The check list was used to directly interview house holds with the help of some one who knew the distribution of different house holds and knew the local language. 2.1.1.2 Sample plot assessment Data was collected from each compartment of the plantation using systematic sampling method. At the edge of each compartment, the centre was established by the eye’s observation. To avoid the edge effect that would bring unreliable results, a distance of 20m was measured using a measuring tape and at this point the first plot was established. A base line was established to cover as big area as possible and to cover equal portions of each compartment using a compass bearing. A number of sample plots depending on the size of each compartment were made at the 20m spacing and they were (20x10m) in size which also alternated each other along the base line. Demarcation of the plot boundaries was done using pieces of ribbon

2.1.1.2 Area determination The area of the entire plantation was determined using a GPS receiver starting from a point at the home of the plantation owner and then moving around the boundary of the plantation while recording the coordinates of way-points at corners as well as their attributes for clarity. These coordinates were recorded as Northings and Eastings which were expressed in the format of Degrees Minutes Seconds (DMS).

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After moving around the entire external forest boundary, the way-points for internal boundaries were recorded by moving along the compartment boundaries in a systematic manner. These results were to help in generating the forest map showing the different compartments from which the area of the entire map as well as the area of different compartments were to be determined. A sketch of the map of the plantation was also made to get an overview (rough idea) of how the map would look like.

2.1.2 Data Analysis Forest data was analysed using Huber’s formula to determine the standing volume per tree and the gross volume per plot. The gross volume was extrapolated basing on the area of a single plot to obtain the corresponding gross volume per hectare. With the aid of a reduction factor and depending on the proportion of no-saw logs relative to that of saw logs, the net volume per hectare was computed which excluded the bark and other wastes and the result was the under bark volume expressed in m3. The way- point coordinates recorded from the GPS receiver were entered in Ms Excel and later imported into Arcview GIS software for further processing in order to generate the map of the plantation and its total area as well as the area of each of the compartments. Socio-economic data was coded in order to transform qualitative data into quantitative data. The coded data was entered in SPSS and depending on the objectives that were formulated correlations were run to determine the relationships between: For some percentages of responses were obtained using SPSS and these were entered into Ms Excel from which a compound bar graphs were drawn to enable comparisons to be made between the benefits the local people derived from the plantation before and those benefits derived after plantation establishment.

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2.2 PLANTING AND SILVICULTURAL OPERATIONS 2.2.1 Species planted, Period of planting and Spacing pattern The main species planted is eucalyptus grandis and was first planted in 1995. An irregular pattern of planting is experienced due to the practices of taungya where farmers are allowed to first plant their crops before harvesting lining out is done and there is a possibility of a planting spot coinciding with the planting spots of farmers crops then those spots of eucalyptus species would be shifted resulting into an irregular pattern. 2.2.2 Problems encountered during planting There were no necessary equipments required to effectively follow the proper planting regimes. For proper and timely planting to occur, the necessary equipments such as, pangas, hoes, strings, slashers need to be in place however, due to limited resources at the start, some of these equipments were not available. Lack of skilled labour. Planting as an operation in forestry requires people with skills in silviculture to follow the right procedures like giving proper spacing during lining out depending on the species and site classification. However, this was not the case as casual labourers were used rather than professionals. In addition to the above, there was shortage of labour and this made the planting process a bit slow. 2.2.3 Silvicultural treatments and forest protection Beating up was carried out in compartment five several times and this was attributed to severe droughts in the area which led to mass deaths of the seedlings that had been planted out. Weeding is going on in all the compartments. Where natural pasture exists, hand weeding is carried out after every four months and this is done three times a year. In compartments where there is no pasture, clean hoeing is first carried out, pasture planted

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and then weeded with hoes in three months. Hand weeding is carried out thereafter every four months for one year and later six months. 2.3 Stocking & Harvesting operations 2.3.1 Crop performance Generally the crop performance in the different compartments was good with the exception of compartment 4 and 5. 2.3.2 Stand Volume Assessment Huber’s formula was used to obtain the over bark volume per tree and the total over bark volume per plot obtained by summing up the average volumes of individual trees within that plot thus giving the gross volume per plot Depending on the percentage of no-saw logs obtained per plot, a suitable reduction factor was selected and used to determine the net standing volume per plot which was extrapolated to obtain the corresponding net standing volume per compartment. Standing volume was computed using Huber’s formula given as: V = πdm2L 4 Where V = volume overbark for a tree dm = diameter at breast height L = average height of the tree

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Table 1: Thinning volumes expected Thin stage 1 2 3 Fell Age(years) 3 6 8 15 Thinning Vol.(m3) 0 355.043 536.652 1290.803

Table 2: Net standing volume for the different compartments Year Compartme nt No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 and 7 Total 1995 1998 2001 2003 2006 Not planted planting of Average standing Ha 786.784 231.795 291.9 282.65 Not assessed Compartment volume(m3) per Area (Ha) 1.03 3.86 2.87 1.74 Not assessed Gross standing Net standing volume over volume (m3) 0f GSVob) 607.791 671.047 628.315 368.858 2276.011 bark (GSVob) (75% (m3) 810.388 894.729 837.753 491.811 Not assessed -

2.4 Socio-economic data

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Taungya is being practiced by farmers surrounding the plantation where they cultivate and plant tobacco in March and harvest in June while others plant rice in July and harvest in December. One of the variables assessed during the collection of socio-economic data was taungya information under which respondents were asked if they had practice taungya in Professor Banana’s plantation. Out of the 14 respondents, the results showed that 14% have practiced taungya while 86% have never practiced it. The plantation owner has good social relations with the local people surrounding the plantation. This can be exhibited in the data collected about the nature of the relationship these people have with management of this plantation

