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Cultural Theory and Education Autumn 2009 MICHELLE CANNON What are the implications for media education of debates about popular culture in the field of Cultural Studies?

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Word count (number of words): Student evaluation submitted: Copy posted on Blackboard: 5324 No N/A

Name of Tutor: DAVID BUCKINGHAM MA in Media, Culture & Communication Institute of Education, University of London
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What are the implications for media education of debates about popular culture in the field of Cultural Studies?
It wouldnt be too far from the truth to claim that within a modern democratic society, any particular historical conjuncture is transitional in nature but that some are more transitional than others. It is my belief that we are experiencing one such extraordinary transition: one that merits close analysis of its existing social, historic constructs, the preceding theoretical assumptions that led to such constructs and the proposed new directions to which such a paradigm shift invariably gives rise. I allude to the pervasiveness of digital media over the past two decades, with particular reference to the past ten years: the increasing sophistication and rapidity of communication, the mutability of representation and the confluence of technologies in the production and dissemination of meaning. My aim is to examine our cultural conjuncture from a Cultural Studies perspective and the role that mediated popular culture might play in the education of young people in light of the above changes. It is hoped that creating an educational environment more favourable to the nurturing of informed social actors, during what might be called a process of prolonged societal change management, will lead to deeper understanding between social groups and ultimately a fairer, more even distribution of empowered individuals in society. Indeed a measure of balanced judgement is what is needed in the here and now to steer a sensible course through the somewhat turbulent and polarised discourses of academics, teachers, lobbyists, commentators and policy makers as regards media education those on the one hand who hark back to an unsullied golden age of cultural and educational practice and those with a more evangelical, radical agenda such as the dispensability of the teacher. Cultural Studies distinguishes itself from other social sciences, such as sociology or psychology, by focussing on shifting power structures and the range of social forces at work in the analysis of the way things are and by steering away from positivist, over determining principles. It would therefore be a useful exercise to look at the decisive passage(Gramsci) of media education from its early articulation to that of the present day: in other words, to examine the historical processes whereby certain interdependent moments within Johnsons Circuit of Culture (1985) or Buckinghams simplified
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triangular theoretical model text > audience > production - have been privileged over others.

