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THE WORKS

OF

HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT.

VOLUME

VIII.

HISTORY OF CENTRAL AMERICA.
VOL.
III.

1801-1887.

SAN FRANCISCO: THE HISTORY COMPANY, PUBLISHERS.
1887.

Entered according

to

Act of Congress in the Year

1887,

by

HUBERT

H.

BANCRGI T,
of Congress, at

In the Office of the Libraria

Washington.

All Rights Reserved.

CONTENTS OF THIS VOLUME.
CHAPTER
1801-1818.

I.

LAST DAYS OF SPANISH RULE. PAGE Popular Feeling in Central America Effect of Events in Spain Recog nition of American Equality Representation in the Spanish Cortes Delusive Reforms End of Saravia s Rule President Jose Busta-

mante
tional

His Despotic Course
Guarantees

Demands

in the Cortes

Constitu

Official Hostilit^r

Campaign

in Oajaca

Revolu

tionary
cion

Movements

in Salvador

War

in Nicaragua

Conspiracy in
1

Guatemala

Treatment

of the Insurgents

Disrespect to the Diputa-

The Constitution Revoked

Royal Decrees
II.

CHAPTER
1818-1821.

INDEPENDENCE ACHIEVED.
President Carlos Urrutia
1

His Liberal Views

Spanish Constitution Restored The Gazistas, or Bacos Jose del Yalle Pedro Molina Liberal Institutions
the Political Government

Colombian Assaults The Cacos Extent of

Ecclesiastical Administration

Work

of

American Deputies Party Excitement in Guatemala Urrutia Dele gates his Powers Substitute President Gavino Gainza Chiapas and Her Government She Secedes from Spain and Joins the Mexican Empire Guatemala Declares for Independence Junta Gubernativa
Convocation of a Congress
2o

CHAPTER
1821-1822.
First Acts of

III.

UNION WITH M E X I C O.
Guatemalan Rulers
Gainza
s

Intrigues of Parties

Their Evil Con
the Other Prov

sequences
inces

Intrigues

Independence

in

Rewards to Gainza Troubles in Salvador Dissensions in Honduras Local Squabbles in Nicaragua Predilection for Imperial
ism-

Costa Rica Neutral

Condition of Various Sections

Seceding
IturIllegal

Districts of
bi le s

Guatemala

Perplexities of the Junta Consultiva

Devices

Annexation

Military Pressure His Proposals Accepted Protests and Resistance War Begins

42

(v)

vi

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER
1822-1825.

IV.

CENTRAL AMERICAN CONFEDERATION.
PAGE
Secession from Mexico

Arzu

s

Campaign

Prevarication of .Salvador

Filisola s Victory His Subsequent Course Liberal Triumph in Costa Rica Honduras Favors Union National Independence Se

cured

Labors to Organize a Nation The Constituent Assembly Provincias Unidas del Centre de America Abolition of African
Slavery
rales or Fiebres

LibeGovernment Moderados or Serviles Aims of Parties Mexican Forces Salvadoran Force in Guatemala ConfedRetire- Seditions Begin eracion de Centre America Fundamental Law- Finances Adjourn ment of the Constituent Assembly

Provisional

Principles and

tJO

CHAPTER
1825-1830.

V.

CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT.

General Elections
varications

Meeting
of

of the First

First President

the Republic

Arce, Congress Manuel Foreign Relations Arce s Pre
Jose"

Conflict with Guatemala Party Bickerings Liberals Quarrel with Arce He Joins their Opponents Bitterness Engen dered President versus Guatemalan Rulers Arrest of Jefe Juan

Barrundia
Flores

Riots at Quezaltenango Murder of Vice-jefe Cirilo Arce as Dictator in Guatemala War against Salvador Arce Defeated He Gives up the Presidency, and Cannot Recover It

Bloody

War

of

1S2G-9

rundia, Acting President

Morazan the Victor- Jose Francisco BarLiberal Measures Peace Restored
7 .)
(

Spanish Schemes

CHAPTER
C
I

VI.
.

V

I

L

WAR

1820-1838.

