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SenSOTS

and Actuators A 70 (1998) 3241

PHYSiCAL

Compact analytical modeling of squeeze film damping with arbitrary venting conditions using a Green’s function approach

Robert B. Darfing *, Chris Hivick, Jianyang Xu

University of Washington, Department ofElecrrical Ettgineering, P.O. Box 352500, Seattle, WA, 981952500, USA

Abstract

An analytical method based upon a Green’s function solution to the linearized Reynolds equation is presented which allows the resulting forces from compressible squeeze film damping to be rapidly calculated for arbitrary acoustic venting conditions along the edges of amoveable structure. The resulting models are computationally compact, and thus applicable for dynamic system simulation purposes. Arbitrary deflection profiles can also be treated, enabling the calculation of damping effects for cantilevers, diaphragms, tilting plates, and drum-head modes. The 0 1998 Elsevier Science method is theot-eticaily described and a catalog of several useful cases is then presented to illustrate its use. S.A. All righls reserved. Keywords: Compact models; Squeeze films; Damping; Green’s funcrions

1. Introduction

Compressiblesqueezefilm damping has been a problem of great importance for microstructuresthat involve a proof mass moves againsta trapped air film, asthis mechanism that can dominate the damping and thus substantially affect the system frequency response.Existing modelsof squeezefilm damping solve a linearized Reynolds lubrication equation over a two-dimensional domain that representsthe compressedvolume [ 1,2]. All previous models have used the simplified boundary condition that the acousticpressure vanishesat the edgesof the structure, which is equivalent to a zero acoustic impedance[ 3-51. Analytic modelshave been reported by Andrews et al. [6], Veijola and Kuisma [7], Veijola et al. [ 7-91, and Bourgeois et al. [ 101, for mostly

rectangular microstructures. Finite difference models have

(a) 09 cc>

Fig. 1. Bulk micromachined structures illustrating a moveable proof mass with a variety of venting conditions. (a) Cantilevered suspension provides no venting along one edge. (b) Venting through a slotted passageway. (c) Venting into a closed, sun-ounding cavity.

been developed by Veijola et al. [ 111, and finite element modelsby Yang and Senturia [ 121, and Yang et al. [ 131 to treat more complex structural shapes. Damping effects at low gaspressures have alsobeenmodeledby Veijola and Kuisma [ 141. In practice, the suspension parts of the moveablestructure impedethe air flow from the compressed volume, creating a nonzero acousticimpedanceas the boundary condition. For example, short tethersto a proof mass can provide nearly free flow conditions which closely approximate the zero pressure

* Corresponding author. E-mail: bdarling~ee.washington.edu

0924~4247/98/$ - xee front Pi~SO924-4737~98)QO109-5

boundary condition; however, suspension a continuous by membraneproduces the oppositecase of zero flow on the boundaries. Any situation or combination in between the extremesof zero pressure zero flow can be realized. If the or venting involves channels,cavities, or other restrictive passageways, then the venting boundary condition becomesa complex acoustical impedance.Fig. 1 illustrates somecommon bulk micromachined situationsin which these effects occur.

2. Problem formlrlation

The motion of a trapped gasfilm betweentwo moveable plates of spacingh(x,y,r) will have little inertial effect if the

mauer 0 1998 Elsevier Science S.A. AI1 rights reserved.

