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What Is a Product? Anything received in an exchange to satisfy a need or want is a product. A good, a service, or an idea received in an exchange It can be tangible (a good) or intangible (a service or an idea) or a combination of both. o It can include functional, social, and psychological utilities or benefits.
PRODUCT CLASSIFICATIONS Products Classes
Consumer:--Products purchased to satisfy personal and family needs Business:--Products bought used in an organization¶s operations, to resell, or to make other products (raw materials and components)
Types of Consumer Products
Convenience²inexpensive, frequently purchased items; minimal purchasing effort Shopping--buyers are willing to expend considerable effort in planning and making purchases Specialty--Items with unique characteristics that buyers are willing to expend considerable effort to obtain
Unsought (impulse)--Products purchased to solve a sudden problem, products of which the customers are unaware, and products that people do not necessarily think about buying
Business Products Installations--Facilities and non-portable major equipment Accessory Equipment--used in production or office activities Raw Materials--Basic natural materials Products Component Parts--become part of a Process Materials--not readily identifiable when used directly in the production of other products (e.g. screws, knobs, handles) o MRO Supplies--Maintenance, repair, and operating items that facilitate production and do not become part of the finished Products
o o o o o
Business Services--intangible products many organizations use in operations (e.g. cleaning, legal, consulting, and repair services)
- Durable Goods - Non-Durable Goods ± consumed during use - soap, food.
Services - selling performance Continuum between Services and Goods ± McD¶s
- Consumer Goods - bought for personal use. - Convenience - Freq. purchase, min. effort, buy on price or brand. y Impulse Goods - no preplanning, not on your list, going shopping while hungry or without a list leads to more impulse buying, as do in-store displays and sale items.
-Shopping - Considerable time & effort, durable/big ticket, comparisons made. -Specialty - unique. Cust. will go out of their way to find, little or no comparison shopping, price relatively unimportant. - Unsought - Cons. don't seek out or don't know about. Life ins., encyclopedias In business and engineering, new product development (NPD) is the term used to describe the complete process of bringing a new product or service to market. There are two parallel paths involved in the NPD process: one involves the idea generation, product design and detail engineering; the other involves market research and marketing analysis. Companies typically see new product development as the first stage in generating and commercializing new products within the overall strategic process of product life cycle management used to maintain or grow their market share. New Product Development Process Because introducing new products on a consistent basis is important to the future success of many organizations, marketers in charge of product decisions often follow set procedures for bringing products to market. In the scientific area that may mean the establishment of ongoing laboratory research programs for discovering new products (e.g., medicines) while less scientific companies may pull together resources for product development on a less structured timetable. In this section we present a 7-step process comprising the key elements of new product development. While some companies may not follow a deliberate step-by-step approach, the steps are useful in showing the information input and decision making that must be done in order to successfully develop new products. The process also shows the importance market research plays in developing products.
We should note that while the 7-step process works for most industries, it is less effective in developing radically new products. The main reason lies in the inability of the target market to provide sufficient feedback on advanced product concepts since they often find it difficult to understand radically different ideas. So while many of these steps are used to research breakthrough ideas, the marketer should exercise caution when interpreting the results. Step 1. IDEA GENERATION The first step of new product development requires gathering ideas to be evaluated as potential product options. For many companies idea generation is an ongoing process with contributions from inside and outside the organization. Many market research techniques are used to encourage ideas including: running focus groups with consumers, channel members, and the company¶s sales force; encouraging customer comments and suggestions via toll-free telephone numbers and website forms; and gaining insight on competitive product developments through secondary data sources. One important research technique used to generate ideas is brainstorming where openminded, creative thinkers from inside and outside the company gather and share ideas. The dynamic nature of group members floating ideas, where one idea often sparks another idea, can yield a wide range of possible products that can be further pursued. Step 2. SCREENING In Step 2 the ideas generated in Step 1 are critically evaluated by company personnel to isolate the most attractive options. Depending on the number of ideas, screening may be done in rounds with the first round involving company executives judging the feasibility of ideas while successive rounds may utilize more advanced research techniques. As the ideas are whittled down to a few attractive options, rough estimates are made of an idea¶s potential in terms of sales, production costs, profit potential, and competitors¶ response if the product is introduced. Acceptable ideas move on to the next step. Step 3. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING With a few ideas in hand the marketer now attempts to obtain initial feedback from customers, distributors and its own employees. Generally, focus groups are convened where the ideas are presented to a group, often in the form of concept board presentations (i.e., storyboards) and not in actual working form. For instance, customers may be shown a concept board displaying drawings of a product idea or even an advertisement featuring the product. In some cases focus groups are exposed to a mock-up of the ideas, which is a physical but generally non-functional version of product idea. During focus groups with customers the marketer seeks information that may include: likes and dislike of the concept; level of interest in purchasing the product; frequency of purchase (used to help forecast demand); and price points to determine how much customers are willing to spend to acquire the product.
pricing.g.g. in many cases the product has not been produced and still remains only an idea.. In addition to gaining customer feedback. unlike the concept testing stage where customers were only exposed to the idea.. etc. such as advertising. in this step the customer gets to experience the real product as well as other aspects of the marketing mix. operational costs (e. Favorable customer reaction helps solidify the marketer¶s decision to introduce the product and also provides other valuable information such as estimated purchase rates and understanding how the product will be used by the customer..). production costs) and financial projections (e. Step 5. especially with consumer products sold at retail stores.) The key objective at this stage is to obtain useful forecasts of market size (e. retail store. such as customer and distributor surveys.g. such as discussions with production and purchasing personnel. In more controlled test markets distributors may be paid a fee if they agree to place the product on their shelves to allow for testing. However. and distribution options (e. (Note. sales and profits).Step 4. The most common type of market testing makes the product available to a selective small segment of the target market (e. BUSINESS ANALYSIS At this point in the new product development process the marketer has reduced a potentially large number of ideas down to one or two options. the organization must determine if the product will fit within the company¶s overall mission and strategy. cost effective production for manufactured products. Once the prototype is ready the marketer seeks customer input. secondary research. Companies direct their research and development teams to construct an initial design or prototype of the idea. direct from company. which is exposed to the full marketing effort as they would be to any product they could purchase. MARKET TESTING Products surviving to Step 6 are ready to be tested as real products... the marketer must work hard to get the product into the test market by convincing distributors to agree to purchase and place the product on their store shelves. and external marketing research. But other companies may seek more input from a larger group before moving to commercialization. In some cases the marketer accepts what was learned from concept testing and skips over market testing to launch the idea as a fully marketed product. Once these are made the marketer may again have the customer test the product.g. Step 6. In some cases. Reaction that is less favorable may suggest the need for adjustments to elements of the marketing mix. overall demand). PRODUCT AND MARKETING MIX DEVELOPMENT Ideas passing through business analysis are given serious consideration for development. Now in Step 4 the process becomes very dependent on market research as efforts are made to analyze the viability of the product ideas. Another form of market testing found with consumer products is even more controlled with customers recruited to a . Marketers also begin to construct a marketing plan for the product. and competitor analysis. Additionally. this step is used to gauge the feasibility of large-scale. Much effort is directed at both internal research. one city).g.
Managing Existing Products Marketing strategies developed for initial product introduction almost certainly need to be revised as the product settles into the market. COMMERCIALIZATION If market testing displays promising results the product is ready to be introduced to a wider market. Adjusting the product¶s marketing strategy is required for many reasons including: y y y y Changing customer tastes Domestic and foreign competitors Economic conditions Technological advances To stay on top of all possible threats the marketer must monitor all aspects of the marketing mix and make changes as needed. In fact. Such efforts require the marketer to develop and refine the product¶s marketing plan on a regular basis. marketing strategies change as a product moves through time leading to the concept called the Product Life Cycle (PLC). We will see that marketers make numerous revisions to their strategy as product move through different stage of the PLC. . Step 7. This allows the company to ramp up production in a more controlled way and to fine tune the marketing mix as the product is distributed to new areas. Product interest can then be measured based on customer¶s shopping response. there are several hightech approaches to market testing including virtual reality and computer simulations. With computer simulations customers may not be directly involved at all. Instead certain variables are entered into a sophisticated computer program and estimates of a target market¶s response are calculated. and are asked to locate and select products. as we will discuss in The PLC and Marketing Planning tutorial. Some firms introduce or roll-out the product in waves with parts of the market receiving the product on different schedules. Finally. While commercialization may be the last step in the new product development process it is just the beginning of managing the product. With virtual reality testing customers are exposed to a computer-projected environment. such as a store.³laboratory´ store where they are given shopping instructions.
Module: II Product life cycle (PLC) Like human beings. Product life cycle (PLC) has to do with the life of a product in the market with respect to business/commercial costs and sales measures. maturity. . and requires many skills. growth. tools and processes. birth.g. decline and death. involves many professional disciplines. products also have their own life-cycle. The product life cycle goes through multiple phases. From birth to death human beings pass through various stages e. A similar life-cycle is seen in the case of products. To say that a product has a life cycle is to assert four things: y that products have a limited life.
5. These are: Stage 1. and human resource strategies in each life cycle stage. Growth stage costs reduced due to economies of scale sales volume increases significantly profitability begins to rise public awareness increases competition begins to increase with a few new players in establishing market 6. 6. Maturity stage 4. profits rise and fall at different stages of product life cycle.y y y product sales pass through distinct stages. purchasing. increase in competitors entering the market 4. and problems to the seller. 4. profitability diminish profit becomes more a challenge of production/distribution efficiency than increased sales 3. 1. Saturation and decline stage . 3. Characteristics costs are high slow sales volumes to start little or no competition demand has to be created customers have to be prompted to try the product makes no money at this stage 1. manufacturing. increased competition leads to price decreases 1. Industrial profits go down 1. and products require different marketing. opportunities. 2. each posing different challenges. 2. 2. costs become counter-optimal sales volume decline or stabilize prices. 4. 3. There are four stages in product life cycle. 4. brand differentiation and feature diversification is emphasized to maintain or increase market share 6. 5. costs are lowered as a result of production volumes increasing and experience curve effects 2. financial. Market introduction stage 2. sales volume peaks and market saturation is reached 3. 3. prices tend to drop due to the proliferation of competing products 5.
Prices may be lowered to lure the next layer of price-conscious buyers. Product modification. o Quality improvement. y Competitive parity. y Differentiating promotion. Flanker products are introduced. o Feature improvement. New models are introduced. y Rapid Skimming Strategy y Slow Skimming Strategy y Rapid Penetration Strategy y Slow Penetration Strategy Marketing Strategies at Growth Stage: The overall objective is to sustain the growth rate. y y y y y Product quality is improved. Brand building is resorted to. Prices are cut. brands. y Emphasis on price.Marketing Strategies at Introduction Stage: While launching a new product. Marketing Mix Modification o Advertising o Sales promotion o Personal selling o Price o Distribution o Services Marketing Strategies at Maturity Stage: y y Diversity of models. New market segments are trapped. . marketing mix for each variable can be set at a high or low level with different combinations of price and promotion. y Budget increased. Marketing Strategies at Growth Stage: y y Market modification. y More intensive or broad based. Marketing Strategies at Decline Stage: y y Withdrawal of weak products in a phased manner. o Style improvement.
Portfolio Management .A Problem Area! Recent years have witnessed a heightened interest in portfolio management. Portfolio management for new products is a dynamic decision process wherein the list of active new products and R&D projects is constantly revised. "How should corporations most effectively invest their R&D and new product development resources?" That is what portfolio management is all about: resource allocation to achieve corporate product innovation objectives. Despite its growing popularity. the common denominator across firms are the goals executives are trying to achieve.y y y y Selective unprofitable segments are left out. Emphasis on special applications. killed. However. Existing projects may be accelerated. Value Maximization Allocate resources to maximize the value of the portfolio via a number of key objectives . But how do winning companies manage their R&D and product innovation portfolios to achieve higher returns from their investments? There are many different approaches with no easy answers. not only in the technical community. Minimum promotion. new projects are evaluated. Executive teams confess that serious Go/Kill decision points rarely exist and. According to 'best-practice' research by Dr. recent benchmarking studies have identified portfolio management as the weakest area in product innovation management. In this process. it is a problem that every company addresses to produce and maintain leading edge products. Edgett. selected. An estimated 50% of a firm's current sales come from new products introduced in the market within the previous five years. senior executives who optimize their R&D investments have a much better opportunity of winning in the long run. Today's new product projects decide tomorrow's product/market profile of the firm. criteria for making the Go/Kill decision are non-existent. Cooper and Dr. but in the CEO's office as well. Specialist selling. As a result. companies are experiencing too many projects for the limited resources available! Goals of Portfolio Management While the portfolio methods vary greatly from company to company. or deprioritized and resources are allocated (or reallocated) to the active projects. more specifically. and prioritized. Portfolio Management What is New Product Portfolio Management? A vital question in the product innovation battleground is. Much like stock market portfolio managers. five main goals dominate the thinking of successful firms: 1.
and across various markets. ROI. high value activity: y y y y y y y y Maximizes the return on your product innovation investments Maintains your competitive position Achieves efficient and effective allocation of scarce resources Forges a link between project selection and business strategy Achieves focus Communicates priorities Achieves balance Enables objective project selection Top performers emphasize the link between project selection and business strategy. What are the benefits of Portfolio Management? When implemented properly and conducted on a regular basis. Typical methods used to reveal balance include bubble diagrams. and acceptable risk. Portfolio Management is a high impact. Many of the problems that plague new product . 3. Typically this is conducted via a financial analysis of the pipeline¶s potential future value. Sufficiency Ensure the revenue (or profit) goals set out in the product innovation strategy are achievable given the projects currently underway. histograms and pie charts. The goal is to avoid pipeline gridlock (too many projects with too few resources) at any given time. 5. 2. ranging from financial methods to scoring models. 4. A variety of methods are used to achieve this maximization goal.such as profitability. Pipeline Balance Obtain the right number of projects to achieve the best balance between the pipeline resource demands and the resources available. Why is it so important? Companies without effective new product portfolio management and project selection face a slippery road downhill. bottom-up (effective gatekeeping and decision criteria) and top-down and bottom-up (strategic check). short-term versus long-term. A typical approach is to use a rank ordered priority list or a resource supply and demand assessment. Business Strategy Alignment Ensure that the portfolio of projects reflects the company¶s product innovation strategy and that the breakdown of spending aligns with the company¶s strategic priorities. The three main approaches are: top-down (strategic buckets). business arenas and technologies. Balance Achieve a desired balance of projects via a number of parameters: risk versus return.
analysis. BCG-matrix. some of the problems that arise when portfolio management is lacking are: y y y y y y Projects are not high value to the business Portfolio has a poor balance in project types Resource breakdown does not reflect the product innovation strategy A poor job is done in ranking and prioritizing projects There is a poor balance between the number of projects underway and the resources available Projects are not aligned with the business strategy As a result too many companies have: y y y y Too many projects underway (often the wrong ones) Resources are spread too thin and across too many projects Projects are taking too long to get to market. BCG matrix The BCG matrix (aka B. portfolio diagram) is a chart that had been created by Bruce Henderson for the Boston Consulting Group in 1968 to help corporations with analyzing . Edgett.C. Boston Matrix.G. Boston Consulting Group analysis. If you pick the right projects. supports your business strategy. the result is an enviable portfolio of high value projects: a portfolio that is properly balanced and most importantly.development initiatives in businesses can be directly traced to ineffective portfolio management. According to benchmarking studies conducted by Dr. Cooper and Dr. and The pipeline has too many low value projects Portfolio Management is about doing the right projects. Boston Box.