The text dominated early cultural theory along with the sociological aspects of audience consumption. The elitist 1930s Leavisite approach was that of achieving human perfection through the preservation of the cultural literary canon: the best that has been thought and said in the world as ordained by the highly instructed few (Arnold). Although no longer the dominant ideology, Storey1 observes that a certain strand of Leavisite tradition namely the view that minority high-brow culture was under attack from the mass culture of mass commercialism - could still form a kind of repressed common sense in certain areas of British and American academic and non-academic life. This might explain a certain reluctance to adjust the centrality of the literary and print tradition in contemporary educational pedagogy. Gramsci elaborates a geological metaphor in relation to the composite nature of reality, alluding to its stratified layers and the relevance of residual sediments of past social articulations; this conceit might be usefully employed in Storeys above observation to explain a residual whiff of inoculative media education still prevalent in certain educational sectors. One such whiff might be sensed in the way gaming culture, having had its genesis in what might be regarded by some as downmarket video arcades and
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maintaining its primary function as a popular pastime, is slower to be taken up as a valid media literacy tool in schools. Raymond Williams and Richard Hoggarts impact on cultural theory cannot be overestimated and their definition of culture signalled a departure from the enclosed, hallowed wisdom of Leavis and Thompson, by espousing a more celebratory and inclusive notion of culture: Culturalism, the notion that the nations culture is in fact all around us in the form of everyday lived experience. Williams sought not to denounce the selective tradition altogether but widened the concept to embrace: the selective tradition, documentary accounts of a particular way of life3, and crucially, an analysis of the way social formations, institutions and modes of production evolve. Thus, a broader, more rounded concept of culture can be arrived at: by studying (social formations) modes of change to discover certain laws or trends, by which social and cultural developments as a whole can be better understood.3 This in turn could only be achieved, Williams claimed, through a study of the complex interrelations, rather than comparisons, between the shifting agendas of social phenomena, their: elements of persistence, adjustment, unconscious assimilation, active resistance, alternative effort 3 and the patterns of activity that can be traced therein. He draws on Benedicts anthropologically inspired pattern of culture to elaborate what he finally phrased societys structure of feeling: a term that embodies both the rigidity of institutionalised codes and behaviours, as well as the more indefinable, delicate and intangible 3 social norms in which one is almost imperceptibly immersed. This seismic shift was to present a problem to educationalists and keepers of the cultural flame. For all his pioneering celebration of the ordinary and his rejection of surrender to the mysticism of the great valuer, Time 3, Williams continued to value the canon of high art with a belief in its enhanced enriching capacity, thereby implying that there was indeed a scale of cultural value. Hall & Whannel in The Popular Arts posited an alternative view predicated on a different and controversial set of values. What interested them was the content and forms of mass communication and the popular
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arts rather than the sociology of audiences4. They examined the post war boom in media and the concurrent rise and nurturing of teen subculture. Marketeers had isolated the teens as a separate and highly marketable social group, who, by becoming a separate object of study, were in turn to be regarded almost as a separate social class (Hall citing Paul Goodman). Hall and Whannel had unleashed a two-horned beast: by proposing that popular representations were worthy of scholarly study, what was regarded by some as a democratising influence over the constitution of culture, represented for others an opportunity to unveil what they understood to be deeply divisive political processes. Although he is associated with the innovative championing of youth subculture guided by Marxist principles, Hall steered clear of glamorizing the one and set about renovating the other; like Williams he saw binary, exclusively over- determining approaches as unhelpful in an analysis of social articulations. This even- handed perspective during Halls tenure as Director of the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies was a tempering influence amid what was becoming something of a turbulent, side-taking epoch within Cultural Studies. The Frankfurt Schools worldview, for example, was underpinned by an profound distrust of mass media motives, suggesting that we, as consumers of mass cultural products, were subjects in a programme to achieve homogeneous, passive social conformity. The Frankfurt Schools role was to expose the political and ideological chicanery at the heart of the cultural industry (Adorno and Horkheimer): the cynical drive to guarantee capitalisms safe passage and prosperous onward journey. They bemoaned what they saw as the deliberate de-politicization of the working classes and in doing so devalued their leisure practices and popular representations. This had the effect of shoring up the culture and civilisation tradition of previous decades such that only authentic culture was inoculated against the sclerotic advance of mass media, an unstoppable malignant force that maintained: obedience to the rhythm of the iron systemthe absolute power of capitalism1 (Storey p. 56 quotes Adorno and Horkheimer 1979). It seems untenable that capitalism ever be regarded as absolute, relying as it does on its elastic and shape-shifting capacity to sustain itself: mass media has all the permanence of social blue-tack rather than social cement. In short, it seems that the promulgation of overarching principles is a stunted intellectual exercise, one that
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encourages polarised debate and partisan factions. On the other hand, sudden surges or radical lurches in academic thought on the nature of social formation are part of the democratic process; all that is necessary to steer an even keel is the occasional appliance of a brake, a moment of reflection, the action of pulling back, in order to fully assess the historical moment before making any hasty policy decisions based on either potentially spurious fashionable commentary or moral panics. Contingency was to play a significant role in the development of popular culture: burgeoning market forces combined with advances in communication technology was to feed cultural production and consumption and like some truculent but beguiling child, popular culture came crashing into every living room in the form of TV, film and advertising. The leisure time of the emerging middle classes was lush grazing for commercial organisations keen on soaking up their spare cash. However, it does seem to be one of the immutable truths that the forces propelling popular culture are invariably at odds with prevailing academic and educational values and principles, principles that were, and arguably still are, inherently top-down in nature. It was Stuart Hall who once more was to exert a levelling influence on this tendency, reshaping Media Studies and the direction it was to take within the discipline of British Cultural Studies. He was particularly militant in his condemnation of the inherent elitism of the cultural gate-keepers, advancing the theory that popular cultural representations were largely mediated manifestations or symbols of existing power structures; in other words, the political, economic, social and cultural values of the dominant group were offered to audiences with an encoded or preferred meaning. This being the case, cultural texts not only merited scholarly research but demanded public scrutiny. Media Studies, as informed by Marxist ideology, finally earned its place as a discreet subject of study at university level in the 80s, in its more rounded, contextualised form. Having said all that, it must be noted that even Hall wasnt immune to the seductive charm of elitism: it was less Dirty Dancing and Rick Astley, and more the merits of Krzysztof Kieslowski and Jan Garbarek that he was keen to promote. It is also worth noting that although cinema was elevated in the still discernable scale of cultural value, TV remained the lowest common denominator.

