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FRANCISCO DUENAS, called to preside over the des Salvador in 1865, by the grace of President Carrera of Guatemala, was a member of the legal pro He fession, and had already figured in public affairs. was from early youth destined for the cloister, and in due time took the vows as a Dominican. But being of an ardent temperament, he came after a while to think himself adapted for a political leader rather than 1 to serve God under a monk s habit. He accordingly and soon attained promi entered the political field, In 1845 he was a minister of state, and had nence. previously been a deputy to the federal congress, wherein for lack of eloquence he made no display; but in committees and private conversations with his
tinies of
In 1829, when convents were closed in Guat. he had to leave the cloister, and afterward obtained a papal dispensation from his vows. He then studied law, and received the degree of licentiate in 1830.



colleagues, he often




managed to have his ideas ac was one of the deputies who voted

against the fatal decree leaving the states free to con He was then a friend of Central stitute themselves. American nationality, and often defended it almost as warmly as Barrundia. Pretending to follow public

But his opinion, he was affiliated with the liberals. chief aim was even then the furtherance of his own Thus we see him join the oli political advancement. garchic clique, and ally himself with Carrera of Gua
temala, from which attempt to restore


time he discountenanced every The republicdemocracy.
only, for his

became one



government was

With the aid of the oligarchs personal and absolute. he managed to sustain himself for years, the country enjoying peace and material prosperity, for which, as well as for his not neglecting public education, he
should have some credit. 3

In December 1868, he was elected president for the next term, and public affairs continued in a nominal condition for some time, the most friendly relations being maintained with foreign powers, and specially with the other Central American states. But in the latter part of 1870 serious differences occurred with the government of Honduras, the latter imputing to Salvador marked favors to Honduran and Nicaraguan
refugees, who were constantly plotting to overthrow the administration of President Medina. At last the Honduran government accredited two commissioners, namely Celeo Arias, and Teodoro Aguiluz, in San Sal vador, with the view of settling those differences, if possible, in a Salvador on her friendly manner. part named Rafael Zaldivar her commissioner to treat with them, and their conferences began on the 16th

of Duefias to describe his policy:

Slowness and procrastination ruled supreme. A citizen of Salvador said El mejor caballo para Duenas es el que no In Jan. 1866 he married a wealthy widow, who had been educated in S. That same year the university conferred on him the degree of doc


the U.

tor of laws. Nic., Gaceta, Feb.






of January, 1871, but they led to no satisfactory re. 4 At the fourth and last conference, on the 21st of January, the Honduran commissioners, after pro testing against Salvador s course in rejecting their demands, proposed as a last resort to preserve friend in view of the fact that all hope of ship arriving at an understanding had disappeared, as confidence be tween the two governments no longer existed- -that the legislatures of both states should be convoked to meet on the 12th of March, and the two presidents,

Medina and

Dueiias, resign their


After which

elections for chief magistrates should be held, with the express condition that during those elections both

Medina and Dueiias should reside out of their coun Four days having elapsed without any answer

having been returned to that proposition, the Hondu ran commissioners on the 25th renewed their protest, declared the conferences closed, and demanded their However, after this, Zaldivar signified to passports. them an acceptance of the proposal concerning the
*The Hondurans claimed on the strength of art. 8th of the treaty concluded at Santa Rosa on the 2oth of March, 1802, the concentration in the interior of Salvador of Gen. Florencio Xatruch, the priest Miguel Bustillo, and Jose Manuel Selva, Hondurans; and also of certain Nicaraguaiis, who after their rebellion against the government of Fernando Guzman in their own country, had found a refuge in Salvador, and made common cause with the enemies of President Medina, because he had supported Guzman with the moral and diplomatic influence of his government. The Salvadorau negotiator denied He was sent by Nic. in 18(J3 to Salv. that Xatruch was a political refugee. Later with Nicaragua s permission he was at the head of an auxiliary force. employed by Salv., he being since ISoS a general of division of her army, a rank conferred on him for his services against Walker and his filibusters; and was therefore entitled to all the rights of a Salvadoran. citizen. Salv. pledged, however, that he would do no hostile act against Hond. As to adopting any action against the Xicaraguans, the demand could not be acceded to, because they did not come under the provisions of the treaty with Honduras, nor were they political refugees at all. The commissioner of Salv. made counter charges: 1st. Hond. had violated art. 9 of the treaty of Santa Kosa, in that her legislature had empowered the executive to declare war against Salv. without tirst complying with the terms of that clause. 2d. She had allowed asylum to Salvadoran refugees, giving them employment on the frontier of
Salv., where they had been constantly plotting and uttering menaces against All re their govt, using arms obtained from Honduran govt warehouses. monstrances against such proceedings had been disregarded. 3d. Hond., heeding false reports, had raised 1,500 men, keeping a portion on the Salv. The Honduran commissioners frontier, and maintaining a warlike attitude. denied the correctness of the charges, and quoted instances in which their of deference and friendship toward its neighbor, government had given proofs ^a/r., Protocol) de las Con/., 1-16.




resignation. This inspired some hope that peace But it proved to be a vain yet be consolidated.
for the

might hope

government of Honduras on the 7th of Feb ruary suspended all treaty stipulations between the two republics, and Salvador despatched in the same month a body of troops to invade her neighbor s terri 5 tory; in consequence of which President Medina on the 5th of March declared war against Salvador, or rather against Duenas government. 6 The liberal party took advantage of the situation to adopt active measures for the overthrow of despotism, and the restoration of democratic principles. General
Santiago Gonzalez, who had been called to head a movement, made an address to the people, which pro duced a great excitement. Duenas tried to strengthen himself by means of a so-called plebiscit, but this only served to show that a revolution was impending.