CHAPTER THREE: FUTURE MANAGEMENT PRESCRIPTIONS

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3.1 Compartment Specifications 3.1.1 Category A; compartments that should be planted in the future are 6 and 7 and compartment 5 should be replanted because of severe drought that occurred and killed the formally planted seedlings and those remained were infected by Leptocybe invasa. 3.1.2 Category B; compartments that require silvicultural treatments are 2, 3 and 4 because they are not yet mature to be harvested . 3.1.3 Category C; compartment that is ready for harvesting is 1 because it has mature trees with bigger dbh. Category A Compartments 3.1.1.2 Species Choice The main species planted is Eucalyptus grandis because of its good qualities, which include:  It grows very fast with large straight stems for large-sized poles and also for timber production, and thus provides good income at an early stage.  It develops fairly thin branches and therefore exhibits good self-pruning properties, which in turn minimises pruning costs.  It is so much adaptive to continually changing climatic conditions and this therefore makes it perform in different growing sites. It has good rooting and coppicing properties and therefore can easily establish well either by seedling planting or by coppicing management system which eliminates the costs of replanting after harvest

Nursery activities

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3.1.1.3 Soil collection and mixing Prepared soil mixtures (50% of the sand and 50% of loam) are preferred for Eucalyptus seedbeds and transplant pots. Soil mixing is done under a shelter in order to prevent rapid evaporation of water from the soil. Good soil mixtures are qualified in the following ways in order for Eucalyptus seedlings to thrive well;  The soils should be well drained so that water can easily percolate into deep layers in order to prevent excessive water logging.  These soils should be light in weight to increase the sizes of spaces for easy movement of water within the soil.  The soil should not have high clay content since clay soils are very compact and this tends to limit down ward movement of water which leads to water logging and may eventually kill the seedlings.  Nursery soils should be free from insects as these can damage the seeds before germination and seedlings.  In the soils suitable for the nursery, all organic matter should be decomposed for maximum nutrient supply and improved water penetration into the soil. In order to meet the above qualifications 50% of the sand and 50% of loam should be mixed to produce a sandy-loam texture. 3.1.1.3.2 Potting The mixed soil is then filled in the polythene tubes which are cut in the dimensions of 12cm (4.8”) lengths and 7.5cm (3”) lay flat, for Eucalyptus. When potting, the soil should be tightly compacted in the first 1/3 of the pot, and then the remaining 2/3 portion soil is just filled into the pot and not compacted. The essence of compacting the soil tightly is to prevent the soil from falling out via the bottom of the pot when the pot is lifted up.

3.1.1.4 Bedding After pot filling, pots are put in the beds which are aligned in an East-West arrangement form. Such beds should be about 20cm long and about 1m wide with a separation of 1m

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between individual beds. Shelter is provided to those beds to prevent drying of the soils in the pots. 3.1.1.5 Seed broadcasting Eucalyptus seeds are broadcasted on the prepared seed bed and then a thin layer of sand is sprinkled on top to just cover the seeds and also to prevent soil surface hardening. Water is applied immediately to ensure successful germination. After one week Eucalyptus seeds germinate and watering is continued to ensure survival 3.1.1.6 Pricking out This is the process of removing Eucalyptus seedlings from the seed beds for transplanting in the pots under shed. This is done with great care after the seedlings have shown true leaves. Watering is continued in order to ensure the survival of the pricked seedlings, if proper growth is to be maximized. 3.1.1.7 Weeding This is the removal of unwanted plants form the nursery beds which if left compete with the seedlings for light, nutrients and water and as a result seedlings can be out competed and thus ending up dieing. Weeding should also be done around the nursery and between the beds to maintain nursery hygiene. 3.1.1.8 Root pruning This is done in order to prevent roots from penetrating into the ground when the eucalyptus seedlings are still in the nursery bed. Since roots spread laterally and intertwine with the neighboring individual plants which would cause damage during lifting for planting out, root pruning ensures that the seedlings have enough roots to survive when planted out in the field.

3.1.1.9 Hardening off This operation introduces the seedlings to harsh conditions which are very likely to be found in the field; that is, there is reduced water supply and increased frequent root

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pruning. The process results into a short rest in plant growth. Hardening off operation is done 2-3 weeks before planting out. Seedling sorting This operation is intended to deliver high quality seedlings which are expected to perform well if all the necessary conditions are available out side in the field. Seedling sorting involves many activities such as;  Culling; This is the removal of diseased, very small, damaged and those ones with poor root system from the general stock.  Grading; This is the ranking of seedlings with all the basic qualifications which will ensure maximum performance in the field even though there is lack of all the necessary conditions. Spacing and plant requirements The spacing pattern to be adopted is 3.0 X 3.0 m. This is because of one of the intended management options (growing trees for timber). Site preparation and planting Initial ground clearing is an integral part of plantation establishment with major aim of securing both Eucalyptus seedlings’ high survival and rapid early growth. If this bush cover is not removed or suppressed, it might inhibit growth of introduced species through competition. The most important issue with land preparation is to time it so that the land is cleared in time for subsequent operations such as, lining out, pitting and pre-plant spraying. Timing as an important factor, clearing the site when it’s too late leads to planting late in the rainy season and clearing too early leads to rapid and heavy growth of weeds which will again have to be cleared when planting. These preparations are early investments and may constitute of large portion of establishment costs and therefore operations involved should be minimized as far as possible. So an appropriate cost saving method is preferred for land clearing for example, pilling and burning the trash helps to ease the subsequent weeding operations and also it makes the site easier to mark out for planting.

