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Workshop Matlab/Simulink in Building simulation

Paper N 1 Title Authors Abstract Mathworks - The Model Based Design approach for systems design K. Huyge This presentation shows how the Model Based Design approach and The MathWorks tools help you to decrease design cycles and development costs. The Matlab/Simulink environment for systems design allows you to: Paper N 2 Title Authors Abstract FEMLAB : multiphysics in MATLAB E. Favre To be completed Design algorithms, model and simulate multi-domains systems in a unique environment which promotes collaborative engineering, Simulate and optimize your design to detect and correct errors earlier in the design cycle, Test and Validate your design in Real Time, Deploy your application on an embedded system.

Paper N 3 Title Authors Abstract ASTECCA A Matlab-based environment for analyses of building hygro thermal performance and HVAC systems control strategies de Arajo, H. X.; Oliveira, G. H. C. ; Mendes, N; Coelho, L. S. In this work, a modular computer platform for building hygro thermal simulation is described. This platform is developed for control strategy analyses of HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) systems. The computer environment is implemented by using MATLAB/Simulink and allows calculating and controlling room air temperature and relative humidity, taking into account thermo physical phenomena present in building physics, such as radiation, external and internal perturbations (people, light, equipment), external weather, etc. The building mathematical model is described in terms of non-linear state-space equations, with a lumped approach for the room air behaviour energy and mass balances. The libraries containing different thermal system elements, i.e., building, HVAC equipment, sensor, controller, TRY weather data file and perturbation, are implemented. Some advanced control strategies applied to thermal systems are also discussed and available.

Paper N 4 Title Authors Abstract Simbad Building and HVAC toolbox new features for the future version 4.0 P. Riederer, N. Couillaud, A. Husaunndee, D. Jreijiry This presentation summarises new developments within the SIMBAD Building and HVAC toolbox. The next version of the toolbox, Version 4.0 is planned to be commercialised in 2004. It will contain on the one hand new component models such as: a library of pressure dependent airflow component models such as duct, fan, dampers etc.,

a new library of controller models for terminal, distribution and plant control.

On the other hand, the library will include some predefined building models. These buildings are equipped with solar and classic systems for heating and hot water preparation as well as with different ventilation systems and thermal phenomena are coupled with airflow and hydraulic phenomena. The models will allow to learn quickly to use the toolbox (in the case of a new user) and will allow also to adapt easily one of the building models to a specific problem to be simulated. A new internet page is being developed in order to optimise the use of the library and to increase information exchange between the users. This internet page also includes a web-based simulation tool where online simulations can be carried out without any Matlab/Simulink license. The simulations illustrate control issues for students as well as possible applications of the toolbox.

Paper N 5 Title Authors Abstract A multizone building model in the Simbad toolbox coupling thermal, airflow and water flow phenomena David Jreijiry, Nicolas Couillaud, Ahmad Husaunndee, Christian Inard, Peter Riederer New models, dealing with aspects of hydraulics, airflow and pollutants in buildings are developed for the SIMBAD Building and HVAC toolbox. This paper describes the coupling of these new models with the existing thermal models of the SIMBAD toolbox in order to obtain an integrated multizone building model. The new model is developed using the modular approach of the graphical environment MATLAB/SIMULINK The structuring of the building model is mainly based on the: definition of appropriated connection vectors between the models and the reduction of the number of links, definition of suitable parameters for the building model, definition of building state-vectors (e.g. indoor temperature, pollutants levels,).

Moreover, the presentation shows the capabilities of the developed building model for the integrated simulation of thermal, airflow and hydraulic phenomena in multizone buildings. The model allows the evaluation of multi-variables control strategies (temperature, indoor air quality etc.) and represents a powerful tool for the design and test of control systems.

Paper N 6 Title Authors Abstract Integrated building physics simulations with Femlab/Simulink/Matlab J. van Schijndel The paper presents the use of Matlab and its toolboxes Femlab and Simulink for integrated applications on building physics, building systems and control. The paper starts with an introduction of the toolboxes Femlab and Simulink. The powerful and flexible nature of both toolboxes has already been demonstrated in recent studies. Some results of these studies will be shortly evaluated. A further step is to study the possibilities of the combined use of the above mentioned toolboxes. The paper presents two case studies: the modelling and simulation of heat and moisture transport, including a thermal and hygric wall model, a thermal and hygric building zone model, a building systems model and a controller model, the modelling and simulation of dynamic controlled indoor airflow including a (2D) airflow model, a buildings systems model and a controller model.