Gonzalez applied for aid to the government of Hon 7 duras, which, being then on the point of waging war against Duenas, was prevailed on to place under com mand of that officer the forces he had organized to invade Salvador through Sensuntepeque. With his
Salvadorans and Honduran allies Gonzalez made him master of the departments of Santa Ana and 8 Sonsonate, from which he could procure abundant The government forces, which had been supplies. in suspense, not kept knowing which would be the invaders objective point, attacked them at Santa Ana, and after four days hard fighting, though much
5 Kic. had mediated on behalf of peace, accrediting H. Zepeda and M. Montealegre as commissioners at Amapala. But an affair of arms at Pasaquina frustrated the efforts of the legation. Circular of Nic. Foreign Min.,



The oligarchs pretended contempt for Medina s action; some said, Kedina es un loco, y Honduras un esqueleto; others, La quijotesca actitud de Honduras alianzara mas nu?stro poder. Uriarte, Observ. Union Hep. Cent. Am., 3. It was said that Medina was enticed into assisting the liberals, under the delusion that they would call him to rule over the united states of G-uat., Salv ami Hond. 8 San Salvador, the capital, had been several days fortified awaiting an assault, but the invaders, not knowing how much force there might be a* hand for its defence, preferred to march ou to Santa Alia,

1876, in Salv., Gnceta Ofic., Oct. 26, 1876.





superior in numbers, were utterly routed on the 10th of April, with heavy casualties the main army was * put to flight, and the reserve forsook their standard.

Gonzalez was then proclaimed provisional president, and Duefias government collapsed, he, together with

Tomds Martinez, ex-president of Nicaragua, who com manded in chief the government s army, and others,
seeking a place of safety in the United States legation, then in charge of General A. T. A. Torbert, minister The next day Gonzalez and his army resident. marched into the capital amid the most enthusiastic His first step was to protect the per acclamations. son of Duefias against possible violence from his exas perated enemies, among whom were the friends of the never-forgotten Gerardo Barrios, whom Duefias had caused to be shot in cold blood, and to obtain his sur render that he might answer before the nation for his 10 Both Duenas and Martinez were alleged illegal acts. C^ O .surrendered to the provisional government on its giv ing a pledge that their lives would not be imperilled. The surrender of Duenas was made on the 20th of April, with his own acquiescence; he was then trans ferred as a state prisoner to the military school build

Martinez was released and permitted to leave the republic. 12 Ex-president Duenas was, on the 13th of April, 1872, declared by the senate legally deposed, and amenable to the laws for acts of usurpation. Murders, among which was reckoned the execution of Ex-presi dent Barrios, unjustifiable executions, and imprison ments of citizens, incendiarism, misappropriation of
9 Hond., Bolctin Ofic., no. 2, contains the official report of the action, copied in Nic., Gaccttt, March 13, 1871. 10 guard was kept around the minister s house as long as Duenas was his guest. 11 He was kept there, treated with respect and consideration till after his The particulars of his surrender appear in the official correspondence trial. of Min. Torl>ert with both his own and the Salvadoran governments. U. S. Gov. Doe., II. Ex. Doc., Cong. 42, Sess. 2, i. 693-5. 12 There was no reason to keep him a prisoner. He could no longer injure Medina, and moreover, the government took into account his valuable ser vices to Cent. Am. in ISoO 7 against Walker. Lafe-rrivre, De Paris a Gua e-



tuala, 197





It was fur public moneys, and other misdemeanors. ther ordered that the accused should be turned over to the jurisdiction of the courts for trial, pursuant to 13 In July of the same article 71 of the constitution. year, while the constitution was in suspense, during a temporary internal disturbance, the supreme court set


He went to and remained in Europe some time, then returned to America, residing a while in New York, and afterward in San Francisco, Cali fornia. Subsequently he was permitted free access to his country, and was treated with high considera tion both in Salvador and Guatemala.
constituent assembly, which had been convoked the provisional government, was installed July by 28, 1871, and began its labors on the 31st, when the provisional president gave an account of his official 14 The fol acts, all of which were legalized at once. were, in the order named, designated lowing persons to take charge of the executive, provisionally, in the event of disability of Gonzalez; namely, Rafael Campo, Manuel Gallardo, and Cruz Ulloa. On the 16th of October, the assembly adopted a new fundamental law in twelve titles, which may be said to have been in perfect accord with democratic 15 This constitution was amended on the principles.

which caused much agitation in Salva the country after giving bonds in $100,000 that he would not land in any port of Central
at liberty,




venir de Nic.,

u The revolution was

The process was accordingly passed to the camara de 2d instancia. El PorJune 2, 1872.
declared one for the restoration of the people s rights, being recognized as provisional president. His recall of the supreme
for the discussion of public affairs


was approved of. Freedom to meet peaceably

and the

conduct of the rulers; freedom of speech and of the press wcrj

recog nized and established, as also the inviolability of life, personal liberty, prop for cause after erty, and honor, which no man could be deprived of except citizen s domicile and private papers were also undergoing a fair trial. declared inviolable. Primary instruction was to be uniform, gratuitous, and obligatory. Secondary and superior education were to be free, though subject The to the supervision of the civil authorities. Passports were abolished. Roman catholic was declared to be the state religion, but other Christian sects not repugnant to morality and good order were tolerated. Foreigners could




