FEATURES Voltage-to-Frequency
s Choice of Guaranteed Linearity: TC9401 ......................................................... 0.01% TC9400 ......................................................... 0.05% TC9402 ......................................................... 0.25% DC to 100 kHz (F/V) or 1Hz to 100kHz (V/F) Low Power Dissipation .......................... 27mW Typ Single/Dual Supply Operation ................................. + 8V to + 15V or ± 4V to ± 7.5V Gain Temperature Stability .......... ± 25 ppm/°C Typ Programmable Scale Factor


The TC9400/TC9401/TC9402 are low-cost voltage-tofrequency (V/F) converters utilizing low power CMOS technology. The converters accept a variable analog input signal and generate an output pulse train whose frequency is linearly proportional to the input voltage. The devices can also be used as highly-accurate frequency-to-voltage (F/V) converters, accepting virtually any input frequency waveform and providing a linearly-proportional voltage output. A complete V/F or F/V system only requires the addition of two capacitors, three resistors, and reference voltage.

2 3 4 5 6 7

s s s s s

s s Operation ........................................... DC to 100 kHz Choice of Guaranteed Linearity: TC9401 ......................................................... 0.02% TC9400 ......................................................... 0.05% TC9402 ......................................................... 0.25% Programmable Scale Factor

Part No. TC9400COD TC9400CPD TC9400EJD TC9401CPD TC9401EJD TC9402CPD TC9402EJD Linearity (V/F) 0.05% 0.05% 0.05% 0.01% 0.01% 0.25% 0.25% Package Temperature Range


s s s s s s s

µP Data Acquisition
13-Bit Analog-to-Digital Converters Analog Data Transmission and Recording Phase-Locked Loops Frequency Meters/Tachometer Motor Control FM Demodulation

14-Pin 0°C to +70°C SOIC (Narrow) 14-Pin 0°C to +70°C Plastic DIP 14-Pin – 40°C to +85°C CerDIP 14-Pin 0°C to +70°C Plastic DIP 14-Pin – 40°C to +85°C CerDIP 14-Pin 0°C to +70°C Plastic DIP 14-Pin – 40°C to +85°C CerDIP


TC9400 Integrator Capacitor Input Voltage RIN IIN Pulse Output Integrator OpAmp Threshold Detector One Shot

