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after the success of the insurgents on of Ambelis, a numerous armed force was sent the field against them by the government, which achieved 1 The revolution might victory near Mataquescuintla. have ended here but for the excesses of the govern ment troops, which roused the Indians, and rendered 2 reconciliation impossible. Henceforth the war was one of races. Carrera, upheld as he was by the

ONLY a week

found no difficulty, in his visits from village to induce the native population to join the revolt, which, notwithstanding the triumphant lan guage of the military officers in their reports calling the rebels cowards and themselves intrepid and invillage, to


his victory,

the 15th of June. Marure, Efem., 41. Gen. Carrascosa s report of with details, in Montufar, Resena Hist., ii. 356-9. Among the sufferers was Carrera s wife, which circumstance, it is said,

him an implacable hatred. Stephens Cent. Am., i. 226; Crowe s Montgomery, Guat., 144, states that Carrera was then command a few men of the military cordon established because of the epidemic, ing which he induced to rebel.
in Gospel, 142.




was fast spreading. Carefully avoiding encounters with the regular army, Carrera succeeded in getting together a large force, which, though raw and undisciplined, often surprised and defeated detach ments of the regulars, seeking a refuge when pursued 3 in the inaccessible mountain fastnesses. To make matters worse, the departments of Sacatepequez, Chiquimula, and Salamd declared them selves independent of the government, and the rebels of the first district, 4 concentrating at La Antigua, In the latter place threatened to attack the capital. a division had occurred in the liberal party, 5 some of whose members from this time sided with the serviles; which circumstance made it more difficult to place the city of Guatemala in a proper state of defence. 6 mutiny of the federal troops in the city increased the danger, but it soon was quelled with the execution of the ringleader. On the 27th of January, 183S/ Galvez despatched the vice-president, Jose Gregori Salazar, and the secretary of relations, Miguel Al varez, as commissioners, to confer with General Carrascosa, the commander of the rebel forces, and bring about an amicable arrangement. The commissioners O 8 a convention containing the ssigned at Guarda Viejo



8 The hostilities now carried on partook more of the character of highwa j robbery than of orthodox war, both parties being plundered; but the liberals, were the greater sufferers.

The provisional government constituted at La Antigua placed itself under the protection of the federal authorities. Marure, Ej em., 42. 6 The division was created by Jos6 Francisco Barrundia. It is said that he joined the discontented because the jefe Galvez refused him a high office But looking over the for one of his relatives. Stephens Cent. Am., i. 227. the conclusion is correspondence that passed between them in June 18. Barruudia op that the cause of the disagreement was not a personal one. posed the convocation of the assembly to an extra session, and all the decrees c-nacted by it. The correspondence produced much sensation. Galvez ended accusing Barrundia of having adopted, when he was president of the repub The most serious lic, some measures similar to those he had now censured. charge against Barrundia was his persecution of Padre Rojas, to which the fonn.T answered that the priest had been at the head of the insurgents who proclaimed the Spanish domination on the Atlantic coast, and though out lawed for that offence, was not executed. Afontufar, Eesena Hist., ii. 377-407. c The battalion LaConcordia mutinied on the 2Gth of January. 7 Stephens, loc. cit., places these events in February, but he is evidently mistaken. Marure, Efem., 43, gives the 29th of Jan. as the date.





M. of Jan. 28, 1838. Id.,





following stipulations: 1st, resignation of Galvez; occupation of the capital by the forces of Sacatepequez; 3d, the forces in the capital to go out, and place themselves under the orders of General Morazan; 4th, the forces of Sacatepequez to guarantee the persons and property of all; 5th, the commissioners would arrange the manner of evacuating the city; Gth, upon the ratification of these clauses, they were to be car ried out within twenty-four hours. Nothing was 9 done, however, and after four hours waiting, Carrascosa continued his march toward the gate of Buenavista, where he met the O government commissioners, who assured him, with great mortification, that the convention had not been ratified. 10 Sacatepequez force, 800 strong, entered the capital during the night of the 29th of January, from the Calvario side, reaching the plazuela de San Francisco, The roar afterward known as plaza de la Concordia. of artillery apprised the inhabitants at 1 o clock in the morning that the struggle had begun. Generals Prem and Gorris, colonels Yanez, Arias, Mariscal, Cerda, and C6rdoba, and the other officers of the Their troops, though garrison, made a stout defence. inferior in number, were for their discipline more effi

than their assailants, who were mostly raw It was quite evident that Carrascosa and his colleague Carballo would waste their efforts unless O But the opponents of they were strongly reenforced. Galvez were resolved to depose him, 11 even if they had to make use of Carrera to accomplish their pur It was a fatal thought. pose. Jose F. Barrundia was authorized by President Mocient
Galvez well knew of the relations existing between Carrera and the revo lutionists of La Antigua. The convention of Guarda-Viejo would have saved the situation. Had the forces of the city, consisting of 411 men, been placed under Morazan, they with those of Sacatepequez would ha\T e been too strong for Carrera, and he would not have entertained the idea that a powerful party looked to him for aid. 10 Full details appear in Gen. Carrascosa s correspondence given in Montufar, fiesena Hist., ii. 589-97.
11 Among them were Miguel Garcia Granados, the brothers Arrivillaga, and their relations the Zepedas, together with the Barrundias.