Revolution in Honduras
eral Elections

Conservatives Invade the State

Second Gen
Plots of the

Francisco Morazan Chosen President

Arce s Invasion from Mexico Occupation of Honduras by Exiled Rebels Spanish Flag Hoisted in Omoa, and Aid from Cuba Salvadoran Authorities in Rebellion Third General Elections Morazan Reflected Failure of Colonization Plans Rav
Serviles

Ports

ages of Cholera

Indian Revolt under Carrera

His Early Life

108

CHAPTER
1837-1840.

VII.

DISSOLUTION OF THE REPUBLIC.

Campaign against Carrera Several Departments of Guatemala in Re bellion Jefe Galvez Deposed Carrera Takes Guatemala Murder

CONTENTS.
Carrera Accepts Money to Leave the City Dictatorship Offered Morazan by the Aristocrats and Refused Carrera s Second
of Salazar

vii

PAGK

The Republic in Peril Morazan s Efforts to Save It Nicaragua and Honduras Forces Invade Salvador Morazan Defeats Them His Retreat to San Salvador He Embarks Is Refused
Rebellion

Dead

Hospitality in Costa Rica Goes to South America Salvador at the Mercy of Carrera

The Republic

is
1

27

CHAPTER

VIII.

GUATEMALA AND HONDURAS.
1824-1840.
State

Government of Guatemala Barrundia s Radicalism His Over throw Vice-jefe Flores Assassinated in Quezaltenango Downfall of the Liberals in Guatemala Aristocratic Leaders Exiled Jefe Mo lina His Differences, Impeachment, and Acquittals Rivera Cabeza s Reforms Earthquakes Galvez Rule and its Benefits Party Opposition to Him Indian Outbreaks Carrera Captures Guatemala Galvez Resigns Subsequent Rule of the Aristocrats Guatemala Honduras State Government Jefe Dionisio again Independent
Herrera
Early Dissensions
in the Field

Morazan

Confederation

Comayagua Assaulted by Rebels Honduras Secedes from the Central American 145 Federalism Rooted out of her Territory

CHAPTER
1824-1840.

IX.

SALVADOR, NICARAGUA, AND COSTA RICA.
Salvador State Government
Secession from the Union San Salvador as the Federal Seat of Government Guate mala Imposes her Will Jefe Cafias and Comandante Malespin Nic aragua s Early Troubles Siege and Bombardment of Leon Organ ization of State Government Dissensions and Warfare Eruption of Cosigiiina Secession from the Confederation Costa Rica as a Con federated State Juan Mora s Administration Towns Bickerings Settled Braulio Carrillo s Rule Final Secession from the Central American Republic Prosperity of the State
Liberals Overthrown

1

65

CHAPTER
1839-1852.
Interstate Dissensions

X.

DISSOLUTION OF THE UNION.

Pacto de Chinandega

Confederacion Centro

Americana Supremo Delegado Chamorro Hostility of Guatemala and British Officials Arce Invades Salvador War of the Confeder acy against Guatemala Helplessness of Chamorro End of the
Pacto de Chinandega
Condition of the States
Ferrera
s

Bad Faith

viii

CONTENTS.
PAGE Salvador and Honduras against Nicaragua Horrors of Leon Vice-president Joaquin E. Guzman Honduras and Salvador at War Guardiola s Vandalism- Malespin Overthrown Renewed Efforts
v

to Confederate

Guatemala an Independent Republic

Costa Rica
Its

Follows

Salvador, Nicaragua, and Honduras a Confederacy Short Life Further Unsuccessful Attempts

186

CHAPTER XL
REPUBLIC OF COSTA RICA.
1841-1856.

Rule

of Carrillo

Continued

zan

Change of Morazan s volts Measures of the ments Sedition
Republic

its Overthrow Invasion of MoraGovernment Morazan s Policy Opposition Re Defeat and Death Satisfaction of the Oligarchs

Plots for

Victors

New
s

Constitution

Castro

Administration

Subsequent Amend Costa Rica Declared a

Recognition by Spain Relations with Other Powers Boundary Questions with Nicaragua and Colombia President Juan 215 Rafael Mora His Repressive Measures

CHAPTER
1838-1855.
State

XII.