Reference Capacitor


Pulse/2 Output


Reference Voltage
TC9400/1/2-5 11/6/96



.. Protect devices from static discharge and static fields...... .......... These are stress ratings only and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. unless temperature range is specified (– 40°C to +85°C for E device.25 Unit % Full Scale % Full Scale Linearity 100 kHz — 0.........05 0........4 18 — µA µA Cycle V V µsec 3-288 TELCOM SEMICONDUCTOR........ TA = +25°C..........................08 — 0.......................................... unless otherwise specified.25 — 0...05 — 0........ 23V VREF – VSS ....................... 730mW 8-Pin SOIC .............................5 Gain Temperature Drift (Note 1) Gain Variance Zero Offset (Note 2) Zero Temperature Drift (Note 1) Analog Input IIN Full Scale IIN Overrange Response Time Digital Section VSAT @ IOL = 10mA VOUT Max – VOUT Common (Note 4) Pulse Frequency Output Width — — — — ± 25 ± 40 ± 10 – — — — — ± 25 ± 40 ± 10 — ± 10 ± 50 ± 25 ± 50 ± 10 ± 50 ± 25 ± 50 — ± 50 ± 100 ppm/°C Full Scale — ± 10 – % of Nominal — ± 20 ± 100 mV — ± 50 ± 100 µV/°C — — — — — — 10 — 2 0.VOLTAGE-TO-FREQUENCY/ FREQUENCY-TO-VOLTAGE CONVERTERS TC9400 TC9401 TC9402 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS* VDD – VSS ......10mA VOUT Max –VOUT Common ....... Exposure to Absolute Maximum Rating Conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.... +300°C *Static-sensitive device. VREF = – 5V....5V Storage Temperature Range .............2 — 3 — 50 — 0......................................... RBIAS = 100kΩ................................ +18V IIN ....1% Full Scale Logic "0" Output Voltage (Note 3) Voltage Range Between Output and Common TC9401 TC9400 TC9402 Min Typ Max Min Typ Max Min Typ Max — 0................. 800mW 8-Pin Plastic DIP .......... 0°C to +70°C E Device ........01 0.......004 0...............4 18 — — — — — — 10 — 2 0.................. VOLTAGE-TO-FREQUENCY Parameter Definition Accuracy Linearity 10 kHz Output Deviation From Straight Line Between Normalized Zero and Full-Scale Input Output Deviation From Straight Line Between Normalized Zero Reading and Full-Scale Input Variation in Gain A Due to Temperature Change Variation From Ideal Accuracy Correction at Zero Adjust for Zero Output When Input is Zero Variation in Zero Offset Due to Temperature Change Full-Scale Analog Input Current to Achieve Specified Accuracy Overrange Current Settling Time to 0............... INC.1 0...... 10 sec) ....2 — 3 — 50 — 0............... VGND = 0V..04 0.............4 18 — — — — — — — 10 — 2 0....25 0.... Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device..................................... – 40°C to +85°C Package Dissipation (TA ≤ 70°C) 8-Pin CerDIP ...... Unused devices must be stored in conductive material..... 0°C to +70°C for C device).2 — 3 — 50 — 0... VSS = – 5V......................... Full Scale = 10kHz. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS: VDD = +5V....470mW Lead Temperature (Soldering.....– 1............01 — 0..... – 65°C to +150°C Operating Temperature Range C Device .......................

5 6 — 3 –3 — — — 10 – 10 7.5 – 6 — 7.1V. IIN = 0.5 6 — 1. Full Temperature Range 6.4 — — 5 0. FREQUENCY-TO-VOLTAGE Parameter Definition Supply Current IDD Quiescent (Note 5) ISS Quiescent (Note 5) VDD Supply VSS Supply Reference Voltage VREF –VSS Accuracy Nonlinearity (Note 10) Current Required From Positive Supply During Operation Current Required From Negative Supply During Operation Operating Range of Positive Supply Operating Range of Negative Supply Range of Voltage Reference Input Deviation From Ideal Transfer Function as a Percentage Full-Scale Voltage Frequency Range for Specified Nonlinearity Voltage Required to Turn Threshold Detector On Voltage Required to Turn Threshold Detector Off Time Between Threshold Crossings Time Between Threshold Crossings 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TC9401 TC9400 TC9402 Min Typ Max Min Typ Max Min Typ Max Unit — — 4 –4 – 2.01 — 0. RBIAS = 100kΩ..5 6 — 3 10 – 10 7.5 – 7.5 4 — 7. VSS = – 5V. RL ≥ 2kΩ. Amp Out = 0V.5 – 6 — 7. Full temperature range. Not Tested.5 — Full temperature range. Not Tested 7.5 — — –3 4 — –4 — – 2. Guaranteed. IOUT = 10mA.5 10 — — — MΩ V kΩ Voltage Range of Op Amp Output for Specified Nonlinearity Resistive Loading at Output of Op Amp Current Required From Positive Supply During Operation Current Required From Negative Supply During Operation Operating Range of Positive Supply Operating Range of Negative Supply Range of Voltage Reference Input — 2 — VDD – 1 — 2 — — — VDD – 1 2 — — — 4 –4 – 2. 10Hz to 100kHz.25 mA mA V V V % Full Scale Hz – 1.5 1. INC.5 — 0. VIN = – 0.5 – 4 — – 7.5 – 7. . Full Scale = 10kHz. 0°C to +70°C for C device.02 – 2. IOUT = 10µA.5 — 0.5 – 6 – 1. VREF = – 5V. 10 — 100k 10 — 100k 10 — 100k 0. 3.4 — — — — VDD 0.5 — 1.5 µsec minimum negative pulse width.4 5 0.5 — — – 2.05 Input Frequency Range (Note 7 and 8) Frequency Input Positive Excursion Negative Excursion Minimum Positive Pulse Width (Note 8) Minimum Negative Pulse Width (Note 8) Input Impedance Analog Outputs Output Voltage (Note 9) Output Loading Supply Current IDD Quiescent (Note 10) ISS Quiescent (Note 10) VDD Supply VSS Supply Reference Voltage VREF –VSS NOTES: 1..) VDD = +5V. 3-289 8 TELCOM SEMICONDUCTOR. Guaranteed. VGND = 0.5 10 VDD – 1 — — — — — — — — — – 0.5 – 6 — – 1.4 — — — — 5 0.4 – 0.5 10 VDD –2 — — — 0. 2. 8.05 — 0.5 — mA mA V V V – 1. 9. unless otherwise specified.5 — – 7. 5µsec minimum positive pulse width and 0. 5. 4.4 — VDD –2 — V V µsec µsec – 2 – 0.02 0.5 4 — 7.5 — – 7. TA = +25°C.VOLTAGE-TO-FREQUENCY/ FREQUENCY-TO-VOLTAGE CONVERTERS TC9400 TC9401 TC9402 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS: (Cont. unless temperature range is specified – 40°C to +85°C for E device.5 0. Tested @ 10kΩ 10. Threshold Detect = 5V.5 — — — 4 –4 – 2.5 6 — 1. Full temperature range.5 – 4 — – 7. tR = tF = 20 nsec.