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3.1.2 Methods of clearing Chemical method; this involves the spraying of chemicals to the unwanted grass in order to ease further operations. The method is more appropriate to large fields since it can clear weeds within a short period of time, but its disadvantage is that it affects both plant and animal life in the area of application as they seep down the soil and reaching the water table which is disastrous to future life. Burning; this is the most common method of initial clearing since its very cheap and effective when applied. But the disadvantage with it is that, when not carefully controlled it can destroy even the non intended plants and even it can lad to extinction of some good plant species. Ground cultivation; this is a preferred method of clearing since it facilitates root penetration, improves soil aeration and water penetration. Ground cultivation reduces weed cover but the extent of cultivation depends on the type of vegetation present and the species to be planted. For example, Eucalyptus species need initial ground cultivation since they are very sensitive to weeds as compared to other plantation species

3.1.3 Planting operations Lining out This is carefully done using a string with marks at interval of 3m, and thus the resultant planting spacing of 3 X 3m. This spacing pattern provides 1111 stems per hectare. It is important to note that planting at 1111 stems per hectare (3 X 3m spacing pattern) compared to 1372 stems per hectare (2.7 X 2.7m spacing pattern), represents almost 20% saving in planting costs and in the labour intensive preparation of pits. A bigger space between the rows is good because it makes chemical and mechanical weeding very easy after establishment of the plantation. Pitting

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This is the digging of holes where the seedlings are to be planted in. It’s of great importance to prepare good planting pits so that young seedlings get the best start possible. These pits should be a minimum of 25cm in diameter with the soil well cultivated to a depth of 30cm. When pitting, the top soils should be put separate from the sub soils. They shouldn’t be prepared so early in advance to planting and also planting shouldn’t be done immediately after pitting until it rains 3 times. Planting This operation should be done carefully to prevent damage of tender seedlings during planting. Potted seedlings are preferred than bare-rooted ones, because bare rooted seedlings can abruptly detect the change in environment, which negatively affect their initial establishment. When planting, the polythene tube is torn to remove the seedling with the roots still intact with the pot soils and this seedling is inserted in the pit. The top (nutritious) soils are filled first followed by the sub soils in the pit with the plant up to the seedling’s root collar. Timing of planting Planting is done in both the first (March – May) and the second (August - November) rainy seasons. The second season is longer and the rain is more reliable, therefore much of the planting will be done in the second season with long rains while beating up will be done in both rainy seasons. Beating up is carried out if the survival percentage of the planted crop is below 75%. All clear felled areas will be replanted as soon as possible, that is within the same year to minimize costs of ground clearing due to weeds and reduce competition with the seedlings thus quick establishment. Seedlings are to be handled with great care in order to minimize damages and losses.

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3.1.4 Silvicultural activities for Category A and B Compartments 3.1.4.1 Weeding and beating up Weeding is done by farmers through taungya during the earlier years of the trees until the canopy of the trees is about to close that is as they weed their crops they weed the trees too. The taungya system ensures clean weeding of the crop and hence fastens the early establishment of the crop. However, if not done well, it may as well impede early establishment as sometimes the farmers may damage the young and tender tree roots or even the tree tops However, after the canopy closes, slash weeding should be adopted and carried at a frequency lower than than when taungya was being used. When the trees become bigger, that is in about the third or fourth year after planting, the frequency of slash weeding is further reduced due to the subsequent introduction of pastures in the plantation. 3.1.4.2 Thinning: Timing and frequency This is the removal of excess stems from the plantation crop beyond sapling stage both of the same species and different species aiming at reducing competition, increasing light penetration as well as acquiring more growing space. Thinning is absolutely an essential operation as it maximizes the yield of large sow logs, since if early heavy thinning is considered, poor quality trees are eliminated (diseased, over topped and crooked). Thinning is also done in stages and each thinning stage obviously yields some trees, though in the first thinning the yield is very small. This provides some useful income to the grower, prior to the main sale of high quality sow logs at the rotation age. The timing of Eucalyptus plantation thinning and frequency is show in the table below. Table 3: Number of stems expected in an hectare after thinning Thin stage Age(years) From (sph) 1 3 1111 2 6 750 3 8 500 Fell 15 350

To (sph) 750 500 350

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3.1.5 Fire protection measures Eucalyptus is highly susceptible to fires especially due to the very thin bark and also the presence of resins in its wood which are highly combustible as well as the litter or leaf blanket that is found in many eucalypt plantations which serves as the fuel load to accelerate the flames. As such, within the plantation, a network of fire breaks and/or fire lines need to be established even around the plantation to block both internal fires from spreading from one compartment to another and external fires from spreading into the plantation and therefore, avoiding or reducing damage or loss from fires. Local communities are the major cause of fire outbreak in the forest due to their activities of shifting cultivation and this calls for;  Sensitization of the public about the dangers of forest fires and their causes using posters and fire warnings in different local languages.  All college employees, local communities and students should be trained and equipped with information in fire fighting.  Fire equipment and tools required should be overhauled, cleaned and always ready at hand.  Firebreaks (fire lines) must be cleared and controlled burning done before drought causes fire hazards.  Radios and other communication systems should be operational throughout the fire season.

3.1.6 Diseases protection measures include;  Regular inspection of the plantation to tress for any incidences of disease followed by appropriate remedial actions (chemical spraying of infected trees or removing them) to minimize spread of pests and diseases.

Table 4: planting and thinning schedule

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Cpt 2

Planting year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Area (ha) 3.86

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

3 4 5 6&7 Where;

2.87 1.74 0.71

T3 T2 T1 T1 T3 T2 T3 T2 T3

T1=1st Thinning T2=2nd Thinning T3=3rd Thinning All Compartments 3.1.7 Planned Harvesting operations/Harvesting Plan Harvesting of Eucalyptus trees for timber commences after 15 years (Rotation period). It involves a number of operations which include; 3.1.7.1 Year 3-First thinning In this operation only 361 stems per hectare (3X3 spacing pattern) are harvested. A small percentage may be utilized as saw logs as the diameters are small and the poorest trees selected. However it may yield a good number of poles or fence posts, plus fuel wood.

3.1.7.2 Year 6-Second thinning The trees will be of larger diameters where 250 stems per hectare (3X3 spacing pattern) will be harvested. However only tentatively 10-50% of the harvested volume will be utilized as saw logs since only trees of the poorer stem quality are removed.