Problems with The Boston Matrix. This is simplistic in many ways and the matrix has some understandable limitations that will be considered later. the Boston Matrix is a well known tool for the marketing manager. Dogs. Problem Children and Stars need to be kept in a kind of equilibrium. They consume resources and generate little in return. When Boeing launch a new jet. They do not generate cash for the company. You would look at each individual product in your range (or portfolio) and place it onto the matrix. Each cell has its own name as follows. Stars. Look for some kind of balance within your portfolio. Keep and build your stars. it may gain a high market share quickly but it still has to cover very high development costs It is normally applied to Strategic Business Units (SBUs). There is another assumption .their business units or product lines. This is an SBU not a single product. So keep them in your portfolio of products for the time being. The funds generated by your Cash Cows is used to turn problem children into Stars. they tend to absorb it. Try not to have any Dogs. Get rid of these products. Cash Cows. strategic management. These are products with a low share of a low growth market. Stars tend to generate high amounts of income. You would do this for every product in the range. Problem Children. Cash Cows generate more than is invested in them. They absorb most money as you attempt to increase market share. You can then plot the products of your rivals to give relative market share. Ford own Landrover in the UK. Cash Cows. It has two controlling aspect namely relative market share (meaning relative to your competition) and market growth. This may not always be the case. product management. This helps the company allocate resources and is used as an analytical tool in brand marketing. and portfolio analysis. These are areas of the business rather than products. Some of the Problem Children will become Dogs. These are the canine version of 'real turkeys!'. and this means that you will need a larger contribution from the successful products to compensate for the failures. For example. These are products that are in high growth markets with a relatively high share of that market. These are products with a high share of a low growth market. It was developed by the large US consulting group and is an approach to product portfolio planning. which may eventually become Cash Cows. These are products with a low share of a high growth market. There is an assumption that higher rates of profit are directly related to high rates of market share.  Folio plot of example data set Like Ansoff's matrix.
and indicates where it might be likely to go in the future. and one which pointed to cash usage was that of market growth rate. the ratio would be 4:1. If this technique is used in practice. is that it carries more information than just cash flow. not linear. at least in terms of current profitability. As a result of 'economies of scale' (a basic assumption of the BCG Matrix). and the largest competitor had the same. the Rule of 123. that of managing cash-flow. the ratio would be 1:3. Derivatives can also be used to create a 'product portfolio' analysis of services. The reason for choosing relative market share. exactly what is a high relative share is a matter of some debate. This is not always the case. Practical use of the BCG Matrix For each product or service. if the brand had a share of 20 percent. however. the ratio would be 1:1. implying that the brand owned was in a relatively strong position. . this scale is logarithmic. Brand leaders in this position tend to be very stable²and profitable. and triple that of the third. On the other hand. If the largest competitor had a share of 60 percent. Be careful. as well as the likely cashflows. Use the Matrix as a planning tool and always rely on your gut feeling. The BCG Matrix thus offers a very useful 'map' of the organization's product (or service) strengths and weaknesses. It was reasoned that one of the main indicators of cash generation was relative market share. implying that the organization's brand was in a relatively weak position. It shows where the brand is positioned against its main competitors. The exact measure is the brand's share relative to its largest competitor. If the largest competitor only had a share of 5 percent. Thus. It can also show what type of marketing activities might be expected to be effective. it is assumed that these earnings will grow faster the higher the share.that SBUs will cooperate. The best evidence is that the most stable position (at least in Fast Moving Consumer Goods FMCG markets) is for the brand leader to have a share double that of the second brand. Relative market share This indicates likely cash generation. indeed. the 'area' of the circle represents the value of its sales. So Information System services can be treated accordingly. The need which prompted this idea was. because the higher the share the more cash will be generated. The main problem is that it oversimplifies a complex set of decision. rather than just profits. which might be reflected in profits and cash flows.
later practitioners have tended to over-simplify its messages. since such simplistic use contains at least two major problems: . which may make application of this form of analysis unworkable in many markets. However. in those few situations where it could be applied. the later application of the names (problem children. before growth rates slow and it's too late.Market growth rate Rapidly growing in rapidly growing markets. Where it can be applied. Poor definition of a business's market will lead to some dogs being misclassified as cash bulls. (It is certainly possible that a particular dog can be profitable without cash infusions required. and only implies actual profitability. The reason for this is often because the growth is being 'bought' by the high investment. is that the most typical pattern is of very low growth. again. are what organizations strive for. ranking business units has a subjective element involving guesswork about the future. This is outside the range normally considered in BCG Matrix work. It is a good indicator of that market's strength. as we have seen. makes the use of the BCG Matrix problematical in some product areas.they require investment. optimistic evaluations can lead to a dot com mentality in which even the most dubious businesses are classified as "question marks" with good prospects. If used with this degree of sophistication its use would still be valid. however. that a higher growth rate is indicative of accompanying demands on investment. With this or any other such analytical tool. In particular. the rate above which the growth is deemed to be significant (and likely to lead to extra demands on cash) is a critical requirement of the technique. and practitioners. enthusiastic managers may claim that cash must be thrown at these businesses immediately in order to turn them into stars. Critical evaluation The matrix ranks only market share and industry growth rate. but. This is unfortunate. the evidence from FMCG markets at least. Determining this cut-off point. the penalty is that they are usually net cash users .) The matrix also overlooks other elements of industry. of its future potential (of its 'maturity' in terms of the market life-cycle). It can also be used in growth analysis. the purpose of any business. As originally practiced by the Boston Consulting Group the matrix was undoubtedly a useful tool. stars. and also of its attractiveness to future competitors. the market growth rate says more about the brand position than just its cash flow. for graphically illustrating cashflows. less than 1 per cent per annum. The theory behind the matrix assumes. remember. Unless the rankings are approached with rigor and scepticism. in the reasonable expectation that a high market share will eventually turn into a sound investment in future profits. The cut-off point is usually chosen as 10 per cent per annum. particularly with respect to growth rates. and therefore should be retained and not sold. cash cows and dogs) has tended to overshadow all else²and is often what most students. and one that. therefore. What is more.
or is at least less widely taught). on to the `stars'. It focuses attention. indeed. The vendor. Although it is necessary to recognize a `dog' when it appears (at least before it bites you) it would be foolish in the extreme to create one in order to balance up the picture. In the majority of markets. Such brand leaders will. the chance of the new brands achieving similar brand leadership may be slim²certainly far less than the popular perception of the Boston Matrix would imply. There is also a common misconception that 'dogs' are a waste of resources. generate large cash flows. perhaps. The brand leader's position is the one. and that is. and an excellent marketer. above all. 'Milking cash bulls'. and a definite pattern of product lifecycles can be observed. It presumes. This approaches some of the same issues as the BCG Matrix but from a different direction and in a more complex way (which may be why it is used less.'Minority applicability'. since `cash cows' will inevitably decline to become `dogs'. Alternatives As with most marketing techniques. but they should not be `milked' to such an extent that their position is jeopardized. to add some extra growth. that `cash bulls' will turn into `dogs'. should consider himself (or herself) fortunate indeed. The cashflow techniques are only applicable to a very limited number of markets (where growth is relatively high. the main message that it is intended to convey. Perhaps the most practical approach is that of the Boston Consulting Group's . money must be diverted from `cash cows' to fund the `stars' of the future. to be defended. The next most widely reported technique is that developed by McKinsey and General Electric. Perhaps the most important danger is. In any case. however. not least since brands in this position will probably outperform any number of newly launched brands. and almost demands. Thus. although he or she might also consider creating a few stars as an insurance policy against unexpected future developments and. who has most of his (or her) products in the `cash cow' quadrant. such as that of ethical pharmaceuticals). use may give misleading results. There is an almost mesmeric inevitability about the whole process. The reality is that it is only the `cash bulls' that are really important²all the other elements are supporting actors. This is not what research into the FMCG markets has shown to be the case. and funding. In many markets 'dogs' can be considered loss-leaders that while not themselves profitable will lead to increased sales in other profitable areas. there are a number of alternative offerings vying with the BCG Matrix although this appears to be the most widely used (or at least most widely taught²and then probably 'not' used). which is a three-cell by three-cell matrix²using the dimensions of `industry attractiveness' and `business strengths'. Perhaps the worst implication of the later developments is that the (brand leader) cash bulls should be milked to fund new brands. of course. It is a foolish vendor who diverts funds from a `cash cow' when these are needed to extend the life of that `product'. that the apparent implication of its fourquadrant form is that there should be balance of products or services across all four quadrants.
ansoff's product / market matrix Introduction The Ansoff Growth matrix is a tool that helps businesses decide their product and market growth strategy. The output from the Ansoff product/market matrix is a series of suggested growth strategies that set the direction for the business strategy.Advantage Matrix. These are described below: Market penetration Market penetration is the name given to a growth strategy where the business focuses on selling existing products into existing markets. which the consultancy reportedly used itself though it is little known amongst the wider population. Market penetration seeks to achieve four main objectives: . Ansoff¶s product/market growth matrix suggests that a business¶ attempts to grow depend on whether it markets new or existing products in new or existing markets.
Diversification Diversification is the name given to the growth strategy where a business markets new products in new markets. it must have a clear idea about what it expects to gain from the strategy and an honest assessment of the risks. It is unlikely. Maintain or increase the market share of current products ± this can be achieved by a combination of competitive pricing strategies.ge matrix The business portfolio is the collection of businesses and products that make up the company. The best business portfolio is one that fits the company's strengths and helps exploit the most attractive opportunities. For a business to adopt a diversification strategy. The company must: (1) Analyse its current business portfolio and decide which businesses should receive more or less investment. sales promotion and perhaps more resources dedicated to personal selling Secure dominance of growth markets Restructure a mature market by driving out competitors. this would require a much more aggressive promotional campaign. for example exporting the product to a new country New product dimensions or packaging: for example New distribution channels Different pricing policies to attract different customers or create new market segments Product development Product development is the name given to a growth strategy where a business aims to introduce new products into existing markets. therefore. Market development Market development is the name given to a growth strategy where the business seeks to sell its existing products into new markets. The business is focusing on markets and products it knows well. supported by a pricing strategy designed to make the market unattractive for competitors Increase usage by existing customers ± for example by introducing loyalty schemes A market penetration marketing strategy is very much about ³business as usual´. including: New geographical markets. and .portfolio analysis . It is likely to have good information on competitors and on customer needs. therefore. advertising. This is an inherently more risk strategy because the business is moving into markets in which it has little or no experience. that this strategy will require much investment in new market research. This strategy may require the development of new competencies and requires the business to develop modified products which can appeal to existing markets. strategy . There are many possible ways of approaching this strategy.
Secondly.it all depends on how the company is organised. An SBU can be a company division. In both methods. The diagram below illustrates some of the possible elements that determine market attractiveness and competitive strength by applying the McKinsey/GE Matrix to the UK retailing market: Factors that Affect Market Attractiveness Whilst any assessment of market attractiveness is necessarily subjective. market attractiveness replaces market growth as the dimension of industry attractiveness.(2) Develop growth strategies for adding new products and businesses to the portfolio. and includes a broader range of factors other than just the market growth rate. whilst at the same time deciding when products and businesses should no longer be retained. These are listed below: . The McKinsey / General Electric Matrix The McKinsey/GE Matrix overcomes a number of the disadvantages of the BCG Box. The two best-known portfolio planning methods are the Boston Consulting Group Portfolio Matrix and the McKinsey / General Electric Matrix (discussed in this revision note). there are several factors which can help determine attractiveness. Firstly. a product line or even individual brands . the first step is to identify the various Strategic Business Units ("SBU's") in a company portfolio. An SBU is a unit of the company that has a separate mission and objectives and that can be planned independently from the other businesses. competitive strength replaces market share as the dimension by which the competitive position of each SBU is assessed.
Customer loyalty .Strength of assets and competencies .Market profitability .Market Size .Record of technological or other innovation .Opportunity to differentiate products and services .Market growth ..Relative brand strength .Segmentation .Competitive intensity / rivalry . wholesale Factors that Affect Competitive Strength Factors to consider include: . direct.Relative cost position (cost structure compared with competitors) . retail.Distribution strength .Access to financial and other investment resources .g.Pricing trends .Overall risk of returns in the industry .Distribution structure (e.Market share .
Line depth refers to the number of product variants in a line. Line consistency refers to how closely related the products that make up the line are. where several products are combined into one. You are gaining short-term sales at the expense of long term sales. Image anchors are usually from the higher end of the line's range. When you add a line extension that is of lower quality than the other products of the line. The total number of products sold in all lines is referred to as length of product mix. When you add a line extension that is of better quality than the other products in the line. this is referred to as trading down. . When you trade down. Unlike product bundling.Product Line Product lining is the marketing strategy of offering for sale several related products. When you add a new product within the current range of an incomplete line. If a line of products is sold with the same brand name. The number of different product lines sold by a company is referred to as width of product mix. this is referred to as family branding. qualities. you will likely reduce your brand equity. Image anchors are highly promoted products within a line that define the image of the whole line. this is referred to as trading up or brand leveraging. lining involves offering several related products individually. or prices. A line can comprise related products of various sizes. When you add a new product to a line. Line vulnerability refers to the percentage of sales or profits that are derived from only a few products in the line. colors. types. this is referred to as line filling. it is referred to as a line extension.
Clinic Plus Reese's Peanut Butter Cups. and specialty goods. Reese's Pieces and Reese's Puff Cereal Consumer and Industrial Goods The classification of goods²physical products² is essential to business because it provides a basis for determining the strategies needed to move them through the marketing system. They are grouped into three subcategories on the basis of consumer buying habits: convenience goods. There are many important decisions about product and service development and marketing. Surf Excel Blue Splendour. Its underlying rationale is that these amounts are seen as suitable price points for a whole range of products by prospective customers. particularly in times of inflation or unstable prices. forms. Consumer goods can also be differentiated on the basis of durability. It has the advantage of ease of administering. This is as opposed to brand extension which is a new product in a totally different product category. Examples include y y y y y y Zen LXI. A product line extension is the use of an established product¶s brand name for a new item in the same product category. In the process of product development and marketing we should focus on strategic decisions about product attributes. colors. This is a tradition started in the old five and dime stores in which everything cost either 5 or 10 cents. Surf Excel. Splendour Plus Coca-Cola. product branding. Vanilla Coke Clinic All Clear. Zen VXI Surf. Line Extensions occur when a company introduces additional items in the same product category under the same brand name such as new flavors. product packaging.Price lining is the use of a limited number of prices for all your product offerings. product labeling and product support services. Diet Coke. or household use. Durable . added ingredients. family. The two main forms of classifications are consumer goods and industrial goods. but the disadvantage of inflexibility. shopping goods. Consumer Goods Consumer goods are goods that are bought from retail stores for personal. But product strategy also calls for building a product line. package sizes.