This open drain output will pulse LOW each time the Freq threshold detector limit is reached. Output transitions of this pin occur on the rising edge of pin 8. See text. . INC. Source connection for the open drain output FETs. No internal connection Positive power supply connection. This open drain output is a square wave at one half the frequency of the pulse output (pin 8). Frequency output. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Symbol IBIAS Zero Adj IIN VSS VREFOUT GND VREF Pulse Freq Out Output Common Freq/2 Out Threshold Detect Amplifier Out NC VDD Description This pin sets bias current in the TC9400. Connect to VSS through a 100 kΩ resistor. Analog ground. See text. Input to the threshold detector. This pin is the frequency input during F/V operation. Negative power supply voltage connection. typically – 5V. Output of the integrator amplifier. Reference capacitor connection. Low frequency adjustment input. See text. Input current connection for the V/F converter. The pulse rate is proportional to input voltage. typically – 5V. 3-290 TELCOM SEMICONDUCTOR.VOLTAGE-TO-FREQUENCY/ FREQUENCY-TO-VOLTAGE CONVERTERS TC9400 TC9401 TC9402 PIN CONFIGURATIONS 14-Pin Plastic DIP/CerDIP IBIAS 1 ZERO ADJ 2 IIN 3 VSS 4 VREF OUT 5 GND 6 VREF 7 TC9400 TC9401 TC9402 14 VDD 13 NC 12 AMPLIFIER OUT 11 THRESHOLD DETECTOR 10 FREQ/2 OUT 9 8 OUTPUT COMMON PULSE FREQ OUT V REF V 14-Pin SOIC (Narrow) IBIAS ZERO ADJ I IN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TC9400 TC9401 TC9402 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 VDD NC AMPLIFIER OUT THRESHOLD DETECTOR FREQ/2 OUT OUTPUT COMMON PULSE FREQ OUT SS OUT GND V REF NC = NO INTERNAL CONNECTION PIN DESCRIPTIONS Pin No. Voltage reference input. typically +5V.