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3.1.7.3 Year 8-Third thinning This operation yields 150 stems per hectare in a 3X3 spacing pattern. This thinning will produce many good saw logs; tentatively 30-70% of the harvested volume can be utilized as saw logs. 3.1.7.4 Year 15-Clear felling Clear felling marks the peak of the harvesting operation where 350 stems are felled. Table 5: Planned Harvesting operations Cpt 1 2 Planting year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Area (ha) 1.03 3.86 2008 2009 2010 CF CF 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

3 4 5 6&7 Where;

2.87 1.74 0.71

T3 T2 T1 T1 T3 T2 T3 T2

CF

T3

T1=1st Thinning T2=2nd Thinning T3=3rd Thinning CF=Clear felling

3.1.8 Rotation & Scheduling For production of timber, the rotation age is 15 years.

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3.1.9 Reasons for sequencing of harvesting activities First thinning is done to remove poor crops leaving straight trees of better quality and to increase the spacing in the crop. It ensures the removal of rotten, diseased and suppressed trees. The thinnings will however produce an interim crop of firewood which could be an important source of income. Second and third thinning are done to maximize space that encourages diameter increment. They are more selective leaving behind the best trees but fairly spaced to grow to a bigger size. The thinnings produce poles and saw logs which could be an important source of income. Table 6: Timing of rotation for fencing poles, building poles, electric poles and timber Products Fencing poles Building poles electric poles Timber Age(years) 3 6 8 15 Original of stems 1111 750 500 350 number Number of stems remaining 750 500 350

3.1.10 Tools and methods to be used Tools to be used during harvesting operation include; Pangas, Axes, two-man cross cut saws and even a power saw. Method to be used for harvesting is selective and directional felling for production of poles and also clear felling for production of timber FUTURE YIELD ESTIMATION Table 7: Logging and harvesting plan Compt. No. 1 Stocked area 1.03 Vol. from Vol. from Total mature crop (m3) 607.791 thinning (m3) 607.791 volumes Suggested Harvesting period 2009

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2 3 4

3.86 2.87 1.74

671.047 84.918 132.814

671.047 84.918 132.814

2012 2015 2017

3.4.11 Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) The Annual Allowable Cut is a reflection of the amount timber to be cut annually. It is useful as it ensures sustainable production through regulation of harvesting levels of the crop. At harvesting time, an average volume of 250 stems/ha is anticipated. The AAC is calculated by considering the first planting, the rotation period of the species and the period over which harvesting is to take place. The estimated yield will be as shown below Total Volume from thinning Total volume = 217.734 m3 = 1496.57 m3

Volume from mature crop = 1278.838 m3

The AAC for this plantation will therefore be: AAC = Total volume Rotation period = 1496.57 15 = 99.77m3 Table 8: Logging plan for the mature crop Com part ment 1 Planti ng year 1995 Are a (ha) 1.03 607.791m3 23 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 201 2015 4 2016

x35000 (F) =2127268 5/= 2 1998 3.86 671.0 47X3 5000 (F)=2 34866 45/= 3 2001 2.87 250 X20 00 X 2.87 (T2) =143 5000 /= 150 X20 000 X2.8 7 (T3) = 8610 000/ 4a 2003 0.09 = 250 X0.0 9X2 000 (T2) = 4500 0/= 150 X 0.09 X20 000( T3) = 2700 00/= 250 X0.7 5 2006 0.71 361 1X2 150 X0. 628.315 X35000 (F) 5/= = 2199102

24

X0.7 1X1 000 (T1) = 2563 10/=

000 (T2) = 3550 00/=

71 X2 000 0 (T3 ) = 213 000 0/=

4b

2007

1.65

361X 1.65X 1000 T1) = 595650/=(

250X 1.65X 2000 = 82500 0/= (T2)

150X1 .65X2 0000 = 49500 00/= (T3)

TOT ALS

10.2 1

1435 000

0

8911 310

21868335

2700 00

3550 00

24311 645

213 49500 000 00 0

2199102 5

Potential marketing opportunities • • • • Uganda electricity distribution company limited (UEDCL), for electric poles. Construction companies for building poles Nile ply Uganda limited. Carpentry work shops were eucalyptus timber is converted into desirable products like tables, chairs. Use local labour

25

This saves as employment to the local people and usually this labour is cheap. It helps to minimise production costs and hence the plantation owner gets more profits.

How to Maintain a good relationship with local people Through provision of jobs to the local people like during weeding and slashing. Also through allowing this people to collect fire wood from the plantation.

26

Chapter IV: Economic analysis of the Management options The plausible management options were basically two; • • Timber production Production of electric poles

4.1 Management option A (Timber production) In the plantation there were some trees which were over 10 years and these were taken to be the ones for timber production. They were to be tendered to until they reach the rotation period of at least 15 years. 4.2 Management option B (Production of electric poles) Eucalyptus grandis will produce electric poles after 8 to 10 years to complement timber production. All trees which had been planted for timber production earlier alone but not yet reached 10 years old were to be terminated and be harvested for electric poles. This is because the market demand is high for electric poles and also thought that it would reduce on the management costs like tending this crop until rotation period at 15 years. 4.3 Financial analysis Financial analysis is done to establish the possibility and feasibility of the various options to select the best possible option. Various criteria are used in the selection of a suitable choice that meets the requirements of the demand. Economic efficiency criteria are used to compare the costs and revenues accrued in the given management plan period. There are many tools used in financial analysis and they include; net present value (NPV), soil expectation value (SEV), internal rate of return (IRR). NPV was the main tool used for financial analysis. An interest rate of 8% was used for discounting to reflect the miscellaneous costs and risks not included in the analysis. NPV is given by the formula
t =n t =0

NPV= ∑ Rt /(1 + i ) − Ct /(1 + i )

27

Where NPV= Net present value Rt Ct t i n = Discounted revenues = Discounted costs = time of year in which cashflow occurs = Interest rate at 8% = Rotation

The associated costs and benefits for the different management options are shown in appendices 1, 2 ,3, 4