9th of November, 1872, in a few particulars by a con stituent assembly, the presidential term being made could neither be of four years instead of two.


reflected for the next immediate term, nor act as

president even a single day beyond the time for which he was chosen. 16 This same assembly in 1872 enacted several secondary laws of importance, to wit: on freedom of the press; trial by jury in criminal and libel cases; use of martial law; elections by universal suffrage; public instruction; codification of the laws in force since 1821; and appropriation of private

property for great public uses. The presidential election under the new charter of 1871 resulted in Gonzalez, the provisional president, being chosen the constitutional chief magistrate, his term to begin on the 1st of February the following The amendment to the constitution of Novem year. ber 9, 1872, extended it to February 1, 187G. The political relations of the governments of Sal vador and Guatemala with Honduras had, early in 1872, become so unfriendly that a war was unavoid able. Salvadoran and Guatemala forces invaded Hon duras, and were successful in their operations, the details of which will be given in connection with the 17 President Gonzalez history of the latter country.
become naturalized after two years residence, and Spanish Americans after one year. All Salvadorans of 21 years or upwards, and of good moral char acter, were citizens, provided they had either one of the following qualifica tions: being father of a family, or head of a household; knowing how to read and write; possessing an independent livelihood. Those of only 18 years of age having a literary degree were also voters. The military in active service could neither vote nor be voted for. The government was vested in three distinct powers: legislative, composed of a senate, renewable yearly by thirds, each senator owning at least $2,000 in real estate, and a house of deputies, the whole renewed yearly; the executive, vested in a president owing at least $10,000 in real estate, his term being for only two years; and the judiciary, No ecclesiastic was eligible. consisting of the supreme and lower courts. The president, vice-president, and members of both houses of congress were to be chosen by electoral colleges. Laferriere, De Paris d Guatemala, 1992J2; El Porvenir de Nic., Nov. 26, 1871; Jan. 7, 1872; Ruiz, Caleml Salv., 70. 16 Full Sp. text in Laferriere, De Paris d Guatemala, 343-82; U. S. Govt Doc., H. Ex. Doc., Cong. 43, Sess. 1, For. Rel., ii. 788-94, 811-20; Nic,, Gaceta, Nov. 30, 1872; Nic., Semanal Nic., Nov. 28, 1872. 17 Salvador s acceptance of the war declared by Hond. March 25th was signed by President Gonzalez, and countersigned by his cabinet; namely, Gregorio Arbizu, min. of foreign rel. Manuel Mendez, min. of pub. instruc;



army on their return to San Salva June received an ovation. Subsequent events demanded the despatch of more troops to Honduras, which, together with Guatemala s, completed the work The government also felt com of the first campaign. to exile a number of persons who were mani pelled
his victorious

the destruction of the liberal ministers addressed an expose to the regime. constituent congress, which had been in session since September 27th, reviewing the policy of the adminis tration, and submitting for its sanction the late war All the measures, at variance with the constitution. acts of the president were subsequently approved by
festly conspiring for




The only other event of 1872 worthy of mention was the murder of the vice-president, Manuel Mendez,
on the night of the 1st of September, in the public 20 by a man named Juan Melendez. At first it was supposed that the act might have been prompted by other motives than personal revenge; the latter The assassin proved, however, to be the real cause. fled into Honduras, but was finally discovered and surrendered to Salvador, where he was tried and



The year 1873 in one for Salvador.




part was a calamitous

series of

earthquakes caused

tion; Borja Bustamante, min. of the treasury and war; and Antonio G. Valdes, acting min. of govt. El Porvenir de Nic., May 12, 1872. 18 plot was to break out simultaneously in San Salvador, San Vicente,

The Sensuiitepeque and Cojutepeque, with ramifications in Guatemala. Indians of Cojutepeque rose against the garrison and were beaten off. 19 The report was dated Oct. 4th, and signed by the ministers, G. Arbizii, J. J. Samayoa, and Fabio Castillo. The legislative sanction was given Oct. 14th. Report of Thomas Biddle, Am. minister, in U. S. Govt Doc., H. Ex. Doc., For. ReL, Cong. 43, Sess. 1, ii. 784-7. 20) Mendez held also the position of minister of public instruction, justice, and ecclesiastical affairs. He was an honorable, energetic, and talented man, and his loss was much deplored by the country, and particularly by Pres. The Gonzalez. U. S. Govt Doc., H. Ex. Doc., Cong. 42, Sess. 3, i. 547-8. republic also lost this year, Dec. 10th, one of her most gifted and valuable sons, Gregorio Arbizu, who had likewise been vice-president, and for many years minister of foreign relations. His funeral was conducted and the expenses defrayed by the government, as a mark of respect and appreciation of his services. Nic., Semanal Nic. Dec. 26, 1872. 21 He was captured in Jan. 1875, and shot on the 29th of Apr. Salv., Dario Ofic. Jan. 20, May 1, 1875.