Hisx. CENT. AM., VOL. III.




keep calm, else he might lose his life. He merely said that the arrangement needed some discussion, which might lead to the adoption of some amend ments. Duran had not worked to promote Barrundia s nor Molina s ideas, but his own interests. He that the matter had been well consid coolly replied ered, and admitted of no changes. Barrundia wrote Carrera, asking for an interview to explain Morazan s views, but Carrera appeared angry at the mention of Morazan s name, and declined the invitation, saying that the time for negotiations had

razan to enter into peaceable negotiations with Carrera, and the clergymen Jose Maria do Castilla, Manuel Maria Zecena, and Jose Vicente Orantes. Barrundia, together with Manuel Arrivillaga, started for the hacienda of La Vega to confer with Carrera; but at Ojo de Agua they ascertained that he was at Mataquescuintla, and declined to hold any conferences, and yet an arrangement with other opponents had been This document, which was signed at Santa Rosa. shown by Father Duran to Barrundia, stipulated the immediate coming of a bishop, the abolition of the code and of other liberal measures decreed by Barrun dia, and that Carrera should become the commander of the reform forces, or in other words, the arbiter of the country, which was what the clergy wanted. Barrundia was indignant, but he had to submit and

and that his march against Guatemala was in He became much mollified on receivir/ C3 from La Antigua a request for his cooperation/ 3 and was now satisfied that the fate of the country was in his own hands. Three days after Carrascosa s failure, Carrera

12 He was in all this affair guided by the priests. Barrundia was accused throughout Central America of having brought about Carrera s invasion of the The serviles, who were responsible for all Carrera s iniquities, have capital. endeavored to place some of the odium on that patriot, who had nothing to do with it* Indeed, had Barrundia gone to Carrera s headquarters, he would probably have been shot. Montu^ar, liesena Hist., ii. 573; Squier s Travels,


13 The chiefs of Sacatepequez had become convinced of their inability to take the city, or even to properly besiege it.



him with a numerous force of Indians, and after


fruitless negotiations, marched into the city on 14 1st of February, at the head of about 10,000

men, women, and children, the troops of the govern ment having retreated in an opposite direction. The result of this was that Galvez ceased to be the jefe of the state, and was succeeded by the vice-jefe, Pedro
Valenzuela. 15

The entry of Carrera s hordes into Guatemala might
Outlaws and robbers were the leaders; the soldiers were in rags, 18 and among equipped with a variety of arms, from the rusty musket down to clubs, and knives secured at the end of long poles, while others carried sticks shaped like
well create consternation.

muskets, with tin-plate locks. Conspicuous among the mass of followers were thousands of women hav ing bags to carry away the booty, and who gazed with amazement on the fine houses. 17 Shouting Viva la Mueran los extranjeros! the invaders en religion! tered the main plaza. After a few hours the work of 18 No regard was paid by Carrera and rapine began.
u Dunlop, Cent. Am., 198, and Crowe, Gospel, 143, erroneously say it was on the 30th of January. ^Marure, Efem., 43, places this event on the 2d of Feb., 1838. 16 Carrera himself is described as having on a pair of coarse frieze trousers, and a fine coat with gold embroidery belonging to Gen. Prem, which had been taken by Moureal. For a chapeau the new general wore a woman s hat with a green veil, the property of Preni s wife, who was known as La Colombiana. In lieu of decorations Carrera had on his breast a number of escapulariosdel Carmen, symbolizing the religion he had come to protect. Montu/ar, Resena,
Hint., ii. 574. 17 It seems that a large portion of the city before.

men and women had never

seen a

The physician Quirino


who belonged

to the opposition party,

and was an intimate friend of Carrascosa and Carballo, believing that hia house would be a place of safety, induced the vice-president and his family to use it. It so happened that a small force of Galvez entered the house, fired upon the invaders from the windows and retired. The men fired upon were not of the force from La Antigua, but some of Carrera s savage horde, called from that time cachurecos, who rushed into the house, fired upon the family, wound ing one of the women and a child, and killing Jose Gregorio Salazar, the viceSalazar was born in San Salvador in 793, and had two brothers, president. Carlos, the general, and Francisco, who as a captain was killed in action on the 23d of June, 1834. Jos6 Gregorio Salazar was one of the leaders in whom Morazan reposed the highest trust. As senator, president of the senate, jefe of Salvador, vice-president of the republic, and acting executive at such times as Morazan assumed personal command of ths troops, Salazar unswerv His portrait shows a fine and intelliingly supported progressive principles.