R. P(r. leading to normalized eigenfunctions of where G(r. u. . is a constant. which can be solved analytically by a variety of methods. the often cited result for normal motion of an ideally vented rectangular plate will be obtained using the Green’s function approach. 0 “0 .t.)6(t-to) 4.t) will be governed by Reynolds lubrication equation The proper Green’s function can be constructed as an expansion of eigenfunctions over the domain of the compressed volume.Mr. P = 0. + Sp. For conditions of ideal venting.&. For small variations in local pressure and gap spacing. Green’s function solution 4. the eigenfunctions form a complete orthonormal set of expansion functions.~P.-t. and eigenvalues k. p = P. (lo).. /Sensors and Actuators A 70 (1998) 3241 33 plates have only small curvature and will be characterized by a nearly unidirectional. + Sh..h = h. If the motion of the plates is only towards each other. where cos is used for odd indices and sin is used for even indices.*(r)4.) is the Green’s function which represents the response at an observation point (r.. is the ratio of the specific heats. The domain of the compressed volume is taken to be -a/2<x< +a/2 and -b/2<y< -i-b/2 corresponding to a rectangular plate of dimensions a X b.t) caused by an excitation at the source point (r. This equation now has the form of a linear diffusion equation with a source term of c&qaHli3t. the Reynolds lubrication equation can be linearized into the form (2) With nondegenerate eigenvalues.2.) [ 151.y. The equation of state for the gas film is taken to be p/p7 = constant.is the normalized local gap variation. a? = 12pl~$1. where K = cP/c. then the isothermal limit is usually a valid approximation. (6).. Normal motion of a rectangular Diffusion from a point source excitation is described by VQ-ol$ =-4d(r-r..tlr..f.Ir. is the normalized local pressure variation. Couette flow effects will be absent and the local pressure within the gap p(x. low Reynolds number flow..2P-c?$ 3P 0 =-4?Tp(ro.+k.. the eigenfunctions u.)=G(r.n = { 1. If the plates have high thermal conductivity. H = S~Z//Z. while for an adiabatic process q = K.=k. P. v. is the ambient pressure. For an arbitrary source term. and h. whereas thermally nonconductive plates would be better described by the adiabatic limit [ 1. plate (3) To illustrate the details of the above method..3.Snnr (8) (9) The Green’s function is constructed from these expansion functions with time-varying coefficients. are solutions to a two-dimensional scalar Helmholtz equation where p is the viscosity. 3.to)drodto (6) . Assuming that the pressure variation is approximately constant in the z direction (direction of compression).t. i “0 (r)dr=S. .tn.t. For an isothermal process 7 = 1. To treat the widest possible range of boundary conditions and source terms. The corresponding eigenvalues are k. the acoustic pressure vanishes along each edge. All edges vented (10) where O(f) is the unit step function [ 151. All solutions to Eq. where p is the density.1.)= $O(t-to) where P = SplP. Darling et al.= m25r2 n2r2 a2 + b2 (12) the solution is expressible as an integral of the Green’s function over the source points.tlr. }.. a Green’s function method is adopted.-r) (4) in that time reversal has the same effect as swapping the observation and source points. and then calculating the pressure profile via Eq. G(r. The solution process in general consists of finding the proper eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for the domain of the moveable plate. Integrating the pressure over the area of the plate will then produce the net reaction force...tlr.tlr. is the nominal gap spacing. .2] .t. (3) satisfy a reciprocity relation G(r.. constructing the Green’s function as per Eq.B.)=cY%/ato aH (5) (11) for m.. Finally.t)= G(r.

Darling et al.3.2.. expressed by aP/ax = 0 along this one boundary.. -h-r.al2 now closed to produce a zero flow condition.B.n=odd r2mn jw+k&. which can be viewed as a normalized frequency variable.lor2 (19) P(x. }.th2) jw-l-k~. -a/2 i -b/2 i P(x. Letting the plate aspect ratio be given by /3 = a/b allows the normalized force to be expressed as F(t) -= abP. and the second term is the tumon transient.34 R..2.jxo= I -a/2 1 H’ (22) 23)‘“‘~‘“2 (15) =Im 64 cn=oddr4m2n2 -&-7 ja+m2~2+~2n2~2 and for m = even. 64 -jwqH’e’“’ cmn=oddr4m2n2 jwi-kk.h2 (267 The negative sign in the numerator accounts for the reaction force being opposed to the direction of plate motion. (6) using these produces a normalized pressure distribution of 16(-1)(“+“/2) jw. and in the second trigonometric factor cos is used for n = odd and sin is used for IZ= even.h2 F(t) abP. (6) gives.3 . but with the edge at X= .f)dx dy (18) (25) Normalizing this force to the ambient pressure acting on the plate area yields -= Evaluating Eq. Squeeze film damping is often expressed in terms of a dimensionless squeeze number (20) The normalized reaction force is F(l) -= abP. +a/2 cos~. The integration over x. (14) = e j”‘-exp(-ki. +a/2 -kbi2 where m = { 1. (6) yields relative to the x dimension of the plate. . One edge closed Next. Performing the time integration in Eq. which is retained.. /Sensors aizd Actuators A 70 (1998132-41 The plate is taken to be a rigid body with sinusoidal motion perpendicular to its face. 4. The eigenfunctions are now (24) (17) Integrating this pressure profile over the area of the plate produces the net resultant force. (6) is then (13) where H’ is a constant giving the normalized amplitude of the plate vibration.y.+k+ + 4a’ n2r2 + b2 F(t)=P. Collecting the above results into Eq. . The corresponding eigenvalues are k.=k. for m = odd. in Eq.461... (6) yields the normalized pressure distribution of P(X>YJ) These results agree with those of other workers for this benchmark case [ 3.t> = c m. +a/2 1 H’ (23) (16) The integration over y0 proceeds identically. which is discarded for the present purposes of finding the frequency response. The source term in Eq. consider the same plate geometry as before.. jcr+m2rr2+~‘n’~2 j.y.jeM (21) The spring and damping components of the reaction force can be separated as the real and imaginary parts of the above.. . m n=oddrr”m2n2 -jwvHkj”’ jwi-k~.. } and n = { 1.Hkj”’ F(t) c 64 abP.h’ (27) . spring t-1 =Re 64 cn=odd 9i-4m2n2 ju+m2~2+/3’n2n-2 -h where the first term in the numerator is the sinusoidal steadystate term.5.