REPUBLIC OF NICARAGUA.

Government

sion

Director Buitrago s Conservatism British Aggres Director Sandoval s Rule Internal Troubles Guerrero s Ad

ministration

The Mosquito Kingdom

Its

Origin and History

Bubbles

British Pretensions

Seizure of San

Juan

del

Norte

Dip

lomatic Complications Clayton-Bui wer Treaty Nicaragua Recovers her Own Relations with Foreign Powers An American War Ship

Bombards San Juan del Norte Pineda s Government Establish ment of the Republic Party Dissensions Legitimists versus Demo crats Chamorro and Castellon Civil War Death of Chamorro
Estrada Succeeds

Him

238

CHAPTER

XIII.

REPUBLIC OF GUATEMALA.
1840-1865.

President Rivera Paz
tion of the

Carrera

s

Course

Pretended Sedition

Dissolu

Assembly A Consejo Constituyente Created Carrera Becomes President Attempt against his Life Revolt of Monterrosa Carrera s Despotism The Republic Established Relations with Other Powers Revolution of the Mountain Constituent As sembly Convened Carrera s Forced Resignation and Exile Liberals Triumphant Their Squabbles and Disintegration The Moderado Party Revolution of Los Altos Intrigues of the Serviles Presi-

CONTENTS.
dencies of Martinez and Escobar

ix

Paredes
President

Recall of Carrera

PAGE Causes of their Resignations Deeds of Vengeance Carrera again
264

Partial Restoration of Peace

CHAPTER

XIV.

REPUBLIC OF SALVADOR.
1839-1865.

Malespin s Acts Lindo s Coup d Etat and Deposal Jefe Guzman Revolt at Santa Ana President Aguilar The Bishop Expelled Viteri s Alliance with Malespin and Honduran Oligarchs President Vasconcelos British Hostilities Salvador s Relations with Foreign

Powers

San Martin

s

Administration

Destruction of San Salvador

Campaign against Walker in Nicaragua Estab lishment of the Republic Santin s Overthrow Presidency of Gerardo Barrios War of Salvador and Honduras against Guatemala and Nicaragua The Latter Victorious Barrios Flight Restoration of Peace Duefias as President Barrios Subsequent Return His Capture and Surrender by Nicaragua His Execution in San Salva
President

Campo

dor.

.

.

285

CHAPTER
1840-1865.

XV.

REPUBLIC OF HONDURAS.

President Ferrera

Revolutionary Movements Political Executions Presidency of Juan Lindo New Constitution Lindo Overthrown Belize Honduras Troubles with Great Britain British Occupation
of Tiger Island

Bombardment
with Guatemala

of

Omoa

Bay
s

Islands

President

visional Rules of Castellanos

Pro and Montes Alliance with Barrios Unsuccessful War with Guatemala and Nicaragua Montes Deposed Establishment of the Republic Jose M. Medina Chosen President
Cabanas
Guardiola
Assassination

War

Amendment

of the Constitution

309

CHAPTER
WALKER S CAMPAIGN
s

XVI.
IN NICARAGUA.

1855-1856.

Kinney

Expedition

his Expedition to Rivas nagua Death of Munoz

nada
Corral

William Walker Joins the Democrats Failure of Cholera Decimates the Legitimists at Ma AValker s Victories at La Virgen and Gra Execution of Minister Mayorga Walker s Convention with
Provisional

Rivas

Commander
Death
for

Put

to

President Patricio Government Organized Walker Minister of War Corral Treason Recognition by Salvador and Honduras
of the Forces,

Seizure of the Transit

Company

s

Steamers

Costa Ricans on the
327

War-path

Havoc

of

Cholera

x

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER
END OF FILIBUSTERING
IN

XVII.
CENTRAL AMERICA.

1856-1867. PAGB Recognition of President Rivas by the United States Walker s Hostile Attitude Flight of Rivas Walker Makes Himself President Alli

ance against Him Death of Estrada The Legitimists Accept Rivas Costa Ricans and Nicaragnans in Rivas Destruction of Granada
It is

Occupied by Allied Forces
Besieged

Walker Reoccupies Rivas

Where

He

is

Successes of the Costa Ricans

Failure of Lock-

ridge

s Expedition Surrender of Walker War of Nicaragua and Costa Rica Commodore Paulding and Walker s Second Attempt Walker s Invasion of Honduras, Capture, and Execution-^Government Reorganized President Martinez Administrations 347

CHAPTER

XVIII.