which causes the output frequency to also increase. 3-291 8 . This dissipates the charge stored on the reference capacitor. The pulse must simply be long enough for full charge transfer to take place.VOLTAGE-TO-FREQUENCY/ FREQUENCY-TO-VOLTAGE CONVERTERS TC9400 TC9401 TC9402 +5V +5V 14 VDD 11 THRESHOLD DETECT fOUT 8 3µsec DELAY +5V THRESHOLD DETECTOR RL 10kΩ RL 10kΩ 1 2 3 4 fOUT/2 10 SELFSTART –3V 12 AMP OUT VREF OUT 20kΩ CREF 180pF 3 IIN ZERO ADJUST 12pF 60pF – OpAmp + IBIAS 10kΩ 1 RBIAS 100kΩ REFERENCE VOLTAGE (TYPICALLY –5V) –5V VSS 4 VREF 7 GND 6 TC9400 TC9401 TC9402 ÷2 OUTPUT COMMON 9 5 CINT 820pF INPUT VIN 0V –10V 50kΩ –5V OFFSET ADJUST +5V 510kΩ 2 RIN 1MΩ 5 6 7 Figure 1. As the input voltage is increased. 10 Hz to 10 kHz V/F Converter VOLTAGE-TO-FREQUENCY (V/F) CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION The TC9400 V/F converter operates on the principal of charge balancing. The lower limit of the output swing is set by the threshold detector. Since each charge increment is fixed. CREF is shorted out. The operation of the TC9400 is easily understood by referring to Figure 1. so that when the output again crosses zero the system is ready to recycle. which causes the reference voltage to be applied to the reference capacitor for a time period long enough to charge the capacitor to the reference voltage. In addition. This action reduces the charge on the integrating capacitor by a fixed amount (q = CREF × VREF). The input voltage (VIN) is converted to a current (IIN) by the input resistor. the increase in frequency with voltage is linear. At the end of the charging period. the number of reference pulses required to maintain balance increases. INC. the accuracy of the output pulse width does not directly affect the linearity of the V/F. causing the op amp output to step up a finite amount. In this manner. TELCOM SEMICONDUCTOR. This current is then converted to a charge on the integrating capacitor and shows up as a linearly decreasing voltage at the output of the op amp. the continued discharging of the integrating capacitor by the input is balanced out by fixed charges from the reference voltage.

during power-on. The op-amp output will continue to decrease until it crosses the –3. Also. set VIN = 10V and adjust RIN or VREF for 10 kHz output. change CREF to 2pF and CINT to 75pF. In the event that. for example. this input is connected to the amplifier output (pin 12) and triggers a 3 µsec pulse when the input voltage passes through its threshold. To adjust fMIN. use high-stability components for RIN. For high-performance applications. the Op Amp output is below the threshold and CREF is already charged. separate output ground (pin 9) from input ground (pin 6). set VIN = 10mV and adjust the 50kΩ offset for 10Hz output. 0V CREF CINT Figure 2 .VOLTAGE-TO-FREQUENCY/ FREQUENCY-TO-VOLTAGE CONVERTERS TC9400 TC9401 TC9402 3 µsec TYP fOUT fOUT/2 1/f VREF AMP OUT NOTES: 1. TELCOM SEMICONDUCTOR. CMOS. which determines the frequency. because the threshold only sets the lower limit of the op-amp output. The open-drain N-channel output FETs provide high voltage and high current sink capability. The TC9400 utilizes low power CMOS processing for low input bias and offset currents with very low power dissipation. When this happens. Some microcomputers. which forces the output to go positive until the TC9400 is in its normal operating mode. CMOS.0V threshold of the "self-start" comparator. 4. 3. 2. so Freq/2 is a symmetrical square wave at one half the pulse output frequency. In the F/V mode. This output requires a pull-up resistor and interfaces directly with MOS. the response time of a time domain measurement is only the period between two output pulses. Also. 3-292 Pulse Freq Out This output is an open-drain N-channel FET which provides a pulse waveform whose frequency is proportional to the input voltage. is only influenced by external capacitors and by VREF. The TC9400's charge balancing V/F technique is not dependent on a precision comparator threshold. The Freq/2 output changes state on the rising edge of Pulse Freq Out. an internal resistor is connected to the op-amp input. or while Freq/2 is high (or low). PIN FUNCTIONS Threshold Detector Input In the V/F mode. To adjust fMAX. Timing measurements can therefore be made between successive Pulse Freq Out pulses. . INC. Output Waveforms The TC9400 contains a "self-start" circuit to ensure the V/F converter always operates properly when power is first applied. The Freq/2 output will change state on the rising edge of Pulse Freq Out. The op-amp's peak-to-peak output swing. while the frequency measurement must accumulate pulses during the entire counter timebase period. To increase fOUT MAX to 100kHz. the input frequency is applied to this input. have extensive timing capability but limited counter capability. a positive voltage step will not occur. VREF (metal film resistors and glass capacitors). The nominal threshold of the detector is halfway between the power supplies. This output requires a pullup resistor and interfaces directly with MOS. Freq/2 Out This output is an open-drain N-channel FET which provides a square wave one-half the frequency of the pulse frequency output. and TTL logic. VOLTAGE-TO-TIME MEASUREMENTS The TC9400 output can be measured in the time domain as well as the frequency domain. Time measurements can be made from either the TC9400's Pulse Freq Out output or from the Freq/2 output. CREF. and TTL logic. or (VDD + VSS)/2 ±400mV.