The paper illustrates the powerful and flexible nature of the Femlab/Simulink/Matlab environment for simulating buildings, systems and controllers.

Paper N 7 Title Authors Abstract Advanced simulation of building systems and control with Simulink J. van Schijndel The paper presents a model that combines a Building Energy and Moisture performance Model (WAVO) with a model of a HVAC installation in the Matlab/Simulink environment. The model consists of a continuous part with a variable time step and a discrete part with a time step of one hour. For the HVAC installation and the room response on climatic variations a continuous model is developed while for the external climate and the retarded and damped heat flows a discrete model is used. The main advantages of this numeric hybrid approach are: a) the dynamics of the building systems of time scales less than an hour are accurately simulated, b) the model becomes very time efficient as the discrete model uses 1 hour time steps, c) the HVAC systems can be modelled with Simulink with its powerful capabilities of studying various controls. The paper addresses the next issues: Paper N 8 Title Authors Abstract Evaluation of the indoor temperature field using a given air velocity distribution C. Ghiaus A new method for compensating the space discretisation error introduced when the fixed flow field is considered for the dynamic models of temperature distribution is presented. It is proved that the method generally used in literature is a particular solution of the proposed one. Moreover, it results in a continuous-time model for which the integrating method becomes a free choice and a state-space representation is possible. The numerical model was experimentally validated, the comparison, both in the time and in the frequency domains, between simulation and measured results showing good agreement. The presented dynamic model increases the calculation speed and it can be analysed with the tools developed in control theory. a description of the numeric hybrid WAVO subsystem, including advantages and drawbacks of the hybrid model, the implementation of the building systems and the WAVO model in Simulink a case study on adiabatic cooling including control strategies. evaluation of the models.

Paper N 9 Title Authors Abstract MATLAB/SIMULINK based Optimization of the energy performance of HVAC-systems G. Knabe, C. Felsmann Matlab is one of the most powerful programs for technical computing. It provides a lot of toolboxes, e.g. for simulation (Simulink), optimization, control design, etc. A main advantage of this environment is to provide the facility to implement models of different languages such as C or FORTRAN. This paper will describe how Matlab can be used to optimize both energy consumption and total energy costs in buildings and HVAC-systems. Meanwhile there are a lot of experiences in thermal energy storage control optimization, in the calculation of minimal heating up periods and in determination of optimal reference cases for the control of DEC (Desiccative and Evaporative Cooling) plants. The optimization algorithms were taken from the Matlab Optimization Toolbox. This is a comprehensive suite of calculation methods useful for different types of optimization problems. The so called quality function or cost function characterizing the optimization problem has to be formulated. This function considers the interrelationship between the profiles of the control variables calculated by the optimization algorithm and the energy consumption or energy costs of a building energy system during a predetermined time period.

The performance of the building and its energy systems are calculated with a TRNSYS simulation model. Therefore Matlab is combined with TRNSYS. The coupling of Matlab and TRNSYS leads to a powerful tool that enables the user to combine the advantages of each program: the modern modelling and solving techniques of Matlab as well as existing and proven, well-validated models (espec. multizone building) and utility routines of TRNSYS. The main idea of the coupling is to keep Matlab the main program. TRNSYS by itself is integrated as a subroutine. It works stepwise or in bounded periods and can be seen as a separate simulation within a optimization process. The data exchange between TRNSYS and Matlab is realised by a new written TRNSYS utility component. For the coupling of Matlab and TRNSYS an interface has been developed. The original TRNSYS-code has undergone fundamental modifications to enable the simulation time control by Matlab. Existing TRNSYS buildings can still be used without modification. The data output and utilities (data reader, solar processor, psychometrics, scheduling et al.) are also managed by TRNSYS. As a result of the optimization profiles for the control variables are available.