Darling et al.(x. and P= 0 along ybl2.lcx2 -jwrlHbh” (35) Squeeze Number G Fig.rn2f12 n27T2 ~ mn m n a2 + b2 F(t) -= abP.. sin is used for nr = odd and n = even. This corresponds to effectively a one-dimensional problem with the pressure varying only in the y direction. then the only nonzero eigenfunction will be a constant with x and y which produces a constant normalized pressure distribution of P(x. 2 and 3 for a normalized plate oscillation amplitude of H’=O.( b. } and n={1..5. Two edges closed 4. = and when III = 0 the normalization factor becomes J2/ab. expressed as aPI&= on X= --n/2 and aPlay=O on y= -b/2.t) = . expressed as aPl&x=O on x=-a/2 and x= fal2. 2. cos is used for in= even and 11 odd.+k.3.=k.y)= p ZCOSG .T= in27r2 n297-’ 4a2 + 4b2 (33) For a square plate (a = b) .UJ n no nC i _/c-- ____----- __---. the reaction forces from the above five fundamental venting cases are compared in Figs. All edgesclosed (37) (29) Evaluating the pressure integral of Eq.1. 4.)cos~(y+ with a normalized reaction force of -= abP.) (34) xcos$x+ . F(t) c 64 mn=oddr4m2n2 jw+ki.10 n I i U. the eigenfunctions become rrn jw+kilcx2 (36) where k. /Sensors and Actuators A 70 (1998) 3241 35 differing from the fully vented case only in the eigenvalues kmn’ 4. with ideal venting P = 0 along the remaining two edges of x = + al2 and y= + b/2. defined as where the spring and damping components have equal ampli0.qH’&“’ and a normalized reaction force of F(t) /abP. yielding Rx... aPlay = 0 along y = -b/2.’ = n2$/4b2 and the normalized reaction force is for nz={0. .- -4 The resulting normalized pressure distribution is m&t)= c m.6.2. the eigenfunctions are zL.. Three edges closed For boundary conditions of aPl&= 0 along x = . }. } and eigenvalues of k&. Real and imaginary components = of each reaction force are separated to yield the spring and damping components.n=odd 16(-1)(‘“+“)12 7r2rnn jwTHkh’r jw+ki. (6) retains only the m = 0 term in the x integration.. the normalized pressure distribution becomes 4(-1)(“-1)/2 fY-GY.( xs 2 cosz y+ 2 ‘) . The reaction force is completely in phase with the displacement for all frequencies.2.y..e.3 . Comparisonof cases The normalized reaction force is then F(f) -= abP. i.4. Springforce for normal motionof a square plate.lO. The overall trend is for the spring component to increase for all frequencies and the damping component to increase for low frequencies and decrease for high frequencies asthe venting becomes increasingly restricted.t)= c n=odd -jwrlH~jwT If two edges on opposite sides of the plate are closed.lcx2 . .3 .qH’@“. The associated eigenvalues are k2 =k2+k2=. each plotted as function of the squeeze number CTdefined by Eq... respectively.R.. The critical frequency..3. (32) for m. Isothermal conditions are assumed for which 77 1. corresponding to an eigenfunction which is constant with x. one-tenth of the gap.B. . (20).. = .n = { 1.5. 4. giving a pure spring force with no viscous damping losses.al 2 and xal2. If two adjacent edges of the plate are closed.YJ)= c n=odd 4(-l)(n-‘)‘2 rrn -jwTH’ej*‘cosnay jwfk~lo12 b (30) If VP = 0 is enforced along all edges of the plate.