which will typically produce a maximum full scale frequency of 500kHz.1µF bypass capacitor should be connected from VREF to ground. equal to VREF x CREF. RIN External Component Selection The value of this component is chosen to give a fullscale input current of approximately 10µA: RIN ≅ VIN Full Scale . Voltage sources cannot be attached directly. A 0. Increasing the maximum frequency of the TC9400 beyond 100kHz is limited by the pulse width of the Pulse Output (typically 3µsec). Specifications for the TC9400 are based on RBIAS = 100kΩ ±10%. Note that the value is an approximation and the exact relationship is defined by the transfer equation. INC. the value of RIN typically would be trimmed to obtain fullscale frequency at VIN full scale (see "Adjustment Procedure"). V/F CONVERTER DESIGN INFORMATION Input/Output Relationships The output frequency (fOUT) is related to the analog input voltage (VIN) by the transfer equation: Frequency out = VIN 1 × RIN (VREF) (CREF) Amplifier Out The output stage of the operational amplifier. VREF A reference voltage from either a precision source or the VSS supply is applied to this pin. Locate as close as possible to pins 12 and 13. connected to VSS. Accuracy of the TC9400 is dependent on the voltage regulation and temperature characteristics of the reference circuitry. the reference current will be equal to the input current. although mica and ceramic devices can be used in applications where their temperature limits are not exceeded. The low-frequency set point is determined by adjusting the voltage at this pin. sets the bias point for the TC9400. CINT The exact value is not critical but is related to CREF by the relationship: 3CREF ≤ CINT ≤ 10 CREF. 8 3-293 . a voltage proportional to the frequency input is generated. IIN connects the summing junction of an operational amplifier. An input current of 10µA is specified. a reference impedance of 200Ω or less is recommended. RBIAS can be reduced to 20kΩ. For linearity of 0. this pin is internally connected to the reference voltage and a charge. Reducing RBIAS will decrease the pulse width and increase the maximum operating frequency. After about 3 µsec.01%. For this reason. Metal film resistors with 1% tolerance or better are recommended for high-accuracy applications because of their thermal stability and low-noise generation. IIN The inverting input of the operational amplifier and the summing junction when connected in the V/F mode. When the op amp output reaches the threshold level. In the F/V mode. is removed from the integrator capacitor. 10µA Zero Adjust This pin is the noninverting input of the operational amplifier. Since the TC9400 is a charge balancing V/F converter. During V/F operation. Low-leakage types are recommended. this pin is internally connected to the summing junction of the op amp to discharge CREF. 1 VREF Out The charging current for CREF is supplied through this pin. unless otherwise noted. a negative-going ramp signal is available at this pin. An output level swing from the drain voltage to ground or to the VSS supply may be obtained by connecting this pin to the appropriate point. but linearity errors will also increase.VOLTAGE-TO-FREQUENCY/ FREQUENCY-TO-VOLTAGE CONVERTERS TC9400 TC9401 TC9402 Output Common The sources of both the Freq/2 out and the Pulse Freq Out are connected to this pin. but must be buffered by external resistors. but an overrange current up to 50µA can be used without detrimental effect to the circuit operation. TELCOM SEMICONDUCTOR. 2 3 4 5 6 7 RBIAS An external resistor. the DC impedance of the reference voltage source must be kept low enough to prevent linearity errors. 10µA Example: RIN ≅ 10V = 1MΩ. Break-before-make switching ensures that the reference voltage is not directly applied to the summing junction. Improved stability and linearity are obtained when CINT ≤ 4CREF. In practice.

