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ELECTRIC PROPULSION

ABSTRACT:

NANO ELCTRON TRANSISTOR ABSTRACT

The shotgun marriage of chemistry and engineering called Nanotechnology is ushering in the era of self-replicating machinery and self-assembling consumer goods made from raw atoms. Utilizing the well understood chemical properties of atoms & molecules, nanotechnology proposes the construction of novel molecular devices possessing extraordinary properties. The single electron transistor or SET is a new type of switching device that uses controlled electron tunneling to amplify current. By using the Electron beam lithography and Electromigration, the research leads to the designing of a single atom transistor with the help of the meticulously synthesized semiconductor crystals called quantum dots, which embodies the electrons confined in a channel and resembles same in its properties as an real atom. This paper presents a scenario on existing and ongoing studies on NANO ELECTRONICS with the theoretical methods relevant to their understanding. Most of the preceding discussion is premised upon the implicit assumption. That future quantum effect Nano Electronic Devices will be fabricated in Nano Metre scale using molecules. Conductance quantization in ballistic regime has been described under various conditions. The behaviour of Coulomb Island through which the electrons can only enter by tunneling through one of the insulators is presented. At last, the SET presents that it is the different construction is which is based on helical logic, atomic scale motion of electrons in an applied rotating electric field.

ELECTRO MAGNETIC ROCKET LAUNCHING MACHINE


ABSTRACT
The development in technology made drastic changes in human life. Among the various technologies electricity is playing a vital role. The maximum speed achieved in the land is by the Bullet train (512Km/hr) which uses electricity. This shows that electricity has greater amount of energy than that of the conventional fuels. Here is machine that uses the electricity to launch rockets at a speed ranging from 4Km/sec to 10Km/sec with minimum turn over time and at low cost. Using this machine we can launch 200 satellites per day. It is the ELECTRO-MAGNETIC LAUNCHING MACHINE OR ELECTRO-MAGNETIC LAUNCHER (EML). Basically there are two types EM-launchers (i.e. Railgun and Coilgun). Here we are mainly going to deal about the satellite propulsion through coilgun launching machine. The projectile is placed in between the coil of wires, alternate excitation of the coils will propels the projectile forward, and this is the principle of the EML-coilgun launching machine. By building this coilgun machine along the mountain the rockets can be launched wit more efficiency. The payload to mass ratio in the conventional fuel rockets is about 1:100 but by using EML the ratio is increased to 10:100. Further for launching 1Kg of payload to space it costs 20,000$ it can be decreased to 10$ using EML. Over-night delivery of small packages to the space station, launch of station-keeping fuel and other supplies for the space station, and launch of low-altitude, rapid-response military sensors or environmental monitors, military missiles can be launched with quick and minimum preparation. The application of this launching machine is in various fields. In this paper we have concentrated in the satellite launching using EML. The rockets have to be redesigned to withstand 1000Kilogees of gravitational force. The main advantage of using this machine is it replaces the initial huge fuel boosters used in the conventional rockets. The challenges the rocket (projectile) should be faced are thermal effect, air drag and high gravitational attack. While the power storage and the synchronized

distribution of power to the coils is also great challenge. This paper reveals the various ways to face these challenges.