II 0 0 P(r. Since this integral explicitly allows the source term to be an arbitrary function of position. = tan-‘2&P/a. 5. }.. }andn={1. Two useful examples of this are discussed next. The restoring torque on the plate can be computed as fal:! +b/2 7(t)=Pa Jo(ko..( ymn) = 0.$ 0.3 .6 . The integration of the Green’s function in Eq.09 ?j 0..x a nw b (45) (40) where use has been made of the relation c form={2. = y. 6. }. The normalized displacement of the plate can be described as H(x..r4m2n2 jw+k$.5 .. The resulting normalized pressure distribution is n=odd Xsin -cos- m7i. is the nominal gap spacing.08 L - and normalizing this to the ambient pressure acting on the area of the plate yields “’ ” -I-‘-‘. with maximum z displacement occurring along the x= fa/2 edges. so only the m = 0 eigenfunctions are retained. the normalized restoring torque is found to be -= 7(t) a 2bP. (6) proceeds as before. tude. and the reaction force now takes the form of a restoring torque T. and J. ( 11) and ( 12). Damping force for normal motion of a square plate.J c. The eigenvalues are k. The maximum angle of rotation is I!&. 3.2.2.&t)=C2 -jwqHlejw’ J. who derived it using Laplace transforms. (6) leads to a normalized pressure distribution of P(r. Arbitrary deflection profiles Squeeze Number o Fig. For uniform motion perpendicular to the surface of a rigid circular plate.4..t)= H’ $ej-’ (44) for sinusoidal rocking about the y axis.r) J. 3edgesven1ei 2 opposite edges venfed 2 adjacent edges vented 1 edge vented 2 0. . The plate is constrained so that it tilts about they axis.. /Sensors and Actuators A 70 (1998) 32-41 0. [3].y. Tilting plates The compressed gap area is again taken to be -n/2 <x < + a/2 and -b/2 <y < + b/2. }.. c 2Tr Normalized to the ambient pressure acting on the plate area and the moment associated with rotation about they axis. so that the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues are given by Eqs. the normalized eigenfunctions are (38) form={1.07 2 ‘~0. Using these eigenfunctions to evaluate the Green’s function and then the integral of Eq. Darling et al.Odx dy (46) Integrating the normalized pressure over the area of the plate yields the net resulting force./2 64 c. making the source term in the Green’s function integral of Eq. The plate is taken to be fully vented along each edge. where ymnis the nth root of J. (6) constant over the area of the plate.r.05 --- (43) This result agrees with that of Griffin et al. where It.3.B.3..(ko..)r.. P = 0 for r = c..(y) is the mth order Bessel function of the first kind..1.c) ~ ckOn jw+k&loL2 The previous cases were easily integrated since the plate motion was normal to its surface. except for an additional factor of 2x/a. Normal motion of a circular plate Solutions to the scalar Helmholtz equation in cylindrical coordinates are Bessel functions which are applicable to constructing the Green’s function for circular plates.(k.06 E . there is no 0 variation in either the boundary conditions or the source term. }andn={1.t)d& dr (42) (47) ri=odd . arbitrary deflection profiles can be treated using the same methods. 6. For a circular plate of radius c which is ideally vented along its edge./cx2 ??L=tTe* -jo$fkj”’ F(t)=P. also shifts to lower frequencies with increasingly more restrictive venting.2..t).and (39) for m = 0 and n = { 1.. .3 . corresponding to a rectangular plate of dimensions n X b.R..d~o= ~Jdkd i0 O?? (41) -a/2 I -b/2 I xf’W.