POLITICAL EVENTS IN COSTA RICA.
1856-1886.

Rewards to Walker

Conquerors Reelection of Mora His Downfall and Exile His Return, Capture, and Execution Montealegre s Admin Violence of Parties Compromise on Jesus Jimenez His istration
s

Peaceful Rule

President Jose M. Castro
Several

Charges against

Him

His Overthrow
dent
ranza

His Arbitrary Other Temporary Rulers President Guardia s Despotism Failure of his Warlike Plans His Death Administration of Prospero Fernandez Preparations to Defend Independence His Sudden

New Constitutions Jimenez again Presi Acts How He was Deposed President Car-

Death

Bernardo Soto

s

Peaceful Rule

CHAPTER

XIX.

DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS IN SALVADOR.
1865-1885.

Rule

Duenas His Conservatism Quarrel with Honduras The Latter Allied with Salvadoran Liberals Battle of Santa AnaDuenas Deposed His Impeachment, Release, and Temporary Exile
of President

Magistrate

Santiago Gonzalez Provisional President Guatemala and Salvador at
of Vice-president

Gonzalez Elected Chief

War

with Honduras-

-

Mendez Earthquakes President Valle Trouble with Guatemala Exeunt Valle and Gonzalez Zaldivar
Murder
Long Rule
Costa Rica
torious

.s

Constitutional Changes Alliance with Nicaragua and Resistance to Barrios Plan of Conquest Salvador Vic

Restored Peace

Zaldivar Eliminated
. .

Revolution

F.
.
."!):>

M enemies

Made

President.

CONTENTS.

xi

CHAPTER XX.
DEMOCRACY RESTORED
IN

GUATEMALA,
PAGE

18G5-1873.
1

resident Cerna

s

Rule

Partial Revolts

Liberals in the Assembly

s Reelection Riots in the Capital Zavala s Course Crux Rebellion, Defeat, and Death Arrests of Liberals Moderation of the Government Revolution of Garcia Granados and Barrios

Cerna

Plan

of Patzicia

Cerna Defeated and Overthrown
Seditious
Prelates,

Granados

as

Presidente Provisorio
Priestly Privileges

Movements Quelled Abolition of Jesuits, and Capuchins Expelled
His Sever
41. ?

War
ity

with Honduras
Elections

Barrios as Substitute President

Barrios Chosen Constitutional President

CHAPTER
1873-1885.

XXI.
UNITY.

RENEWED EFFORTS FOR CENTRAL AMERICAN
President Barrios of Guatemala
Progress

War

End of Reactionary War Guatemalan with Salvador and Honduras Barrios Successes

and Generosity to the Vanquished Constitutional Regime in Guate mala Barrios Reflections His Visit to the United States Peace ful Effort to Unite Central America Resort to Arms Alliance of Guatemala and Honduras Barrios Attacks Salvador His Defeat and Death- -His Plan Abandoned M. L. Barillas, Provisional Presi dent of Guatemala Restoration of Peace 43 1

CHAPTER

XXII.

HONDURAS AFFAIRS.
1865-1886.

National Flag and Escutcheon Order of Santa Rosa Medina s Long Rule His Differences with Duenas, and Triumph War with Salva dor and Guatemala Medina Defeated and Overthrown Celeo Arias

Him His Liberal Policy He is Beset by the Conserva His Former Supporters Depose Him Ponciano Leiva Becomes President His Course Displeases Barrios, Who Sets Medina against
Succeeds
tives

Him He is Forced to Resign Marco Aurelio Soto Made President by Barrios Attempted Revolt of Ex-president Medina His Trial and Execution Soto s Administration- He Goes Abroad His Quar rel with Barrios, and Resignation President Bogran Filibustering Schemes 453

CHAPTER
President Fernando

XXIII.

