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Vehicle Dynamics and Robot Vehicles

Jim Van de Ven February 16, 2005

Unless otherwise noted, all images from: Gillespie, Thomas D. Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics

Outline
Background Robotic Vehicles Vehicle Dynamics Basics Two Wheel (Bicycle) Model Stability Steering Control System

Background Information
MTS Systems Vehicle Dynamics Division SAE Mini-Baja Formula SAE Mini-Indy Legend Air Suspension Arctic Cat Snowmobiles Robotic Vehicles Other

Picture From: http://www.legend-airride.com

Robot Vehicles
What Distinguishes a Robot? Autonomous? Intelligent Mechanism? Useful Task?
Segway Cadillac Night Vision System Kodiak- Univ of Alberta

Robot Vehicle Examples


Scout Developed by Univ of MN, MTS, Honeywell, and ATC
Video From: http://distrob.cs.umn.edu/scout.php

Robot Vehicle Examples


Soccer Segway Carnegie Mellon Univ

Video From: ftp://brim.coral.cs.cmu.edu/pub/ro bot/segway/movies/index.html

Robot Vehicle Examples


Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition
Collegiate Competition: June 11-13, 2005 Traverse City, MI

Picture From: http://www.igvc.org/deploy/

Two Wheel (Bicycle) Model


Low Speed Turning R= L/ (for small )

Two Wheel (Bicycle) Model


High Speed Cornering

Tires Slip During All Cornering Center of Turn Dictated by Front vs. Rear Slip

Tire Slip Angle


Difference Between Direction of Travel and Direction the Wheel is Pointing Torsional Spring- Hand on Table Example

Tire Slip Angle

Tire Model
Tires Behavior is Not Linear Camber Creates Lateral Force

Camber Thrust
Camber: Angle of Tire Lean From Vertical Examples: Motorcycle Road Grader Tracking Grooves in Road

Picture From: http://www.caterpillar.com

Picture From: http://www.motorcyclesafety.state.mn.us

Stability- Oversteer (Loose)

Rear Lateral Traction Exceeded Vehicle Enters a Spin Completely Unstable Above Critical Speed

Oversteer Video

Video From: http://www.esceducation.org/about_esc/how_esc_works/

Critical Speed- Equations


WF<WR r L WF WR = = - K * V 2 K= =Neg CF CR 1+ =0 57.3 * L * g
V

r=Yaw Rate (deg/sec) =Steer Angle (deg) V=Velocity (ft/sec) L=Wheelbase (ft) K=Understeer Gradient (deg/g) C=Tire Cornering Stiffness (lb/deg) W=Weight (lb)

Understeer (Push)
Front Lateral Traction Exceeded Vehicle Slides Straight Most Production Vehicles are Understeer

Understeer Video

Video From: http://www.esceducation.org/about_esc/how_esc_works/

Stability Examples
Shopping Cart
Push Forwards Understeer Push Backwards Oversteer (No Rear Lateral Force)

Pulling Emergency Brake


Oversteer (Low Lateral Force of Sliding Rear Tires)

Bicycle Model
Inherent Downfalls: Lateral Weight Transfer Steering Geometry Camber and Roll Center Motorcycle Camber Force

4 Wheel Model
Turning Radius Ackerman Steering: Ideal Steering Geometry
Inner Tire Turns More than Outer Tire Perpendicular Bisectors Meet

More Advanced Dynamics


Suspensions Tuning Oversteer/Understeer Roll Centers Camber Change Acceleration/Deceleration Transient Behavior Active Suspensions Aerodynamics Tire Behavior

Steering Control System

Open-Loop Transfer Function


Physical System Free Body Diagrams Governing Equations Laplace Transform Solve Simultaneously

Graph From: http://www.ee.usyd.edu.au/tutorials_online/matlab/examples/motor/motor.html

Closed-Loop Block Diagram


U(s) G(s) H(s) Y(s)

Closed Loop Transfer Function:


Y ( s) G (s) = U (s) 1 + G (s) H (s)

P, D, and I Control
Proportional Control: Decreases Rise Time Derivative Control: Decreases Overshoot Integral Control: Minimizes St-St Error

Graph From: http://web.mit.edu/2.003/www/extra_files/trans.pdf

P, PD, PI, PID Controllers


U(s) Controller G(s) Y(s)
1 Open Loop: s 2 + 4s + 3 KP P: s 2 + 4s + 3 + K P

PD: PI: PID:

KDs + KP s 2 + (4 + K D ) s + 3 + K P KPs + KI s 2 + 4 s + (3 + K P ) s + K I
KDs2 + KPs + KI s 3 + (4 + K D ) s 2 + (3 + K P ) s + K I

Matlab Controller Tuning