corresponding to a rectangular cantilever of length a and width b. For electrostatic actuation. when the torque is normalized as above.H’la...3.. as an example. referenced to the tip of the cantilever.T= m. and the Green’s function integral for the pressure now involves a weighting factor of (X +y) ln. Such a structure is used in the Texas Instruments deformable micromirror display device. This result is largely because only the tip of the cantilever undergoes the full range of motion.Odx i-a/Z fbl2 X+-Y The net reaction force. which results in a normalized pressure distribution of where H’ is the maximum deflection of the cantilever tip at x = n. the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues are the same as those used previously.la2 F(t)=P. }.t)dx dy (56) 0 -b/2 The normalized torque for rotation about the diagonal y = f x of a square plate is thus half of the normalized torque for rotation about an orthogonal x = 0 or y = 0 axis. where the attractive force is inversely proportional to the square of the gap distance.a/2) and ( -n/2. (6) yields a normalized pressure distribution of fYx. free plate in normal motion whose amplitude is equal to that of the cantilever tip. The fixed edge of the cantilever is taken to be the edge at x= 0. square. and consequently this edge is described by a zero flow boundary condition of aPlax = 0. whereas all points on the free plate move through the full amplitude.rL=oddT4m2n2 rz=odd Cantilevers are another common micromachined structural element whose dynamics can be strongly impacted by squeeze film compressive damping. (51) JJO X 2 . Cantilevers which yields a force normalized to the ambient pressure over the cantilever area of -= F(t) c 64 abP. .. A force applied to only the tip of a cantilever of uniform cross-section will bend it downward in a The real and imaginary parts.n = { 1. -a/2). 6. except that the index m runs over even instead of odd values. The normalized displacement is approximated as parabolic. For ideal venting along all edges. The compressed air film gap is taken to occupy the domain 0 <x < a and -b/Z < y < + b/2. 32 r4m2n2 m=eve* n=odd c -jwTH’ej”’ jufkJ$. The eigenfunctions which satisfy the boundary conditions for the domain are cosnv b (53) for m. the pull-down force is concentrated toward the free tip of the cantilever. .+k. and the critical frequency for the cantilever is slightly lower. 4 for a square (a = b) cantilever and a rigid.2. The maximum angle of rotation is 0.y. are shown in Fig.y.=k. Another interesting case of similar nature is a square plate that tilts about its diagonal.x 8(_l). Darling et al. In this case the normalized displacement of the plate rocking sinusoidally about the axis y = --x can be expressed as parabolic deflection profile. = tan -‘fih.y.f)= T’rnn c m=odd n=odd n=eVell x -jw~H’d”‘cOs jw+k&Ja2 mrx sinz a b (49) 16(-l) bz-1)/2(4)(n-1)/2 dmn m7Tx nry cos2n b The net restoring torque is cos (50) (55) 7(f)=P. dy J J-$+y. (52) where H’ is the maximum z displacement which occurs at the tips of (a/2. it takes on an identical form as the force for normal motion of the plate. . . and the corresponding eigenvalues are k:. while a zero pressure boundary condition P = 0 applies to the other three edges which are assumed to have ideal venting.5.B. and a simple approximation is to assume that the pull-down force is completely tip-loaded. which are the spring and damping components of the reaction force. is calculated as a +b/2 -a12 -b/2 which evaluates to give a normalized restoring torque of fir(t) -= a3P.o= c n=odd N1rr. Both the spring and damping components are smaller for the cantilever. / Senrors and Actuators A 70 (1998) 3241 37 Interestingly.n/2-i(_l)(n-1)/2 T2mn 8(-l) (VI- -jwqHkiWf m27T2 n27T2 4a2 + ~ b2 ni= e-Jell 1)/2(-p- 1 Xsin- n cosy + c m=odd Performing the Green’s function integration of Eq. P(x.R..