4.4 NPV analysis Cash flows of management options Option 1: Timber production year Time(t ) 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2211408 1314559 2333723 1526457 1874978 1380509 1252354 3784142 1462142 Costs(C) Revenues (R) 1435000 0 8911310 21868335 270000 355000 24311645 2130000 4950000 (1+I)n Discount factor 1 1.08 1.1664 1.259712 1.36049 1.46933 1.58687 1.71382 1.85093 Discounted costs 2211408 1217184.25 9 2000791.32 4 1211750.78 1 1378163.75 939549.999 789197.602 8 2208016.01 1 789949.917 1 28 Discounted revenues 1435000 0 7640012.003 17359789.38 198457.9085 241606.7187 15320501.99 1242837.638 2674331.282 Present value -776408 1217184.259 5639220.679 16148038.6 1179705.841 697943.2803 14531304.39 965178.3735 1884381.365

2016

9 10

1462142 18602414

21991025 86222315

1.999 14.486552

731436.718 4 13477448.3 6

11001013.01 57113549.93

10269576.29 43636101.57

NPV = Discounted Revenues – Discounted costs = 43,636,101 (UGX) Option 2: Production of electric poles Table 10: Cash flow for production of electric poles year Time(t ) 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2211408 1314559 2294253 3327439 2087732 1593263 1777061 3790814 1478387 2497550 2237246 6 NPV = Discounted Revenues – Discounted costs Costs (C) Revenues (R) 0 28745000 595650 1725000 256310 1391070 1806830 17047490 45000 8493460 60105810 (1+I)n Discount factor 1 1.08 1.1664 1.259712 1.36049 1.46933 1.58687 1.71382 1.85093 1.999 14.486552 Discounted costs 2211408 1217184.25 9 1966952.16 2641428.35 8 1534544.17 2 1084346.60 7 1119852.91 8 2211909.06 9 798726.586 1 1249399.7 16035751.8 3 Discounted revenues 0 26615740.74 510673.8683 1369360.616 188395.3576 946737.6287 1138612.489 9947071.454 24312.10256 4248854.427 44989758.68 Present value -2211408 25398556.48 1456278.292 1272067.742 1346148.814 137608.9782 18759.57073 7735162.386 774414.4835 2999454.727 28954006.85

29

= 28,954,006(UGX) Table 11: Summary of financial analysis Option Timber production Production of electric poles NPV (UGX) 43,636,101 28,954,006

I recommend option one, timber production to be undertaken as the most viable option because it gives the highest NPV. Refer to the table above

30

Chapter V: Miscellaneous Prescriptions 5.1 Biodiversity and ecological balance In order to protect and maintain biological diversity, all swampy areas within the plantation should be left unplanted. Animals around the plantation should also be protected. where possible mixtures of species in every compartment should be adopted to minimize areas of monoculture that are risky. These mixtures will promote ecological balance through species and compartment diversity. Compartments 6 and 7, which are unplanted should be planted with pinus oorcapa because it has a thick bark and can resist fires. If pruning is timely, it produces knot-free timber. Immediate planting after harvesting will help maintain the forest reserve under cover, meeting the objective of maintaining water catchments, protecting soils, and providing other environmental services such as carbon sequestration. Adequate space should be left between the stream and the plantation to act as a buffer against sedimentation and siltation. Clear felled areas should be replanted within a period of 1 to 2 years after harvesting. Where the planting cannot be done immediately, local communities should be allowed to grow crops on the land for atleast 1 to 2 seasons prior to planting and thereafter no further cultivation should be allowed. This helps minimize root disturbance, nutrient loss and subsequent disturbance, although subsequent weeding costs will be higher.

5.2 Implementation and Monitoring 5.2.1 Monitoring This is the checking of the performance of the plantation. For effective monitoring, copies of completed forms about the plantation should be submitted to the authorities. Monitoring should then be effected through maintenance of this management plan, the record forms together with the following; • Reports on fire, disease or insect attack 31

• • •

Monthly,quarterly or annual reports Regular inspection by the plantation manager. Periodic inspection by the owner of the plantation.

5.2.2 Infrastructure The plantaion has one permanent building that houses the workers. More housing Facilities should be constructed to accommodate more workers. The house has no electricity and fuel wood is used to provide energy for both cooking and lighting which increases the risk of fire

5.2.3 Road network There are no permanent constructed roads in the area but there exists small paths. Forest roads should be constructed in the plantation to ease transportation of logs during harvesting. These roads can also act as firelines.

5.2.4 Logistics All suitable recommended machinery, tools, equipment and instruments are listed in appendix xi. The following items are specifically required: • • • A four-wheel drive double cabin for the plantation manager or forest officer enabling him/her to supervise all on-going activities. Four motor-cycles to help in supervising the forest technicians Six bicycles to be used by on-land fire patrol men.

5.2.5 Reports and records Plantation record book contains reports and records for all plantation activities. It carries information on seed source, selected species for planting, planted area and the planting year, germination and survival rate, weeding pruning, thinning, harvesting and volume of 32

saw logs. This information is important in evaluating plantation work and assessing the performance. It is the responsibility of the plantation manager to record accurate and relevant information in this book and keep it safely. Other information that can be recorded in the book include:  Nursery and other work loads  Equipment inventory (store ledger)  Summary of annual costs. This form brings together the cost of labour, operations, machines and other costs for each year.  Summary of annual over heads. This accounts for all over head charges such as proper share of staff salaries, and other expenses which can not be directly related to any particular operation under a plan.  Monthly harvesting round wood returns. This form records all the produce which leaves a compartment or a nursery in a month and distinguishes between thinning and final felling.  Sawn timber outputs returns (production records)  Annual harvesting round wood returns.  Expenditure and revenue returns, this shows monthly reconciliation of costing with expenditure. It is a simple form of comparison of costing summary with the expenditure and recorded in the expenditure ledger. It brings to light any omissions in monthly costing summary.  Annual works Program; this is prepared about October each year based on the prescriptions for the following year contained in the schedule of operations for the plan. The annual financial estimates for the following year are then based on this annual works program.  Records of deviation from the plan. Deviations from prescriptions of a plan are sometimes required because of cuts in the financial allocations or an unusual occurrences or weather conditions.

