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on a body due to pressure difference : Fbottom of body () > FTop () Archimedes Principle Question: Determine the magnitude of Buoyant force. Consider a completely submerged body (Arbitrary shape and volume V ) Step 1. Enclose a body with a parallelepiped Step 2. Find all forces exerting on fluid INSIDE a parallelepiped (INSTEAD of forces on the body).

F1 & F2 : Forces on Horizontal planes

W : Weight ( = Volume of fluid in a parallelepiped NOT body !!) FB: Force of the body exerting on fluid

h1 Area A

F 3 + F4 = 0

h2

2) Vertical component

F 2 F1 W FB = 0

Volume of a parallelepiped

FB = ( h2 A) ( h1 A) [(h2 h1 ) A V ] = V where A: Top area (AB) of parallelepiped V: Volume of a body From the static (equilibrium) condition, FB : Body force exerting on the fluid = Fluid force exerting on the body (Action - Reaction)

FB = V

Question: Determine the location of FB Consider a moment equation about an axis passing through D (x axis) Moment = F2 y1 F1 y1 Wy2 FB y c = 0

What to be determined

(h2 h1 ) A y1 [(h2 h1 ) A V ] y2 V yc = 0 Total volume of a parallelepiped, VT

VT y1 = V yc + (VT V ) y2

Center of Total volume

What does the stability of a body mean? - Stable: When slightly displaced, it returns to original position - Unstable: When displaced, it moves to new equilibrium position Question: Determine the stability of submerged or floating bodies - Relation between the center of buoyancy and gravity Type 1. Completely submerged body (1) If Center of gravity (CG) of body: Below center of buoyancy (CB) A small displacement FB W pair: Restoring force Return to the original position Stable equilibrium

(2) Center of gravity (CG) of body: Above center of buoyancy (CB) A small displacement FB W pair: Overturning force Move to new position Unstable equilibrium

Type 2. Floating body (Partially submerged body) - Hard to determine due to change of CB for a small rotation

Unstable situation

We must consider the geometry and weight distribution - Important in the design of ships, submarines, barges, etc.

Pressure Variation in a Fluid in motion - But still under a no shearing stress ( ) condition,

only if all fluid particles are moving with same acceleration.

- Rigid-body motion

Not a static situation, but we can still use the equation from Sec 2.2,

r p k = a : Derived only under the condition of no r Valid not only for a static ( a = 0) situation r but also a dynamic case ( a 0) )

Consider a open container - Translating along a line r - Constant acceleration a

r a ay

r Equations of motion (from p k = a )

p =0 x p = a y y p = ( g + az ) z

(since ax = 0)

Pressure difference between two points at (x,y,z) and (x, y+dy, z+dz)

dp = p p p dx + dy + dz x z y

= a y dy ( g + a z )dz

Lets find the line (or surface) of constant pressure. (e.g. free surface) Since dp = 0 or

ay dz = g + az dy

dz = 0 (Horizontal line) dy dp (p: vary linearly, but not hydrostatic) = ( g + az ) dz dp (Compare to = g or p = gh : Hydrostatic pressure) dz

Consider a situation shown - Rotating in a circular motion - Constant

r 2

ar =

Equation of motion in polar coordinates (r, , z)

r p k = a

x

ez

e er

p 1 p p p ez = er + e + ez ez = ( r 2er ) r z r or

p = r 2 r

p =0

p = z

dz r 2 = dr g (since = g ) : Slope of the free surface

2r 2

2g

+ constant

Direct relation between pressure (p), distance from the axis of rotation (r), and vertical depth (z), By integrating the equation of motion,

dp = r 2 dr dz

dp = rdr dz

2

or

p=

2 r 2

2

z + constant

i. p: Increases as the point moves away (r increases) ii. p: Hydrostatically increase along z at a fixed r

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