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So where did this leave teaching about media? How to teach the thorny issue of cultural representation within these singularly unpristine and accumulating mediated realities? One thing remains true, if, as Silverstone contests the media are now at the core of experience, at the heart of our capacity or incapacity to make sense of the world in which we live5, we have a responsibility to encourage more practical discernment in the minds of our young people as regards the anatomy of the moment. It may be something of an understatement to apply Walter Benjamins 1936 observation to the internet: Every fundamentally new, pioneering creation of demands, will carry beyond its goals 8, but this statement still has currency in terms of the responsibility that has to be taken to navigate those waters beyond. Benjamins influential piece on the demise of the authentic work of art with the advent of mechanical reproduction leads him to reflect more generally on audience perception: The adjustment of reality to the masses and of the masses to reality is a process of unlimited scope, as much for thinking as for perception 8. In other words, he is inferring that we have a collective responsibility to study and learn from the articulation and disarticulation of aspects of reality and nowhere is this truer than in the sphere of young peoples education. In Culture & Environment (1933) Leavis and Thompson suggest ways of teaching the media that now seem comically prescriptive and archaic; consider the defensive manner in which it was suggested that teachers might analyse an advert: the constant repetition of a name has a brain-wearying effect - almost hypnosis Distinguish briefly between the operation of advertising as described here and that of great literature and art 6 Along the same lines, Len Mastermans reading of Top of the Pops in Teaching about Television (1980) is an unapologetically one-sided interpretation, concentrating on the pernicious, mind-bending effects of the media. Note the didactic tone adopted in his examination of what it means to be young in the 80s: Here-and-now celebrated because it is, becomes emptied of meaning the attitude locks wonderfully well into the interests of capitalismTop of the Pops holds out the promise of eternal youth through the promise of eternal consumption. 7

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Both methodologies are complicit in the essentialist and protectionist view that hidden meanings behind the text must be revealed to the unknowing audience. In fact throughout my account thus far of the development of media education, the audience have been viewed as empty vessels, as passive recipients of information, liberated from their ignorance only by their culturally superior or politically enlightened mentors. Mastermans assertions may have a ring of truth but what is questionable in terms of teaching the media is ideological positioning; once again, we are witness to the exclusive overarching principle of the conspiratorial capitalist agenda to dupe the masses into false consciousness. In consideration of what is to constitute contemporary media education, it would be beneficial for media educators to be reminded of the messy, almost intractable, in solution 3 nature of their object of study as identified by Williams, the better to avoid essentialist, all encompassing explanations and deterministic points of departure. These are reductionist standpoints, the repercussions of which run the risk of charting progress through a skewed lens, lending undue significance to certain moments of or mechanisms within the cultural cycle as might be evidenced in the prevailing invigorated agency of the man in the street or talismanic qualities of new technologies. Perhaps the most that we can currently expect of a Media Studies teacher with limited resources and whose task is, for example, to deconstruct a reality TV show, is a perspective imbued with an already received, resigned, subversive cynicism associated with the mechanics of exploitation, stereotyping, more TV effect-ology and the medias pandering to celebrity. Teaching cynicism cant be an easy task and is something of a self-defeating dead-end street in terms of debate and the development of critical acumen. If one were to assess Top of the Pops from a Cultural Studies perspective now, it could be said to offer a rich seam of retro cultural treasure with the exploration of themes such as: celebrity, fashion, taste, pleasure, identity, gender, race, politics, commercialism and audience interpretation. However, these analyses often remain at the level of discussion, which although valid in and of itself may fall short of providing a coherent framework for future social engagement. Popular culture has always been a site where young people feel at liberty to rehearse their identities; all the more reason to equip them with the skills and awareness to be able to interrogate and navigate this
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complex social nexus in order to actively participate in society. How much better for them to be able to critically deconstruct a text, extrapolate what interests them and engage reflexively with their own digital creation rather than examining a pre-digested programme from within a pre-digested critical framework? The sophistication of a young, middle class persons media tool kit at home, along with increasing technological convergence has precipitated a rapid turnover of new contexts in which digital texts can be created, used and disseminated. New media technologies offer new means of self-expression while at the same time what is commonly referred to as the digital divide appears to be widening in a variety of different contexts. There is urgency for media education to evolve in schools and adult education, to move beyond teaching through and about media for its own sake and to establish a critical framework on which students can build and engage with their own digital representations. It is not inconceivable that new social strata will emerge, independent of social class, race or gender, characterised by a binary opposition between the technologically, creatively and critically equipped digital elite and, as Buckingham has predicted: an educational underclass that is effectively excluded from access, not merely to economic capital but to social and cultural capital as well. 5 There are some institutions more resistant to change than others, some who in more extreme cases, might even feel at liberty to compare the comments of Bloggers, Twitterers and Facebook subscribers, to the manner in which Matthew Arnold1 (9)s seething, unruly working class: long lain half hidden is now issuing from its hiding- place to assert an Englishmans heaven-born privilege of doing as he likes bawling what it likes (Culture and Anarchy) - without any form of top-down regulation or control from a higher authority. So where do schools fit in to this debate? It is undeniable that school culture remains dominated by levels of hierarchy, control, targets and assessment and perhaps at best offers a two-lane highway with respect to communication. Some argue that it is a one-size-fits-all, homogenising culture that jars with the perceived fluid, autonomous and exploratory affordances of digital culture that young people experience more informally outside the school context.