so the output impedance and temperature coefficient of the Zeners will directly affect power supply rejection and temperature performance. Trimming the reference voltage is not recommended for high accuracy applications unless an op amp is used as a buffer. TTL or 5V CMOS logic can be accommodated by connecting the output pullup resistors to the +5V supply. because the TC9400 requires a low impedance reference (see the VREF pin description section for more information). An optoisolator can also be used if an isolated output is required. This circuit uses two Zener diodes to set stable biasing levels for the TC9400. VREF. If adjustments are performed in this order. Full scale adjustment is accomplished by trimming the input current. VDD. For highaccuracy requirements. there should be no interaction and they should not have to be repeated.1µF disc decoupling capacitors located near the pins are recommended. (2) Set VIN to 10V and trim either RIN. The Zener diodes also provide the reference voltage. Glass film or air trimmer capacitors are recommended because of their stability and low leakage. Adjustment Procedure Figure 1 shows a circuit for trimming the zero location. The circuit of Figure 5 will directly interface with CMOS logic operating at 12V to 15V. . Improved Single Supply V/F Converter Operation A TC9400 which operates from a single 12 to 15V variable power source is shown in Figure 5. Recommended CREF vs VREF 3-294 TELCOM SEMICONDUCTOR. Full scale may be trimmed by adjusting RIN.05% line and load regulation and 0. 0. 500 VDD = +5V VSS = – 5V RIN = 1MΩ VIN = +10V TA = +25°C 1 kHz 200 400 CREF (pF) +12pF 300 100 100kHz 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 VREF (V) –5 –6 –7 Figure 3. Recommended procedure for a 10kHz full-scale frequency is as follows: (1) Set VIN to 10 mV and trim the zero adjust circuit to obtain a 10Hz output frequency. or CREF to obtain a 10kHz output frequency. or CREF. INC. VSS Power supplies of ±5V are recommended. Locate as close as possible to pins 5 and 3.VOLTAGE-TO-FREQUENCY/ FREQUENCY-TO-VOLTAGE CONVERTERS TC9400 TC9401 TC9402 CREF The exact value is not critical and may be used to trim the full-scale frequency (see "Input/Output Relationships"). VREF.

1 kHz 10 kHz 100 kHz CREF 2200pF 180pF 27pF CINT 4700pF 470pF 75pF Figure 5.01 µF 14 2 6 8 7 VREF 11 0.9 R1+0. Voltage to Frequency 3-295 8 TELCOM SEMICONDUCTOR.2 R1) Figure 4 .2k* 14 VDD 11 THRESHOLD DETECT 12 AMP OUT CREF 5 CREF TC9400 5 10k 10k 1µF R1 910k R3 GAIN R4 100k CINT D2 5.2 kΩ 2 kΩ OFFSET ADJUST RIN 1MΩ VIN 0V–10V 0.1VZ 6 7 100k R2 910k R5 91k D1 5.1VZ 3 IIN 2 ZERO ADJUST 6 GND 0.1µ 7 V REF 1 I BIAS 100k fOUT 8 10 OUTPUT FREQUENCY fOUT/2 OUTPUT 9 COMMON INPUT VOLTAGE (0 to 10V) Rp OFFSET 20k ANALOG GROUND VSS 4 DIGITAL GROUND COMPONENT SELECTION F/S FREQ.4 MΩ 14kΩ 15V 2 MΩ 20kΩ fOUT = IIN × 1 (V2–V7) (CREF) (VIN–V2) (V+–V2) + IIN= RIN (0. .9 R1 GAIN ADJUST 5V 8. INC.VOLTAGE-TO-FREQUENCY/ FREQUENCY-TO-VOLTAGE CONVERTERS TC9400 TC9401 TC9402 V+ = 8V TO 15V (FIXED) 1 R2 0. Fixed Voltage — Single Supply Operation +12 to +15V 1.2 R1 820 pF 2 10kΩ fOUT 10kΩ fOUT/2 V2 0.01 µF 12 5 180 pF 3 IIN IIN 100 kΩ 1 4 9 TC9400 10 3 4 R1 R2 V+ 10V 1 MΩ 10kΩ 12V 1.