places, specially on the 19th of capital for the eighth time in its national congress, after approving the

destruction in


March, ruining the


to the date of closing its session, the country to devote its best energies in repairing the havoc of that catastrophe. The rest of the year and 1874 formed, indeed, a period not only of res

government s acts

toration but of marked progress in every respect. National industries went on developing, public in struction, under the fostering care of the authorities,

was constantly being spread among the masses, and the had become much improved. Peace reigned at home, and the relations with foreign powers were on an amicable footing; cordiality seemed to preside over those with the other Central American
financial condition
states. The future, at the inception of 1875, promised concord and good- will as well as undisturbed progress22 ivcncss. But these expectations were not realized. The public peace was disturbed on two occasions; the first, by the Indians of Dolores Izalco, who, because of a dispute with the authorities anent their community lands, rose in arms, and on March 14th assaulted the garrison of the city of Izalco, to be repulsed with con siderable loss. Their head men were arrested and some months, until, promising good be imprisoned 23 The other havior in the future, they were released. affair was a more serious one, calling for energetic An armed action on the part of the military power. mob of reactionists and religious fanatics, led by one Tinoco and a clergyman named Jose Manuel Palacios, on the 20th of June, fell upon the city of San Miguel, slaying the small garrison, together with the coinandante general, Felipe Espinosa, and several citizens, sacking the business houses, and burning down a por tion of the town. Such deeds of blood, robbery, and
22 Such was the flattering account given by the government to the national congress, on the opening of its labors Jan. 18th. Salv., Meiwije del Presid., Jan. 20. 1875; Id., Mem. Sec. Rel. Ejcter., 1875, 1-12; Id., DiarioOfic., Jan. 20, 1875. 23 Under a decree of amnesty of Nov. 2, 1875. Salv., Diano OJlc., Nov. 4, 1875.



incendiarism as those of the 20th to the 24th had seldom been witnessed in Central America. Troops arrived from La Union, and the Honduran port of Amapala, on the 24th, and the malefactors fled, bat not before about thirty of their number, including considerable Father Palacios, were taken prisoners. Reenforceof the stolen goods was recovered. part ments followed, and the department was secured from President Gonzalez was at San further molestation. on the 27th. 24 Miguel On the other hand, a sanguinary and disastrous war with Guatemala caused an entire change in the ad



The general assembly had, on the 1st of March, con voked the people to elect on the first Sunday of De cember a president and vice-president for the second constitutional term to begin February 1, 187G, and end February 1, 1880. Andres Valle was chosen The president, and Santiago Gonzalez, vice-president.
latter offered his resignation, but the assembly did not accept it. They w^ere inducted into office on the ap date. But previous to this, Guatemala having pointed

attitude, congress decreed that event of the president going to the field at the head of the army, Valle, then a senator, should act in his stead, pro tempore. On the same date a forced loan of $500,000 was also ordered to be raised. The difficulties arose from a supposed understanding of President Gonzalez with Guatemalan refugees in
in the

assumed a menacing

Salvador, and the government of Ponciano Leiva in Honduras, with the ulterior object of bringing about the downfall of Barrios. The latter alleged also that Gonzalez intended to uphold with his forces the gov ernment of Leiva, which, according to him, was entirely unpopular, because of its subserviency to Salvador. This intervention was deemed not only an attack
"The governments of Guat., Nic., and Hand, tendered aid. The rebels were eventually pardoned after some months imprisonment. Pan. Star and Herald, July G 28, 1875; Salv., Diario Ofic., June L3 to July 21, 1875






against Honduran autonomy, but a menace to Guate mala. Gonzalez was notified that if he persisted in that course, Guatemala would then interfere in favor of General Medina, who was then trying to overthrow Leiva. The result of this attitude was a renewed assurance by Gonzalez of friendly feeling, and a prop osition to hold a verbal conference on Honduran affairs, which Barrios accepted, and such a conference was held now with President Valle at Chingo, and a con vention was signed on the 15th of February, under

which Marco Aurelio Soto, an Honduran by birth, was to undertake the pacification of his country, backed 25 Barrios by equal forces of Guatemala and Honduras. contended that, though Valle was president, Gonzalez was the real power in Salvador, whom he accused in a public manifesto of hypocrisy and treachery. Angry words continued, the two nations beinoc now armed O
for the conflict,

Both governments claimed

they agreed to disband their forces. to have done so, imput

ing to the other a wilful neglect of its obligation. The probability is, that, distrusting one another, they merely pretended compliance, keeping their troops Barrios sent 1,500 men into Hon ready for action. duras, and came himself with a force to threaten Sal vador on the west, and actually invaded the latter without a previous declaration of war. At last, on the 20th of March, Jose Maria Samayoa, minister of war in charge of the executive of Guatemala, formally declared all official relations with Salvador at an end, and then again on the 27th, alleging that Salvadoran troops had invaded Guatemala, decreed the existence of war, giving Barrios unlimited power to make such uses of this declaration as befitted the dignity of Gua25 This intervention was apparently on the ground of humanity, to stop But the main reason recognized was that the sit the civil war raging there. uation in Hond. was a menace to Salv., and might lead to an interruption of Salv., on being accused of friendly relations between the latter and Guat. violating the compact, alleged that by strict rights it had become obsolete after the action of Naranjo, when Leiva s administration demolished its foes and recovered its full authority. However, Salv. was disposed to fulfil her agreement. Salv., Diario Ofic., March 23, 1876.