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Thus it was with nothing short of anticipatory zeal that in some quarters Jenkins White Paper9 was received. In it he lays out the future contours of the educational landscape; the direction in which we should be heading now that we live in a society of networked publics (danah boyd): Educators must work together to ensure that every American young person has access to the skills and experiences needed to become a full participant, can articulate their understanding of how media shapes perceptions, and has been socialised into the emerging ethical standards that should shape their practices as media makers and participants in online communities. 9 There is much in the report that is laudable. He is keen to capitalise on: what young people are learning in more informal contexts; the positive, participatory culture engendered by internet practices; a whole arsenal of new technical and social skills; the democratic dimensions of individual and collaborative content creation; and the relatively unfettered and varied nature of content dissemination. Furthermore Jenkins identifies three hurdles to the advancement of his vision: The Participation Gap raising issues of (in)equality of access to technological skills and necessary cultural repertoires The Transparency Problem the need for adequate media literacy programming The Ethics Challenge problems associated with changes to current ethical standards and social hierarchies Notwithstanding his recognition of these pitfalls and his support for traditional literacy skills, he advocates wholesale, revolutionary intervention at all levels of education in order to accommodate a paradigm shift in pedagogy. Some might say that the moment has come for trailblazing the path of digital righteousness, however, others suggest a more measured response precisely to check the assumptions made by such an advance and the tendency to homogenise the social actors therein. One is reminded of Gramscis critique of aspects of Marxism and how Hall reclaims it and puts it to work in the arena of cultural theory. Gramsci outlines benefits of a war of position i.e. one which brings all sectors of society into play with no claim to victory, just a continual striving for
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change for the better, as opposed to the inadequacies of a war of manoeuvre i.e. one unified moment of struggle to obtain overall domination and replace old thought patterns with new and politically correct ones. Jenkins, for example, makes the following dubious generalisation: The step from watching television news and acting politically seems greater than the transition from being a political actor in a game world to acting politically in the real world 9 Isnt this an example of how ideological enthusiasm can muddy the waters of rational thinking? Although its superficially rewarding to acknowledge the virtual political engagement of the gamer, it is difficult to imagine how much closer to political agency the lord of the simulation game actually is after a gaming session, regardless of his mastery of the genre. Similarly, claims are made to the originality and energy of individual, digital content creation, though its extent and the quality assigned to the machinima, the mixing and the mash-ups may well be spurious. Furthermore, Buckingham10 points out that although most of these young people are aware of the functionality of various technologies at their disposal, those motivated enough to create and publish are in reality few and far between. The majority simply consume as has always been the case. Furthermore, they are what Buckingham calls the usual suspects10 (middle class children) producing banal and relatively inconsequential content. Even Jenkins seems to concede as much in his telling parenthesis in the introduction to the Executive Summary: members (of the participatory culture) believe their contributions matter and feel some degree of social connection with one another (at the least they care what other people think about what they have created) 9 (my italics) What I would ask is: when was there a time when teenagers did not care what other people thought of their creative output, their front stage self? (Goffman). Albeit that Jenkins takes many of the interests of Cultural Studies into account, one cant help but to diagnose a case of technological determinism, one that fails to get to grips with gritty

