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Buoyancy, Flotation, and Stability Buoyant force: When a body is completely or partially submerged Upward vertical force exerting

on a body due to pressure difference : Fbottom of body () > FTop () Archimedes Principle Question: Determine the magnitude of Buoyant force. Consider a completely submerged body (Arbitrary shape and volume V ) Step 1. Enclose a body with a parallelepiped Step 2. Find all forces exerting on fluid INSIDE a parallelepiped (INSTEAD of forces on the body).
F1 & F2 : Forces on Horizontal planes

F3 & F4 : Forces on Vertical planes

W : Weight ( = Volume of fluid in a parallelepiped NOT body !!) FB: Force of the body exerting on fluid

Step 3. Equations of motion (Equilibrium) 1) Horizontal components

h1 Area A

F 3 + F4 = 0

2) Vertical component

F 2 F1 W FB = 0

Volume of a parallelepiped

FB = ( h2 A) ( h1 A) [(h2 h1 ) A V ] = V where A: Top area (AB) of parallelepiped V: Volume of a body From the static (equilibrium) condition, FB : Body force exerting on the fluid = Fluid force exerting on the body (Action - Reaction)

FB = V

: Buoyant force (Archimedes Principle)

= Weight of fluid displaced by the body (Upward)

Question: Determine the location of FB Consider a moment equation about an axis passing through D (x axis) Moment = F2 y1 F1 y1 Wy2 FB y c = 0

What to be determined

h2 Ay1 h1 Ay1 [(h2 h1 ) A V ] y2 Vyc = 0

(h2 h1 ) A y1 [(h2 h1 ) A V ] y2 V yc = 0 Total volume of a parallelepiped, VT

VT y1 = V yc + (VT V ) y2
Center of Total volume

(Equation of Volume center) Center of Fluid volume in parallelepiped

Center of Displace volume

yc : y coordinate of the centroid of displaced volume V

By a similar manner, xc : x coordinate of the centroid of displaced volume V

Stability of submerged or floating bodies

What does the stability of a body mean? - Stable: When slightly displaced, it returns to original position - Unstable: When displaced, it moves to new equilibrium position Question: Determine the stability of submerged or floating bodies - Relation between the center of buoyancy and gravity Type 1. Completely submerged body (1) If Center of gravity (CG) of body: Below center of buoyancy (CB) A small displacement FB W pair: Restoring force Return to the original position Stable equilibrium

(2) Center of gravity (CG) of body: Above center of buoyancy (CB) A small displacement FB W pair: Overturning force Move to new position Unstable equilibrium

Applicable only to completely submerged bodies

Type 2. Floating body (Partially submerged body) - Hard to determine due to change of CB for a small rotation

Stable situation although CG: above CB

Unstable situation

We must consider the geometry and weight distribution - Important in the design of ships, submarines, barges, etc.

Pressure Variation in a Fluid in motion - But still under a no shearing stress ( ) condition,
only if all fluid particles are moving with same acceleration.

- Rigid-body motion

NOT interacting with the wall of container

Not a static situation, but we can still use the equation from Sec 2.2,
r p k = a : Derived only under the condition of no r Valid not only for a static ( a = 0) situation r but also a dynamic case ( a 0) )

az Case 1. Linear Motion

Consider a open container - Translating along a line r - Constant acceleration a

r a ay

Q. Determine the slope of free surface

r Equations of motion (from p k = a )

p =0 x p = a y y p = ( g + az ) z

(since ax = 0)

Related with change in p by changing the points of interest

Pressure difference between two points at (x,y,z) and (x, y+dy, z+dz)
dp = p p p dx + dy + dz x z y

(because No p along x-axis)

= a y dy ( g + a z )dz

If two points are on a special line, i.e. dp = 0 (Constant pressure!)

Lets find the line (or surface) of constant pressure. (e.g. free surface) Since dp = 0 or
ay dz = g + az dy

0 = a y dy ( g + a z )dz : Slope of a line of constant p (= Slope of free surface)

Special example. Vertical motion of a container (ay = 0, az 0)

dz = 0 (Horizontal line) dy dp (p: vary linearly, but not hydrostatic) = ( g + az ) dz dp (Compare to = g or p = gh : Hydrostatic pressure) dz

Case 2 Rigid-body Rotation

Consider a situation shown - Rotating in a circular motion - Constant
r 2

ar =

Q. Determine the slope of free surface (or the line of constant p)

Equation of motion in polar coordinates (r, , z)
r p k = a


e er

p 1 p p p ez = er + e + ez ez = ( r 2er ) r z r or

p = r 2 r

p =0

p = z

Pressure change for small changes in dr and dz dp = p p p dr + d + dz = r 2 dr dz r z

Line (or surface) of constant pressure ( dp = 0 )

dz r 2 = dr g (since = g ) : Slope of the free surface

By integrating the equation, z=

2r 2

+ constant

: Line (or surface) of constant pressure (Parabolic surface )

Direct relation between pressure (p), distance from the axis of rotation (r), and vertical depth (z), By integrating the equation of motion,
dp = r 2 dr dz

dp = rdr dz



2 r 2

z + constant

i. p: Increases as the point moves away (r increases) ii. p: Hydrostatically increase along z at a fixed r