26 The government of Salvador on the 26th temala. of March decreed the treaty of amity and alliance concluded with Guatemala January 24, 1872, to be no

longer in force. Barrios plan for the campaign was to assail Salva dor on the west direct from Guatemala with an army under his personal command, and at the same time by a movement from Honduras under General Gregorio Solares on the eastern departments of San Miguel


and La Union. The Mexican general, Lopez Uraga, adjutant-gen eral of Barrios, was stationed with a garrison at

At this time Jutiapa to guard the army supplies. the Salvadorans unsuccessfully attacked an isolated position on the frontier, which roused the ire of Bar He then directed Uraga to move the supplies rios. to Chingo, whence he started, himself to the invasion of Salvador. Solares had not yet been heard from. He had first of all to get Medina and Leiva out of the way in Honduras. The Guatemalan president then marched to the Coco hacienda, and hearing that

was abandoned, occupied




The Salvadorans had their headquarters at Santa Ana. The armies which were to encounter each
other on the field of battle were the most numerous Central America had ever seen. Barrios with 8,000 or 9,000 men laid siege of Ahuacnapan. Uraga sta tioned himself at Chalchuapa with about 1,500, and 28 Chingo was left with a handful of men.

The Guatemalans who had occupied Apaneca were driven away, and on returning thereto encountered the Salvadorans on the 15th of April, and after a
These decrees were countersigned by the qther ministers, J. Barberena, and Joaquin Macal. Guat., Recap. Ley., Gob. Democ., 202-6; Pan. Star and Herald, Apr. 17, 1876. 27 It denies all the charges of Barrios and his govt as unfounded in fact and slanderous, and imputes to Barrios the intent to conquer Cent. Am., be ginning with Salv. and Hond. This decree is countersigned by the ministers
F. Lainfiesta,

Manuel Caceres, Dositeo Fiallos, Julian Escoto, and Carlos Bonilla. Salv. Ofic., March 29, 1876; Pan. Star and Herald, Apr. 8, 1876. 28 Uraga acted under orders, and wonders why the Salvadorans did not fall upon Chingo and capture all the supplies there. Rtplica, 12-16.




fight lasting from eight in the morning till nightfall, were routed, and pursued as far as Atiquizaya, sus

taining heavy losses. Meantime the belligerent armies in the east were Solares after hard fighting from the 17th not idle. to the 19th of April won a signal and decisive vic tory at Pasaquina over the Salvadorans commanded


by generals Brioso, Dalgedo, Sanchez, and Espinosa; the results of which were that" he obtained control of the departments of San Miguel and La Union, men acing those of San Vicente and Usulutan, and even the official residence of President Valle; thus depriv ing the government of large resources, and disheart ening the army of Gonzalez in Ahuachapan and Santa Ana. 30 After this victory, Solares being reenforced, the Salvadorans, now reduced to 800 or 900, precipi tately retreated to San Miguel, but by desertions on The de the march dwindled down to less than 200. fence of San Miguel became impossible, and Solares

There being in it, as well as La Union. elements to defend San Vicente, the govern ment ordered the scattered garrisons to concentrate at the capital. The condition of the army of the west was not much better. There were in Ahuachapan about 2,000 men, and in Santa Ana hardly 3,500. The former was greatly decreased by constant fighting during the holy week, and on the day after easter hardly exceeded 900 An unsuccessful attempt was demoralized troops.
The victors did not occupy Apaneca because the enemy, though de was still much superior in numbers. The Salvadoran general-in-chief claimed a victory over 2,500 well-disciplined Guatemalans. The Diario OJir.


San Salv., Apr. 18, 1876, had it that 4,000 Guatemalans were put hors de combat in the two fights of Apaneca evidently an exaggeration. 30 The Salvadoran army of the east was annihilated. Gen. Delgado, and colonels Henriquez and Jerez were killed, Gen. Figueroa and Col Benj. Molina wounded. A large numl>er of prisoners, about 1,500 Remington rides, and much other war material fell into the victors hands. El Guatemfilfrro, Apr. 25, 187G; Pan. Star and Jfemld, May 1, 2, 1876. According to a
Salvadoran account, the eastern expeditionary force consisted of 1,500, while that of Solares was of 2,500. The former claimed a victory on the 17th, confessing, however, that they had finally to retreat. Salv., Diario Otic., Apr.
19, 23,





against Chalchuapa.

A few

days later Salva-

doran commissioners visited Barrios headquarters, as he was, it is averred, on the point of raising the siege 31 He then marched to Atiquizaya, of Ahuachapan. and the next day to Chalchuapa, where the negotia 32 tions for peace were held, which resulted in a con vention, preliminary to a treaty of peace, concluded on the 25th of April, ratified the next day, and coupled with the condition sine qua non of a complete change 33 in the personnel of the Salvadoran government.
31 He had thrown into it 900 bombs without other result than destroying a few buildings. Un Guatemalteco, Cartas, 26; Salv., Diario Ofic., Apr. 21, 1876. Gen. Gonzalez told a different story. 32 Gonzalez said that during the negotiations there were 2,300 men in Ahuachapan and 2,000 in Santa Ana; of the latter only one half were well armed. The Guatemalans had every advantage numbers, arms, discipline, and abundant resources of every kind. They had but few desertions, whereas from the Salv. ranks there had been many. Barrios army on entering Santa Ana exceeded 9,000 men. Salv. still had a chance of obtaining honorable If these were refused, she could, after providing for the defense of terms. the capital, concentrate the remainder of her forces in Santa Ana, and trust to the chances of a battle. Gonzalez, Eel. de los Heckos Ocurr., 1-18, in Pap.