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social realities in favour of abstract good intention. Indeed, Buckingham goes as far as to say that: If online participation is as socially, culturally and politically important as the enthusiasts suggest, it seems likely that far from liquidating social inequality, it might actually accentuate it 10 Passing recognition of this is given in the final section of Jenkins report in the words of Bill Ivey and Stephen Tepper: those citizens who have fewer resources less time, less money and less knowledge about how to navigate the cultural system will increasingly rely on the cultural fare offered by consolidated media and entertainment conglomerates trapped on the wrong side of the cultural divide 9 The social consequences of uneven levels of media literacy and access to the cultural capital with which it is associated, both within and between the social classes and inter- generationally, may lead to a further fracturing of our society. It is unfortunate that there is no real thought given to how the participation gap can be minimised in Jenkins report, the net result being an indication of how the gap will inevitably widen. A further shortcoming of the report is the choice to showcases clever and stimulating uses of technology in the classroom - simply because its possible. Something we can remain sure of in an age increasingly infused with obsessive wrangling over postmodern uncertainty and the infinitely interpretable is the neutrality and inertness of technology. With quasi-religious overtones the popular, if alarmist, flippant and totally unsubstantiated You Tube video: Did you Know? 3.0 establishes a timeframe B.G. (i.e. Before Google and by inference After Google), so distinguishing the B.G. generation who reify 11 technology from the A.G. digital natives for whom the hype is irrelevant. Those with a largely B.G. appreciation of technology tend towards a celebration of its exotic otherness, they might wander the halls of BETT with reverential awe. Conversely, whilst still retaining a healthy scepticism of young peoples so-called innate connection with all things technical, the A.G.s do just seem to get on with it - autonomously exploring its uses and possibilities without emotion. The danger here is for
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the B.Gs to overload a perceived mastery of technology with meaning or worse, to assume that the A.Gs need no further instruction. Buckingham has taken particular exception to Tapscotts line of argument in Growing Up Digital: the Rise of the Net Generation (1998) and similarly to David Gauntlett and William Merrins outspoken views; he suggests that their essentialist arguments impoverish the Cultural Studies project. Merrins blog portends a bleak future for Media Studies teachers and seems to have an exaggerated vision of inward-looking, individual agency: It may already be too late: many of our students are outstripping their lecturers in their knowledge and navigation of the digital ecology and the discipline itself hasn't even noticed how much is happening, devoting itself to endless semiotic analyses of the latest film or fashionable TV series and giving questionnaires out to 'audiences', unaware that the 'audience' is already a category of the past.13 (accessed 25 Feb 2010) Surely where there is representation and thereby partiality - there will be an audience and thereby interpretation? Although one could argue that a change in terminology is overdue; in some circles audience might well be replaced with participant. Gauntlett similarly flies in the face of the central tenets of Cultural Studies, speciously arguing that: media audiences in general are already extremely capable interpreters of media content, with a critical eye and an understanding of contemporary media techniques, thanks in large part to the large amount of coverage of this in popular media itself14 (accessed 25 Feb 2010) Is this not an example of contradictory self-damnation? With what evidence does Gauntlett bless the average consumer of popular culture with heightened critical acumen? And since when has the media itself been held up as the barometer by which its content should be judged? He also accuses the current media education trajectory of arrogance in its attempts to teach decoding methods. So what role does he ultimately perceive for the teacher? presumably the same fate as that envisaged by Merrin a redundant one. Neither are there any prizes for guessing which social forces would rush into the vacuum left by our unworthy teachers. He seems to don rose-tinted spectacles
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for viewing the creative, proactive, all-sapient agency of the individual consumer and blinkers in consideration of the excluded, inactive, de-skilled majority. Both uphold what has been called the Californian ideology or cyber-utopianism 10, the evangelical belief that technology should be the catalyst for dramatic change in the social and political landscape. Buckingham argues that from Tapscotts perspective: technology is seen as an autonomous force that is somehow independent of human society and which acts upon it from outside. He also notes that: the discourse of the digital generation is precisely an attempt to construct the object of which it purports to speak which is significant from the point of view of the wide-ranging repercussions of such academic polemics. As with Jenkins, there are spurious assumptions that schools will seamlessly incorporate new technologies and enjoy immediate benefits whereas personal experience in inner London primary schools suggests this is emphatically not the case, unless professionals are consistently on hand to research, install, train, inspire the use of, support, maintain, evaluate and measure the success of said software and associated technologies. Most school resources and infrastructures are simply not those of successful businesses and corporations, they cannot be fixed with an injection of cutting edge computer cash. More importantly, no matter what resources are available, students need a) solid traditional literacy skills to fully engage with new media potential and b) the insightful input of inspired teachers to steer a critical course through the dynamic panoply of symbols to which students are exposed. Trite as it might sound, lets not be seduced into thinking that technical wizardry (the very expression of which encapsulates the B.G outlook) and savvy (ditto) new media skills are any replacement for basic literacy skills and life experience. The methodological analysis of media education in Burn & Durrans Media Literacy in Schools (2007) understands this and experiments with new ways to interrogate texts, poaching elements from the structuralist school of social analysis and employing a more semiological approach. It is an analysis that is free from over determining dogmas or polarised debate but which encourages critical thinking and doing. Their aim, as Jenkins also proposes, is to capitalise on widely available digital authoring technologies
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technologies that were, up until relatively recently, the exclusive realm of the adult media professional and focus on the functions of the different forms of signification the cultural value of what can be said and could not be said before in quite the same way.2 By way of example, whereas students might be able to use implicit knowledge to draw a representation of a super hero, digital representation enables a more exploratory, interactive experience of learning, one where they are encouraged to reflect on the audiences meaning-making processes: the other persons point of view. Students are now able to select and combine symbols on multimodal platforms to define the sense they make of the world; moreover, new media opportunities for disseminating their work means they can transmit their social identities beyond the confines of the school. By way of an advance on debates about television, Burn and Durran de-formalise TV advertising, de-stigmatise it and use it as a platform, a jumping off point, allowing students to examine how they interact with and make sense of this complex cultural form, a form with which most are extremely familiar. The authors refer to the pedagogical value of Vygotskys zone of proximal development in Chapter 6: Selling Chocolate: Rhetoric, Representation and Agency which describes amongst other issues the students engagement with Fair Trade in a chocolate bar promotion: The students have had to imagine a lifestyle and a set of economic relations very unfamiliar to them, not least because their prior experience of it exists as a powerful complex of misrepresentations. This struggle to represent the least familiar takes the project to the limits of what they are able to do, to the zone where the greatest learning takes place 2 The point is that letting the project have a relatively unstructured life of its own can bring unexpected and positive rewards. What Barthes would call the texts underlying connotative or associative meanings are given time to surface, the zone where obvious common sense is formulated can be explored. Anne Gray refers to allowing herself to be dazzled and surprised12 by ethnographic research findings: if flexibility and open- endedness are central and successful tenets of the learning process in qualitative