F/V CONVERTER DESIGN INFORMATION Input/Output Relationships The output voltage is related to the input frequency (fIN) by the transfer equation: VOUT = [VREF CREF RINT] fIN.VOLTAGE-TO-FREQUENCY/ FREQUENCY-TO-VOLTAGE CONVERTERS TC9400 TC9401 TC9402 FREQUENCY-TO-VOLTAGE (F/V) CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION When used as an F/V converter. The amount of ripple on VOUT is inversely proportional to CINT and the input frequency. Input Voltage Levels The input frequency is applied to the Threshold Detector input (Pin 11). The resistor divider ensures that the input threshold will track the supply voltages. generating voltage pulses at the output of the op amp.5 V below the threshold. then an AC coupled level shifter should be used. INC.0M DET Frequency Input +5V 0V 33k 0. VREF is defined as the voltage difference between pin 7 and pin 2. such as TTL or CMOS operating from a +5V source. the V/F mode startup comparator will turn on and corrupt the output voltage. The response time to a change in fIN is equal to (RINT CINT).5 volts below the threshold. The Threshold Detector input has about 200 mV of hysteresis. A capacitor (CINT) across RINT averages these pulses into a DC voltage which is linearly proportional to the input frequency. In ±5 V applications. Values of 1µF to 100µF are perfectly acceptable for low frequencies.0M DET GND 6 VSS 4 –5V 0. the input voltage levels for the TC9400 are ±400mV. The diode's forward voltage decreases by 2. When the TC9400 is used in the single-supply mode. If the frequency source being measured is unipolar. minimum. This charge in turn flows through the feedback resistor. Each zero crossing at the threshold detector's input causes a precise amount of charge (q = CREF × VREF) to be dispensed into the op amp's summing junction. One such circuit is shown in Figure 6a. Pin 11's input voltage range extends from VDD to about 2.1µF 10k VSS 4 (A) ±5V Supply Figure 6. The diode clamp prevents the input from going far enough in the negative direction to turn on the startup comparator. +5V 14 VDD +8V to +5V 14 VDD 10k Frequency Input +5V 0V 33k 0.1 mV/°C. the threshold of pin 11 is approximately (VDD + VSS) /2 ±400mV.01µF TC9400 11 IN914 1. . 3-296 Frequency Input Level Shifter (B) Single Supply TELCOM SEMICONDUCTOR. If the voltage on pin 11 goes more than 2.01µF TC9400 11 IN914 1. so for high ambient temperature operation two diodes in series are recommended. The level shifter circuit in Figure 6b can be used in single supply F/V applications. the TC9400 generates an output voltage linearly proportional to the input frequency waveform. CINT can be increased to lower the ripple. As discussed in the V/F circuit section of this data sheet.