33

 Costing and overhead of forest operations. This brings together the cost of labour with materials and transport at the standard costing rates.

Chapter VI: |Conclusion and Recommendations. 6.1 Conclusion From the financial, it is observed that both management options are economically viable, because they give positive NPV, thus profitable. It is seen that option A (timber production) gives a greater NPV than option B (electric pole production) as shown below. Table 11 Summary of financial analysis
Management option NPV

Timber production Electric pole production

43,636,101 (UGX) 28,954,006(UGX)

6.2 Recommendations Management should adopt option one since it gives the highest NPV. However option two gives earlier returns, therefore it should not be abandoned, but practiced as a secondary management option. Taungya farming should continue to be practiced since it minimizes the productivity costs in terms of weeding and clearing costs. A network of fire breaks and/or fire lines need to be established even around the plantation to prevent both internal fires from spreading from one compartment to another and external fires from spreading into the plantation and therefore, avoiding or reducing damage or loss from fires.

34

The plantation should create a good relationship with the surrounding communities by the provision of jobs. There should be a provision of keeping records in all the departments of management.

LIST OF REFERENCES Evans,(1998). Guidelines for the management of tropical forests. The production of wood. FAO Forestry paper 135. FAO, (1999). Forest product market developments: The outlook for forest product market to 2010 and the implications fro improving management of global forest estate. Rome. Malimbwi, R.E. (1997).fundamentals of forest mensuration, Sokoine University of agriculture. Pages 40-60 Evans, J. (1992) Plantation forestry in the tropics. Oxford university press new york

35

APPENDICES Appendix I: socio-economic data check list 1. People’s perception concerning Prof. Banana’s plantation establishment: 2. Sources of income to the local communities. 3. Agricultural crops grown on the plantation 4. Division of labor according to gender; who does what in a family? 5. Land ownership and tenure rights for the we local communities 6. People’s perception on taungya practices on the plantation 7. Public relations between enterprise management and the local communities 8. Marital status 9. Community attitude towards establishment of personal woodlots or plantations

36

Appendix III: Operating costs for timber production(Option 1). Year Activity Cost (Shs ha-1) 1995 Bush clearing 247100 Bush clearing and burning 247100 seedlings 111100 Beating up 22220 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 1996 1st weeding(95 planting) 37065 nd 2 weeding(95 planting) 37065 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total

Area (ha) 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03

Total cost (Shs) 254513 254513 114433 22886 1176000 1822345

1.03 1.03

38177 38177 1176000

1252354 1997 1st weeding (95 planting) 37065 2nd weeding(95 planting) 37065 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 1998 Bush clearing Bush cleaning and burning seedlings Beating up Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 1999 1st weeding (98 planting) 37065 nd 2 weeding (98 planting) 37065 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 2000 1st weeding (98 planting) 2nd weeding (98 planting) 37 37065 37065 3.86 3.86 3.86 3.86 247100 247100 111100 22220 3.86 3.86 3.86 3.86 1.03 1.03 38177 38177 1176000 1252354 953806 953806 428846 85769 1176000 3598227 143071 143071 1176000 1462142 143071 143071

Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 2001 Bush clearing Bush cleaning and burning seedlings Beating up Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 2002 1st weeding (01 planting) 37065 2nd weeding (01 planting) 37065 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 2003 Bush clearing Bush clearing and burning seedlings Beating up 1st weeding (01 planting) 2nd weeding (01 planting) Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 2004 1st weeding (03 planting) 37065 nd 2 weeding (03 planting) 37065 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 2005 1st weeding (03 planting) 37065 nd 2 weeding (03 planting) 37065 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 247100 247100 111100 22220 37065 37065 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 2.87 2.87 2.87 2.87 247100 247100 111100 22220 2.87 2.87 2.87 2.87

1176000 1462142 709177 709177 318857 63771 1176000 2976982 106377 106377 1176000 1388754 22239 22239 9999 2000 106377 106377 1176000 1445231 3336 3336 1176000 1182672 3336 3336 1176000 1182672

38

2006

Bush clearing Bush clearing and burning seedlings Beating up Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total

247100 247100 111100 22220

0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71

175441 175441 78881 15776 1176000 1621539

2007

Bush clearing Bush clearing and burning seedlings Beating up Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total

247100 247100 111100 22220

1.65 1.65 1.65 1.65

407715 407715 183315 36663 1176000 2211408

2008

1st weeding (07 planting) 37065 2nd weeding (07 planting) 37065 Treating fencing poles 180500 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total

1.65 1.65 0.09

61157 61157 16245 1176000 1314559

2009

Bush clearing Bush clearing and burning seedlings Beating up 1st weeding (07 planting) 2nd weeding (07 planting) Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total

247100 247100 111100 22220 37065 37065

1.65 1.65 1.65 1.65 1.65 1.65

407715 407715 183315 36663 61157 61157 1176000

2333723 2010 1st weeding (09 Re-planting) 37065 nd 2 weeding (09 Re-planting) 37065 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Treating fencing poles 180500 0.71 0.71 26316 26316 1176000 297825

1.65

39

Sub total 1526457 2011 Bush clearing Bush clearing and burning seedlings Beating up 1st weeding (09 Re-planting) 2nd weeding (09 Re-planting) Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 1874978 2012 1st weeding(11 planting) 37065 nd 2 weeding(11 planting) 37065 Treating fencing poles 180500 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 2013 1st weeding(11 planting) 37065 2nd weeding(11 planting) 37065 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 2014 Bush clearing Bush cleaning and burning seedlings Beating up Treating fencing poles Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 2015 1st weeding(14 planting) 37065 2nd weeding(14 planting) 37065 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk 3.86 3.86 247100 247100 111100 22220 180500 3.86 3.86 3.86 3.86 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 0.71 38177 38177 128155 1176000 1380509 38177 38177 1176000 1252354 953806 953806 428846 85769 185915 1176000 3784142 143071 143071 1176000 247100 247100 111100 22220 37065 37065 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 0.71 0.71 254513 254513 114433 22887 26316 26316 1176000