his hordes to the wishes of the vice-jefe Valenzuela, "who had asked that only the force from La Antigua

should occupy the plaza. The leader of the opposition urged Carrera to leave the city; but he manifested much indignation at such
a request, and several of his chiefs refused compliance. Carrera himself wanted to sack the city, 19 and it was In only with great effort that he was prevented. 20 lieu of pillage he was given $11,000, $10,000 for his troops and $1,000 for himself/ He was also flattered with the commission of lieutenant-colonel and the number of appointment of coinandante of Mita. those who had defended the city having voluntarily joined the Sacatepequez force, Carrascosa was now better able to meet emergencies. He at once, by order of the vice-jefe, made known to Carrera that the interests of the public service demanded that he should repair to Mita and take charge of the comanHe made no resistance, and went away dancia there. with his horde, 21 the inhabitants again breathing 22 Thus were the serviles balked freely for a time. once more. Carrera was sent away from Guatemala, Valenzuela remaining in charge of the state execu


tive. Morazan was at San Salvador recognized as the chief magistrate of the republic, and Vijil held the executive office of that gallant little state.
gent face. The murder of the vice-president, instead of calling for execration oa the part of the priests, Duran, Lobo, Nicolas Arellano, Antonio Gonzalez, and others, only brought out their diatribes against the victim. 570-9. 19 It was found at tirst difficult to elicit a satisfactory answer from him. The pillaging, though not officially decreed, had been carried on mostly in the houses of foreigners. Charles Savage, U. S. consul at Guatemala, has been highly praised for his intrepidity in protecting from the infuriated Indians

t lie


foreign residents Am., i. 233-4.


their property.





146; Stephen.*

There being no money in the treasury, it was borrowed from private persons. Stephens Cent. Am., i. 227 et seq., copied by Larenaudiere, Mexiet Guat., 298-9. The facts appear in the records of the asamblea. 21 Had he resisted, the reenforced troops of La Antigua would in all prob have defeated his undisciplined rabble. This would not have suited ability Father Duran and the other priests, who expected their own triumph through Carrera s success. Those same priests aided Barrundia and Valenzuela to rid the city of himself and his men. Montufar, Rcsena IJitt., ii. 584. 22 The priest who seemed to exercise the greatest influence on Carrera was named Lobo, a man of dissolute character, who always accompanied him as a sort of counsellor.


their menaces, creating no little alarm, which quieted on receipt of the tidings that Morazan


Carrera and his supporters continued, however,

was was

marching toward Guatemala with 1,500 men. On his arrival he found not only that the serviles had been deriving advantages from the disturbed political situation, but that the western departments of Los Altos, namely, Quezaltenango, Totonicapan, and Solold, had declared themselves, on the 2d of February, 23 a separate state under an independent government.

interfering with those arrangements, Mo razan endeavored to secure by peaceful means the submission of Carrera, or rather, the disbanding of his force; failing in which, he opened, on the 30th of March, the campaign against him. Three months of military operations ensued, the federal arms being victorious at every encounter, but without obtaining any definitive result, for the enemy defeated in one


place rallied in another, continually increasing in num 24 Morazan returned at last bers, and never crushed. to Guatemala, where in the mean time servile influence had become predominant. 25 The most strenuous ef

even to fulsome sycophancy, were used by the

Los Altos, Manif. Document., 1-28. The federal congress ratified the separation on the 5th of June, 1838; the departments were, however, reincorporated a year after. Marure, Efem., 43; Dunlop s Cent. Am., 193; AstaMontiifar, Restila Hixt., iii. 9-23, furnishes a buruaya, Cent. Am., 28. detailed account of the events preceding and following the separation. The then established was a triumvirate formed by Marcelo provisional government Molina, Jos6 M. Galvez, and Jose" A. Aguiiar. 24 Stephens, Cent. Am., i. 239-42, details some of the military movements, which are not of sufficient interest to reproduce here. Marure, Efem., 43-4, says that Morazan attacked the rebels on the hill of Mataquescuintla; pero
despues de tres meses de combates, marchas, contramarchas, y todo genero de maniobras, el ejercito de operaciones tiene que replegarse d la capital. .siu haberse adelantado nada en la paciticacion de aquellos pueblos. 25 0nthe 18th of June, 1838, thevice-jefe Valenzuela, and the deputies Pedro F. Barrundia, Bernardo Escobar, Pedro Amaya, Molina, Jos6 Gdndara, Felipe Molina, and Mariano Padilla, laid a paper before the federal congress on the war and its consequences. In this document they say, among other things, that it had been moved in the asamblea of Guatemala to authorize the restoration of the archbishop and of the religious orders, to abolish divorce, and to declare void the decrees of 1829, decretos que sostuvieron entonces la revolucion en favor de las instituciones They accuse the y de la libertad. serviles of perversely attempting to render the representatives of liberalism and progress hateful in the eyes of the ignorant populace. Montufar, Iteseua







win him to their side, 26 to accept the dictatorship.
serviles to


to prevail on


The president returned


few weeks later, on the 20th of quell a revolt. 1838, the eleventh and last federal congress of July, Central America, presided over by Basilio Porras,


July to San Salvador to





to bring


proved unavailing, and from this time the dismemberment of the republic made rapid prog
again into