Impulse items are other convenience goods that are purchased without prior planning.g. or that become outdated. Nondurable goods are those that are quickly used up. Televisions. school supplies.. and other settings. a fundamental strategy in establishing stores that specialize in them is to locate near similar stores in active shopping areas. they are placed at checkout stands and other high-traffic areas. . and television. Convenience Goods Convenience goods are items that buyers want to buy with the least amount of effort. Shopping Goods Shopping goods are purchased only after the buyer compares the products of more than one store or looks at more than one assortment of goods before making a deliberate buying decision. style. of high value. Advertising for shopping goods is often done cooperatively with the manufacturers of the goods. These goods are usually. antiques. soft drinks. fine jewelry. a food dish prepared in a specific way). a certain make of automobile) or personal preference (e. computers. These goods can be further divided into two subcategories: staple and impulse items. These goods are usually of higher value than convenience goods. To extend the distribution. including newspapers. radio. Most are nondurable goods of low value that are frequently purchased in small quantities. such as furniture and garden tools. and golf clubs. such as candy bars. or worn out. as conveniently as possible. and toilet paper. lawnmowers. Other items that fall into this category are wedding dresses. Specialty Goods Specialty goods are items that are unique or unusual²at least in the mind of the buyer. They differ from shopping goods primarily because price is not the chief consideration. bedding. but not necessarily. Staple convenience goods are basic items that buyers plan to buy before they enter a store.g. that is. schools. Ongoing strategies for marketing shopping goods include the heavy use of advertising in local media.goods are products that have a long life. Within stores. factories. Often the attributes that make them unique are brand preference (e. Since convenience goods are not actually sought out by consumers. bought infrequently. and include milk. producers attempt to get as wide a distribution as possible through wholesalers. quality. and disposable cameras. and they may or may not be durable goods. and camping equipment are all examples of shopping goods.. bread. and are durable. and color are typically factors in the buying decision. Price. these items are also frequently made available through vending machines in offices. and tabloid newspapers. such as food. Because customers are going to shop for these goods. Buyers know exactly what they want and are willing to exert considerable effort to obtain it.
the shoes are a specialty good. and machine tools. Industrial Goods Industrial goods are products that companies purchase to make other products. actual sale of installations requires the technical knowledge and assistance that can best be provided by personal selling. robotics equipment. Consequently. such as conveyor systems. Accessory Equipment Goods that fall into the subcategory of accessory equipment are capital items that are less expensive and have shorter lives than . Unlike consumer goods. and a specialty good for a third. Consistency of image between the product and the store is also a factor in selecting outlets. the shoes are a shopping good. Durable industrial goods that cost large sums of money are referred to as capital items. As noted earlier. shopping. Installations Installations are major capital items that are typically used directly in the production of goods. are built to a standard design but can be modified to meet individual requirements. such as stamping machines. for a person who does not want to spend time shopping. Other installations. accessory equipment. These goods are divided into five subcategories: installations. Still another individual who perhaps prefers a certain brand or has an unusual size will buy individual shoes only from a specific retail location. Some installations. The distinction among convenience. Industrial goods also carry designations related to their durability. and computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan machines. large commercial ovens. The purchase of installations requires extensive research and careful decision making on the part of the buyer. these classifications are based on consumers' buying habits. which they then sell. Some are used directly in the production of the products for resale. In contrast. and industrial supplies. for this buyer. a shopping good for another. Manufacturers of installations can make their availability known through advertising. a given item may be a convenience good for one person. Nondurable industrial goods that are used up within a year are called expense items. and some are used indirectly. another person might buy shoes only after considerable thought and comparison: in this instance. buying a pair of shoes might be a convenience purchase. are designed and built for specialized situations. industrial goods are classified on the basis of their use rather than customer buying habits. For example. and specialty goods is not always clear. fabricated parts and materials. However. raw materials.Producers and distributors of specialty goods prefer to place their goods only in selected retail outlets. These outlets are chosen on the basis of their willingness and ability to provide a high level of advertising and personal selling for the product.
many industries actually buy more fabricated items than raw materials. on the other hand. The relatively low unit value of accessory equipment. While some types of accessory equipment. little difference between offerings within a grade. Fabricated materials. When personal selling is needed. dictates a broad marketing strategy. Raw Materials Raw materials are products that are purchased in their raw state for the purpose of processing them into consumer or industrial goods. Most raw materials are graded according to quality so that there is some assurance of consistency within each grade. Examples are iron ore. Consequently. timber) may be converted into an intermediate product (lumber) to be resold for use in another industry (construction). such as wholesalers. As a matter of fact. Industrial Supplies Industrial supplies are frequently purchased expense items. cleaning supplies. and forklifts. light bulbs. most are only indirectly involved. diamonds. There is.installations. are involved directly in the production process. including steel and upholstery fabric. computers. require additional processing before being placed in the end product. sun roofs. in order to be in a position to get the business.. Fabricated Parts and Materials Fabricated parts are items that are purchased to be placed in the final product without further processing. Examples include hand tools. windshields. timber. copper. combined with a market made up of buyers from several different types of businesses. delivery. In either case. and credit terms. They contribute indirectly to the production of final products or to the administration of the production process.g. Buyers of fabricated parts and materials have well-defined specifications for their needs. rely heavily on fabricated parts. sales negotiations focus on price. Supplies include computer paper. desk calculators. Here again. personal selling is a key component in the marketing strategy. or they may invite bids from several companies. and spark plugs. Automakers use such fabricated parts as batteries. crude oil. it is usually done by intermediaries. including the auto industry. Others (e. Buyers of industrial supplies do not spend a great deal of time on their . They also use several fabricated materials. wheat. Many industries. and leather.g. however. lubrication oil. Some (e. This negotiation plus the fact that raw materials are ordinarily sold in large quantities make personal selling the principal marketing approach for these goods. and office supplies. Sellers rely heavily on advertisements in trade publications and mailings to purchasing agents and other business buyers. wheat) may be converted directly into another consumer product (cereal).. They may work closely with a company in designing the components or materials they require. personal contact must be maintained with the buyers over time. such as hand tools.
it is an industrial good. On the other hand. Flour purchased by a supermarket for resale would be classified as a consumer good. A pickup truck bought for personal use is a consumer good. . It is not always clear whether a product is a consumer good or an industrial good. if purchased to transport lawnmowers for a lawn service. can fall into either classification. depending on how they are used. but flour purchased by a bakery to make pastries would be classified as an industrial good. sales representatives may be used. Goods that are in their final form. The key to differentiating them is to identify the use the buyer intends to make of the good. companies marketing supplies place their emphasis on advertising²particularly in the form of catalogues²to business buyers. and are bought to be resold to the final consumer are classified as consumer goods. they are considered industrial goods. such as flour and pick-up trucks. As a result. if they are bought by a business for its own use. Some items. are ready to be consumed.purchasing decisions unless they are ordering large quantities. When large orders are at stake.
The discipline of brand management was started at Procter & Gamble PLC as a result of a famous memo by Neil H. suggest product benefits (e. be attractive. which are allocated budgets from above.) suggest the company or product image. a global consulting firm. Marketers see a brand as an implied promise that the level of quality people have come to expect from a brand will continue with future purchases of the same product. In this regard. distinguish the product's positioning relative to the competition. indicates that the market value of companies often consists largely of brand equity. Research by McKinsey & Company. and thus. . be easy to recognize.: Easy-Off) or suggest usage (note the tradeoff with strong trademark protection. be easy to translate into all languages in the markets where the brand will be used. This may increase sales by making a comparison with competing products more favorable. be easy to pronounce. well-leveraged brands produce higher returns to shareholders than weaker. The annual list of the world¶s most valuable brands. or brand. It may also enable the manufacturer to charge more for the product. The value of the brand is determined by the amount of profit it generates for the manufacturer.Module: III Branding Brand management is the application of marketing techniques to a specific product. Brand Management is often viewed in organizations as a broader and more strategic role than Marketing alone. narrower brands. product line. It seeks to increase the product's perceived value to the customer and thereby increase brand franchise and brand equity. in contrast to marketing staff manager roles. this means that brands seriously impact shareholder value. McElroy Principles of brand management A good brand name should: y y y y y y y y y y be protected (or at least protectable) under trademark law. attract attention. Taken together. and/or reduced COGS (cost of goods sold). and/or reduced or more efficient marketing investment. which ultimately makes branding a CEO responsibility. published by Interbrand and Business Week. "Brand Managers" often carry line-management accountability for a brand's P&L (Profit and Loss) profitability. in 2000 suggested that strong. to manage and execute. This can result from a combination of increased sales and increased price. be easy to remember. All of these enhancements may improve the profitability of a brand.g.
Procter & Gamble. (For Manufacture) Means of identification to simplify handling or tracing. is a choice example with its many unrelated consumer brands such as Tide. Symbolic device. In the case of product branding. Search cost reducer. Signal of quality level to satisfied customers. Pampers. Types of brands >premium brand >economy brand >fighting brand >corporate branding >individual branding >family branding >" Functions of brand (For consumers) Identification of source of product. Means of endowing products with unique associations. Source of competitive advantage. they will create a specific service or product brand for each market that they target. Abunda. ("Strategic Brand Management" 3rd edition. The mother brand is used and all products carry this name and all advertising speaks with the same voice. This process is known as "Brand rationalization.y stand out among a group of other brands. Endorsed brands benefit from the standing of their mother brand and thus save a company some marketing expense by virtue promoting all the linked brands whenever the mother brand is advertised." Some companies tend to create more brands and product variations within a brand than economies of scale would indicate. Ivory and Pantene. In "product brand architecture". Assignment of responsibility to product maker. such as The Courtyard Hotels (product brand name) by Marriott (mother brand name). A good example of this brand architecture is the UK-based conglomerate Virgin. Virgin brands all its businesses with its name Techniques Companies sometimes want to reduce the number of brands that they market. Signal of quality. Risk reducer. With "endorsed brand architecture". considered by many to have created product branding. Source of financial returns. this may be to gain retail shelf space (and . Means of legally protecting unique features. Sometimes. The third model of brand architecture is most commonly referred to as "corporate branding". the company supports many different product brands with each having its own name and style of expression while the company itself remains invisible to consumers.Kevin Lane Keller) Brand architecture The different brands owned by a company are related to each other via brand architecture. a mother brand is tied to product brands.
In a diversified company. Or worse. corporate objectives may conflict with the specific needs of your brand. competitive tools ± such as brands. Brand identities may also lose resonance with their target market through demographic evolution.or product-level category. Short-term objectives should be seen as milestones towards longterm objectives. Brand orientation is a deliberate approach to working with brands. may cost some brand equity. or to rationalize a brand portfolio as part of corporate restructuring. y y y y y Brand managers sometimes limit themselves to setting financial and market performance objectives. A company may decide to rationalize their portfolio of brands from time to time to gain production and marketing efficiency. Brand Orientation refers to "the degree to which the organization values brands and its practices are oriented towards building brand capabilities´ (Bridson & Evans. increasing numbers of companies are looking for other.reduce the amount of shelf space allocated to competing brands). Most product level or brand managers limit themselves to setting short-term objectives because their compensation packages are designed to reward shortterm behavior. a brand can be repositioned while retaining existing brand equity for leverage. A product¶s superiority is in itself no longer sufficient to guarantee its success. Repositioning a brand (sometimes called rebranding). a restated corporate vision statement. but ideally. A recurring challenge for brand managers is to build a consistent brand while keeping its message fresh and relevant. and can confuse the target market. Corporate objectives must be broad enough that brands with high-risk products are not constrained by objectives set with cash cows in . the objectives of some brands may conflict with those of other brands. Often product level managers are not given enough information to construct strategic objectives. The fast pace of technological development and the increased speed with which imitations turn up on the market have dramatically shortened product lifecycles. revisited mission statement or values of a company. An older brand identity may be misaligned to a redefined target market. Challenges There are several challenges associated with setting objectives for a category. It is sometimes difficult to translate corporate level objectives into brand. both internally and externally. The consequence is that product-related competitive advantages soon risk being transformed into competitive prerequisites. For this reason. This has resulted in an ever-tougher competitive situation on many markets. more enduring. They may not question strategic objectives if they feel this is the responsibility of senior management. This is particularly true in regard to the trade-off between stability and riskiness. 2004). The most important driving force behind this increased interest in strong brands is the accelerating pace of globalization.
The brand manager also needs to know senior management's harvesting strategy. This is particularly true where compensation is based primarily on unit performance.G.C. For example. Measurement There are many ways to measure a brand. such as the unauthorized use of a brand logo or even for negative brand information (and misinformation) from online consumers that appears in online communities and other social media platforms.y y y y mind (see B. a calculation is made regarding how much the brand is worth as an intangible asset. Brand managers sometimes set objectives that optimize the performance of their unit rather than optimize overall corporate performance. if you were to take the value of the firm. Brands are sometimes criticized within social media web sites and this must be monitored and managed. Some measurements approaches are at the firm level. infractions. Analysis). developing a social strategy to develop or increase social currency becomes increasingly important Online brand management Companies are embracing brand reputation management as a strategic imperative and are increasingly turning to online monitoring in their efforts to prevent their public image from becoming tarnished. Brand equity is one of the factors which can increase the financial value of a brand to the brand owner. some at the product level. Managers tend to ignore potential synergies and inter-unit joint processes. And. consumers' knowledge about a brand makes manufacturers/advertisers respond differently or adopt appropriately adept measures for the marketing of the brand . Brand equity refers to the marketing effects or outcomes that accrue to a product with its brand name compared with those that would accrue if the same product did not have the brand name. Firm Level: Firm level approaches measure the brand as a financial asset. Online brand reputation protection can mean monitoring for the misappropriation of a brand trademark by fraudsters intent on confusing consumers for monetary gain. The red flag can be something as benign as a blog rant about a bad hotel experience or an electronic gadget that functions below expectations. although perhaps equally damaging. Also because of the development of such social technologies. The study of brand equity is increasingly popular as some marketing researchers have concluded that brands are one of the most valuable assets that a company has. as derived by its market capitalization . although not the only one. In short. and still others are at the consumer level. at the root of these marketing effects is consumers' knowledge. Overall organisation alignment behind the brand to achieve Integrated Marketing is complex. It can also mean monitoring for less malicious. In other words.
. assuming all things equal. is due to the brand. at best. A second perspective is that negative equity can exist. Product Level: The classic product level brand measurement example is to compare the price of a no-name or private label product to an "equivalent" branded product. attitudes. All of these calculations are. A more complete understanding of the brand can occur if multiple measures are used.and then subtract tangible assets and "measurable" intangible assets. Consumer Level: This approach seeks to map the mind of the consumer to find out what associations with the brand the consumer has. and promotion. There are two schools of thought regarding the existence of negative brand equity. hypothesizing only positive brand equity is created by marketing activities such as advertising.[ One high profile firm level approach is by the consulting firm Interbrand. This is because family branding allows them to leverage the equity accumulated in the core . and intentions about a brand. One perspective states brand equity cannot be negative. market leadership. due to catastrophic events to the brand. for example). Family branding vs. negative brand equity A brand equity is the positive effect of the brand on the difference between the prices that the consumer accepts to pay when the brand known compared to the value of the benefit received. To do its calculation. More recently a revenue premium approach has been advocated. such as a wide product recall or continued negative press attention (Blackwater or Halliburton. individual branding strategies The greater a company's brand equity. the term "negative brand equity" may be used to describe a product or service where a brand has a negligible effect on a product level when compared to a no-name or private label product.the residual would be the brand equity. Colloquially. compared with ³brand equity´ . Brands with high levels of awareness and strong. stability and global reach of the brand[. Interbrand estimates brand value on the basis of projected profits discounted to a present value. The discount rate is a subjective rate determined by Interbrand and Wall Street equity specialists and reflects the risk profile. This approach seeks to measure the awareness (recall and recognition) and brand image (the overall associations that the brand has). the greater the probability that the company will use a family branding strategy rather than an individual branding strategy. The brand-related negative intangible assets are called ³brand liability´. favorable and unique associations are high equity brands. PR. The difference in price. Free association tests and projective techniques are commonly used to uncover the tangible and intangible attributes. Positive brand equity vs. approximations.
while a marketing manager believed that a name change would highlight the new redesign. The Five Hundred name was thrown out and Taurus was brought back for the next generation of that car in a surprise move by Alan Mulally. but an overwhelming majority was familiar with the "Ford Taurus"." This differs slightly from the context in which the term was first published in 1969 by Jack Trout in the paper "Positioning" is a game people play in today¶s me-too market place" in the publication Industrial Marketing. The aging Taurus. Freestar and Fusion. price. association. Positioning is a concept in marketing which was first popularized by Al Ries and Jack Trout in their bestseller book "Positioning . the Five Hundred. product or service in relation to their perceptions of the competitors in the same category. awareness. and has a natural tendency to discard all information that does not immediately find a comfortable (and empty) slot in the consumers mind. the Freestar was discontinued without a replacement. By 2007. "Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind.brand.e. Brand Positioning Definitions Although there are different definitions of Positioning. Examples In the early 2000s in North America.The Battle for Your Mind. promotion. probably the most common is: identifying a market niche for a brand. The Toronto Star quoted an analyst who warned that changing the name of the well known Windstar to the Freestar would cause confusion and discard brand equity built up. distribution. This aligned with the previous tradition of naming all sport utility vehicles since the Ford Explorer with the letter "E". It is based on the concept that communication can only take place at the right time and under the right circumstances" (p. What most will agree on is that Positioning is something (perception) that happens in the minds of the target market. and perception of quality . It is the aggregate perception the market has of a particular company. in which the case is made that the typical consumer is overwhelmed with unwanted advertising." in which they define Positioning as "an organized system for finding a window in the mind. would be abandoned in favor of three entirely new names. 19 of 2001 paperback edition). packaging. product or service utilizing traditional marketing placement strategies (i. all starting with "F". and competition). which became one of the most significant cars in American auto history. It will happen whether or not a company's management is . Aspects of brand equity includes: brand loyalty. "Five Hundred" was recognized by less than half of most people. the Ford Motor Company made a strategic decision to brand all new or redesigned cars with names starting with "F". It was then expanded into their ground-breaking first book.