n~dd 16 (k.tan is used for odd indices. The specification of an arbitrary acoustic impedance along each of the bounding edges allows more general and physically relevant conditions to be treated. With this form for the eigenfunctions.i. q is the flow velocity. pa is Ihe ambient gas density. where ri is the unit normal to the aperture in the direction of flow. Darling et al. If the slotted passageway is sufficiently narrow..e.‘)/or2 . For the one case of km = 0. and similarly for the y direction eigenvalues k. (60) are determined from k a Vp =. An aperture of cross-sectional area S with a mean flow velocity of q through it is described by a volume velocity of Q=q. Arbitrary acoustic venting conditions where fi is the air viscosity.n= 1I&.. the acoustic differential equations allow the acoustic impedance to be expressed as z = -+wa A s P vp. i. Acoustic propagation through an ideal gas is governed by the differential equations where p is the local pressure. Including general acoustic boundary conditions such as these is accomplished by constructing the eigenfunctions of the compressed domain to satisfy the condition of Eq.a)(k. For the case of a constant acoustic impedance Z. the two extreme cases of zero pressure (ideal venting) and zero flow (ideal closure) boundary conditions can be straightforwardly handled by choosing the eigenfunctions to satisfy P = 0 or VP = 0 on the appropriate part of the boundary. The ideal venting condition corresponds to a zero acoustic impedance. the viscous drag of the sidewalls will introduce a real valued loss term into the acoustic impedance. symmetrical boundary conditions are taken on opposite edges of the plate to produce the purely even or odd eigenfunctions shown above. Z. Proper normalization of these eigenfunctions yields coefficients of (64) with the + sign for odd and the . (6). 4. For simplicity of illustration... The acoustic impedance of an aperture relates the volume velocity through the aperture to the applied acoustic pressure that causes it. the eigenvalues k. then the eigenvalues and hence eigenfunctions will be purely real-valued. where the acoustic inertia is MA= jw+(kz+k. square plate and of 7. + cot for even indices.S.-b-w 72% a tan k. required to satisfy Eq. yielding a normalized pressure profile of P(*‘y7t)=. Spring and damping forces of an ideally vented a square cantilever with a parabolic deflection profile. The acoustic impedance of a narrow slotted passageway is given as -c I /’ / I -. lossless and imaginary. and the cross-sectional dimensions of the slot are W X H. (60).. For sinusoidal steady-state. A set of orthogonal eigenfunctions is (62) where cos is used for odd indices and sin for even ones. y is the compressibility of the gas. A slotted passageway of length L which houses a moveable slug of air has an acoustic impedance of ZA =joM. These eigenfunctions can then be directly integrated to construct the local pressure distribution using Eq. Note that if the acoustic impedance ZA is purely reactive.ri where .B. /Sensors and Actuators A 70 (1998) 32-41 p. only the odd-valued indices will be retained. As is commonly done in electroacoustics... A closed cavity of volume V would represent an acoustic impedance of ZA = 1/j&C. and P.R. = Vl yP.sign for even indices. and viscous loss elements can be synthesized from an equivalent circuit model of the physical structure [ 51. the normalization is A . is the ambient pressure. while the idealclosure condition corresponds to an infinite acoustic impedance. along the entire plate boundary. As an example.-0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Squeeze Number Q Fig.. consider again a rectangular plate trapping an air film over a domain of -a/2 <x< +a/2 and -b/2 <y < + b/2..b) -jwqHkj"' The structural elements which restrict the air flow around a moveable plate can often be represented by simple acoustic impedances. combinations of these acoustic compliance. inertiance.=p/Q.LIS.a 2 cot 2 -2p 2SZA (63) As demonstrated above. where the acoustic compliance is C.