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research practices, then perhaps a similarly holistic approach might be applied to the conditions in which children learn about the media. Culture is never static and Media Studies is no different from any other discipline in the struggle to articulate itself but Merrin and Gauntletts adherence to the Media Studies 2.0 articles of faith, for example, is a considerable set back in terms of the need to create a coherent set of future practices for media education especially in light of BISs Digital Britain. The 2009 milestone report, whose purpose is to ensure a healthy pipeline of talent 13, makes no secret of its aim to guarantee an effective, digitally skilled workforce rather than to promote engaged, informed citizens equipped with a critical sense of how their world is constructed. Lip service has been paid to e-inclusion in the form of Home Access; it is however, inherently unsustainable and short-sighted in its ambitions and may ultimately fertilise social immobility. Furthermore, the development of Digital participation is a much more visible and measurable pursuit than the more discursive and qualitative nature of media literacy, which for the latter means less political traction, less funding and a diminished profile. Our historical configuration is buoyant with opportunity and innovative cultural endeavour, but it is also one where the tyranny of market-driven techno-fetishism 10 threatens to determine rather than frame (Livingstone) our educational trajectory. Cultural Studies, as a discipline, needs to monitor our hyped moment with even more scrutiny lest it fall victim to the vagaries of fashionable thought, lest it become just another obsolete mode of thinking in an environment where Conventional concerns with power and politics are reworked14 In matters of monopolies on meaning and regimes of truth (Foucault), history and human nature dictate that we dispense with constants and moments of reflection at our peril. _____________________________________________________________________

Storey: Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: A Reader (4th edition 2009) Burn & Durran: Media Literacy in Schools (2007) Williams: The Long Revolution (1961) Hall & Whannel: The Popular Arts (1964)
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2 3 4

5 6 7 8

Buckingham: Media Education (2003) Leavis & Thompson: Culture & Environment (1933) Masterman: Teaching Television (1980) Walter Benjamin: The Work of Art in the age of Mechanical Reproduction (1936)

Jenkins: Confronting the Challenge of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century (2006) 10 Buckingham: Do We Really Need Media Education 2.0?: Teaching in the Age of Participatory Culture (2010) 11 Buckingham: Beyond Technology (2007)

Gray: Research Practice in Cultural Studies (2003) Department for Business, Innovation & Skills: Digital Britain (2009)

13 14 15

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