Collecting information from a sample of customers about their perceptions of each product on the relevant attributes 4. reactive or passive about the on-going process of evolving a position. Identifying the attributes (also called dimensions) that define the product 'space' 3. we can't feel them or touch them or show nice product pictures. Determine the target market's preferred combination of attributes (referred to as an ideal vector) 7.that is.proactive. But a company can positively influence the perceptions through enlightened strategic actions. Position. When they want to know more because you've piqued their interest and started a conversation. however. The process is similar for positioning your company's services. Services. Examine the fit between: o The position of your product o The position of the ideal vector 8. there are three types of positioning concepts: 1. don't have the physical attributes of products . Functional positions o Solve problems o Provide benefits to customers o Get favorable perception by investors (stock profile) and lenders 2. watch their facial expressions and listen for their response. Defining the market in which the product or brand will compete (who the relevant buyers are) 2. Determine each product's share of mind 5. Product positioning process Generally. Symbolic positions o Self-image enhancement o Ego identification o Belongingness and social meaningfulness o Affective fulfillment . what value do clients get from my services? How are they better off from doing business with me? Also ask: is there a characteristic that makes my services different? Write out the value customers derive and the attributes your services offer to create the first draft of your positioning. So you need to ask first your customers and then yourself. Determine each product's current location in the product space 6. Positioning concepts More generally. the product positioning process involves: 1. you'll know you're on the right track. Test it on people who don't really know what you do or what you sell.
3. Experiential positions o Provide sensory stimulation o Provide cognitive stimulation Measuring the positioning Positioning is facilitated by a graphical technique called perceptual mapping, various survey techniques, and statistical techniques like multi dimensional scaling, factor analysis, conjoint analysis, and logit analysis. Repositioning a company In volatile markets, it can be necessary - even urgent - to reposition an entire company, rather than just a product line or brand. Take, for example, when Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley suddenly shifted from investment to commercial banks. The expectations of investors, employees, clients and regulators all need to shift, and each company will need to influence how these perceptions change. Doing so involves repositioning the entire firm. This is especially true of small and medium-sized firms, many of which often lack strong brands for individual product lines. In a prolonged recession, business approaches that were effective during healthy economies often become ineffective and it becomes necessary to change a firm's positioning. Upscale restaurants, for example, which previously flourished on expense account dinners and corporate events, may for the first time need to stress value as a sale tool. Repositioning a company involves more than a marketing challenge. It involves making hard decisions about how a market is shifting and how a firm's competitors will react. Often these decisions must be made without the benefit of sufficient information, simply because the definition of "volatility" is that change becomes difficult or impossible to predict.
Brand positioning As we have argued in our other revision notes on branding, it is the ³added value´ or augmented elements that determine a brand¶s positioning in the market place. Positioning can be defined as follows: Positioning is how a product appears in relation to other products in the market Brands can be positioned against competing brands on a perceptual map. A perceptual map defines the market in terms of the way buyers perceive key characteristics of competing products.
The basic perceptual map that buyers use maps products in terms of their price and quality, as illustrated below:
Brand extension or brand stretching is a marketing strategy in which a firm marketing a product with a well-developed image uses the same brand name in a different product category. The new product is called a spin-off. Organizations use this strategy to increase and leverage brand equity (definition: the net worth and long-term sustainability just from the renowned name). An example of a brand extension is Jellogelatin creating Jello pudding pops. It increases awareness of the brand name and increases profitability from offerings in more than one product category. A brand's "extendibility" depends on how strong consumer's associations are to the brand's values and goals. Ralph Lauren's Polo brand successfully extended from clothing to home furnishings such as bedding and towels. Both clothing and bedding are made of linen and fulfill a similar consumer function of comfort and hominess. Arm & Hammer leveraged its brand equity from basic baking soda into the oral care and laundry care categories. By emphasizing its key attributes, the cleaning and deodorizing properties of its core product, Arm & Hammer was able to leverage those attributes into new categories with success. Another example is Virgin Group, which was initially a record label that has extended its brand successfully many times; from transportation (aeroplanes, trains) to games stores and video stores such a Virgin Megastores.
Most of the literature focuses on the consumer evaluation and positive impact on parent brand. extension of productrelated association and non-product related association.In 1990s. This tactic is undertaken due to the brand loyalty and brand awareness they enjoy consumers are more likely to buy a new product that has a tried and trusted brand name on it. the ³Substitute´ indicates two products have same user situation and satisfy their same needs which means the products class is very similar so that can replace each other. the failures of brand extension are at higher rate than the successes. At last. This means the market is catered for as they are receiving a product from a brand they trust and Coca Cola is catered for as they can increase their product portfolio and they have a larger hold over the market in which they are performing in. is not only time consuming but also needs a big budget to create awareness and to promote a product's benefits. First of all. Following the Aaker and Keller¶s (1990) model. Another form of brand extension. negative association and wrong communication strategy do harm to the parent brand even brand family. Launching a new product. is a licensed brand extension. Product extensions are versions of the same parent product that serve a segment of the target market and increase the variety of an offering. Where the brand-owner partners (sometimes . there are many different way of extension such as "brand alliance". resulting in a diluted or severely damaged brand image. 81% of new products used brand extension to introduce new brands and to create sales. the ³Complement´ is that consumer takes two product (extension and parent brand product) classes as complement to satisfy their specific needs. there can also be significant risks. Secondly. Tauber (1988) suggests seven strategies to identify extension cases such as product with parent brand¶s benefit.co-brandingor ³brand franchise extension´. Brand extension is one of the new product development strategies which can reduce financial risk by using the parent brand name to enhance consumers' perception due to the core brand equity. it can be classified into two category of extension. they provide a sufficient depth and breadth proposition to examine consumer behaviour and conceptual framework. In spite of the positive impact of brand extension. They use three dimensions to measure the fit of extension. same product with different price or quality. In his suggestion. The first two measures focus on the consumer¶s demand and the last one focuses on firm¶s ability. While there can be significant benefits in brand extension strategies. Poor choices for brand extension may dilute and deteriorate the core brand and damage the brand equity. however. In practical cases. Types of product extension Brand extension research mainly focuses on the consumer evaluation of extension and attitude of the parent brand. An example of a product extension is Coke vs. the ³Transfer´ is the relationship between extension product and manufacturer which ³reflects the perceived ability of any firm operating in the first product class to make a product in the second class´. From the line extension to brand extension. etc. Diet Coke in same product category of soft drinks. Some studies show that negative impact may dilute brand image and equity.
they not only are initially confused and disorderly in mind. consumer can perceive the fit among brand extension. but also involvement and choice of brand. their study shows that ³brand extension dilutes the brand image.with a competitor) who takes on the responsibility of manufacturer and sales of the new products. On the other hand. Brand extension failure Literature related to negative effect of brand extension is limited and the findings are revealed as incongruent. Martinez and de Chernatony (2004) classify the brand image in two types: the general brand image and the product brand image. Theoretically speaking. consumer may maintain their belief about the attributes and feelings from parent brand. A consumer can judge or evaluate the extension by their category memory. paying a royalty every time a product is sold. When consumers face thousands of products. In addition. They suggest that if the brand name is strong enough as Nike or Sony. which means dilution does occur across the brand extension to the parent brand. Categorisation theory Researchers tend to use ³categorisation theory´ as their fundamental theory to explore the links about the brand extension. flagship product is usually had the top sales and highest awareness in its product category. When two or more products exit in front of consumers. The early works of Aaker and Keller (1990) find no significant evidence that brand name can be diluted by unsuccessful brand extensions. The flagship product is a money-spinner to a firm. but also try to categorise the brand association or image with their existing memory. They categorise new information into specific brand or product class label and store it. These failures of extension make consumers create a negative or new association relate to parent brand even brand family or to disturb and confuse the original brand identity and meaning. Loken and Roedder-John (1993) indicate that dilution effect do occur when the extension across inconsistency of product category and brand beliefs. If the brand association is highly related to extension. Some studies suggest that consumer may ignore or overcome the dissonance from extension especially flagship product which means the low perceived of fit does not dilute the flagship¶s equity. This process is not only related to consumer¶s experience and knowledge. Conversely. The failure of extension may come from difficulty of connecting with parent brand. ³Equity of an integrated oriented brand can be diluted significantly from both functional and non-functional attributes-base variables´. In spite of Aaker and Keller¶s (1990) research reported that the prestige brand . Marketer spends budget and time to create maximum exposure and awareness for the product. a lack of similarity and familiarity and inconsistent IMC messages. changing the beliefs and association in consumers¶ mind´. they might reposition memories to frame a brand image and concept toward new introduction. the negative impact has no specific damage on general brand image and ³the dilution effect is greater on product brand image than on general brand image´. In consequence.
A classic extension failure example would be Coca Cola launching ³New Coke´ in 1985. Although initially accepted a backlash against ³New Coke´ soon emerged among consumers.do no harm from failure of extension. fit in category. The higher the similarity is the higher perception of fit. Evidence shows that the dilution effect has great and instant damage to the flagship product and brand family. and difficulty of making. One mistake can damage all brand equity. 3. Every marketer should pursue the long term equity and pay attention to every strategy in detail. consumer has his psychology process in mind. the flagship product would not be harmed. Throughout the categorisation theory and associative network theory. former experience and knowledge. Quality of core brand creates a strong position for brand and low the impact of fit in consumer evaluation. Although there are few works about the failure of extensions. But branding does not always follow a rational line. Example. the greater positive fit can perceive. Consequently. Not only did Coca Cola not succeed in developing a new brand but sales of the original flavour also decreased. BIC Pens tried to produce BIC pantyhose. The moderating variable is a useful indication to evaluate consumer evaluation of brand extension. Marketers may go behind the order and model created by Aaker and Keller which they are authorities on brand management. it is necessary to build up a ³brand ladder´. 4. 2. A successful brand message strategy relies on a congruent communication and a clear brand image. even overall parent belief is diluted. Because a small message dissonance would cause great failure of brand extension. Consumer¶s knowledge and experience affect the evaluation before extension product trail. literature still provides sufficient in depth research around this issue. in this article may conclude some points about consumer evaluation of brand extension: 1. You can read some more here Brand equity Brand equity is defined as the main concern in brand management and IMC campaign. On the other hand. But in some findings. consumer does have the ability to process information into useful knowledge for them. The more innovation of extension product is. Studies also suggest that brand extension is a risky strategy to increase sales or brand equity. The negative impact of brand extension would cause a great damage to . It should consider the damage of parent brand no matter what types of extension are used. They would measure and compares the difference between core brand and extension product through quality of core brand. Coca Cola were had to make considerable efforts to regain customers who had turned to Pepsi cola. Similarity between core brand and extension is the main concern of consumer perception of fit. brand extension is also ³diminish consumer¶s feelings and beliefs about brand name. In addition.´ To establish a strong brand.
known as creating value. From a manager and marketer¶s perspective. The experiential aspect consists of the sum of all points of contact with the brand and is known as the brand experience. creating the impression that a brand associated with a product or service has certain qualities or characteristics that make it special or unique. Failing to recognize these assets that a business. or 5 dollars for a box of breakfast cereal that contains a few cents' worth of wheat. 50 dollars for a T-shirt that cost a mere 50 cents to make. A brand is therefore one of the most valuable elements in an advertising theme. The psychological aspect. plus the cost of distribution. A brand which is widely known in the marketplace acquires brand recognition.parent brand and brand family. for it is these people the company should wish to find and keep. There are many intangibles involved in business. for example. Some people distinguish the psychological aspect of a brand from the experiential aspect. is a symbolic construct created within the minds of people and consists of all the information and expectations associated with a product or service. essentially consists of manipulating the projected image of the product so that the consumer sees the product as being worth the amount that the advertiser wants him/her to see. This concept. sometimes referred to as the brand image. Therefore cleverly crafted advertising campaigns can be highly successful in convincing consumers to pay remarkably high prices for products which are inherently extremely cheap to make. plus the cost of manufacture. Orientation of the whole organization towards its brand is called brand orientation. the type of metal working. When brand recognition builds up to a point where a brand enjoys a critical mass of positive sentiment in the marketplace. intangibles left wholly from the income statement and balance sheet which determine how a business is perceived. Because the effects of negative impact from brand extension are tremendous and permanently. the difference is incomparable. as it demonstrates what the brand owner is able to offer in the marketplace. an operation of branding should maintain brand messages and associations within a consistency and continuum in the long way. Brand is the image of the product in the market. it is said to have achieved brand franchise.they represent the sum of all valuable qualities of a product to the consumer. Careful brand management seeks to make the product or services relevant to the target audience. The art of creating and maintaining a brand is called brand management. One goal in . the type of stitch: all may be without an 'accounting cost' but for those who truly know the product. can create and maintain will set an enterprise at a serious disadvantage. any business. rather than a more logical valuation that comprises an aggregate of the cost of raw materials. People engaged in branding seek to develop or align the expectations behind the brand experience. The learned skill of a knowledge worker. Modern value-creation branding-andadvertising campaigns are highly successful at inducing consumers to pay. Brands should be seen as more than the difference between the actual cost of a product and its selling price . Every messages or brand extension can dilute the brand in nature.