Two days after the adjournment of congress, on the 22d, the state government of Guatemala was also dissolved, and was temporarily intrusted to the
federal authorities,

though the executive office finally was assumed by Mariano Rivera Paz, as president of the council, which satisfied the people, and peace was


unbroken, it being understood that a constituent assembly would be summoned at once. As soon as Morazan was at some distance from Guatemala on his way to Sari Salvador, Carrera, tho supposed beaten rebel leader, for whose capture a lib26 Arguments, cajolery, entertainments, and every other possible means were employed to induce him to swerve from the principles he had always Barrundia looked aghast on their proceedings, and describing them, upheld.

says it is imposible to realize el envilecimiento, la miseria ruin de este partido noble aristocrdtico. The haughty patricians, represented by Pavon, Batres, Aycinena, and their confreres, fawned at his feet, covered him with flowers, disgusted him with their flattery, feasted him to satiety, and patiently bore After their his contemptuous rebuffs as long as they hoped to win him over.
failure, sarcasm, ridicule,

and abuse were heaped upon him and his name. morals been equal to those of the serviles, he might have ac cepted the dictatorship, assumed the full powers, and then crushed them; but he was an honest man, who always acted in good faith. Id., 175-9. 27 On the 30th of May it passed an act declaring the states free to con stitute themselves as they might deem best, preserving, however, the popular This amendment to the 12th art. of the representative form of government. constitution of 1824 was accepted by all the states, excluding the restrictions contained in the federal decree of June 9, 1838, which was rejected by a The federal congress majority of the legislatures. Marure, Efem., 44-5. passed, on the 7th of July, 1838, an act as follows: The federated states of Cent. Am. are, and by right should be, sovereign, free, and independent po

Had Morazan


litical bodies.

was the spontaneous act the progress made by the rebels

Guat., Recop. Leye.s, i. 69. of the citizens of the capital, who, in view of of Mita, deemed it necessary to provide for their own safety. Valenzuela resigned, on the 23d, the executive office into the hands of the asamblea. Marure, Efem., 45; Alontufar, Reseiia Hist., iii. 181-5. Crowe, Gospel, 144, attributes to Morazan the authorship of the act adopted by the citizens.



began to show signs of a numerous force, with which, He gathered rallying. about the middle of August, he defeated the federal He then, troops, first at Jalapa and next at Petapa. of La Antigua, a portion of un resisted, took possession which was pillaged, and forthwith started on his march

reward had been



Guatemala. 30 general clamor for Morazan was aroused; but it was impossible for him to reach Guate mala in time, and the danger was imminent that Carrera would not only take the city, but also carry out In this his threats of burning every house in it. with the garrison emergency, General Carlos Salazar, of 900 men, sallied forth, and aided by a thick fog, surprised Carrera at Villanueva, where the latter was concentrating his forces, now about 2,400 strong, with


battle ensued, the plunder secured at La Antigua. the bloodiest that occurred in 1837 or 1838, and Car rera was routed, 31 with the loss of 350 killed and 24 prisoners, one of whom was the notorious Father Duran, the representative and agent of the aristocrats near the person of Carrera; 32 besides giving up a number of federal prisoners and losing three pieces of artillery, 305 muskets, and a large number of other
the 20th of July, 1838, he was required to give himself up; failing to a reward was offered for his apprehension, alive or dead $1,500 and two caballerias of land, besides a full pardon for any offences against the laws his captor or captors might have committed. Stephens Cent. Am., i. 242. 30 Squier, Travels, ii. 435, says that Carrera entered Guatemala; he prob ably meant Old Guatemala, or La Antigua. Carrera, at Jalapa, had 2,000 men, while his opponent, Col Manuel Bonilla, had about 500. The latter were nearly annihilated. The few officers and soldiers who escaped with life found refuge in Salvador territory. Carrera s excesses at this time knew no bounds. He not only ravished women, but amused himself cutting off their tresses and ears. Some of these earless women entered the city of Guatemala, and their stories produced great indignation. Motitufar, Reseua hist., iii. 204; Marure, Efem., 45. al This action took place early in the morning of Sept. llth. Salazar at once despatched a courier to Guatemala with the news of his success, which caused the utmost joy. Montufar, liesena Hist., iii. 20G-8; Marure, Efem., 40. Dunlop, Cent. Am., 201, asserts that no mercy was shown by the federal troops in this encounter. By a decree of Sept. 13, 1838, pensions were granted to the wounded, and to the widows and orphans of the slain federals. Badges of honor were also conferred on the survivors. Gnat., Recop. Leyes, ii. 636-7. 82 This man s life was then spared, but some time afterward he was shot, for which the serviles called Morazan a murderer. Montufar Resefia Hist.,










arms, besides ammunition. portion of the defeated forces fled to La Antigua, and a smaller one joined the The latter, being rebel Mangandi, who had 500 men. of Carrera s mishap, approached Guatemala ignorant on the llth, at 10 o clock in the morning, causing no but on learning of his leader s defeat, little commotion The war might have he retired to the mountains. ended here had the victors followed up their success; but petty annoyances prevented Salazar from doing


and he threw up his command in disgust, 33 though he was afterward induced to resume it.