Paper N 10 Title Authors Abstract Commissioning of HVAC-plants with MATLAB/SIMULINK G. Knabe, H. Werdin MATLAB is one of the most powerful programs for technical computing. This environment provides a lot of toolboxes, e.g. Simulink, Signal Processing, Optimisation, etc. These libraries can be used for pre-design and development of products as well as for simulation and emulation of models. Some libraries of HVAC-components already exist in MATLAB/Simulink (SIMBAD, CARNOT, ENSAN, HVAC library of TUD). As MATLAB is a widespread and often used tool in electric and automation engineering these libraries offer the facility to couple simulation models with real components in order to commission these systems or to verify models. This paper is subdivided into two parts. Firstly, the results of two practical strategies for a hydraulic balancing of heating systems are shown. A few manufacturers provide thermostatic regulating valves (TRV) with measuring sockets. One can pre-adjust the thermostatic valves and measure the actual mass flow rate through them. As the simulation of a heating system with 35 radiators and thermostatic valves shows there is more than one adjustment per valve necessary to realise the demanded mass flow at each valve and radiator. In the first case, the balancing starts from the farthest to the nearest radiator according to the pump. The second case deals with the adjustment in the reverse direction. The results point out the necessity of a hydraulic balancing in the design phase. The second part deals with commissioning of an air conditioning plant. A desiccant evaporative cooling system (DEC) has a very complex thermal and hygric behaviour. It is impossible for the staff and the commissioner to carry out a detailed commissioning and fault detection and diagnosis for a DEC-plant under full and partial load conditions. The developed commissioning program gets measured data in a certain time step interval. The control variables are analysed with a discrete Fourier transformation. So, one can detect unstable control loops. All data transmitted from the automation station are filtered. If a steady state is detected the algorithms of fault detection and diagnosis are switched on. A parallel simulation to the real plant provides reference data that is filtered in the same manner as the row data material from the automation station. After then, the program generates characteristic values (CV), e.g. heat transfer number, moisture transfer number humidification efficiency coefficient, etc. A comparison of CVs produces symptoms that can be used for fault detection. A fault diagnosis is implemented in the program with the help of IF-THEN-rules and the consideration of the generated symptoms. Some detected faults will be shown in the paper.

Paper N 11 Title Authors Abstract Control strategies of desiccant cooling systems using Matlab/Simulink/Stateflow Environment S. Ginestet, P. Stabat, D. Marchio Desiccant evaporative cooling technology is an unconventional air conditioning system, driven by thermal energy. It uses no refrigerant, can reduce electricity consumption, and can improve indoor air quality. The control strategy should meet two main conditions: minimise the thermal energy and electricity consumption; maintain the indoor set point temperature since the system has a limited cooling capacity unlike compressor assisted air-conditioning systems.

As a consequence, a night cooling strategy turns out to be necessary to compensate the limits of the desiccant system. Moreover, several control strategy parameters can play a key role in the cooling capacity and the primary energy demand of the system such as: the regeneration temperature; the airflow rate; the choice of operation mode such as ventilation, indirect evaporative cooling and desiccant cooling.

The use of a simulation tool is a great help to evaluate how control strategy parameters can influence the cooling capacity and the primary energy demand. Thus, a set of tools, namely SIMBAD building model and Stateflow have been assembled in the Matlab/Simulink environment to enable sizing and assessing annual energy consumption of the desiccant cooling system. Specific HVAC component models, namely for desiccant wheels, humidifiers, rotary heat exchanger, have been added to SIMBAD library. A moisture balance model has been implemented in SIMBAD since the HVAC system performance is very dependent on humidity ratio. The components of the desiccant cooling system have been modelled with the aim to be accurate and simple to parameterise. All the models are based on an analytical approach. The control strategy is defined using Stateflow program. The whole simulation tool is used to set an adapted control strategy. The energy consumption and performance of the desiccant system are investigated for different cases of building loads, thermal inertia and climate during the cooling period.

Paper N 12 Title Authors Abstract Type 155 - a new TRNSYS type for coupling TRNSYS and Matlab example of using Matlab controllers with TRNSYS components W. Keilholz, M. Kummert, P. Riederer TRNSYS is a modular simulation environment for transient system and building simulations. It allows the user to define a simulation project in terms of component models (so-called TYPES), which are selected from a component library and interconnected with the help of a graphical user interface. Users can easily add new components, in the form of a set of equations, subroutines (written in languages like FORTRAN, C or C++), or external programs. TRNSYS includes a set of some 200 standard components, such as thermal solar systems, PVcells, storage tanks, controllers, wind turbines, HVAC systems, etc. It is also internationally known for its very detailed, yet flexible multi-zone building model. A huge variety of additional component models are available, either as commercial add-on libraries, or developed by the international user community and freely downloadable from the Internet. MATLAB, on the other hand, is a widely-used, general-purpose numerical tool, including advanced modules such as optimization. Component model libraries for MATLAB have been developed by numerous organizations around the world. The optional SIMULINK module also allows for convenient graphical project definition. This presentation gives a brief overview over the TRNSYS simulation environment and shows

