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# Vehicle Dynamics and Robot Vehicles

## Jim Van de Ven February 16, 2005

Unless otherwise noted, all images from: Gillespie, Thomas D. Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics

Outline
Background Robotic Vehicles Vehicle Dynamics Basics Two Wheel (Bicycle) Model Stability Steering Control System

Background Information
MTS Systems Vehicle Dynamics Division SAE Mini-Baja Formula SAE Mini-Indy Legend Air Suspension Arctic Cat Snowmobiles Robotic Vehicles Other

## Picture From: http://www.legend-airride.com

Robot Vehicles
What Distinguishes a Robot? Autonomous? Intelligent Mechanism? Useful Task?
Segway Cadillac Night Vision System Kodiak- Univ of Alberta

## Robot Vehicle Examples

Scout Developed by Univ of MN, MTS, Honeywell, and ATC
Video From: http://distrob.cs.umn.edu/scout.php

## Robot Vehicle Examples

Soccer Segway Carnegie Mellon Univ

## Robot Vehicle Examples

Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition
Collegiate Competition: June 11-13, 2005 Traverse City, MI

## Two Wheel (Bicycle) Model

Low Speed Turning R= L/ (for small )

## Two Wheel (Bicycle) Model

High Speed Cornering

Tires Slip During All Cornering Center of Turn Dictated by Front vs. Rear Slip

## Tire Slip Angle

Difference Between Direction of Travel and Direction the Wheel is Pointing Torsional Spring- Hand on Table Example

## Tire Slip Angle

Tire Model
Tires Behavior is Not Linear Camber Creates Lateral Force

Camber Thrust

## Stability- Oversteer (Loose)

Rear Lateral Traction Exceeded Vehicle Enters a Spin Completely Unstable Above Critical Speed

Oversteer Video

## Critical Speed- Equations

WF<WR r L WF WR = = - K * V 2 K= =Neg CF CR 1+ =0 57.3 * L * g
V

r=Yaw Rate (deg/sec) =Steer Angle (deg) V=Velocity (ft/sec) L=Wheelbase (ft) K=Understeer Gradient (deg/g) C=Tire Cornering Stiffness (lb/deg) W=Weight (lb)

Understeer (Push)
Front Lateral Traction Exceeded Vehicle Slides Straight Most Production Vehicles are Understeer

Understeer Video

Stability Examples
Shopping Cart
Push Forwards Understeer Push Backwards Oversteer (No Rear Lateral Force)

## Pulling Emergency Brake

Oversteer (Low Lateral Force of Sliding Rear Tires)

Bicycle Model
Inherent Downfalls: Lateral Weight Transfer Steering Geometry Camber and Roll Center Motorcycle Camber Force

4 Wheel Model
Turning Radius Ackerman Steering: Ideal Steering Geometry
Inner Tire Turns More than Outer Tire Perpendicular Bisectors Meet

Suspensions Tuning Oversteer/Understeer Roll Centers Camber Change Acceleration/Deceleration Transient Behavior Active Suspensions Aerodynamics Tire Behavior

## Open-Loop Transfer Function

Physical System Free Body Diagrams Governing Equations Laplace Transform Solve Simultaneously

## Closed-Loop Block Diagram

U(s) G(s) H(s) Y(s)

## Closed Loop Transfer Function:

Y ( s) G (s) = U (s) 1 + G (s) H (s)

P, D, and I Control
Proportional Control: Decreases Rise Time Derivative Control: Decreases Overshoot Integral Control: Minimizes St-St Error

## P, PD, PI, PID Controllers

U(s) Controller G(s) Y(s)
1 Open Loop: s 2 + 4s + 3 KP P: s 2 + 4s + 3 + K P

## PD: PI: PID:

KDs + KP s 2 + (4 + K D ) s + 3 + K P KPs + KI s 2 + 4 s + (3 + K P ) s + K I
KDs2 + KPs + KI s 3 + (4 + K D ) s 2 + (3 + K P ) s + K I