The greater part of the clergy friendly to Carrera It was not so with the aristocrats, never forsook him. Manuel Pavon, Luis Batres, and Pedro and Juan Jose Aycincna, who feared at times that they could After his defeat at Villanueva they not control him. called him an antropofago sediento de sangre 1mmana. 34 At that time they asked the vicar-general, Larrazabal, to fulminate censures against Carrera, which he did. 85 Friar Bernardo Piiiol also railed 36 How against him from the pulpit in the cathedral. ever, not lonof afterward Carrera was called from that o same pulpit hijo predilecto del Altisimo. The lack of energy on the part of the authorities 3 enabled Carrera to reafter the affair of Villanueva

33 His resignation was made before the body of his officers, which im The officers eluded plied a disregard of the authority of the government. all responsibility, alleging that they had nothing to do with his resignation. The government then revoked the extraordinary powers conferred on him

two months previously. Marure, Efem., 40. 34 In the Observador and the A/dndice.

Exhortation cristiana que


vicario capitular.




los pueblos, etc.,

17 p.

Text of his funeral oration on the 14th of Sept. in honor of the slain on the government side at Villanueva, in Moutiifar, llesefia Hist., iii. 1210-21. 37 Jose" Francisco Barrundia, who fought in that action, said: He [Carrera] could have been captured or annihilated had he been forthwith pursued; but uo advantage was derived from such a glorious victory, and in a few days Salazar was blamed, Montiifar thinks vandalism became again menacing. According to him, the victorious troops were not in condition to unjustly. on the testimony of Gen. Carballo, lays the This authority, partly pursue. blame on Rivera Paz, wbo had no interest in destroying a faction on which his party relied in the emergency of Morazan refusing his aid to the serviles. Morazan, on the 24th of Oct., declared martial law in portions of Guate mala, peremptorily refused to listen to the proposals of the recalcitrants, and marched to Guatemala, leaving the government in charge of the vice-presi-




organize his forces, with which he made a successful raid, in the latter part of October, against Ahuacha33 pan and Santa Ana, returning afterward to Guate mala, when, on the 4th of November, he was attacked

Chiquimulilla by Colonel Carballo, defeated, and 39 Mo^ driven back to the mountain recesses of Mita. razan had in the mean time concentrated forces in Guatemala, and aided Carballo s operations by march ing against the Indian chieftain from a northern di But all efforts to crush the enemy failed, rection. the federal troops were everywhere victorious though


At rather chase, was kept up nearly two months. last a capitulation was concluded, on the 23d of De Carrera and his followers cember, at Rinconcito. were to surrender their arms 41 and recognize the gov ernment, which in turn was to confirm the former in his office of comandante of the district of Mita, and 42 respect the lives and property of its inhabitants. Thus was Carrera a second time given a legal stand General Guzman, who treated with him, seemed ing. to place on the treacherous and barbarous mountaineer the same faith as if he were a civilized man and a re
The agreement was specter of treaty stipulations. not carried out by Carrera, for he delivered only a small portion of useless arms, and kept his force under the pretext that the safety of his district demanded

of Carrera s followers were taken and shot, but 40 This warfare, or alwa}^s managed to escape.

dent, Diego Vijil, Id., 223-6.


congress had chosen to succeed the murdered Sala-

38 His hordes committed all sorts of outrages in these departments of Sal vador. Barrundia, in El P/ ogreso of S. Salv. , 1850, no. 3. 39 Lescauso un de?calabro de entidad la division del coronel Carballo.

Marure, Efem., 46. 40 Once he was almost starved to death on the top of a mountain, sur rounded at its base by a large force; but owing to some neglect he escaped.




244, erroneously has


that the delivery was to

be of only 1,000 muskets.

The president of the republic ratified the agreement on the 25th of Dec. The fact was that the arrangement at Rinconcito was prompted to Gen. Agustin Guzman by Manuel Pa von, whom he believed to be a friend that would give him nothing but honorable advice. He had good reason at a later date to think differently, when he was taken into Guatemala in rags, tied on iii, 228-9a mule, as a trophy of Carrera s success. Montufar liexeua



The government not only had the weakness to it. enter into this arrangement, but also that of not en This rendered forcing its fulfilment to the letter. the renewal of hostilities but a question of time. I have mentioned the congressional decree of May 30, 1838, granting the states the privilege of acting This was tantamount to as best suited their views. a dissolution of the union and when Morazan s second presidential term expired, on the 1st of February, 4 1839/ not even an outward tie remained to hold to Morazan, and he alone, did gether the several states. not relinquish all hope of restoring the republic, and without delivering up an office which had ceased to exist, the strife was continued under his leadership.