40

per day Sub total 2016 1st weeding (14 planting) 37065 2nd weeding (14 planting) 37065 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 3.86 3.86

1462142 143071 143071 1176000 1462142

41

Appendix IV: Operating costs for production of Electric poles (option 2) Year Activity Cost (Shs ha-1) Area (ha) 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Bush clearing 247100 2.87 Bush cleaning and burning 247100 2.87 seedlings 111100 2.87 Beating up 22220 2.87 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 2002 1st weeding (01 planting) 37065 nd 2 weeding (01 planting) 37065 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 2003 Bush clearing Bush clearing and burning seedlings Beating up 1st weeding (01 planting) 2nd weeding (01 planting) Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 247100 247100 111100 22220 37065 37065 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 2.87 2.87 2.87 2.87

Total cost (Shs)

709177 709177 318857 63771 1176000 2976982 106377 106377 1176000 1388754 22239 22 239 9999 2000 106377 106377 1176000

1445231 2004 1st weeding (03 planting) 37065 nd 2 weeding (03 planting) 37065 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 2005 1st weeding (03 planting) 42 37065 0.09 0.09 0.09 3336 3336 1176000 1182672 3336

2nd weeding (03 planting) 37065 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 2006 Bush clearing Bush clearing and burning seedlings Beating up Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 2007 Bush clearing Bush clearing and burning seedlings Beating up Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 2008 1st weeding (07 planting) 37065 nd 2 weeding (07 planting) 37065 Treating fencing poles 180500 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 2009 Bush clearing Bush clearing and burning seedlings Beating up 1st weeding (07 planting) 2nd weeding (07 planting) Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 247100 247100 111100 22220 37065 37065 247100 247100 111100 22220 247100 247100 111100 22220

0.09

3336 1176000 1182672

0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71

175441 175441 78881 15776 1176000 1621539

1.65 1.65 1.65 1.65

407715 407715 183315 36663 1176000 2211408

1.65 1.65 0.09

61157 61157 16245 1176000 1314559

0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 1.65 1.65

175441 175441 78881 15776 61157 61157 1176000

2294253 2010 Bush clearing 43 247100 2.87 709177

Bush cleaning and burning seedlings Beating up 1st weeding (09 Re-planting) 2nd weeding (09 Re-planting) Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Treating fencing poles Sub total

247100 111100 22220 37065 37065

2.87 2.87 2.87 0.71 0.71

709177 318857 63771 26316 26316 1176000 297825 3327439

180500

1.65

2011

Bush clearing Bush clearing and burning seedlings Beating up 1st weeding (09 Re-planting) 2nd weeding (09 Re-planting) 1st weeding (10 Re- planting) 2nd weeding (10 Re- planting) Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total

247100 247100 111100 22220 37065 37065 37065 37065

1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 0.71 0.71 2.87 2.87

254513 254513 114433 22887 26316 26316 106377 106377 1176000

2087732 2012 Bush clearing Bush clearing and burning seedlings Beating up 1st weeding (10 Re- planting) 2nd weeding (10 Re- planting) 1st weeding(11 Re-planting) 2nd weeding(11 Re-planting) Treating fencing poles Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 1593263 2013 1st weeding(11 Re-planting) 2nd weeding(11 Re-planting) 1st weeding(12 Re-planting) 44 37065 37065 37065 1.03 1.03 0.09 38177 38177 3336 247100 247100 111100 22220 37065 37065 37065 37065 180500 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 2.87 2.87 1.03 1.03 0.71 22239 22239 9999 2000 106377 106377 38177 38177 128155 1176000

2nd weeding(12 Re-planting) 37065 Treating fencing poles 180500 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total

0.09 2.87

3336 518035 1176000

1777061 2014 Bush clearing Bush cleaning and burning seedlings Beating up Treating fencing poles 1st weeding(12 Re-planting) 2nd weeding(12 Re-planting) Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 2015 1st weeding(14 Re-planting) 37065 2nd weeding(14 Re-planting) 37065 Treating fencing poles 180500 Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 1478387 2016 Bush clearing Bush clearing and burning seedlings Beating up 1st weeding (14 Re-planting) 2nd weeding (14 Re-planting) Farm manager salary+2Lts of milk per day Sub total 2497550 247100 247100 111100 22220 37065 37065 1.65 1.65 1.65 1.65 3.86 3.86 407715 407 715 183315 36663 143071 143071 1176000 3.86 3.86 0.09 247100 247100 111100 22220 180500 37065 37065 3.86 3.86 3.86 3.86 1.03 0.09 0.09 953806 953806 428846 85769 185915 3336 3336 1176000 3790814 143071 143071 16245 1176000

45

Revenues for option 1 Appendix V: Revenues from logging for Prof.Banana’s plantation Compartm Planti Are 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 ent 1 ng year 1995 a (ha) 1.0 3 590.088 X 1.03=607. 791 (F) =2127268 5/= m3 361X 1000X1. 30/=(T1 )

201 4 250 X 0 X 1.0 3=5 150 00/ = (T2 )

2015

2016

03=3718 200

2

1998

3.8 6

231.79 5X3.8 6=894. 729 X 35 000= 31315 515/= (F) X

361 1000 X 3.86= 13934 60/=( T1) 206.173 X2.87=5 91.717 m3 X 35 000=207 10095/=

3

2001

2.8 7

150 000 =

X

2.87 X 20

8610000/= (T3) 46

(F) 5 2006 0.7 1 0.71 X 1000 X 361= 2563 10/=( T1) 250 X 0.71 X 2000= 35500 0/= (T2) 150 X 20000 X 0.71= 21300 00/=( T3)

4b

2007

1.6 5

361X 1000X1.6 5= 595650/=( T1)