The net squeeze film reaction force can then be approximated as the sum from each of these eight remaining pieces. In practical cases. = 0. (17) and (19). As a final example.na)2(k. I 0 5 10 Squeeze 15 Number cr 20 25 30 For the case of ideal venting around all four edges in which 2. I.n 2sz. 5. As can be seen. has traditionally been difficult for both analytical and numerical methods. I. then this synthesis procedure incurs no error. For the case of a square uniformly partitioned into nine equally sized pieces.L/S. the magnitude of the spring force is more than doubled by the inertiance of the slot vents. However. L. The right hand side of Eq. the net reaction force is approximately (69) where Fza and Fzo are the net reaction forces for two adjacent and two opposite edges being vented.B. (67) In this case. with somesimplifying assump- Sincethe component pieceshave edges a/3.a -= 2sz* -t dp.-jw.. square plate with motion normal to its surface and with slotted vents along all four edges through which the trapped gas film is vented.. lack of needed symmetry will incur some error if the partitioning lines are not well chosen.na -2tan2=-=.. and the critical frequency is also lowered by nearly a factor of three. multiplying by four the net reaction force for a square plate vented along only two adjacent edges yields the net reaction force for a square plate of four times the area that is vented along all edges. I. consider a rigid. Fig.b)z n=odd jo+(k:+k. the eigenvalues are solutions to Fig.a -m k a 2 tan2= -.R. This reduces the above results to the previously discussed case of Eqs. ( 18)) gives a net reaction force of F(t) -= abP. 2s (68) in which the eigenvalues are frequency dependent and must be recomputed for each frequency of interest. the eigenvalues from Eq. consider a rigid.iw. square plate with motion normal to its surface and which traps an air film over the domain -a/2<x< +a/2 and -a/2<y< +n/2. (35) and (3 1) . the four comer pieces thus vent along two of their outside edges while the four edge pieces vent along one outside and one inside edge (the vent hole)... If the acoustic impedance is a pure compliance. 8. illustrating the substantial effect that restrictive venting conditions can produce. squeeze film damping effects for this type of complex plate can be synthesized from the library of cases that have been discussed above. Synthesis of complex plates The treatment of vent holes which are placed within the surface of the moveable plate.a k.. making the Green’s function method also dif- tions on the gas flow patterns. Darling et al. Constructing eigenfunctions to satisfy these boundary conditions is a rather unwieldy task.2)/ck” (66) o. as if the larger plate were composed of four comer quadrants. the eigenvalues are frequency independent and need only to be computed once for a given device model. as in Eq. one ideally vented and the other vented by slot vents for which a/2L = 1 and H’ = 0. where S is the cross-sectional area of the slot and L is its length. /Sensors and Actuators A 70 (1998) 3241 39 where H’ is the normalized displacement amplitude. Each of the constituent plates can then have its net squeeze film damping reaction forces calculated based upon the venting along each edge.. 64 -jqHb j”’ c m=odd (k.. Now assume that the center piece is removed so as to produce a vent hole at this location. Integrating over the area of the plate. to either aid in etch release or to reduce squeeze film damping. If a complex rectangular plate is partitioned into several smaller rectangular plates.b = nr for odd values of m and II. however. The acoustic mass of each slot vent is MA = p.a = mrand k. Assuming that no gas flow occurs across the partition lines between the remaining adjacent pieces. If the acoustic impedance is a pure inertiance. Effect of the inertiance of slot vents on a square plate k. the eigenvalues are solutions to k. If the partition line happens to be a line of symmetry through the plate. and four comer pieces. As an example of this result. Eqs. four edge pieces. (63) become k..10. then a simplifying assumption is that there is ideal closure (no venting) at the partition line between two adjacent plates. As an example. :/ I. (67) then becomes simply -a/2L. -paa 2SM. Partition this square into three sections along each edge to produce on center piece.ooL-rYc. ficult to employ.llC. and the overall reaction force on the complex plate approximated as the sum of these.. 5 compares the resulting spring and damping forces for two square plates. thefrequency of .