His efforts, supported by force though they were, met with resistance on the part of Nicaragua and Hon
duras, united by a treaty of alliance since January 18, 1839, which had been entered into for the pur pose of maintaining the independence and sovereignty of the two states. 45 Similar agreements were made
in the following months between nearly all the other states, always protesting a willingness to form a fed eral convention of the Central American states, but
43 opposing the idea of confederation.


that Diego Vijil represented the unity in the federal district as The conventicle of the four nobles, Pavon, Batres, and the

s rule in Guatemala, arranged matters to their own satisfaction, in order to break up the union, having at Their emissaries their disposal the requisite number of municipal districts. supported the separation in Honduras and Nicaragua. Costa Rica was gov erned by Carrillo, a declared foe to Central American nationality. They were now working with Rivera Paz s successor, Gen. Carlos Salazar, with almost a Salazar was a good soldier, but as a poli certainty of carrying their point. tician, without guile, and easily deceived. Id., 241-3. *5 And also to protect other states against all interference on the part of the late federal government. Full text of the convention in Cent. Am. Con stitutions, no. 4, 1-5. By virtue of this arrangement, the combined forces of the two states invaded Salvador. Marure, Efem., 47. This treaty brought about Morazan s ruin, and the disruption of the federal union. Francisco Ferrera, commander of the forces of Honduras, himself made it known to Carrera, and it prompted the latter s rebellion on the 24th of March, 1839, and his march against Guatemala. It enabled Pavon, Batres, and the Ayci nenas to take Carrera in triumph into that city on the 13th of Apr., 1839. 46 The jefe of Guatemala, on the 17th of April, 1839, declared the federal compact dissolved, and the resumptiou by the state of its absolute sovereignty. This declaration was ratified by the constituent assembly on the 14th of J uiie

two Aycinenas, had, however, during Rivera Paz



conciliatory spirit, to bring to an end the war against Salvador, and to act as mediator, was effected in these treaties but it had no influence for good, and the hostilities continued between Nicaragua and Honduras on the one part, and Salvador on the other. Troops of the two former states entered Salvador ter ritory in March 1839, and surprising a federal party at the crossings of the Lempa River, called Xicaral and Petacones, took without resistance the town of San Vicente; but having advanced to the heights of Xiboa, were repulsed and beaten by Colonel Narciso The allies were signally defeated at EspiBenitez. 47 ritu Santo, near the Lempa, by the Salvadorans, called 4S federals, under Morazan, on the 6th of April.


Equally successful were Morazan s operations during the rest of the year. His officers invaded Honduras, took the capital and Tegucigalpa, and routed the allies
in several encounters.

of the same year. Guat. on the llth of May entered into a treaty of amity and alliance with Honduras; on the 5th of June, 24th of July, and 1st of Aug., made similar treaties with Salv., Nic., and Costa R. , respectively. July 1st, Hond. and Costa R. for the first time made a treaty of friendship and alliance as sovereign states. Aug. 10th was signed at Quezaltenango the first treaty of a similar nature between the new state of Los Altos and Salv. Marure, Efem., 48-50. Costa Rica had in Nov. 1838 assumed the plenitude of her In obedience to a decree of Braulio Carrillo, the supreme chief sovereignty. of the state, dated Aug. 4, 1838, her representatives and senators had left their seats in the federal congress. The state recognized its share of the fed eral debt and paid it at once. Carrillo s decree shows that the Costa Ricans were dissatisfied with the inequality of their representation in the national

lower house, where Guatemala had 19 more deputies than Nicaragua, 17 more than Honduras, 15 more than Salvador, and 23 more than Costa Rica, which had only four representatives in the congreso, as the lower house was called. The representation in the senate was equal to that of the other states; but if the latter chamber refused its sanction to any bill adopted, the former could, under the 83d art. of the constitution, make it a law by three fourths of the votes pi^esent. Thus was Costa Rica made a nonentity in the legislative body. There were other reasons for complaint. By a good management of her finances, Costa Rica always had available resources, and punctually paid her She was therefore taxed contingent to the national treasury in money. while virtually without representation. Montufar Resena Hist., iii. 26G-73, 310,313-41. 47 It was a force from Leon, under Col B. Mendez, who had entered by the frontier of San Miguel. Montufar, Resena Hist., iii. 292-3. 48 The allied commander was Francisco Ferrera, an Hondureuo, who had been connected with the incendiaries of Comayagua. This victory was mainly due to Morazan s daring. He was seriously wounded in the right arm. Col Benitez, who was a Colombian, was slain. Marure, Efem., 48; Montufar t Eesena Hist., iii. 293-5.

Brigadier Cabanas occupied the capital Aug. 28th.

He defeated the Han-



underwent a change against him early in joint force of Nicaraguans and 50 Hondurans, under Manuel Quijano, attacked the federals under Cabanas at the hacienda del Potrero, on the 31st of January, 1840, and forced them to leave 51 formidable servile coali the state of Honduras. tion was being formed against Morazan. Nicaragua was resolved to drive this jefe of Salvador from the executive chair. Honduras, under Jauregui, was con Los Altos had become trolled by Quijano s sword. a department of Guatemala, which was subject again


the following year.