250 X 1.65 X 2000 = 8250 00/= (T2)

150 X 20 000 X1. 65= 495 000 0(T 3)

TOTALS

10. 21

8610000

21868335

8250 00

2563 10

31670 515 371830

546 500 0

2071009 5

35234 60

Revenues for option 2 Appendix VI, Revenues from Electric poles
Compartment 1 Planting year 1995 Area (ha) 1.03 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 361X 1000X1.03 =371830/=( 2014 2000 X 247X 2015 2016

47

T1)

1.03 =515 000/ =(T2 ) 361X 1000X3 .86=139 3460/=( T1)

2

1998

3.86

3

2001

2.87

500 X20000 X 2.87 = 28700000/= (E.poles) 250X2000X 0.09=45000/= (T2) = 900 000/= (E.pole s) 500X 20000X 0.09

361X 1000X2. 87=1036 070/=(T 1)

250X 2000X2.87 =1435000/ = (T2) 361X 1000 X 0.09 =324 90/=( T1) 250X 2000X 0.09=4500 0/=(T2)

4a

2003

0.09

5

2006 0.71

361X10 00X0.7 1=2563 10/=(T 1)

250X200 0X0.71= 355000/ =(T2).

500X20 000X0. 71=710 0000(E. poles)) 500X 2000 0 X 1.65 =165 0000 0/=( E.pol es)

4b

2007

361X 1000X1.65=5 95650/=(T1)

250X20 00X1.6 5= 825000/ =(T2)

1.65

TOTALS

10.21

28745000

595650

172500 0

256310

1391070

1806830

1704 7490

45000

849346 0

48

49

Appendix VII: Status of the plantation
Compartment No. 1 Area (ha) 1.03 Species planted Eucalyptus grandis Performance Very good Condition -Most trees straight with bigger dbh -Most have straight boles -Poorly stocked patches -Some trees infected with cankers -Not weeded -Many straight stems -Poorly stocked -Infested with Leptocybe invasa -Overgrown weeds -Understocked patches with stunted trees _ Year of planting 1995 Recommend ations -Harvesting mature trees -Planting of poorly stocked patches -Harvesting of mature trees -Thinning -Indigenous tree removal -Growing of pastures -Weeding needed -Thinning -Climber cutting -Weeding needed. -Farmers assigned small manageable plots -Replant with Eucalyptus saligna _

2

3.86

Eucalyptus grandis

Good

1998

3

2.87

Eucalyptus grandis Eucalyptus saligna

Good

2001

4

1.74

Eucalyptus grandis Eucalyptus camaldulensis Eucalyptus grandis

Fair

2003 (5%) 2007 (95%) 2006

5

0.71

Poor

6 and 7

_

Not planted

_

_

Appendix VIII: showing data entry sheet for the different compartments COMPARTMENT 4 Plot 1. Average height = 20m

50

Table 1 DBH 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Total Sawlog 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 8 No Sawlog 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Total no. of Average trees 2 1 1 0 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 12 volume. 0.266 0.308 0.353 0.000 0.454 0.509 0.568 0.000 0.693 0.760 0.831 0.905 5.079 Total volume 0.531 0.308 0.353 0.000 0.908 0.509 0.568 0.000 0.693 0.760 0.831 0.905 6.366

51

Table 2 DBH 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Total

COMPARTMENT 4 PLOT 2. Average height = 19m Sawlog 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 2 1 0 8 No Sawlog 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 5 Total no. of Average trees 1 1 0 4 0 2 0 1 2 2 0 13 volume. 0.121 0.149 0.000 0.215 0.000 0.292 0.000 0.382 0.431 0.483 0.000 2.073 Total volume 0.121 0.149 0.000 0.860 0.000 0.584 0.000 0.382 0.862 0.966 0.000 3.930

Table 3 DBH 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Total

COMPARTMENT 4 Sawlog 1 0 1 2 0 2 1 2 2 1 1 0 13 No Sawlog 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 4

Plot 3 . Average height =19m Total no. of Average trees volume. 2 0.149 0 0.000 1 0.215 2 0.252 0 0.000 2 0.336 1 0.382 3 0.431 2 0.483 2 0.539 1 0.597 1 0.658 17 4.042 Total volume 0.298 0.000 0.215 0.504 0.000 0.672 0.382 1.293 0.966 1.078 0.597 0.658 6.663

Table 4 DBH 13 14

COMPARTMENT 3 Plot 1 . Average height =22m Sawlog 0 1 No Sawlog 1 0 Total no. of Average trees volume. 1 0.292 1 0.339 52 Total volume 0.292 0.339

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Total

0 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 0 1 8

1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 5

1 0 2 0 1 2 1 3 0 1 13

0.389 0.000 0.499 0.000 0.624 0.691 0.762 0.836 0.000 0.995 5.427

0.389 0.000 0.998 0.000 0.624 1.382 0.762 2.508 0.000 0.995 8.289

Table 5 DBH 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Total

COMPARTMENT 3 Plot 2 . Average height =20m Sawlog 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 2 2 1 0 1 11 No Sawlog 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 Total no. of Average trees volume. 1 0.157 0 0.000 0 0.000 2 0.266 0 0.000 1 0.353 2 0.402 1 0.454 0 0.000 2 0.567 3 0.628 1 0.693 0 0.000 1 0.831 14 4.351 Total volume 0.157 0.000 0.000 0.532 0.000 0.353 0.804 0.454 0.000 1.134 1.884 0.693 0.000 0.831 6.842

Table 6 DBH 15 16 17

COMPARTMENT 3, Plot 3 Sawlog 0 0 1 No Sawlog 1 0 0 trees 1 0 1 53

Average height = 19m Total volume 0.336 0.000 0.431 volume. 0.336 0.000 0.431

Total no. of Average

18 19 20 Total

0 3 0 4

0 0 0 1

0 3 0 5

0.000 0.539 0.000 1.306

0.000 1.616 0.000 2.383

54

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