For example. It helps the customers to understand to which product or service category the particular brand belongs to and what products and services are sold under the brand name. but one of the products has no associated branding (such as a generic. and customers have a tendency to buy popular brands. which it used in the logo for go. jingles and so on to certain associations in memory. or love of a brand. Disney has been successful at branding with their particular script font (originally created for Walt Disney's "signature" logo). Brands which come to mind on an unaided basis are likely to be the brands in a customer¶s consideration set and thus have a higher probability of being purchased. From the perspective of brand owners. Brand salience is ³the propensity for a brand to be noticed and/or thought of in buying situations´ and the higher the brand salience the higher it¶s market penetration and therefore its market share. including brands that otherwise would be candidates for purchase. . an increase in the salience of one brand can actually inhibit recall of other brands. It also ensures that customers know which of their needs are satisfied by the brand through its products. Where two products resemble each other. as it often serves to denote a certain attractive quality or characteristic (see also brand promise). branded products or services also command higher prices.com. Brand Awareness Brand awareness refers to customers' ability to recall and recognize the brand under different conditions and link to the brand name."To what extent is the brand topof-mind and easily recalled or recognized? What types of cues or reminders are necessary?" (Keller) How do customers remember? The tendency of a brand to be thought of in a buying situation is known as ³brand salience´. Advertising weight and brand salience are cues to customers indicating which brands are popular. logo.brand recognition is the identification of a brand without the name of the company present. Becoming a Facebook fan of a particular brand is also a measurement of the level of 'brand love'. or tweets of a brand on sites such as Twitter. is an emerging term encompassing the perceived value of the brand image. store-branded product). Salience refers not to what customers think about brands but to which ones they think about. Consumers may look on branding as an important value added aspect of products or services. Brand Salience Brand salience measures the awareness of the brand. Brand love levels are measured through social media posts about a brand. people may often select the more expensive branded product on the basis of the quality of the brand or the reputation of the brand owner.(Keller) 'Brand love'. Also.
It is widely acknowledged that buyer¶s do not see their brand as being any different from other brands that are available.Global brands transcend their origins and creates strong. We now know that all decisions made by humans involve memory processes to a greater or lesser extent. enduring relationships with consumers across countries and cultures. the following drives the increasing interest in taking brands global: y y y y economies of scale (production and distribution) lower marketing costs laying the groundwork for future extensions worldwide maintaining consistent brand imagery . Levi's etc. Marlboro. They are laid down in a framework making some memories easier to access than others. Memories are stored or filed via connections between new and existing memories in the different parts of the memory. They buy a particular brand because they are more aware of it. removed from the physicality¶s of that reality. References Brand Salience: How do Buyers Remember? Article by Terry Reeves. McDonald's. Incoming information from the external environment travels by the sensory memory into the short-term (or working) memory (STM) but if it is not acted upon in a very short time the brain simply discards it. Benefits of Global Branding In addition to taking advantage of the outstanding growth opportunities. But salient information that is important and received on a regular basis through different channels is passed to the long-term memory (LTM) where it can be stored for many years. expert on salient marketing and mentor at the Underdog Marketing Challenge Global Brand A global brand is one which is perceived to reflect the same set of values around the world. Examples of global brands include Coca-Cola. Recall is the process by which an individual reconstructs the stimulus itself from memory. These brands are used to sell the same product across multiple markets. not because it is more distinctive.. Global brands are brands which sold to international markets. or has a point of difference. and could be considered successful to the extent that the associated products are easily recognizable by the diverse set of consumers.
y y quicker identification and integration of innovations (discovered worldwide) preempting international competitors from entering domestic markets or locking you out of other geographic markets increasing international media reach (especially with the explosion of the Internet) is an enabler increases in international business and tourism are also enablers y y Global Brand Variables The following elements may differ from country to country: y y y y y y corporate slogan products and services product names product features positionings marketing mixes (including pricing. distribution. etc. media and advertising execution) These differences will depend upon: y y y y y y y y language differences different styles of communication other cultural differences differences in category and brand development different consumption patterns different competitive sets and marketplace conditions different legal and regulatory environments different national approaches to marketing (media. pricing.) . distribution.
Advertising spokespersons have also become part of some brands. It may also be a brand that is developed for a specific national market. It may be called a regional brand if the area encompasses more than one metropolitan market. Brand name Relationship between trade marks and brand The brand name is quite often used interchangeably within "brand". if the brand name exclusively identifies the brand owner as the commercial source of products or services.Local Brand A brand that is sold and marketed (distributed and promoted) in a relatively small and restricted geographical area. Examples of Local Brands in Sweden are Stomatol. Whipple of Charmin toilet tissue and Tony the Tiger of Kellogg's. A local brand is a brand that can be found in only one country or region. Mijerierna etc. however an interesting thing about local brand is that the local branding is mostly done by consumers then by the producers. A brand owner may seek to protect proprietary rights in relation to a brand name through trademark registration. A few include: Acronym: A name made of initials such as UPS or IBM Descriptive: Names that describe a product benefit or function like Whole Foods or Airbus . Types of brand names Brand names come in many styles. for example: Mr. In this context a "brand name" constitutes a type of trademark. although it is more correctly used to specifically denote written or spoken linguistic elements of any product. Local Branding is usually done by the consumers rather than the producers.
The brand owner will seek to bridge the gap between the brand image and the brand identity.and by extension the branded company. A brandnomer is a brand name that has colloquially become a generic term for a product or service. one of the first visual identities to integrate logotype. Effective brand names build a connection between the brand personality as it is perceived by the target audience and the actual product/service. such as Band-Aid or Kleenex.Alliteration and rhyme: Names that are fun to say and stick in the mind like Reese's Pieces or Dunkin' Donuts Evocative: Names that evoke a relevant vivid image like Amazon or Crest Neologisms: Completely made-up words like Wii or Kodak Foreign word: Adoption of a word from another language like Volvo or Samsung Founders' names: Using the names of real people like Hewlett-Packard or Disney Geography: Many brands are named for regions and landmarks like Cisco and Fuji Film Personification: Many brands take their names from myth like Nike or from the minds of ad execs like Betty Crocker The act of associating a product or service with a brand has become part of pop culture. Therefore. a product's brand identity may acquire (evolve). color palette. organization. Visual Brand Identity The visual brand identity manual for Mobil Oil (developed by Chermayeff & Geismar). Furthermore. Brand identity A product identity. the brand name should be on target with the brand demographic. sustainable brand names are easy to remember. over time. Brand identity is what the owner wants to communicate to its potential consumers. how the brand owner wants the consumer to perceive the brand . from common table salt to designer jeans. gaining new attributes from consumer perspective but not necessarily from the marketing communications an owner percolates to targeted consumers. . Typically. brand associations become handy to check the consumer's perception of the brand. or brand image are typically the attributes one associates with a brand. Brand identity is fundamental to consumer recognition and symbolizes the brand's differentiation from competitors. Most products have some kind of brand identity. transcend trends and have positive connotations. alphabet. The brand name should be conceptually on target with the product/service (what the company stands for). icon. and station architecture to create a comprehensive consumer brand experience.real characteristics of the value and brand promise being provided and sustained by organisational and/or production characteristics. However. Brand identity needs to focus on authentic qualities . which are often used to describe any kind of adhesive bandage or any kind of facial tissue respectively. product or service.
Chermayeff & Geismar and Saul Bass. Naomi Klein describes attitude branding as a "fetish strategy". Cadbury Flake or Cadbury Fingers in the United States). which is not necessarily connected with the product or consumption of the product at all. Safeway. Surf and Lynx are all owned by Unilever). such as Paul Rand. Persil. it is just the company's name which is promoted (leading to one of the most powerful statements of "branding". and graphic elements. before the company's downgrading. whether it's the challenge to do your best in sports and fitness. Kool-Aid or Nivea Sun (Beiersdorf)). Omo. In the United States.  Attitude branding and Iconic brands Attitude branding is the choice to represent a larger feeling. These principles can be observed in the work of the pioneers of the practice of visual brand identity design. In this case a very strong brand name (or company name) is made the vehicle for a range of products (for example. especially in the industrial sector. Effective visual brand identity is achieved by the consistent use of particular visual elements to create distinction. Brand parity Brand parity is the perception of the customers that all brands are equivalent. colors. Marketing labeled as attitude branding include that of Nike. "A great brand raises the bar -. Starbucks. such as specific fonts. or the affirmation that the . In the 2000 book No Logo. At the core of every brand identity is a brand mark.The recognition and perception of a brand is highly influenced by its visual presentation. the saying.  Individual branding Main article: Individual branding Each brand has a separate name (such as Seven-Up. and Apple Inc. or logo.it adds a greater sense of purpose to the experience. Branding approaches Company name Often. brand identity and logo design naturally grew out of the Modernist movement in the 1950¶s and greatly drew on the principals of that movement ± simplicity (Mies van der Rohe¶s principle of "Less is more") and geometric abstraction. The Body Shop. A brand¶s visual identity is the overall look of its communications.. which may even compete against other brands from the same company (for example. Mercedes-Benz or Black & Decker) or even a range of subsidiary brands (such as Cadbury Dairy Milk. "No one ever got fired for buying IBM").
" . "No-brand" branding Recently a number of companies have successfully pursued "No-Brand" strategies by creating packaging that imitates generic brand simplicity. CEO. In other words a difference with the way consumers are and how they some times wish they were. letter font and style of the Coca-Cola and Diet Coca-Cola logos in English were copied into matching Hebrew logos to maintain brand identity in Israel.Actively engaging in the mythmaking process making sure the brand maintains its position as an icon. This no-brand strategy means that little is spent on advertisement or classical marketing and . These must be seen as legitimate and respected by consumers for stories to be accepted. 4.The performance of the product must at least be ok preferably with a reputation of having good quality. 3.Howard Schultz (president. Some of these brands have such a strong identity that they become more or less "cultural icons" which makes them iconic brands. 2. "Myth-making" . Nike and Harley Davidson.Some kind of mismatch between prevailing ideology and emergent undercurrents in society.A meaningful story-telling fabricated by cultural "insiders". which means "No label" in English (from ± "Mujirushi Ryohin" ± literally. Iconic brands are defined as having aspects that contribute to consumer's selfexpression and personal identity. "No brand quality goods"). "Cultural contradictions" . Although there is a distinct Muji brand. and chairman of Starbucks) The color. "The cultural brand management process" . Examples include the Japanese company Muji. Examples of iconic brands are: Apple Inc. There are four key elements to creating iconic brands (Holt 2004): 1. Many iconic brands include almost ritual-like behaviour when buying and consuming the products. and the Florida company No-Ad Sunscreen. "Necessary conditions" ..cup of coffee you're drinking really matters. Brands whose value to consumers comes primarily from having identity value comes are said to be "identity brands". Muji products are not branded.
Derived brands In this case the supplier of a key component.Muji's success is attributed to the word-of-mouth. The rationale is that having 3 out of 12 brands in such a market will give a greater overall share than having 1 out of 10 (even if much of the share of these new brands is taken from the existing one). In its most extreme manifestation. for example. (sun-) glasses. hotels. in order to pre-empt others entering the market. many fashion and designer companies extended brands into fragrances. home textile. Caterpillar to shoes and watches. When Coca-Cola launched "Diet Coke" and "Cherry Coke" they stayed within the originating product category: nonalcoholic carbonated beverages. shoes and accessories. There is a difference between brand extension and line extension. Brand extension The existing strong brand name can be used as a vehicle for new or modified products. furniture. Adidas and Puma to personal hygiene. dish washing detergents. which secures its position in the PC market with the slogan "Intel Inside". Procter & Gamble (P&G) did likewise extending its strong lines (such as Fairy Soap) into neighboring products (Fairy Liquid and Fairy Automatic) within the same category. in a market that is fragmented amongst a number of brands a supplier can choose deliberately to launch totally new brands in apparent competition with its own existing strong brand (and often with identical product characteristics). Mars extended its brand to ice cream. a supplier pioneering a new market which it believes will be particularly attractive may choose immediately to launch a second brand in competition with its first. Multi-brands Alternatively. with new varieties or flavors or sizes. . etc. A line extension is when a current brand name is used to enter a new market segment in the existing product class. Dunlop extended its brand from tires to other rubber products such as shoes. "No brand" branding may be construed as a type of branding as the product is made conspicuous through the absence of a brand name. used by a number of suppliers of the endproduct. The most frequently quoted example is Intel. tennis racquets and adhesives. golf balls. Michelin to a restaurant guide. home decor. may wish to guarantee its own position by promoting that component as a brand in its own right. simply to soak up some of the share of the market which will in any case go to minor brands. luggage. a simple shopping experience and the anti-brand movement.
of differing quality. Sara Lee. Procter & Gamble is a leading exponent of this philosophy. in which the new brand takes business away from an established one which the organization also owns. uses it to keep the very different parts of the business separate ² from Sara Lee cakes through Kiwi polishes to L'Eggs pantyhose. Personal branding treats persons and their careers as brands. Cannibalization is a particular problem of a "multibrand" approach. In the hotel business. Marriott uses the name Fairfield Inns for its budget chain (and Ramada uses Rodeway for its own cheaper hotels). the new product being one stage in this process. Although connected with the history of trademarks and including earlier examples which could be deemed "protobrands" (such as the marketing puns of the "Vesuvinum" wine jars found at Pompeii). on the other hand. from local communities to centralized factories. Individual and Organizational Brands There are kinds of branding that treat individuals and organizations as the "products" to be branded. it may be the price the organization is willing to pay for shifting its position in the market.Individual brand names naturally allow greater flexibility by permitting a variety of different products." It refers to the practice of producers burning their mark (or brand) onto their products. Nation branding works with the perception and reputation of countries as brands. This may be acceptable (indeed to be expected) if there is a net gain overall. Alternatively. and may outperform those products that are not otherwise strongly branded. such as soap. Industrialization moved the production of many household items. . Where the retailer has a particularly strong identity (such as Marks & Spencer in the UK clothing sector) this "own brand" may be able to compete against even the strongest brand leaders. Private labels With the emergence of strong retailers. Once again. to be sold without confusing the consumer's perception of what business the company is in or diluting higher quality products. The term is thought to have been first used in a 1997 article by Tom Peters. brands in the field of mass-marketing originated in the 19th century with the advent of packaged goods. also emerged as a major factor in the marketplace. History The word "brand" is derived from the Old Norse brandr. This also increases the total number of "facings" it receives on supermarket shelves. running as many as ten detergent brands in the US market. Religious media expert Phil Cooke has written that faith branding handles the question of how to express faith in a mediadominated culture. private label brands. meaning "to burn. Faith branding treats religious figures and organizations as brands. or store brands. also called own brands.
and is now quantified in concepts such as brand value and brand equity. to customers previously familiar only with locally-produced goods. decided that since all other cattle were branded. the British brewery. the factories would literally brand their logo or insignia on the barrels used. By the 1940s. Aunt Jemima. This was an early commercial explanation of what we now know as branding. Many brands of that era. with its green and gold packaging having remained almost unchanged since 1885. Campbell soup. This began the practice we now know as "branding" today. Coca-Cola. From there. In response to . in order to compete with bargain cigarettes. comes from Texas rancher Samuel Augustus Maverick who. Around 1900. 1993 . Naomi Klein has described this development as "brand equity mania". whose bricks are stamped or carved with the same proto-logo since 1731. having been named as Britain's oldest brand. for example. the term "maverick". This trend continued to the 1980s. and well-nuanced brand image. James Walter Thompson published a house ad explaining trademark advertising. manufacturers began to recognize the way in which consumers were developing relationships with their brands in a social/psychological/anthropological sense. Cattle were branded long before this. it was felt that what they really purchased was its brand name. local products. manufacturers quickly learned to build their brand's identity and personality (see brand identity and brand personality). following the American Civil War. extending the meaning of "brand" to that of trademark. in an effort to increase the consumer's familiarity with their products. originally meaning an unbranded calf. In 1988. Marlboro Friday: April 2. It quickly became apparent that a generic package of soap had difficulty competing with familiar. Companies soon adopted slogans.When shipping their items. Philip Morris purchased Kraft for six times what the company was worth on paper. Even the signatures on paintings of famous artists like Leonardo Da Vinci can be viewed as an early branding tool. Factories established during the Industrial Revolution introduced mass-produced goods and needed to sell their products to a wider market. Lyle¶s Golden Syrup makes a similar claim. Bass & Company. as found in Saint Peter's Basilica in Vatican City. and jingles that began to appear on radio and early television. mascots. where the consumers buy "the brand" instead of the product. Juicy Fruit gum. and Quaker Oats were among the first products to be 'branded'.the day Philip Morris declared that they were to cut the price of Marlboro cigarettes by 20%. claims their red triangle brand was the world's first trademark. his would be identified by having no markings at all. fun or luxury. such as Uncle Ben's rice and Kellogg's breakfast cereal furnish illustrations of the problem. such as youthfulness. Another example comes from Antiche Fornaci Giorgi in Italy.marked by some as the death of the brand. The packaged goods manufacturers needed to convince the market that the public could place just as much trust in the non-local product. Marlboro cigarettes were notorious at the time for their heavy advertising campaigns.