POLITICAL AFFAIRS IN NICARAGUA.
1867-1885.

Guzman

Insurrection

Misconduct

of

Priests

Defeats of the Insurgents-

Foreign Mediation

Generosity of the

CONTENTS.
PAGE

Government President Vicente Quadra Inception of the Jesuits Aims of Parties Internal and Foreign Complications Costa Rica Hostility and Tinoco s Invasion Presidents Chamorro and Zavala More Political Troubles Jesuits the Promoters Their Expulsion

s

Peace Restored Progress of the Country President Adan Car denas Resistance to President Barrios Plan of Forced Reconstruc
tion..
.

.

470

CHAPTER XXIV.
INDEPENDENCE OF THE ISTHMUS.
1801-1822.

Administration under Spain Influence of Events in Europe and Spanish America on the Isthmus Hostilities in. Nueva Granada Constitu
tional
for

Government

General Hore

s

Measures to Hold the Isthmus

Spain MacGregor s Insurgent Expedition at Portobello Reestablishment of the Constitution Captain-general Murgeon s Rule

The Isthmus is Declared Independent Its Incorporation with Colombia Jose Fabrega in Temporary Command Jose Maria Carreno Appointed Intendente and Comandante General Abolition of
African Slavery

488

CHAPTER XXV.
DIVERS PHASES OF SELF-GOVERNMENT.
1819-1863.

Panama Congress
Execution
ences with

Provincial Organizations Alzuru s Rebellion and Differ Secession from Colombia and Reincorporation

Foreign

Treatment

of Criminals

Governments Crime Rampant Summary Riots and Massacre of Foreign Passengers

Attempts to Rob Treasure Trains Neutrality Treaties Estab lishment of Federal System Panama as a State Revolutionary Era Begins A Succession of Governors Seditious Character of the

Negro Population Revolution against Governor Guardia and his Death Another Political Organization Estado Soberano de Pana 510 ma Liberal Party in Full Control Stringent Measures

CHAPTER XXVI.
FURTHER WARS AND REVOLUTIONS.
1863-1885.

Presidents Goitia, Santa Coloma, and Calancha Federal Officials Colunje s Administration

Undue

Interference of
s

President Olarte

En

ergy Enmity of the Arrabal s Negroes Short and Disturbed Rules of Diaz and Ponce President Correoso Negro Element in the

Ascendent

Conservatives Rebel, and are Discomfited

Armed Peace

CONTENTS.
for a

xiii

PAGE

Time

Casorla

Feverish Rules of Neira, Mird, Aizpuru, Correoso, and Cervera s Long Tenure Temporary Rule of Vives Leon

Is Suc Arosemena Aizpuru s Revolution Flees and Resigns Outrages at Colon American Forces Protect Panama Collapse of the Revolution Aizpuru and Correoso Im 532 prisoned Chief Causes of Disturbances on the Isthmus

President Santodomingo Vila ceeded by Pablo Arosemena

Obtains Leave of Absence

CHAPTER
1886.

XXVII.

CENTRAL AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS.

Extent of the Country Climate Mountains and Volcanoes Earth quakes Rivers and Lakes Costa Rica s Area, Possessions, and

and Government Her Chief Cities Nicaragua, her Territory, Towns, and Municipal Administration- -Honduras Extent, Islands, Cities, and Local Government Salvador, her Posi
Political Division
tion,

sions

Area, Towns, and Civil Rule Guatemala s Extent and Posses Her Cities and Towns Internal Administration Isthmus of

Panama -Area, Bays, Rivers, and Islands Department and District Rule The Capital and Other Towns Population Character and Customs Education Epidemics and Other Calamities 560

CHAPTER
THE PEOPLE OF COSTA
Central American Population

XXVIII.
AND SALVADOR.

RICA, NICARAGUA,

1800-1887.
Its Divisions

General Characteristics and
Failure of For

Occupations
eign Schemes

Land Grants

Efforts at Colonization

Rejection of American Negroes Character of the Costa Rican People Dwellings Dress Food Amusements Nica-

raguan Men and Women Their Domestic Life How They Amuse Themselves People of Salvador Their Character and Mode of
Living

587

CHAPTER XXIX.
THE PEOPLE OF HONDURAS AND GUATEMALA.
1800-1887.