Far., ccxxvii. no. 14.

The commissioners were Jose Valle, Jacinto Castellanos, and E. Mejia and Gen. Lopez Uraga for Guat. The terms are here epitomized: 1st. Presid. Valle was to resign the executive office to the person hereafter named. 2d. Gen. Gonzalez to give up the command of the forces to Valle. Both were to have full guaranties for their persons and property. 3d. The Salv. forces now at Santa Ana were to retire to San Salv. Santa Ana to be evacuated by 12 M. of the 27th inst. War material that could not be removed 4th. Santa Ana, and in time was to be delivered to Uraga under inventory. territory within two leagues of the town, were to be occupied by the Guate

for Salv.,


malans, the civil authorities being allowed to exercise their functions therein, but expected to furnish supplies; Barrios guaranteeing security of persons and property to the inhabitants. The Guat. forces in the east were to occupy San Miguel, and territory within one league, under the same guaranties allowed the civil authorities and people of Santa Ana. 5th. Presid. Valle was to convoke a junta of notables, within four days from the ratification of this convention, to meet at Santa Ana, and choose in accord with Barrios the person in whose hands Valle must resign his offices. 6th. The acting execu tive must, within ten days, convoke the people of Salv. to freely choose, a month later, the president of the republic. 7th. The person designated by the notables shall have organized his government and issued the convocation, the forces of Guat. will leave the Salv. territory. 8th. Barrios and the pro visional executive of Salv. will make a treaty of peace between the two 9th. This convention must be ratified republics. by Barrios at once, and by telegram within twenty -four hours by Valle, the ratifications to be exchanged within six hours after. An additional article made free the transit between the two countries. The convention was duly ratified. Upwards of 200 per sons at Santa Ana sent Barrios, after the occupation of the town by his troops, April 30th, an address of thanks for his magnanimity and generosity, adding that no Salvadoran could justly complain of the behavior of the Guat. army. Guat., Boletin de Noticias, no. 8; Barrios, Mensaje, Sept. 11, 1876, 7-11; Sale.,
Diario, Ofic.,


4, 7,

1876; Id., Gaceta, Ofic.,


26, 30,

1876; Costa


InformeSec. Rel, 1876, 11-12; Pan. Star and Herald,


16, 1876.



Under the preliminary convention of April 25th, Rafael Zaldivar was chosen provisional president, and defini on the 1st of May appointed his cabinet. 34 tive treaty of peace, friendship, and alliance, offensive


and defensive, was signed at Santa Ana May 8th, 35 in which Honduras joined on the 27th of May. Gen eral Gonzalez had meantime repaired on board the

war ship Amethyst at La Libertad, transfer himself afterward to the American mail steam ring ship Costa Rica, on which he left Central America. Pursuant to the 6th clause of the convention of April 25th, the people were called upon to choose, on the first Sunday of June, a president and vice-presi dent, as well as representatives to the legislative as sembly, the latter to meet at San Salvador on the This clause having been duly carried 1st of July. out, the Guatemalan forces withdrew from Salvador, 36 The elections took in accordance with the 7th. place, the national congress being installed July 3d, and Rafael Zaldivar declared to have been duly chosen constitutional president to continue the term from



1876, to February




was ac

cordingly inducted into

on the 19th of July.

Rafael Zaldivar had previously served in both houses of congress, in the cabinet, and filled several diplomatic missions, notably that of minister plenipo 37 On his return he became Presitentiary in Berlin.
Cruz Ulloa, min. of foreign relations, justice, eccles. affairs, and pub. instruction; Jose Lopez, of govern.; Estanislao Perez, of war; and Fabio uirio Ofic., May (i, 1870. Moran, of treasury. Salv., 36 By Cruz Ulloa and Marco Aurelio Soto. The treaty provided also for the surrender of common criminals, the concentration away from the frontier


ing Jesuits.

of political refugees; fostering legitimate and checking illicit trade; exclud In the event of misunderstandings, the parties must resort to


were repealed.

The treaty of Jan. 24, 1872, and the Rivas-Carazo with Honduras and Costa Rica were to be invited to join it.


11, 1876; La Regeneration, May 16, 18713 1879; Pan. Star and Herald, June 1, 1876. Gen. Indalecio Miranda, who had been -ft., Pap. Sueltos, no. 17. proclaimed president in some parts, recognized Zaldivar. 37 native of Salv. he studied medicine in Cent. Am. and completed his On his return home he soon had a remunera professional studies in Paris. tive practice, and came to be considered one of the best physicians in Cent. Am. His professional duties did not, however, keep him out of politics.