how it can be linked to MATLAB/SIMULINK, using a component model (TYPE 155) developed for this purpose. This allows TRNSYS users to solve a sub-problem in MATLAB and use it like a 'normal' component model in a TRNSYS simulation. TRNSYS users thus gain access to existing MATLAB modules, and vice-versa. The example of a PID controller of the SIMBAD Building and HVAC toolbox in Matlab/Simulink environment coupled with a TRNSYS multi zone building simulation illustrates this link.

Paper N 13 Title Authors Abstract Quasi-adaptive Fuzzy Control of Heating Plant M M Gouda, C P Underwood, S Danaher The development of a quasi-adaptive fuzzy controller for space heating in solar buildings is described. An artificial neural network is used to predict comfort conditions in a space one hour ahead and the output from this is used as one of several fuzzy input variables to a fuzzy heating controller. In this sense the controller is quasi-adaptive as distinct from the classical adaptive neuro-fuzzy scheme. The controller was developed using a novel lumped capacitance simulation model which will be briefly described. The model was implemented using Matlab-Simulink. The controller was tested by benchmarking it against well-tuned PID control in a solar test cell equipped with an electric convector heater at Cranfield., UK. Development of the predictive model, fuzzy controller and the real-time testing of the controller all made use of a variety of Matlab toolboxes. Results show that the quasi-adaptive fuzzy controller eliminates afternoon overheating (which is common with conventionally controlled heating plant) and savings in energy use of up to 20% can be expected.

Paper N 14 Title Authors Abstract Energy conservation using weather forecast in building climate control L. Bakker, J. E. Scholten, R. de Mos TNO Building and Construction Research has done research on the energy performance of control strategies in buildings. MATLAB/Simulink is used to model the building, the installations and the control strategies. This paper presents the results of calculations on the use of weather forecast in control strategies for energy saving goals. In the Netherlands the energy performance of a building is presented by a yearly energy consumption. To reduce calculation time some measures were taken. Since the primary interest is in the influence of control strategies on the energy performance, the simulations are based on a single room model with a simplified HVAC model, without taking into account the complex dynamic behaviour of the installations. The quality of the room model is validated by comparison of the results with calculations on a commercial building simulation program, validated by the BESTEST. The following strategies are presented: optimizing start/stop optimizing night ventilation optimizing sunblind control

The calculations present modest energy savings when individual strategies are applied but an amplification of energy savings for combinations of the control strategies is reached.

Paper N 15 Title Optimizing the Control Strategy of a Senertec mini-CHP in a social housing project by a dynamic simulation in Matlab/Simulink & Stateflow

Authors Abstract

J. Liekens In a social housing project located in Herenthout, Belgium, a combination of 3 different heating technologies is used for the heating of 12 dwellings: a gas fired condensing boiler Viessmann of 100 kW; a Senertec mini-CHP of 5 kWe, 12,5 kWth; a solar collector to preheat the domestic warm water.

This project was co-funded by the Flemish government. Because of this funding, the project has to be monitored and evaluated by the Vito during at least 12 months. During the monitoring, we concluded that the CHP hardly produced any heat or electricity. The CHP ran less than 1000 h/y although the system was well dimensioned. We expected the CHP to run at least 4000 h/y. To find the cause of this problem, the CHP and the boiler were dynamically simulated together with a simple first order approach of the heating demand of the dwellings and the complete control strategy (ranging from the central controller over the controller of the CHP and three-way cocks to the thermostatic valves of the radiators of the dwellings). The model started very simple and was step by step extended until the result of the simulation of the model was similar to the real system. The nonlinearities of the controllers and thermostatic valves caused some simulation problems. Several simulation options where tried out: writing the control strategy in a m-file, modelling the control strategy in a Simulink model a mixed form of the two previous options and finally using Stateflow. Only the latter option resulted in a good behaviour of the simulation within a reasonable time. During the in-depth extension of the model, a probable reason for the malfunctioning of the CHP was already determined to be the setting of the boiler and the control strategy of the CHP. When a good model was obtained, these parameters where adapted. The simulation with the new parameters indeed showed an extended running time of the CHP. The new parameters were also in the real system adapted to the new values. Since than, the CHP ran more hours than before. The CHP did not ran a whole year yet, but the results until now are showing an increase of the work load up to about 4000 h/y.