the announcement Wall street stocks nose-dived for a large number of 'branded' companies: Heinz. Coca Cola. Many thought the event signalled the beginning of a trend towards "brand blindness" (Klein 13). PepsiCo. Brand Hierarchy . Quaker Oats. questioning the power of "brand value".
inclusion of values of brands in fix ets would mislead the figures in the balance sheet. flaw: First of all the view that only those assets which have substance or spatial dimension should be prope sidered as a µvaluable asset¶ for accounting purposes is questionable. Homegrown brands are not allowed to be shown in the balance sheet. E PRESENT SITUATION UK ± It had a divergent treatment for goodwill and brands. they need n written off.like land etc. Such a practi not be justified as fair in the interests of shareholders or investors. Brands should be fully amortised over their useful economic life of upto 20 yea ept in special circumstances.000 as against the cost 12. 000. as goodwill should be. Any value fixed on a given brand is dubious. b ny of the fixed assets that are shown in balance sheets have similar contestable figures. Assets li ro Honda¶ (two wheeler) after being used for 8 years are being offered for sale at Rs.odule: IV AT ARE BRANDS nds are those non-physical elements of a business. The service sector companies like The Daily Telegraph Ltd. (in UK). wh company is using them to earn profits is not useful to the shareholders in judging the efficiency of management. other than one supported by a speci chase price on change of ownership is too arbitrary at all to be credible. This means like Goodwill. Similarly brands should be valued based on their future earnin ential. Lonhro plc etc have valu r brands and showed them in balance sheets. FAIR VIEW: The effect of the above is that in the failure to recognize brands and in the systematic undervaluation ets (at historic costs) acknowledged to exist. In early 1988. Adventurous bankers. Also the traditional view is that the balan et is not intended as a statement of corporate worth and that subsequently. They are separate ntifiable. intangible assets that one capable of being reliably measured. Wide Technical Report 780 UK had removed the differential treatment of brands. W value real estate on the basis of the future income. Many companies have incorporated brand values in their balan ets. The shareholder has the right to be appraised totality of assets that are available with the company. with more than twice the Company¶s mark italisation at that time. implying that the nds possessed hidden values. ERGENCE OF BRANDS E BACKGROUND: The debate of the brands came to the force in the late 1980¶s with the activities of a number d companies. Y BRANDS SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN BALANCE SHEET ADITIONAL VIEW BLURRED: The traditional view is that any valuation figure. as it is ve cult to identify the cost of the brand developed. companies maintain substantial unrevealed reserves. 17. brands should be written off immediately up uisition. have started to talk about issuing backed securities and/ or using brand collate . Nestle (UK) made a bid for Rowntree. erence between Brand and Goodwill: Goodwill is defined as the difference between the net assets of a company a price paid by its purchaser. Mc Dougall started capitalising the brands that they owned or acquired. Besides understatement of intangible assets like brands. which have potential future earnings. Now there is a distincti ween brands and goodwill in UK practice. If brands can be shown as separable assets. Thus began the hottest debate on brands in Balance Sheet. Eg.
This price ective of the present and prospective returns there on. The asset value does not come down as long as it is maintained by proper promotional and advertising efforts. it reduces the gearing ratio and so increases the Company borrowing capacity. It helps better comparison between companies operating in similar markets. . Immediate write off has detrimen effect on consolidated reserves and confuses the real value of acquisition of the business whereas amortisation has continuous adverse and unrealistic effect on future profits. Also. Then the difference between the above net worth of t mpany and as proclaimed by the company is of great importance to the shareholders and investors. E ADVANTAGES: The inclusion of brand value in balance sheet gives a better picture of the company as having good assets and go brand value. Further. For the businessmen brands are often the most important competitive advantage. T I thus becomes a better indicator if brand value is included. brand P&L accounts) The Company¶s debt equity ratio is improved i.security for debt issues. than depending on the stock market prices. Brands in balance sheet would at lea uce his apprehensions since the inclusion lead to a fair picture of the rate of return. Recognising the value of brands separately at the time of acquisition reduces the amount of goodwill that must written off either directly to reserves or by amortisation over a number of years. without brand value. At the same time apparent return on assets (without inclusion of brands) will be brought down to more realistic figure n many of the takeovers. Company¶s brand management will certainly be sharpened up (e. The company is more expensive to acquire which may deter hostile bids. This concept will be translated into reality if brands a ncluded in the balance sheet. Sometimes the price pa for goodwill is greater than the acquiring company¶s net worth with the result that the consolidated accounts sho negative shareholders equity. goodwill element in the price of the net assets has been increasing. Many creditors have found in an insolvency situation that some current assets such as inventory are relative worthless even though classified as current asset. but strong cash flow and custom bases.e. This looks preposterous. The goodwill arising from an acquisition can be reduced. Since the mark es are volatile. or between companies with varying mix of acquired and homegrown brands.g. we cannot recover goodwill but brands can be transferred a can be converted into cash. OW DOES BRAND VALUATION EFFECT STOCK MARKET: s argued that the net worth of a company is readily calculable by the market price of the company. The s no depreciation and thus no impact on P&L. the shareholders. PAT / Fixed assets + Net current assets. the ratio. investors would rather prefer to look at the Balance sheet that includes futu nings potential of the company. the managemen ciency is reflected in the ROI that is achieved by the company. this would show a much higher value. Some of the companies have reassessed the assets acquir n take overs and reclassified the goodwill as brands. It particularly helps service sector companies where there are low assets levels. It is the success or failure of bran that so often determines the manager¶s success or failure.
Australian has a modified historical cost accounting system. as it is a relatively new concept in India. Most of the businessmen find it easier to write off immediately against reserves and weaken t ance sheet than to touch the EPS by amortising brands. why should brands be treated differently? ccounting laws force companies not to value home grown brands they could easily find a way out by selling the bran another company and again buy back from them. guidelines has been issued by ICAI on brand valuation. a degree of comparability between competing company is lo ether acquired or home grown. All purchas ngibles must be treated in the same way as goodwill. Most of the companies are inclined to amortise it. management is more likely to continue a process of maintaining the values. Five years is the maximum in Japan. But t delines prescribed by the Accounting bodies are against it. OULD HOMEGROWN BRANDS BE VALUED AND AMORTISED? disallowing the capitalisation of homegrown brands. USA: It is a standard practice to capitalise and amortise goodwill. Thus there is no incentive for US companies to distinguish brands from goodwill. SEWHERE: In most countries the acquired brands are capitalised and then amortised through the P&L. brands require considerable expenditure. issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants. Intangible assets like brands may be carried at market value. we capitalize it. The life is deemed to be finite (pruden ciple) but not fixed. t reciation period varies considerably. The companies spend significantly on marketi port of brands which is charged through P&L account. Hence µdo dwill must be written off while µcat¶ goodwill need to be. B ke in UK and US. should be recorded in the books only when some consideration in money or money¶s worth has been paid for a matter of financial prudence goodwill is written off over a period. mpanies know more about homegrown brands. and the bran ected life in Germany. However this is not mandatory. Acquired brands mu ally be recorded at their cost of acquisitions.OULD BRAND BE AMORTISED? amortisation period is the period during which benefits are expected to arise. Thus it is easier to value them. AUSTRALIA: Acquired goodwill has to be amortised though the P&L account for a maximum period of 20 years. No asset revaluation is permitted. Major MNC¶s li . OUBLE COUNTING´: acquisition of the brand is reflected in the balance sheet at cost. If a business builds its own facto ead of buying one. generate substantial income and a stantial value to the company. so that fixed assets may be revalued ket price every 3 to 5 years. as the resulti tment would be identical. ourt appeal made a distinction between µCAT¶ goodwill which is loyal to the business and stays with the buyer if it d and a µDOG¶ goodwill which is loyal to the owner and thus is lost to the business in case of a sale. this would lead to doub nting. All brand names may be revalued with either upwardly or downward ustments. NDIA: According to AS ± 10. Allowing home grown brands to be capitalised would eliminate this inconsistency. argument in favour of capitalising brand names is related to the old adage ± out of sight (if it is written off) out of min ands are capitalised. Clearly this is the best evidence to show that homegrown bran e a value too. goodwill eral. forty years in France. If the brands are depreciated. Accounting for Fixed Assets. Maintenance costs of goodwill and all other intangibles must ten off to expenses.
nsidering the drawbacks of the existing methods of valuation INTERBRAND GROUP. LUATION OF BRANDS: e of the most important reasons why a valuable asset like brands is not shown on the balance sheet is because of t mplexity involved in its valuation. They are briefly discussed below: ETHODS OF VALUATION Valuation based on the aggregate cost of all marketing.26 is applicable. There are various methods of valuati each has its own draw backs. Not may of those who are aware would actually buy it. AWBACKS IN EACH OF THEM Brand value is not always a function of the cost of its development. The elements of profitability which do not result from the bran . Now that AS . proven data. A brand valuation based solely on consumer esteem or awareness factors would bear no relationship to commerc ity. Valuation based on premium pricing of a branded product over a non branded product. Proctor and Gamble. A brand may be essentially a commodity product or may ga ch of its profitability from its distribution system. Nestle and reputed Indian companies like Tatas. advertising and research and development expenditu devoted to the brand over a stipulated period. Not all of the profitability of a bra necessarily be applied to the valuation of that brand. Reliance could benefit a great de valuing brands and including them in the balance sheet. If it were so failed brands may well be attribut h values. the leading internation nding consultancy came up with an earnings multiple system for valuing brands. the brands can be valued only if they are purchased and not self generated. Further many branded products have no generic equivalents. However if the company can show that it is the beneficial owner of a valuable ass n the seemingly serious difficulty of putting a firm price (value) on brand cannot be accepted as a reason ( by a ounting principle) for refusing to record the value of brands in balance sheet. In this system to determine brand value certain key factors need to be considered: Brand earnings ( or cash flows) Brand strength ( which sets the multiple or discount rate) The range of multiples ( or discount rates) to be applied to brand earnings AND EARNINGS: ital factor in determining the value of a brand is its potential profitability over time. recognition or awareness.ever group. The major benefits of branded products to manufacturers often relate to the security and stability of futu mand rather than to premium pricing. But the determination able forecast cash flows is fraught with difficulty. Valuation at market price Valuation based on customer related factors such as esteem. Discount values of future potential earnings of the brands seems to be an appropriate one. Brands are not developed with the purpose of trading in them. Conceptually the system is sound based on hard. Valuation based on potential future earnings discounted to present day values. Moreover the use of market value for balance she poses is prohibited by the companies act.
For this reason. when should a company start to include the brand value in its balance Sheet? Anoth wback of this method is that it ignores qualitative factors such as the creativity of advertising support. advertising and R&D expenditure. Finally there o a question of financially accounting for the many failed brands that had substantial sums spent on them. The value o nd also depends on unquantifiable elements. However it metimes difficult to find a comparable generic product. The brand is scored for each of the above factors according to the weights attributed to them and the resulta ULTIPLE l known as the ³ brand strength score´ is expressed as a percentage. what is the unbranded counterpart of a Mars-Ba s method also assumes that all brands pursue a price-premium strategy. As the brand moves into the number 2 or particularly the no. devoted to the brand since its birth. AND STRENGTH: and strength is a composite of seven weighted factors: Leadership. Since several years have to pass before it is evide ether the brand is successful. internationality. ONCLUSION: uation of brands is till in its infancy. market. The management team need to agr w the historical costs should be adjusted for past inflation. This method lained with the help of a problem in the exhibit. For example. other approach is that of comparing the premium price of a branded product over a non-branded product: t erence the two prices multiplied by the volume of sale of a branded product represents the brand value. . a smoothing element is introduced viz. established brand names are goi e a major asset and its importance will be increasingly in the future. By virtue of little more than its heritage. It is clear that the brand value of Swatch ewoo for example could not be assessed on this basis when equivalent competitive brands are sold at a higher price.1 position in its market there is an accelerated increase value Once a brand has become a powerful world brand the growth in value no longer increases at the same rate.ntity must therefore be excluded. stability. such as management¶s expertise and the firm¶s culture. greater the multiple. er Theories in Meausuring the financial value of a brand e first approach aims to calculate the brand¶s value on the basis of its historic costs. Also there is a possibility of the valuation getting affected by an unrepresentati rs profit. Overall this approach to brand valuation raises many questions and without we unded assumptions could be problematic. E RANGE OF THE MULTIPLES: m the brand strength score the multiple to apply to the brand related profits is determined. out of whi erience the successful brand arose. ce the multiple is determined it is multiplied by the brand earnings to arrive at the brand value. a three year weighted average of historical profits. support a ection. such as marketing. The relationship between brand strength and multiple applied is represented by curve AND STRENGTH e shape of the µS¶ curve is because of the following reasons: As brand strength increases from virtually zero ( an unknown or new brand) to a position as number 3 or 4 in a mark value increases gradually. However. umption is being made that none of these costs were ineffective. With a plethora of brands flooding the market. These are the aggregat estment costs. onger the brand. trend. a 100-yea brand is more likely to have had more investment than a 20-year-old brand.