Amalgamation

in

Honduras

Zambos
Traits

or Mosquitos

Ladinos
Classes

War of Races Xicaques and Payas Pure and Black Caribs Distinguishing Their Mode of Life Guatemala and her People
Possible

Different Classes

Lower

Upper
demics

Class

Improved Condition of the Pure Indians Lacandones White and Manners and Customs Prevailing Diseases Epi
Their Vocations
Mestizos

Provision for the Indigent

608

xiv

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXX.
INTELLECTUAL ADVANCEMENT.
1800-1887.

PAGE
Public Education

Early Efforts at Development Costa Rica s Measures Small Success Education in Nicaragua Schools and Colleges

Nicaraguan Writers Progress in Salvador and Honduras Brilliant Results in Guatemala Polytechnic School Schools of Science, Arts, and Trades Institute for the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind University Public Writers Absence of Public Libraries Church History in Central America and Panama Creation of Dioceses of Salvador and Costa Rica Immorality of Priests Their Struggles for Supremacy Efforts to Break their Power Banishments of Prelates Expulsion of Jesuits Suppression of Monastic Orders Separation of Church and State Religious Freedom 021

CHAPTER XXXI.
JUDICIAL AND MILITARY.
1887.

Judicial

System of Guatemala Jury Trials in the Several States Courts of Honduras Absence of Codes in the Republic Dilatory Justice Impunity of Crime in Honduras and Nicaragua Salvador s Judiciary

Dilatory Procedure Codification of Laws in Nicaragua Costa Rican Administration Panama Courts Good Improved Codes Codes Punishments for Crime in the Six States Jails and Peniten tiaries Available Force of Each State How Military Service Naval Organized Expenditures Military Schools Improve

ments.

.

.

.

038

CHAPTER XXXII.
INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS.
1800-1887.

Early Agriculture

Protection of the Industry

Communal Lands

Agricultural Wealth

Great Progress Attained Decay of Cochineal

Development of Other Staples Indigo, Coffee, Sugar, Cacao, and Tobacco Food and Other Products Precious Woods and Medicinal Plants Live-stock Value of Annual Production in Each State Natural Products of Panama Mineral Neglect of Agriculture Wealth Yield of Precious Metals Mining in Honduras, Salvador, and Nicaragua Deposits of Guatemala and Costa Rica Mints Former Yield of Panama Mining Neglected on the Isthmus In650 cipiency of Manufactures Products for Domestic Use

CONTENTS.

xv

CHAPTER

XXXIII.

COMMERCE AND FINANCE.
1801-1887.

PAGE Early State of Trade Continued Stagnation after Independence Steam on the Coasts Its Beneficial Effects Variety of Staples Ports of

Entry and

Tariffs

Imports and Exports

Fairs

Accessory Transit

Company
mus
tion

Internal Navigation Money Banking Highways Postal Service Panama Railway Traffic Local Trade of the Isth

Pearl Fishery Colonial Revenue in Finances of the Federa Their Receipts and Sources of Revenue of Each State

Expenditures

Foreign and Internal Debts

603

CHAPTER XXXIV.
INTEROCEANIC COMMUNICATION.
1801-1887.

Ancient Ideas on the North-west Passage From Peru to La Plata Arctic Regions McClure s Successful Cape Horn Discovered Crozier s Discovery Franklin s Attempts Voyage Finding by Nordenskiold of the North-east Passage Projects to Unite the At lantic and Pacific Oceans across the Isthmuses Plans about Tehuaiitepec

and Darien
tion of the
for a

Explorations for a Ship-canal Route in Nicaragua, Panama, The Nicaragua Accessory Transit Company Construc

Panama Railway, and

its

Great Benefits

Further Efforts

Organization of a French Company Ship-canal under Construction across the Isthmus of Panama Difficulties and Expec

Canal

A

tations

Central American Railroads and Telegraphs

Submarine
.

Cables..

688