This chieftain, in his pronunciamiento of March 24, 1839, had avowed his intention to champion the sovereignty of the several states as concordant with his own ideas. 52 Morazan thought the situation might be saved with an extraordinarily
to Carrera s will.

bold move, attacking the serviles in their headquar ters, and made preparation to bring matters to a final The serviles, on their issue in the city of Guatemala. their aim of overthrowing Morazau, part, pursuing entered into a league with Carrera, and invited him to take possession of Guatemala. Morazan convoked the assembly of Salvador, and caused the vice-jefe, Silva, to assume the executive office of the state, in order to enable himself to take command of the forces for the campaign in Guate He was mala, which at first amounted to 900 men.

afterward joined by many who had been persecuted by the aristocrats, who pledged themselves to condurans at Cuesta Grande Sept. 6th, and then entered Tegucigalpa. On the 25th, after quelling a revolt which took place on the IGth, in San Salvador, Morazan was again victorious at San Pedro Perulapan with COO Salvadorans over a double force of Hondurans and Nicaraguans, who, under Ferrera, had entered that town on their way to San Salvador, to destroy the simulacro de Cabanas triumphed gobierno federal que existia aun en aquella capital. at Solcdad on Nov. 13th. Marure, Efem., 48-51; Montufar, Reseda y/w., iii. 35-4-6, 446. 50 F erl-era was without a command for some time, owing to his continual defeats. Quijano was another notabilidad del partido servil aristocrutico. 51 Cabanas official report of Feb. 3d from San Antonio del Sauce says that the enemy s force being superior, he had resolved to retire to San Miguel in Salv. Montufar, Rescna /list., iii. 451-2. 52 Stephens, Cent. Am., i. 245, quaintly remarks, It must have been quite new to him, and a satisfaction to find out what principles he sustained.

quer or perish at his
the promise. 53



faithfully carried out

Morazan inarched upon the city of and his movement created the greatest Guatemala, alarm when he neared Corral de Piedra. Consterna
Preparations were capable of bear arms were called to the service, 55 and Carrera ing established his headquarters at Aceituno, his plan being to catch the men of Salvador between the forti 56 The plan fications of the city and his own force. failed. Morazan entered the city on the 1 8th of March at sunrise, by the Bueriavista gate, and after some fio htinof, made himself master of it. and of all the O O 67 Liberals who were in the prisons were defences. set free. Among them was General Agustin Guz whom Carrera had outrageously treated, confin man, Guzman hailed the ing him shackled in a dungeon. victor who returned him to freedom, but was unable to afford any aid; the shackles had made him a cripple. The numerous prisoners taken were all treated with Such had always been his practice. every kindness. it was not destined that he should enjoy his However, Carrera attacked him on the next day the victory. 19th and after a fight of twenty-two hours, com 53 His forces had been shatpelled Morazan to retreat.
tion then seized the serviles. made, however, for defence. All


53 Among them were Mariscal and Del Rio. War had been declared be tween Guatemala and Salvador. The fiction of Atescatempa, Carrera s procla mations against Morazan the chief magistrate of Salv., the movement of the 16th of Sept., 1839, against the lawful authorities of Salvador prompted and aided by Carrera, the destruction of Los Altos the friend and ally of Salv. and many other causes, constituted a real state of war. Montufar, Helena

Jfist., iii.


Their head men sought refuge with the nuns of La Concepcion. 55 Made up exclusively of Indians, as Carrera wanted no white soldiers or

Stephens Cent. Am., ii. 111. The worshippers of Carrera have said that he intentionally allowed Morazan to enter the city, with the view of besieging him, which is absurd. The city was full of war material, and was plentifully supplied with meat. 57 His officers who distinguished themselves in the operations were Gen erals Cabanas and Rivas, colonels Antonio Rivera Cabezas and Ignacio Maiespin,

and Lieut-col Bernardo Rivera Cabezas. Oarrera s official report is dated at Guatemala on the 23d of March. He does not speak of the assassination of Col Sanchez, Morazan s aide-de-camp, by order of his brother, Sotero Carrera; nor of the wanton massacre of many others; nor of the maltreatment of women, followers of the Salvadoran camp, which caused the French consul to raise his voice in protest. Carrera gave



tered at the Calvario. The number of assailants, known as cachurecos, was overwhelming. 69 At 4 o clock in

the morning he left the city by the plaza de Guadalupe with upwards of 400 men, and was far away before the escape became known. No pursuit of the was attempted. 60 fugitives On arriving at San Salvador, Morazan found the He was openly insulted tables turned against him. in the streets; and becoming convinced that it would be impossible to raise a new army and continue the war, he concluded to cease the struggle and leave the He accordingly called a meeting and made country. known the necessity of such a course in order to save the state from anarchy. On the 5th of April he em barked at La Libertad upon the schooner Izalco, to gether with Vice-president Vijil and thirty-five of his 61 The vessel reached Puntarenas, where supporters. the chief of Costa Rica, Braulio Carrillo, who had congratulated Guatemala on the defeat of Morazan, refused him residence in the state, though it was
62 granted to some of his companions.