fOUT will follow the input frequency waveform. fOUT/2 will be squarewave with a frequency of one-half fOUT.5µsec MIN 5. Figure 8 . 9 and 10 should be connected to ground. PAGE 12 CINT 1000pF VO 4 5 6 7 + AMP OUT 12 Figure 7. Then. DC — 10 kHz F/V Converter Input Buffer 0. F/V Digital Outputs 8 3-297 TELCOM SEMICONDUCTOR. except that fOUT will go high 3µsec after fIN goes high.VOLTAGE-TO-FREQUENCY/ FREQUENCY-TO-VOLTAGE CONVERTERS TC9400 TC9401 TC9402 1 +5V V+ 14 VDD TC9400A TC9401A TC9402A 2 fOUT/2 10 V+ * 2 3 * OUTPUT COMMON 9 * THRESHOLD DETECT 11 fIN SEE FIGURE 6 3 µsec DELAY THRESHOLD DETECTOR fOUT 8 * OPTIONAL IF BUFFER IS NEEDED VREF OUT 5 12pF OFFSET ADJUST +5V 100kΩ 2 kΩ 2.0µsec MIN INPUT fOUT DELAY = 3µsec fOUT/2 fOUT and fOUT/2 are not used in the F/V mode. these outputs may be useful for some applications. . If these outputs are not used. INC.2kΩ 2 ZERO ADJUST IBIAS 1 10 kΩ –5V VREF (TYPICALLY –5V) VSS 4 VREF 7 IIN 3 60pF – OP AMP + GND 6 RINT 1 MΩ CREF 56 pF SEE EQUATION. such as a buffer to feed additional circuitry. However. pins 8.

The ripple can also be reduced by increasing the value of the integrating capacitor.0M IBIAS VREF VSS 7 4 0.001µF VOUT 500k 100k Offset Adjust Frequency Input 33k 0. VREFOUT 5 47pF IIN 3 TC9400 1M AMP OUT 12 .01µF GND 6 2 3 1M 1M +5 0. INC. A moderately fast op amp.01µF 10k 14 VDD TC9400 2 ZERO ADJUST VREFOUT IIN 5 47pF 3 1M . Figure 9. The circuit is a capacitance multiplier. F/V Single Supply F/V Converter Output Filtering The output of the TC9400 has a sawtooth ripple superimposed on a DC level. such as the TC7107 or TC7109. which is at 6.2V . The ripple will be rejected if the TC9400 output is converted to a digital value by an integrating analog to digital converter. For frequency meter applications. should be used. . a 1 mA meter with a series-scaling resistor can be placed across pins 6 and 12. The sawtooth ripple on the output of an F/V can be eliminated without affecting the F/V's response time by using the circuit in Figure 10.01µF V+ 1.VOLTAGE-TO-FREQUENCY/ FREQUENCY-TO-VOLTAGE CONVERTERS TC9400 TC9401 TC9402 V+ = 10V to 15V 10k 6 GND 6. where the output coupling capacitor is multiplied by the AC gain of the op amp.001µF 200 . 3-298 Ripple Filter TELCOM SEMICONDUCTOR.1µF 1.0k 11 DET AMP OUT 12 GND 6 IN914 1. such as the TL071.1µF VOUT TL071 – 7 6 + 4 –5 Figure 10.2V (Vz).0k 100k Note: The output is referenced to pin 6. although this will reduce the response time of the F/V converter.

Where predictable power-on operation is critical. may be required. however. Power-On Operation/Reset 6 7 8 TELCOM SEMICONDUCTOR. the TC9400 output must be zero at power-on without a frequency input. 1 2 3 4 VDD 14 1000pF 1kΩ fIN 11 THRESHOLD DETECTOR (A) TC9400 VDD (B) 16 3 100kΩ 4 1µF A VSS 8 fIN VCC CLRA 5 B 2 R 1 C 5 Q 6 To TC 9400 CD4538 Figure 11. a more complicated circuit. In some cases. In most frequency-measurement applications this is not a problem. such as Figure 11B.VOLTAGE-TO-FREQUENCY/ FREQUENCY-TO-VOLTAGE CONVERTERS TC9400 TC9401 TC9402 F/V POWER-ON RESET In F/V mode. This condition remains until the first pulse is applied to fIN. because proper operation begins as soon as the frequency input is applied. the TC9400 output voltage will occasionally be at its maximum value when power is first applied. a capacitor connected from pin 11 to VDD will usually be sufficient to pulse the TC9400 and provide a power-on reset (see Figure 11A). In such cases. INC. 3-299 .

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