J. making these models directly useful for circuit and system simulations. squeeze-film damping. Senturia. the magnitude of spring and damping forces is reduced only slightly for high frequencies. pp. IllI T. This verifies some common rules of thumb that are used for placing vent holes. pp. 1995. J. This method also allows arbitrary displacement or deflection profiles to be directly treated. Senturia. New York. pp. 9. Kuisma. Feshbach. Porret. 1997. USA. rather than that of the smaller overall plate dimension. 1996 Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop (SSSAW-96). 1. Papers. Andrews.-A.E. 1131 Y. but that the frequency dependence is scaled to a value that represents the distance between the holes. Grerillat. USA. Chicago. lL. 664-667. 1996. Simulation model for micromechanical angular rate sensor. 105 [41 JJ. Seattle.1995. Sensors and Actuators A 60 (1997) 113-121. pp. pp. 1997 Int. H. Veijoia. IL. Chicago. 181 T. Q. accel171 T. Apr.M. US. Bourgeois. Numerical simulation of compressible squeezed-film damping. squeeze-film damping in accelerometers. Press. Stockholm. On isothermal squeeze f&s. New York. A library of useful cases has also been presented to illustrate the analytical technique. T. 143. LL. June 2529. Yamanami. SD. 1953. Lubrication Tech. T. pp. Math. In Fig. Ryhanen. June 16-19. 1% 151 L. The above library of cases and the described synthesis method for complex plates suggests that automated layout extraction and model synthesis could be developed from these methods. Appl. Solid-State Sensors and Actuators (Transducers ‘97). Vol. 243-253. Isothermal squeeze films. ASME: J. 1097-1100. J. Ryhanen. References W. Sweden. Vol. Hoogerwerf. 30-May 3. Tech. 6. Blech. Ryhanen. 6. pp. as in the case of tilting modes and deformable cantilevers or diaphragms. 36-39.D. Papers. McGrawHill Book. Veijola and Ryhanen [ 71 and Veijola et al. Papers. Yang. T. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Squeeze Number IS Fig. pp. [I51 P. namely that the ultimate magnitude of the forces is not substantially changed by the reduction in plate area.8] have shown that the net reaction force can be compactly represented by an equivalent circuit composed of parallel R-C elements. Conf.H. Beranek. 1121 Y. Sensors and Actuators A 48 (l995) 239-248. Langh~is. I61 M. 88 (1966) 451: 456. Circuit simulation model of gas damping in microstructures with nontrivial geometries. T. J. The spring and damping forces for this case are compared against those of an equally sized square plate without the center vent hole in Fig. [ 141 T. McGraw-Hill. G. Veijola. June 26. H.4. H. Introduction to Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics. 191 T. Darling et al. Dig. Tech. June 16-19. A study of fluid [31 WS. M. S. Morse. Richardson. Solid-State Sensors and Actuators (Transducers ‘97). 1997.L. 76-79. I11 . 6. Mode1 of capacitive micromechanical erometer including effect of squeezed gas film. Kuisma. Analytical modeling of [lOI C.B. 1997. Dig. SC. Solid-State Sensors and Actuators (Transducers ‘97). I. while the critical frequency is increased by a factor of 9. with the index taking&her even or odd values. Yang. Veijola. Conf. Ryhanen. Ku&la. Tech. these sums are rapidly convergent because each term is weighted by factors of 1/m2n’. 1117-1120. Model for gas film damping in a silicon accelerometer. 2. I21 C. Veijola. Effect of air damping on the dynamics of nonuniform deformations of microstructures. Dig. Turner. Lahdenpera. Chicago. 1954. With truncation of the sums to retain only the first few terms. 1997 Int. A comparison of squeeze-film theory with measurements on a microstructure. Lahdenpera. /Sensors and Acmators A 70 (1998) 32-41 Acknowledgements This work was sponsored by the NSF Center for the Design of Analog-Digital Integrated Circuits [CDADIC]. The authors wish to thank Steve Lewis of AnaIog Devices and Ian Getreu of Analogy for helpful discussions and encouragement.40 R. pp. (1983) 615-620. Kuisma. 20 (1962) 131-150. Pozrikidis. S. Proc. H. Acouslics. H. Oxford Univ. Tech. Lahdenpera. While the resulting expressions for the pressure distribution and net force involve infinite sums over the eigenfunctions. Conf. [ 1 1. H. 10931096.-J. Lahdenpera. corresponding to a loss of l/9 of the plate area. 1997 Int. Griffin. as represented by the squeeze number g is scaled by a factor of l/9. 857-869. 1997. A. Dig. Methods of Theoretical Physics. Effect of a square vent hole in the center of a square plate. Conclusions A broadly applicable Green’s function method has been developed for rapidIy computing the effects of compressible squeeze film damping with realistic venting conditions typical of those encountered in micromachined structures. Equivalent-circuit model of the squeezed gas film in a silicon accelerometer. J. Basic Eng.-J. ISCAS ‘95. June 16-19. Trans. Hilton Head Island. Retaining only the first five terms in each sum typically gives accuracy to within l-2%. Sensors and Actuators A 36 (1993) 79-87. Transducers ‘95 andEurosensors lX. USA. WA. Thanks are also extended to Timo Veijola of Helsinki University of Technology for providing comments and preprints of his work. New York. Veijola. USA. Harris. F. Proc.

/Sensors mdActuators A 70 (1998) 3241 41 Biographies Robert Bruce Darling was born in Johnson City.5. and from 1982 to 1983. Her research interests include analysis and simulation of analog/ digital integrated circuits and device modeling for circuit design. TN. Beijing. Bristol. sensors. He received the BSEE (with highest honors). he was a Visiting Associate Professor at Stanford University. China. Stanford. Atlanta. where he is presently an Associate Professor. circuit design. Darling et al. Jinnynng Xzr was born in Beijing. She is currently pursuing the MSEE degree at the University of Washington. China. . University of Washington. Chris Hivick-biography not available. in 1996. and 1985. 1982. electrochemistry. and instrumentation electronics. She received the BS degree in Physics from Tsinghua University. MSEE. optoelectronics. Seattle. WA. Texas Instruments. His research interests include electron device physics. Johnson City. respectively. he was with the Physical Sciences Division of the Georgia Tech Research Institute. in 1973. CA. GA. and PhD in Electrical Engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1980. TN on March 1. TN. He has held Summer positions with SperryUnivac. 1958. From 1995 to 1996.R.B. microfabrication. device modeling. Seattle. Since 1985. he has been with the Department of Electrical Engineering.

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