Morazan and

sway to his ferocious instincts on that day, taking the greatest delight in butchering the vanquished. Many of the pursued sought an asylum in the house of Chatfield, the British consul, and a word from him on their behalf would have saved their lives; but he did not utter it, and they were put to death. Id., 460-7; Marurc, Ej em., 52. 59 Their hatred against Morazan was shown in their cries, accompanying those of * Viva la religion Guanacos, entreguen a ese canalla, entreguen 4 ese hereje; nosotros, defendemos a Dios y A sus santos. They called their op ponents guanacos, pirujos, malvados, ladrones, and declared that they were going to bring back the archbishop, and the friars who were sent away in




met the defeated


was then on his way from San Salvador to Guatemala, and in his Cent. Am., ii. G9 et seq., gives a graphic

Miguel Alvarez Castro,



Gerardo Liw Manuel Irungaray, Antonio and Bernardo Rivera Cabezas, Jos6 M. Silva, Maximo, Tomas and Inclalecio Cordero, Antonio Lazo, and others. Pedro Molina refused to goat tirst, but was prevailed on by his sons and son-in-law, who saw that his fate would be sealed if he remained. Montufar, Hesena

Miguel Sara via, Isidro Menendez, Cdrloa Drellana, Nicolas Angulo, Trinidad Cabafias, Enrique Rivas, Barrios, Pedro Molina, with his sons Felipe and Jos^, and his son-iu-


Manuel Irungaray, Isidro Pedro Molina and his sons Felipe and Menendez, Gen. Enrique Rivas, Doroteo Vasconcelos, Gerardo Barrios, Incla lecio Cordero, Jos Prado, Damaso Lonza, and others. They were made after ward the objects of abuse on the part of Carrillo and his coarse wife, Froilana
Carranza. Id.,




his remaining companions continued their voyage to South America, where he remained about two years.

After a time, touching at David, in Colombia, he issued a stirring manifesto to the Central American 63 was the last champion of the Conpeople. lederacion de Centro America/ whose establishment had been greeted with so much joy on the 1st of July, 1823. The governments of Nicaragua and Honduras, which had promised Guatemala aid to resist Morazan, on hearing of his downfall congratulated the victor on the defeat of the common enemy of all the states/ They thought that with the fall of Morazan, Central American nationality would be revived. They could not yet see that they had been the dupes of the aris tocrats and their clerical allies in Guatemala, who, while holding out the promise of reuniting Central America, had been all along working for the destruc tion of federal nationality. After the departure of Morazan and Vijil, Anto nio Jose Canas, by virtue of his position as a council lor of state, assumed the rulership of Salvador, and called the assembly to hold a special session. It was 64 that, Morazan being out of the way, with expected so honorable and upright a man as Canas at the head, concord would be restored. But Salvador was still the subject of abuses, and on the remonstrances of Canas, the government of Guatemala despatched a It was com diplomatic mission to San Salvador. of the former pig-driver Rafael Carrera, and posed


Joaquin Duran, and had for an attache Francisco Malespin, a military officer whose sword had been dyed 65 in the best blood of Quezaltenango. convention


63 July 16, 1841. He details the acts of the serviles, enemies of their country s independence and freedom. Carrera s career of crime is also fully discussed. Morazan, Manif., in Id., 585-96; Id., in Cent. Am. Pap., no. 3. 61 The serviles had said that they waged war, not against Salvador, but against Morazan. 65 The embassy brought an escort of 200 men, and Salvador had to pay all the expense. See the note of Minister Manuel Barberena to the minister-gen eral of Guatemala, dated May 18, 1840. Carrera was lodged in one of the



was concluded on the 13th of May, 1840, placing Sal vador at the mercy of Guatemala, Canas having to sub mit to the conditions imposed. 68 The most humiliat ing condition of the understanding was not mentioned
namely, that the attache Francisco should remain in San Salvador, with the Malespin This treaty convinced office of comandante de armas. the people of Salvador that they could expect no favor from the aristocracy of Guatemala, their implacable
in the convention,
best houses of Salvador, and his deportment clearly indicated what his early His first diplomatic utterances were threats, and the gen training hud been. eral conduct of himself and his soldiers was so abusive that tiie people of the liberal district of Calvario in San Salvador finally resolved to fall upon and annihilate them. Canas saw the danger, and called to it the attention of Duran, who prevailed on his colleague to leave the state with his troops.

Montiifar, Rescna



487-8, 49 2.
secretary of the sup. gov.,

The convention was signed by Joaquin Duran,

and Lieut-gen. Rafael Carrera, on the part of Guatemala, and by Manuel Barberena and Juan Lacayo for Salvador. Under art. 1st Salvador was not to have in office any man who had cooperated with Morazan. Art. 2d required of Salvador to surrender to Guatemala a number of persons, named in a list Art. 3d furnished, to be retained until Salvador should be fully reorganized. forbids Salvador to permit the return to its territory of any of the persons who went away with Morazan. Should any return, they must oe given up to Guatemala, as prescribed in the 2d article. Art. 4th and 7th refer to the re turn of certain armament and of prisoners of war taken in the action of 18th and 19th of March last. Art. 5th says that the constituent assembly of Salvador having been called, her government must see at once to the appointment of Under art. deputies to the convention which was to organize the republic. Oth Salvador agreed that Guatemala and the other states should appoint agents, who, together with her own, were to have in their charge the archives and other effects of the federation. A/., 489-91.