representative of the brand strength. a uently sold and can be compared. Moreover. Following the logic of other forecasting systems.e valuation of a brand based on its market value assumes the existence of a market in which brands. This also translates into a low discount rate. the price other than putting the brand up for sale on the market. like horses. two . i. To eliminate the earning which do not relate to branding the most common approach is charging t ital tied up in the production of the brand with the return expected from producing a generic equivalent. since such a market does not yet exist there is no means of estimating ket price other than putting the brand up for sale on the market. Just as the P/E ratio equals the market value of the compa ded by its after tax profits. with this method is that it assumes buoyant historical earnings levels. However. we multiply the Brand profit by the Brand multiple: and profit x Brand multiple = Brand Equity hen calculating the brand profit several issues need to be considered. esteem a areness. Therefore. i.e. yet the profit of the first brand is heavily influenced by t ngth of branding. even though the brand may be bei ked¶ by its owners. The brand profit should be the post-tax profit after deducting central overhead costs. F mple. Unilever paid 70 million pounds for Boursin just to ga lf-space for its expansion plans for other parts of its brand portfolio. who may plan for the bra play a very different role from its existing one. another way of valuing a brand is to assess its future earnings discounted to present-day values. applying a weighting of three to the current year. E = Market value of equity Brand Multiple = Brand equity Profit Brand Profit calculate the brand value. There may ances where the same production line is used for both the manufacturer¶s brand and several own labels. likewise the brand multiple equals the value of the brand divided by the gross pro erated by this brand. the price actually paid for a brand is determined by the strategy of the buyer. it is vary difficult to derive a relationship from an amalgam of these factors to arrive at an objective valuatio example. while the profit of the second brand is much more dependent on the few distributors with t ribution systems. One of the most widely-accepted ways of assessing the brand value is provided by Interbra kin 1994). For example. the more recent profits are likely to be more indicative re profits. In order to determine brand value. a high multiple characterises a brand in which the firm is confident of continuing stream of future earnings a sequently represents low risk for the company. such as Co-op. e interbrand method is similar to deriving a company¶s market value through its price/earnings (P/E) ratio. These are all important elements of brands and high scores on these are indicative of strong brand wever. Both brands may show similar brand profits. For example. e next stage in arriving at a realistic assessment of the brand¶s profit is to deduct the earning that do not relate nd strength. The Interbrand approach ed on the assumption that the discount rate is given by a µBrand multiple¶. while the price of a house is usually set seller. while the price of a house is usua by the seller. Where this case. One competes through major grocery stores again er branded breads. a company must calculate the benefits of future ownership. me have proposed valuing brands on the basis of various customer-related factors. en looking at historical profits. but what value should be placed on rst of all. most consumers are aware that Rolls-Royce is a famous brand. such as recognition. provided there is no chan rands strategy. is the fact that there are many famous brands.e. Th vides a link between a share capital and the company¶s net profits and thus the brand multiple can be applied to gle brand within the company to calculate its value. A historical statement of the brands profit is fi uired since as a good approximation tomorrow¶s profits are likely to be similar to today¶s. a three-year weighted average is used. and the other may be sold to a few distributors who sell this with related products through doorr delivery. Moreover. with very little attached to them. The proble wever. to reduce the effect from any unusual year¶s performance in previous three years prof averaged. a firm may market two brands of bread. curre future cash flows of the brand and discount them to take inflation and risk into account. however. any profits arising from shade own label production need to be subtracted.
are better able to anticipate futu trends in therefore confidently devise brand strategies than marketers operating in markets subject to technological fashion changes. These aggregated profits are then divided by the sum of the weighti ors. set prices a mmand distribution. Stability : Well-established brand¶s. A brand leader can strongly influence the market.e. Interbrand argue that there is an S-cur tionship between the multiple and the brand strength score. of consistent investments and support are indicators of strong brand Protection : Registered trademark protects the brand from competition and any activities to protect the bra against imitators augers well for the future of the brand. thus this criteria must be met to score well on leadership. Market : Marketers with brands in non-volatile markets. and therefore is an indication of its value. Finally each year¶s profit should be adjusted for inflation. are strong assets. i. Support : The amount. ving calculated the brand¶s profit. Thus having calculated. Thus part of the brand¶s strength comes from the markets it operates in. If though a change in strategy for the brand is envisaged these weightings need to onsidered. This is found through evaluating t nds strength since this determines the reliability of the brand¶s future earnings. a brand strength score of 71. Strength Factor Leadership Stability Market Internationality Trend Support Protection Total Score Maximum Score 25 15 10 25 10 10 5 100 The higher brand strength score the greater its multiple score.previous year and one to the year before that. Trend : The overall long-term trend of the brand shows its ability to remain contemporary and relevant consumers. the brand multiple then needs to be calculated. Internationality : Brands which have been developed to appeal to consumers internationally are more valuab than national or regional brands because of there greater volumes of sales and the investment to make them le susceptible to competitive attacks. that is six in this case. from graph below this gives a multiple of 16. Interbrand argue that a brand¶s streng be found from evaluating the brand against seven factors: Leadership : There is well-documented evidence showing a strong link between market share and profitabili s leadership brands are more valuable than followers. as well as the quality. for example foods. as shown in the graph below. mple. the brand¶s value is 16 times . which have a notable historical presence.
e-year weighted average profit. In particular. w valuable is Intellectual Property? e change in the nature of competition and the dynamics of the new world economy have resulted in a change in t value drivers for a company from tangible assets (such as plant and machinery) to intangible assets (such as brand ents. With this increas ice. For Example. media and financial services). the introduction of the European single currency. the ratio is similar. Further more. This is reflected in t wth in the ratio of market capitalised value to book value of listed companies. particularly globalisation. consumers have also been provided with greater information to make informed decisions. the UK. government regulation and increas ertising spend. in the case ckitt & Colman a one-point variation in the multiple corresponds to 54 million pounds difference in brand value. Businesses. food and drink. with less than 30% of the capitalised value of FTSE 350 companies appearing on t ance sheet. Search of Brand Value in the New Economy dynamics of the new world economy. In the UK. All these multiples have been derived from the final transaction figures and may be inflat ause market prices for brand acquisition often include an element of overbid. A slight variation in the multiple can modify the value of the brand significantly. Noticeably. the sectors with the highest ratio of market capitalisation to book value a vily reliant on copyright (such as the media sector). such as Nike. patents (such as technology and pharmaceutical) and bran ch as pharmaceutical. copyright and know how). market multiples may not necessarily be a corre cator of the brand strength. the growth in trademark registrations has also demonstrated the increased focus . growth in recent years in global companies (primarily through cross-border mergers and e-business) has led to losion in the number of goods and services. companies have taken advantage of more open trade opportunities ng the competitive advantage provided by brands and technology to access distant markets. In the US. including ease of pri mparison through the internet. and suppliers thereof. spite these limitations. this ratio has increased fro to 5:1 over the last twenty years. outsourcing and e-business. It gradually acquires strength w sumers and retailers in different stages. are fundamenta nging the way business is conducted. terbrand argues that a new brand grows slowly in the early stages then it increases exponentially as it moves fro onal to international recognition and then slows down as it progresses to global brand status. the brand equity resulting from such a multiple might be overvalued. Although interbrand has derived the data for t urve from the multiples involved in actual brand negotiations. Several questions have been raised about the interbrand method. the interbrand method is a popular method amongst firms valuing there brands and is be pted by more companies as a practical way to determine the value of their brands. Therefore the relationship between the brand strength and brand multiple may be better represented by s regular pattern. ands clearly have significant value. firms having growi orical brand valuation databases enabling mangers to access which strategies are particularly effective at growi r brands. Research h nd that brands achieve respectable spontaneous awareness scores only after a high level of prompted awareness h n achieved. Unilever and Coca Cola spend billions each ye porting their brands. We would argue that the remaining 70% of unallocated value resides largely in intellectual property a ainly in intellectual assets. for consumers to choose from. However experimen lysis shows that the development of the brand is susceptible to threshold effects. As the S-curve ignores this addition or. but beyond a certain point its rate of growth is much greater.
169 28.643 10.089 13.389 17.134 10.626 .nd importance: ar 8 4 0 6 2 8 4 Number of trademark registrations 25.828 28.
me companies now make an effort to report on the importance of their IP. On the other hand. then why isn't it accounted for? s often asked why this value does not reside on the balance sheet. e key strength of brands is in their ability to maintain customer loyalty. Indeed. is valuable. This results in a balance sheet substantially less healthy than prior to the acquisition. making product differentiation very difficult. it is because balance sheets are ord of historic cost whereas value is a reflection of the market's expectation of a company's future cash flows and t s inherent in those projected cash flows being achieved. Such an acquisition can lead to som inctly funny looking accounting results. The problem that arises from not accounting for brands is that it removes a key metric by which bra nagement might be measured. provide ownership of value. Accordingly. in itself. issue is not whether brands are accounted for but whether and how they are actively managed to enhance t mpany's value. current position is that internally generated intangible assets cannot be capitalised unless they have a "read ertainable market value". Many companies spend millions of pounds protecti emarks that are of no. £500 milli the recorded assets are only £100 million then the remaining £400 million gets written off through the profit and lo ount. showi me brands but not others. if a collection of assets is acquired for. clearly it is not possible to capitalise such interna erated assets. not surprisingly. say. This certainty of future cash flows is of gre . This recognition ue in IP is. if not its value. companies selling brand ducts have a more stable level of sales than non-branded companies. According mpanies often try to differentiate their products not through physical characteristics or product specifications b ugh emotive characteristics contained and developed in their brands. Essentially. ellectual property is more often created internally than acquired. As no such market exists for brands. some IP that is acquired goes on the balance sheet (as there is a point in tim ortunity to place a cost on it) but most does not.should stress that owning a trademark does not. value to the company. The value in a tradema he protection it provides to a brand that generates cash flow. with the associated expenses (such as resear development or advertising costs) being expensed through the profit and loss account rather than being capitalis the balance sheet. or very limited. One reason for this is that companies compete either through price or produ erentiation. accounting and value should not be confuse empts have been made to account for IP. in the new global econom e are an increasing number of suppliers of similar products. As a result. led by organisations with leading brands. with the latter being preferable as it helps to maintain profit margins. The first attempt was in 1988 when Nestle acquired Rowntree for £5 billion e representing five times the recorded net assets of the target company. acquired brands can be capitalised but only where it can be shown that they a arable from goodwill. However. As you can imagine. it is difficult to identify leading compani do not have strong brands. In other words. Many balance sheets are therefore inherently inconsistent.
as there are few barriers to entry. In future.com companies 9 is forecast to exceed £100 million compared to £35 million in 1998. despite brands being so critical in the New Economy. Some questions remain: Will Amazon. surely such measures would be worth considering when making investment and other management decisions. in p . A good idea on the internet c mitated almost immediately.com but it hasn't yet made a profit. that Proctor and Gamble have changed the way they pay for advertising fee viously they paid a fixed fee for an advertising campaign. they will pay the advertisers a fee. If a consumer has 100 internet book stores to choose from.com benefit in the long te m the subscriber base it is building in the short term? Will its customers remain loyal or will they move to lower pri ons later? y value brands? e find it surprising that. Marketing spend which does not increase the value of the brand may be misdirected. e importance to a business of its brands and underlying trademarks is unquestionable. Everybody h rd of Amazon. their return on brand investment or brand contribution reholder value. for example. what will make it use a icular store? Clearly. monitoring of brand value is also a useful tool in determining the success or failure of advertising campaigns and t ciency of marketing spend. Has t lementation of management strategy resulted in brand value creation or brand value destruction? Would more val achieved with a different strategy? Should investment dollars be diverted to other brands? A policy may well increa es and even profits in the short term but may reduce the value of the brands and ultimately the company in the long m. internet companies have to establish brands very quickly in order to develop and maintain th scriber base. few companies use metrics of any sort nitor the growth or otherwise in their brand values. Once it is accepted that bran have value then there is a need to understand and protect that value. nagement regular valuation of brands would allow a company to monitor the effect thereon of its strategy. recently reported. internet companies face intense competition. Brands have value on the internet? focus on brand development is not limited solely to traditional companies but is also key for internet companies a mpanies investing in e-businesses. a trend which is likely to be followed in the UK.efit to companies and would be reflected in a higher valuation than an equivalent company with greater uncertain r future cash flows. and have the ability to offer exactly the same products and services. In the US the growth in advertising for .co mpanies is even more dramatic. wever. This is supported by data on UK advertising spend which shows that advertising by . For companies whose primary assets are th nds. Certainly such measures are rarely reported publicly. We have set out below the more comm umstances in which brands either are or should be valued. emains to be seen whether these large investments in internet branding will yield long term results. New companies have quick ered the market.
current accounting standards and practice do not require intellectual property to be accounted for on ance sheet. ategic management is ultimately focused on creating shareholder value. each party to the transaction will be better placed to negotiate if they have valued the brand(s) ance. Although the price will ultimately be ter for negotiation. gation damages arising from litigation is all about IP value. perhaps. That royalty rate. indeed they make it difficult to do so. This necessarily requires a valuation performed. Ultimately. Management that do not report to shareholders m ertheless want regular valuations done to enable them to assess over time whether the value of a brand has be anced or whether it has greater value if used differently. and methods of charging for the use of IP are key factors in the location of a multi-national group's profi ntifying the optimum framework for ownership. represents t ount a willing third party licensee would pay to use the IP.ermined by the level of additional sales derived from the campaign. For many consumer goods companies. Although IP damages typically manifests itself in a claim for lo it. For these companies to maximi reholder value it is essential to maximise the value of their brands. It is important when considering such arrangements to understand. In addition. it is necessary ure that their value does not fall below the value shown in the balance sheet. porting is not only a reference to financial statements. t ue of their brands significantly exceeds the value of their plant and machinery. inter al value of the IP. the royalty approach is a common form of IP valuation. porting noted above. ation and transfer pricing ownership. joint venture or strateg ance. the fees might be linked asures of customer loyalty or brand value. nsactions nds are often valued in connection with proposed or completed transactions. licensing and use of IP across a world-wide business can save tinational group millions of pounds in tax. there are disputes which actually require the e valued. This theory applies equally well regardless of whether the transaction is a sale. that profit is underpinned at the very least by a reasonable royalty rate. once brands have been capitalised. As our brief commentary on valuation methodologies belo ws. n brands be valued? . in turn. Nevertheless.
This approach is often used for brands on the theory that a brand duct can be sold for more than an unbranded product. care must be taken to separate o dwill from any brand valuation to avoid over valuing a brand. t needs to have legal title which can be transferred . This ar omplex and. . If an asset has no future economic benefit then it has no value. some of which are summarised below. particularly goodwill. However. it needs three key properties: it needs to be separable from the other assets of the business .enter the trademarks. it is often very difficult to separate t ue of the brand from other intangible assets. However. per can. and it needs to be able to generate cashflows in its own right. mium profits underlying principle supporting the premium profits method is that a value can be determined by capitalising t itional profits generated by the intangible asset. basic premise underlying the value of any asset is that its current value equals the future economic benefits deriv m its use. Accordingly. a determining an appropriate discount rate to put those cash flows in present day terms. The difficulty is in ( casting future cash flows (2) estimating what proportion of those future cash flows can be attributed to the brand.i. The following methods attem nswer these questions. we recommend the use of more th methodology in each case.an asset to be valued. with the results cross-checked to ensure a reasonable result. Due to the judgmental elements. The sum of the discounted annual price premium would estimated value of the brand. This is a bigger problem for corporate brands than product brands. Whether brands are separable from the underlying business is often debated and needs to be considered each case. like business and property valuations. This manifests itself in the practical problem of separati cash flows attributable to the brand from cash flows attributable to other factors. certain robust methodologies have be eloped. can be sold without selling a business of t entity. To value the brand it would be necessary to forecast the number of annual sales of the brand duct and multiply this by the price premium (i.e. nd valuation methodologies ving established that brands are valuable and should be valued the question arises as to how to value them. All methodologies attempt to ident part of earnings or price which can be attributed purely to the brand. We also recomme sistency of use over time so as to reduce the comparative effect of judgement wherever possible.e. at today's prices. For instance Coca Cola may be able to charge 50p for a Co ereas an unbranded cola may only sell for 35p per can. subjective. The price difference of 15p can be described as the value brand. the 15p).
the name Gucci on their products. branded products will be able to charge a price premium as sell greater volumes than the non-branded competitors. This would then be divided between the company's vario ngible assets. The same valuation technique still applies. O culty with it is the lack of actual. Secondly. prices charged for each product will vary between regions. it is difficult to find a non-branded competitor to compa es with. if Guc expected future profitability of £100 million and the profit attributed to other factors was estimated at £80 million. tiplying the level of annual sales by the royalty rate and summing all years gives you an estimate of the futu nomic benefit of the brand. For example. is deducted from the total foreca itability. provides mate of the value of the brand name Gucci. The profitability of the produ can be attributed to all other factors. For example. most commonly used method for valuing intellectual property. The estimate of how mu ypothetical third party would pay to be able to use. comparab ket data or financial analysis. can then be attributed to intangible assets. The final step is to bring these projected future cash flows back to today's prices counting for the time value of money and the risks associated with achieving those cash fows. and will change throughout the ye en promotions etc. Gucci may actually be charging licensees a royalty for use of the name y are not. Firstly. s is the most simplistic and. ce a royalty rate has been estimated it is necessary to estimate the life of the brand and the level of annual sales. In addition it is very difficult and subjective to establish how much of the pricing differential can buted to the brand and how much relates to other factors. in our experience. alternatively t ount the owner is relieved from paying by virtue of being the owner rather than the licensee. nings basis s method focuses on the maintainable profitability attributable to the intangible asset. In many cases. This estimate is based on either actual license agreements. by matter of deduction. The profit remaining. . the royalty rate is usually expressed as a percentage of sales. e relief from royalty method s method is based upon the amount a hypothetical third party would pay for use of a trademark. for example. comparable agreements on which to base the hypothetical royalty rate. F uation purposes. such as tangible assets and working capital. th profit attributed to intangible assets is £20 million. re are problems with the premium pricing method. The future economic benefits will thus be the profits attributable to t itional volume generated by the brand.ay be that the branded product can not sell at a higher price than the non-branded product but instead can sell great ume. We seek olve this problem either by reference to our own confidential database of royalty rates or by analysing the profitability products in question in order to estimate the royalty that a hypothetical third party would be prepared to pay in order erate those profits. then names comparable to Gucci may be used to derive benchmarks for reasonable royalty rates.