Salv., Diario








He dent Duenas right-hand man and supporter. was president of the last general assembly at the time of Duenas downfall, and considering his life in danger, he concealed himself, and finally escaped out of the country. 38 After this he lived in exile about
five years.

administration had no home or foreign complications to distract its attention from the usual routine of duties, and progress was soon noticeable in every branch of industry as well as of the public ser The executive, on the 3d of April, 1879, called vice. the people to choose a constituent congress to effect reforms in the constitution of November 9, 1872. This body was duly installed June 9th, under the presidency of Teodoro Moreno; but after appointing a committee to frame a constitution, it adjourned July 2d to meet again between the 1st and 15th of Janu It reassembled on the latter date, and ary, 1880. to consider the project of a fundamental proceeded law laid before it by that committee. Some amend ments were finally adopted on the 19th of February, and Zaldivar was reflected president for the ensuing term from February 1, 1880, to February 1, 1884. Nothing worthy of special mention occurred till the end of 1882. The constitutional congress opened its session on the 5th of January, 1883, when the presi dent gave an encouraging account of the political situ ation. Peace reigned, and the people were devoted to their industrial The relations with the pursuits. other nations of the earth were cordial, Salvador, though a small power, being the recipient of respect and regard from all others. With Costa Rica the rela

The new

tions, interrupted since

October 1879, were renewed,

He effected his escape from the capital disguised as an Indian with a load of grass on his head. d9 In Feb. 1879 congress thanked the emperor of Germany for the honor of knighthood conferred on Zaldivar. In France he was given the title of officer of pub. instruction. The same month and year congress gave him a vote of thanks for his services. Ualv., Diario 0/?c., March C, 8, 1879.



morning of April IGth, a body of shot-guns, revolvers, and machetes attacked the garrison at Santa Tecla, crying Viva la religion Viva el Doctor Gallardo Mueran Zaldivar y Barrios! They were repulsed by the troops commanded by Colonel Matias Castro Delgado,


and with Nicaragua the most perfect understanding existed. The treaty of alliance with Guatemala and Honduras was in full force. 40 But this happy state of things was not to last.
2 o clock in the

men armed with


who captured

The government forces forty prisoners. in pursuit of the others in the region of the
The insurrectionary move volcano. ramifications in other towns, namely, La

ment had

Libertad, San Salvador, Santa Ana, Ahuachapan, and Sonsonate, where its authors expected to be seconded. The president at once placed the departments of San Salvador, La Libertad, and the west under This and other prompt measures pre martial law. vented any further action on the part of the would-be revolutionists. Quiet having been fully restored, the decree of martial law was repealed. 42 Another change in the constitution was made this The executive called a convention on the 18th year. of October to meet between the 15th and 20th of December, to revise the charter of February 19, 1880, adapting the fundamental institutions of the country to its present needs; and also to take cognizance of other matters which the executive would lay before it.

40 He therefore saw good reason to tender congratulations to the repre sentatives of the people on the promising condition of Salvador and the other Cent. Am. republics. Zaldivar, Mensaje, Jan. 5. 1883; Pan. Star and Herald, Jan. 17, 1888; Pan. ElCronista, Jan. 20, 1883. 41 Among the persons taken as leaders of the movement were Gen. Fran cisco Menendez, l)r Manuel Gallardo, Marcial Estevez, and Manuel A. Louccl. Salv., Diario Ofic., Apr. 16, 17, 1883; Pan. Star and Herald, May 5, 7, 1883. 42 June 1st. This decree caused much satisfaction among all classes. 43 The grounds for the convocation as stated were that the people had almost unanimously declared that some of the clauses of the constitution of 1880 were not suited to the national requirements. The Diario Ofitial ex pressed the hope that the revision would give a more judicious application of the principles of a republican government, thus strengthening the public liberties without weakening the principle of authority.



A new constitution was adopted soon after, contain
ing all the political rights recognized in the most lib eral instruments of the kind, guaranteeing also the
free exercise of all religions not repugnant to morality and public order. 44 President Zaldivar was reflected and reinaugurated on the 1st of February, 1884. 45

obtaining leave of absence to visit Europe, where had been some time, he turned over the executive office to the first designado, Angel Guirola, who was to hold it till his return. 46 He was again
his family


San Salvador in August, and resumed his duties. Another period of trouble is now again impending

on Salvador. Elsewhere I give the particulars of the undertaking of Barrios, president of Guatemala, to reconstruct Central America as one republic by force of arms. It is unnecessary to do more than at the same here. On finding a deliberate glance to his project on the part of the govern opposition ments of Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, he placed his army in the field to support any move ments in those republics toward the end he had in view. The people of Salvador responded to the call of their authorities, 47 who in a short time had about 1,800 volunteers enrolled, and relied, moreover, on the aid of the other three governments equally inter ested in defending their autonomy. About 12,000 men were stationed on the western frontier under the direct command of President Zaldivar, but no act of hostility was committed, out of respect for the American minThe govt was vested in three distinct powers: legislative in two cham bers; executive in a president for four years; and judicial in a supreme court. 40 He constituted his cabinet with the following ministers: Salvador Gallegos, of foreign affairs; Domingo Lopez, interior; Pedro Melendez, treasury

and navy; Asun. Mora, war and public works; Luciano Hernandez, education; and Antonio J. Castro, justice. Guat., Mem. Sec. If el. Exter., 1884, p. 6; Costa R., Mem. Sec. Rel. Exter., 1884, 5-6; Pan. Star and Herald, Jan. 16, Feb. 23,
26, 1884.

visited the U. S. and France, being received with the honors due his as chief magistrate of a friendly nation. La Estrella de Pan.. Aug. 14, Sept. 11, 1884; El Ouatemalteco, Apr. 29, 1884. 47 Proclamations and manifestoes of Pres. Zaldivar and the assembly of Salv., March 14, 15, 17, 1885. Costa R., Boletin OJic., March 21, April 1, 1885; La Estrella de Pan., March 28, 1885.







who had been mediating, and obtained from that he would not invade Salvador if his rios



But this pledge went for territory were not assailed. The Guatemalans invaded Salvador March nothing. 30th, compelling the Salvadorans who had been forti fying the hacienda del Coco to abandon that position, though only after severe fighting, and retire into their
fortifications of Chalchuapa.