Paper N 16 Title Authors Abstract Activity report - Matlab and Simulink application in Building HVAC system at Energy in Built Environment, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology B. Yu Recent years, in the group of Energy in Built Environment of TU Delft, many works concerning the building and HVAC systems are carried out by means of Matlab and Simulink. The projects related to this application are: Model-based fault detection and diagnosis on the building installations. Fuzzy Neural Networks model is built for the energy consumption and it is used to detect the fault inside the building. Complete physical model of the air-conditioned room is made. It comprises the component models of insulation, heating system, cooling system and windows. Dynamic discretisation model of heat exchanger. Complicated model occupies a lot of computational time. By translating the model into S-function, the simulation accuracy is the same but the simulation time saves dramatically. General model of hydraulic system is useful for the simulation of thermal models. Verification of the procedures to calculate the distribution of the total solar radiation and wind pressure coefficient on the surface of the building. Double skin faade. simulation and validation of the DSF including: Forced or natural airflow Different compartmenting of the faade

Paper N 17 Title Authors Abstract

Different function of the facade Different positions for the blinds Use of the overhang Use of the plants

Model of the building validated with the use of the measurements and with Vabi. HVAC system. Simplified simulation models of the AHU were built and validated. Additionally kernel cooling was simulated. Integrated control for all the passive and active components of the building was realized and tested. Room model combined with Phase Change Material (PCM)

Operation Diagnostics Visualization Techniques with MATLAB for Verification and Optimization of Building and System Operation O. Baumann Large buildings equipped with extensive and complex heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems normally possess a central building energy management system (BEMS) with direct digital control technology (DDC). The operation of the HVAC system is automated by measuring operation values, tuning the values with set points, and switching and positioning the actuators. The quality of the operation depends on the quality of the programming of the control system and the setup of the set points. Often the BEMS processes several hundred or even thousands of data points. Thus, the large amount of data that is collected, processed, and recorded allows extensive possibilities for analyzing building and system operations. Within the field of building operation diagnostic visualization tools are used to display and analyze the data. The difficulty is to handle the copious data, and to find adequate and useful types of diagrams to display the data. The visualization tool PIA, developed by the Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm is based on MATLAB and adapted to the requirements of the operation diagnostics by EbertIngenieure Mnchen. The time-dependant progression of the data can be displayed as "carpet plots". The dependencies of different operating conditions are displayed as dependent "scatter plots". The results are used as "operation patterns" to detect incorrect operation or bad parameter settings. This presentation shows an appropriate way to import the BEMS data into MATLAB and how to use MATLAB as a database for the large amount of data. Furthermore the different types of diagrams are shown and explained. Completing the presentation it is shown how operation diagnostics including the visualization tool were applied at 2 projects and what results and benefits have been achieved. Within the first project, measured data is analyzed and used to optimize the operation of the HVAC systems of a school building. In the second project, the tool was used to display simulation data for a building that is still under construction and to produce operation patterns that will be used for future operation diagnostics.

Paper N 18 Title Authors Abstract Development of Commissioning tools and test using the SIMBAD Building and HVAC toolbox H. Vaezi-Nejad, F. Bruyat, N. Couillaud, M. Jandon, L. Nennig, P. Riederer A tool for commissioning procedures for testing the performance of heating systems in schools has been developed with the help of and for the municipality of Paris. To test these procedures, we have used data, collected with the remote control systems used by the town of Paris to supervise its 400 school buildings. However, it is difficult with real buildings to verify all the possible cases and to have access to all the useful measurements to validate the commissioning procedures. A simulation model of a school building with the Simulink and SIMBAD Building & HVAC toolbox has thus been developed to adjust and to validate these procedures in different running modes of the

buildings and with different faulty conditions of the heating systems (over or undersized of boilers, unbalanced heating circuits, bad adjustment of control systems, ). The presentation shows on the one hand the development of the commissioning tool in Matlab environment, and on the other hand, an example of the tests carried out using the Simbad toolbox. The presentation underlines the advantage of this combined approach for developing commissioning tools.