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The Air Pollutant Classification

An air pollution control strategy for a region is a specification of the allowable levels of pollutant emissions from sources. To formulate such a strategy it is necessary to be able to estimate the atmospheric fate of the emissions, and thus the ambient concentrations each pollutant gives different impact. Therefore, we need different strategy too to control the pollution. In order to do that, we have to know the types of pollutant in the air. Oxides of Nitrogen Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (N02) are the two most important nitrogen oxide air pollutants. They are frequently lumped together under the designation NOx, although analytical techniques can distinguish clearly between them. Of the two, N02 is the more toxic and irritating compound. Mobile combustion and fossil-fuel power generation are the two largest anthropogenic sources of NOx. In addition, industrial processes andagricultural operations produce minor quantities. Sulfur Oxides Sulfur dioxide (S02) is formed from the oxidation of sulfur contained in fuel as well as from certain industrial processes that utilize sulfur-containing compounds. Anthropogenic emissions of S02 result almost exclusively from stationary point sources. Stationary fuel combustion (primarily utility and industrial) and industrial processes (primarily smelting) are the main S02 sources. Stationary fuel combustion includes all boilers, heaters, and furnaces found in utilities, industry, and commercial! institutional and residential establishments. Coal combustion has traditionally been the largest stationary fuel combustion source, although industrial and residential coal use has declined. Increased coal use by electric utilities, however, has offset this decrease. Organic Compounds Organic air pollutants are sometimes divided according to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate organic compounds (POCs), although there are some species that will actually be distributed between the gaseous and particulate phases. The emission of unburned or partially burned fuel from combustion processes and escape of organic vapors from industrial operations are the major anthropogenic sources of organic air pollutants. A major source of airborne organic compounds is the emissions from motor vehicles.

Particulate Matter Particulate matter refers to everything emitted in the form of a condensed (liquid or solid) phase. Major industrial process sources of particulate matter include the metals, mineral products, petroleum, and chemicals industries. Iron and steel and primary smelting operations are the most significant emission sources in themetals industry. The iron and steel industry involves coke, iron, and steel production, each of which is a source of particulate emissions. The primary metals industry includes the smelting of copper, lead, and zinc, along withaluminum production. Sulfur in unprocessed ores is converted to S02 during smelting, with a relatively small portion emitted as particulate sulfate and sulfuric acid. Emissions from the mineral products industry result from the production of portland cement, asphalt, crushed rock, lime, glass, gypsum, brick, fiberglass, phosphate rock, and potash. The particles emitted from crushing, screening, conveying, grinding, and loading operations tend to be larger than 15 p.m.

Indoor & Outdoor Air Pollution

When people think about air pollution, they usually think about smog, acid rain, CFC's, and other forms of outdoor air pollution. But did you know that air pollution also can exist inside homes and other buildings? It can, and every year, the health of many people is affected by chemical substances present in the air within buildings. A great deal of research on pollution is being conducted at laboratories and universities. The goals of the research are to find solutions and to educate the public about the problem. Two places where this type of work is being done are LBNL and the University of California, Berkeley. Let's take a closer look at the various types of air pollution, the effects that they have on people, and what is being (or not being) done to correct the problem.

Outdoor Air Pollution


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Outdoor air pollution is the result of man-made and naturally occurring elements, which make their way around the globe on wind currents. Contributing outdoor air pollution factors include smog, exhaust, ozone depletion, which traps greenhouses gases in the lower atmosphere, and the countless particles of heavy metals and other harmful substances released during manufacturing and other human activities.

Indoor Air Pollution In less developed places, people rely on burning fuel for warmth and cooking, which may cause heavy exposure to carcinogens of all types in the home. In the developed world indoor air pollution primarily consists of household chemical vapors, construction materials, cigarette smoke, cooking fumes, molds, and naturally occurring gases like carbon monoxide and radon, which are potentially deadly. Considerations Because indoor pollution is confined to an enclosed and relatively small space and because people tend to spend more time in their homes than anywhere else, indoor air pollution can be more dangerous than outdoor. Steps can be taken to limit indoor air pollution, including the use of green cleaners instead of chemicals, air filters, and obvious precautions like not smoking indoors.

Major Sources of Air Pollution


1. Some Major Sources of Air Pollution Sources of air pollution are the factors, locations, and activities responsible for putting pollutants out into the air we breathe. There are two major types of these sources, and they are human related sources, and natural sources. The sources of air pollution that are human related can fall into many different categories. 2. Stationery sources One of these categories are stationery sources, like manufacturing facilities, power plants, and many industries like coal or mining. This source is responsible for a significant part of the pollutants in the air, and helps contribute to major types of air pollution like smog. 3. Moving sources A more major source of air pollution is moving sources. Moving sources include motor vehicles like cars, busses, trains, and aircraft. These types of air pollution are responsible for most of the pollution in the atmosphere. This moving source is one we can drastically reduce with a little effort and learning. Some other human relater sources of air pollution are harmful fumes from paint, varnish, hairspray, and aerosols in general. 4. Reduce pollution on an individual level These things are essential to our modern daily lives, and everyday we use them we are making the air a little more polluted. All of the human related sources of air pollution can be controlled or even prevented by learning about ways to reduce pollution on an individual level. If everyone put a little effort into controlling how they contribute personally to pollution. Then we could be breathing clean pure air some day soon. 5. Natural sources the other source of air pollution mentioned is natural sources. These sources are not something we cause and are not really something we can prevent but it is good to know about them and how they affect us. One of these is dust caused by natural occurrence. When a large area of land is barren and lacking in vegetation then

the dirt becomes dry dust. This dust can be carried in the air to places far away from the spot of land and pollute the air all around it. 6. Good way to help control this natural pollution A good way to help control this natural pollution is to plant vegetation and trees where there is a spot of dry land. This may take some irrigation and a little effort but it will drastically decrease the natural dust pollution in the air. Some other natural pollutants are smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires. 7. Huge area of forest when a huge area of forest is burned naturally then it releases toxins into the air for miles around. There is nothing we can do to prevent natural fires but we do try to control areas on fire from spreading to populated areas. The natural sources of air pollution are not as much of a threat as the ones we humans cause. However it is always good to learn all about how you can help prevent, and control both sources of air pollution.