The latter were assailed

enemy, but the garrison re turned the fire with success, and gallantly met the desperate onslaught until a signal victory crowned
their well-directed efforts. Barrios, the intrepid leader of the Guatemalans, lost his life, but this did not put an end to the fight for several hours yet. 49 The discomfited assailants began their retreat to the frontier at six o clock, or a little later, in the evening,

by the whole

force of the

unpursued. With the friendly intervention of the foreign diplo matic corps an armistice was signed, giving time for negotiations, which culminated in a treaty of peace with Guatemala, the particulars of which are given elseThe
The Salv. official reports claimed victories at Coco and San Lorenzo. attack against the latter was made at 10 r. M. of the 31st, and repulsed. Repeated the next day from 5 A. M. to 3 r. M. ; the assailants were driven back by Gen. Monterosa. Cota R., Boletin Ojic., April 2, 1885.

49 According to a Guat. account, an error was committed in not bombard ing the Salv. stronghold, Casa Blanca. Barrios at 8 A. M. of the 2d led the assault on the N. E. side of the fortification with the Jiron brigade of Jalapas, which on that day behaved cowardly. Shortly after the assault, a little past 9, Barrios was mortally wounded, and forthwith removed. The Jalapas to other troops the death of the president. Thus it came gave way, divulging to pass that the first who saw Barrios fall were the first to take to flight, fol lowed by men of several other brigades. To avert a disaster, the troops oper ating on the N. side were recalled. The firing ceased on both sides at 4:30, and the retreat to the Magdalena began at 6:30, the Salvadorans not pursu The same authority claimed that if the firing had been kept up an ing. hour longer, the Guatemalans would have won the day, several bodies of troops having abandoned the town, and the supply of ammunition in the He asserts that the Guat. loss in all the fights place being already scanty. was in killed, besides the president, and his son Gen. Venancio Barrios, colo nels A. Jiron, V. Bonilla Cruz, Urbano Sanchez, Major Gonzalez, a few other officers, and 200 rank and file. Campana de la Union Cent. Am., in La Estrella tie Pan., May 30, 1885. 60 Further details may be seen in Zaldivar, Mensaje, May 4, 1885; Costa I?., Informe Sec. Eel Exter., 1885, 1-4; Id., Boletin Ojic., Apr. 5, 1885; La Ettrclla de Pan., Apr. 4, May 2, 9, 1885; Pan. Star and Herald, Apr. 10, 24, 27, 1885; 8. F. Cronteta, Apr. 4, 11, 15, 25, May 2, 1885; Mex., Diario Ojic., Apr. 4, 1885; Id., Monitor Rel, June 23, 1885; hi., La Prensa, supl. no. 162.



An insurrection had already broken the west, promoted by political adversaries, whose leader was General Francisco Menendez. The government reported a victory over the insurgents at Armenia the 19th of May, but the revolution gained ground so rapidly that Menendez, who had been pro claimed presidente provisorio, made his triumphal entry in San Salvador on the 22d, midst the acclama 54 tions of the populace. The revolution was success ful, and the new government was afterward recognized
for Europe.

51 With Honduras 52 a treaty was concluded, where. with the assent of the three allies, which restored Zaldivar called congress to hold friendly relations. an extra session, and laid before it, May 4th, an ac count of the campaign and its results, and concluded, This was asking that body to accept his resignation. unanimously refused nor was his subsequent request But on his for a year s leave of absence granted. declaring his intention of taking the unused time of the leave given him in 1884, that body acceded, and On the allowed him to be absent twelve months. 14th, he placed the executive authority in the hands of the second designado, General Fernando Figueroa, his minister of the treasury, who had the support of Zaldivar s friends; and on the following day departed




by foreign powers. In August, Menendez

called on the people to choose a constituent convention, and preparations were made therefor; but disturbances having occurred in several places, he prolonged his dictatorship and redeclared



amnesty to

gov. of Salv. proclaimed peace on the loth of April, and granted a all who took part in the war against Salv.> and generally to

all in exile for political offences.

Though the gov, had made common cause with Barrios, it manifested a disposition to cut loose from the alliance after the late events. 53 Costa R., Gaceta, May 19, June 24, 1885. Zaldivar well knew that there was a powerful opposition to him.
Menendez was a man of energy and courage. He possessed good com* sense and natural shrewdness. His habits were simple. Polite and unassuming, he always made a favorable impression. 55 Costa R., Gaceta, July 1, 1885; Pan. Star and Herald, July 18, 1885;



Estralla de Pan., July 25, 1885.



56 Zaldivar was charged with improper martial law. uses of the public funds, and the government refused to recognize a certain indebtedness incurred in his ad

His property in Salvador was seized, ministration. and an attempt was made by certain persons to lay hands on some real estate of his in Costa Rica, but 57 Shortly after they were not permitted to do so. there was a rupture with Nicaragua, which did not
last long,


a treaty of peace being signed at January 1886.


56 Nov. 26 and 27, 1885. Pan. Star and Herald, Sept. 9, Dec. 7, 1885. This state of things still existed in March 1886. Correspondence of March

1st, to 8.

F. Pout, April

2, 1886.

The supreme court would not recognize the
Costa R., Gaceta, Nov.


right of the Salv. courts to 1885; Pan. Star and Herald, Sept. 18,