We could. sales a vice functions and. It is mainly because of this need to actively manage all aspects of the brand that regular valuations a ential to determine whether the company strategy and tactics are maintaining. the profit attributed to the brand will depend on how certain costs are allocated. e shortcoming of this approach is that it is difficult to objectively attribute a profit element to all of the other factors. but also in terms of building shareholder value. they do not guarantee earnings stability. if we so wished. or calculated from scratch. t culation of a multiple is highly subjective. then the value of the brand would be £200 million (20 x 10). All aspects of t nd mix will need to be actively managed to ensure that the brand remains continually relevant and desirable sumers.calculate the value of the brand a multiple is applied to the portion of the £20 million profit attributed to the bran refore if a multiple of 10 was considered appropriate and. subcontract all of the production. brands should be managed as the key business asset that they are. The multiple could be determined by the compani ratios. of which we would argue valuation is a key management tool. owing to the dynamics of the new wo nomy and the increased power of the consumer. . It is our brands that provide the profits of today and guarantee the profits of the future. not only at the protection and enforceme el. This level of management requires the development of appropria rics for measuring brand management performance." such. creating or destroying its value. ands are the core of our business. Their importance was summarised by Sir Allen Sheppard (then t airman of Grand Metropolitan plc). su angible assets. possibly based on factors relating strength of the brand. ough brands are key to the success of many companies. for simplicity. provided that we retained ownership of our brands. keting transaction comparatives companies restructure to successfully compete in the New Economy there are an increasing number of brand sales ain industries. we would continue to be successful a itable. For example. mmary nds have never been as important or as valuable as they are at present. Secondly. distribution. the profit attributed to the brand is the full £ on. These brand disposals can be used as a bench mark by which to value the brands of other products same industry. Thirdly. in 1998 Diageo sold its Bombay Gin and Dewar's Scotch whisky to Bacardi for US$1 on. By analysing the acquisition price as a multiple of current or forecast sales it would be possible to estimate t ue of another brand in the same sector. comparable rates used for other companies.
they must either be strong enough to wres mpetition or be prepared to lose to the others and perish for good. points of singular distinction. the winner does not win simply by might. the key is to understand how more value c delivered using those strengths. one cann efore. It may so happen that most of these factors will be external to the brand and may not ha thing to do with the brand. nts of Parity discussion of strategic awareness. while contributing to the success of the brand are not unique and other players in the marketpla also avail of them. W see it everyday.Building Strong Brands-Because Might is Not Always Righ Do brands really need to be strong? The answer to this question is yes and obvious to most of us. tricky and complex one. Marketpla ortunities however. Building strong brands requires brands-even the market leaders. it is the player's strategy and technique that gets him to win. where brands must either do or die. there may be some brands which may not have any exceptional strength his scenario. building of a strong brand does not stop at that. The reason though quite apparent often goes unnoticed. Nonetheles he arena called the marketplace. There is a need to communicate the brand strengths and val ring to the target masse above process of building strong brands surely seems to be a time-consuming. external opportunities will be fleeti may follow the axiom of easy come easy go. If one is looking forward to building a strong brand. both of which may be contributing to the brand's succes difference between the two however. Thus while building strong brands the motto must be for the brand to achieve self-reliance and ay with dependence on providenc other aspect of building strong brands is that the strengths of the brand must be cultivated and communicated to t et audience. Once the basic strengths of the brand have been identified. This means that just because a brand ng well commercially. There needs to be a clear-cut distinction between the brand's intrinsic strengths and extern ortunities. is that while brand strengths are inherent. Brands wrestle each other in the arena we call the marketplac Moreover. However. to introspect and reali r inner potential. brands must consciously cultivate those strengths that make them stand out in the marketplac wever. There could be other factors that may be contributing commercial success. The strength of a brand must come from within and must not fused with windfall opportunities in the marketplac interesting motive for building strong brands is that brand strengths are unique for each brand. as in the case of wrestling. . count on the external opportunities for strength. it¶s the strength on mind that is put to test and not the strength of musc How does all of this translate into marketing? The fact remains that in marketing to brands must not only be strong physically but they need to be strong intellectual Thus building strong brands is more a function of creating sound strategy than simp the function of the market share of the brand. and brand equity would not be complete without cussion of brand points of parity. in the gam of wrestling. Thus. Ve often. it does not imply that it is a strong brand.
If my automobile does not possess these points of parity with competing brands. I¶ve invented the first car with functional auto-pilot. be street legal. Your brand must also measure up well against the competition on expected criteria so as to tralize those attributes. they might not be ugh if consumers do not view your product or service as measuring up on ³minimum product expectations´. re things to know about brands mentioned earlier. ognizing and complying with all traffic laws. ce you have met the points of parity requirement and then you provide a unique selling proposition and hold a strong ensible position. seat at least people comfortably with luggage. and delivering passengers and cargo to the proper destination without the d for operator intervention. inflatable tires. Consumers view these associations a ng necessary to be considered a legitimate product offering within a given category. nsumers might expect that at minimum my automobile have four wheels with rubber. and provide a fair level of sonal safely to occupants. rand is nearly worthless unless it enjoys some equity in the marketplace. I might produce a wonderful new automobile that uses advanced global positioning and sensor hnologies that render a driver obsolete by automatically routing the car. or the holistic value of the brand to its ner as a corporate asset. Points o ty are necessary for your brand but are not sufficient conditions for brand choice. nd equity can include: the monetary value or the amount of additional income expected from a branded product over above what might be expected from an identical. then it ht be too different and might not be seen as a viable choice or a strong brand. if you create what you consider to be a wonderful point of differentiation and position. unless I have fully consider my brand¶s points of parity with other products in the category. nd Equity nd Equity is the sum total of all the different values people attach to the brand. then you have the makings of a very strong brand. a brand is more than just a word or symbol used to identify products and companies. Without brand equity.nts of parity are those associations that are often shared by competing brands. What a strong position and uniqu ng proposition! wever. an example. adjusting speed for traffic conditions. I probably will not et with success. be able to operate during both night and day in most weather conditions. the intangible value associated with the duct that can not be accounted for by price or features. lesson here is that differentiation and singular distinction are necessary for strong brands. . ther words. you simply have a mmodity product. and the perceived quality attributed to the product independe s physical features. but they do not solely ke for a strong brand. ru a widely-available fuel source. but unbranded product. Alas. be able to operate on existing roads and highways.
Branding is all about perception. You may still be asking yourself. at least in part. In this way. lifestyle. however. why you should e about branding in the first place. your personal brand. branding delivers a very important benefit. uldn't it be nice to have people perceive you the way you would like them to perceive you? That is what branding and nd management are all about. Intangible qualities. nds create a perception in the mind of the customer that there is no other product or service on the market that is qui yours.rand also stands for the immediate image. In a commodity market where features and benefits are virtually indistinguishable. It is precisely because nds represent intangible qualities that the term is often hard to define. This attachment then causes your market to make decisions based. a strong brand will help your customers trust you and create a set of expectations about your products without even knowing the specifics of product features. e benefits of a strong brand e are just a few benefits you will enjoy when you create a strong brand: y y y y y A strong brand influences the buying decision and shapes the ownership experience. nd management recognizes that your market's perceptions may be different from what you desire while it attempts to pe those perceptions and adjust the branding strategy to ensure the market's perceptions are exactly what you inten you may now have a better understanding of what a brand is and why awareness about your brand does not essarily mean your brand enjoys high brand equity in the marketplace. and status. u already have at least one brand t of all. A strong brand can command a premium price and maximize the number of units that can be sold at that premium Branding helps make purchasing decisions easier. The issue then is not whether you have a brand. Your name and who are is. A brand promises to deliver value upon which consumers and prospective purchasers can rely to be consiste r long periods of time. or perceptions people experience when they think of a compan roduct. Branding will help you "fence off" your customers from the competition and protect your market share while buildi . upon emotion-. Branding creates trust and an emotional attachment to your product or company.not necessarily just for logical or intellectua reasons. emotions. the issu ow well your brand is managed. Everyone has at least one brand. nd Management brand is not effectively managed then a perception can be created in the mind of your market that you do not essarily desire. in fact. A brand represents all the tangible and intangible qualities and aspects of a product or service. you must understand that you already have a brand. and feelings often hard to grasp and clearly describe. image. A brand resents a collection of feelings and perceptions about quality. You might even understand that brand nagement is all about shaping and managing perceptions. perceptions. The brand called "you".
Once you have mind share. consistent message about the value of your company. but the company brand is the strongest. ..Intel¶s Pentium cessor. now that you understand some of the reasons why you should want to build a strong brand. Cisco¶s Catalyst Router etc. Over a period of time companies can d a strong brand .. ositive brand value is created if customer experience exceeds his expectations. A strong brand can make actual product features virtually insignificant. his article. I want to highlight the five steps needed to create a strong brand. companies are striving hard to beat customer expectations . let's talk about how you go about building a strong brand. you customers will automatically think of you first when they think of you product category. They attach to a brand the same way they attach to each other: first emotionally then logically. Cisco. A solid branding strategy communicates a strong. A strong brand signals that you want to build customer loyalty. A brand impresses your firm's identity upon potential customers.y y y y mind share. For example . A strong brand helps you sell value and the intangibles that surround your products. not just sell product. Similarly. mpanies mentioned above started small but built a solid reputation with the customer along the way and in the proces name of the company evolved into a strong brands as well.and ny of these products are also branded. ople do not purchase based upon features and benefits ople do not make rational decisions. A brand will help you articulate your company's values and explain why you are competing in your market. purchase decisions are made the same way²first instinctively and impulsively and then se decisions are rationalized. E-bay. A strong branding campaign will also signal that you are serious about marketing and that you intend to be around for a while. This article builds on the theory of stomer relationship management & sales. not necessarily to capture an immediate sale but rather t build a lasting impression of you and your products. Note that these companies sell several products . Branding builds name recognition for your company or product. Intel.one with high brand value. are the classic examples of w companies built a strong brand through customer experience. but customers ember the company brand more than the product brand. Wal-Mart etc. e Steps to Build a Strong Brand oday¶s highly competitive world.marketers are at work ing the right level of expectations and shaping the customer experience. you may want to read the earlier article on Levels of Customer Relationship ore reading further. these products are market leaders in their respective segments. Google.
Identify all contact points where customers interact with your company. A classic example is from Wal-Mart¶s "Everyday Low prices". For example.then they will be able to deliver an excellent cup of coffee in a warm. Define the optimal customer experience. you need to create a consistent and compelling experience at each of these touch points. 2. For example. marketer must work as a mystery shopper and see if the customer experience is consistent with the customer value proposition and brand identity.1. marketer must see if he/she is getting the kind of coffee at Starbucks in the right environment as expected by the customer. Customers expect bargain prices at Wal-Mart. . Another classic example is µStarbucks¶ . Then that message must be to them. The actions of each department will then be aligned with the customer value proposition. A clear brand identity sets right level of expectations by the customer. Take an outside-in perspective when aligning each department with your customer value proposition and brand identity. The key is to clearly articulate the brand identity. and that will help you define how customers interpret it. communicated to the entire organization so that each department and each individual understands what it means For example only if all employees of Starbucks understand the customer value proposition . customers think of Wal-Mart as place to get great bargains. Clearly articulate your brand identity Brand Identity means what the brand means to the customer. Establish a customer value proposition Customer value proposition is the natural outcome of the brand identity. relaxing and pleasing environment. Brand identity sets the customer expectations. relaxing and pleasing environment. There may be an understanding gap between what the customer wanted and what the marketer understood. For example. To create a holistic brand experience.Starbuck coffee has a special meaning to its customers. It is what the customers think of your brand. Note that the marketer can only test the level of customer experience based on his/her understanding of customer¶s expectations. This statement sets the customer expectation. to them Starbucks means excellent coffee served in a warm. 3.
you will see that mpany promoting that brand has succeeded in building a strong relationship with its customers. As a result Intel enjoys the highest levels of relationships with its customers . It pays to be an active listener to learn and respond to the customer needs. the company release new products with enhanced features/performance as per its pre-announced product roadmap.This is a popular phrase in marketing. This will have a direct correlation with the brand value.so that the new products will have the feature required by the custome to invest and co-develop new products. I call it level-1 ) and over a period of time. Improving the levels of relationship with customer means enhancing customer experience .by promoting organic farming. the leve sing thoughts stomers don't buy products. customers buy relationships . Customers of starbucks are so loyal that they are even promoting These ideas were given to Starbucks by their customers. with the customer. starbucks to others. Strengthen your brand over time Enhancing the level of customer-brand relationship will have a direct impact on the brand. The marketing team of Intel is always listening to customer to learn what features are needed in the future products . To begin with. Never assume anything about what the customer thinks of your company.that information is passed on the R&D teams .a level at which customers are willin 5. To build a strong brand one needs strong customer relationships. Cultivate relationships with customers Relationship with customers must be treated carefully. Starbucks has also responded in kind .thu Here again a classic example will be Starbucks. If you observe any popular brand today. the first time customer starts at a low level of relationship of relationship can be increased to a higher level ( Max of level-6) Marketer must have a time bound plan to improve the levels of relationship which the customer enjoys with the company/brand. loyal customers into customer champions. Intel sells microprocessors to computer manufacturers. Another very good example is Intel. . Companies need to respond positively to customer feedback and that will turn casual customers into loyal customers.In my earlier article I have written in detail about the levels of relationship a firm can enj gaining brand value & customer loyalty. through series of positive interactions with the brand/company. To build a strong nd. ethical purchasing etc. organizations must work on enhancing customer experiences and that results in a higher level of customer tionship.4. All this will eventually result in a strong brand.
a mistake made by a company in deciding to abandon a new product idea that. or to discontinue development of a new product which subsequently proves to have been a premature decision. See Go Error op-error nition: cision to drop a PRODUCT from the line. The converse of GO-ERROR. in hindsight. . might have been successfu eloped. in light of esses achieved by competitors with similar developments.p Error .