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FESTIVAL AND SPONSORING: IMAGE TRANSFER PROCESS FROM THE SPONSORS TO THE FESTIVAL AND ITS IMPACT ON ATTENDEES

QUALITY PERCEPTION

UNIVERSITE DE TOULOUSE LE MIRAIL TAYLORS GRADUATE SCHOOL OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM Sous la direction de Under the direction of

ERIC OLMEDO

Etude labor par Presented by

MATHIEU LEMAITRE 24 Avril 2009

Master Professionnel Management et Ingnierie Des Industries Du Tourisme Professional Master in International Tourism and Hospitality Management

FESTIVAL AND SPONSORING: IMAGE TRANSFER PROCESS FROM THE SPONSORS TO THE FESTIVAL AND ITS IMPACT ON ATTENDEES QUALITY PERCEPTION

UNIVERSITE DE TOULOUSE LE MIRAIL TAYLORS GRADUATE SCHOOL OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM Sous la direction de Under the direction of

ERIC OLMEDO

Etude labor par Presented by

MATHIEU LEMAITRE 24 Avril 2009

Master Professionnel Management et Ingnierie Des Industries Du Tourisme Professional Master in International Tourism and Hospitality Management

UNIVERSITE DE TOULOUSE LE MIRAIL TAYLORS GRADUATE SCHOOL OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM Master Professionnel Management et Ingnierie Des Industries Du Tourisme Professional Master in International Tourism and Hospitality Management

Surname: Mathieu Name: Lemaitre Research Title: Festival and Sponsoring: Image Transfer Process from the Sponsors to the Festival and its Impact on Attendees Quality Perception Year: 2009

EVALUATION

NOTE DOSSIER DISSERTATION MARK

COMMUNICATION

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APPRECIATION GLOBALE GENERAL COMMENTS

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MENBRES DU JURY / MENBERS OF THE JURY

Statement of Originality

Candidate Name: Mathieu Lemaitre Program: Professional Master in International Tourism and Hospitality
Management

Index Number: Dissertation Title: Festival and sponsoring: Image Transfer process from the
Sponsors to the festival and its impact on attendees quality Perception

I certify that this dissertation and the research to which it refers, are the products of my own work, and that any idea or quotation from the work of other people, published or otherwise, are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard academic convention. I also certify that the research work done in this dissertation has not been published or submitted for any other programme or degree in any other universities.

Signature: _____________

Date: __________

Abstract
This research offers a framework for understanding the effects of sponsorship on consumers perception of festival quality. It describes the construction of the concept of quality in festival, the construction of image, and the process of transfer taking place in sponsorship. It defines and explores essential elements for the understanding of sponsorship influence over cultural events, namely, Event Involvement, Event/Sponsor Congruence or Dissonance, Sponsorship Exposure, and Sponsor Prominence, believed to act as drivers of image transfer from the sponsors to the festival benefiting of support. The model developed for this study has been tested within the RainForest World Music Festival in Borneo, Malaysia. This research built an instrument adapted from the disconfirmative paradigm specifically design to assess festival quality, which measure the event image against which attendees experience is assessed. The quality measurement is based on the gap taking place between festivalgoers expectations and image of the event and their post mortem assessment of their festival experience. To the festival quality assessment, is combined a tool measuring the strength and the nature of the transfer between the festival and the sponsors. This tool aims to identify and provide a comprehensive and methodical assessment of all variables submitted to and affecting the image transfer in sponsorships. The overall model measures the impact of this transfer upon attendees rating of the festival quality. This paper investigates the relations sponsor/festival from a perspective that has not been studied before. Our methodology appeared as viable and findings emerged offering a starting point for more quantitative research in this field. We brought evidences of the existence of a transfer from the sponsors to the supported event. We clarified how the strength of image transfer from sponsors to a festival depends on various factors regarding to the sponsors and to the sponsored event itself. We identified conditions that lead to a transfer of positive or negative values from the sponsors to the activity supported. Moreover, our results constitute guidelines for choosing and executing effective sponsorship policies that do not damaged the supported activity image and attendees perception of its quality. Managers of

cultural events and festivals can use our empirical findings to develop coherent partnerships with sponsors.

Cette recherche propose un cadre thorique ayant pour but daider identifier et comprendre les effets du sponsoring sur la perception quont les consommateurs de la qualit du festival. Ltude dcrit la construction du concept de qualit dans le festival, la construction de limage, et les mcanismes de transfert qui interviennent lors des activits de sponsoring. Elle dfinit et explore les lments essentiels la comprhension de linfluence du sponsoring sur les manifestations culturelles, savoir lInvolvment, la Congruence ou Dissonance, lExposure, et la Prominence. Ces lments sont considrs comme tant des Drivers du transfert dimage. Le model dvelopp pour cette tude a t test lors du RainForest World Music Festival Borno, en Malaisie. Ltude est lorigine de la cration dun instrument adapt du Disconfirmative Paradigm, spcifiquement conu pour mesurer la qualit des festivals. La mesure est base sur lcart entre limage que les festivaliers ont du festival ante exprience et leurs post mortem valuation de lexprience. A cet instrument est combin un outil visant mesurer la force et la nature du transfert. Il a pour but didentifier et de fournir une comprhensive et mthodique valuation des variables soumises et influenant le transfert. Le model combine ces deux instruments et mesure limpact du transfert sur la perception que les festivaliers ont de la qualit du festival. Cette recherche analyse les relations sponsor/festival dun point de vu qui na pas t tudi par le pass. La mthodologie mise en place apparat fiable et les rsultats produits offrent un point de dpart pour de futures recherches quantitatives dans se domaine. Divers lments validant lexistence dun transfert des sponsors vers le festival ont t prsents. Cette tude apporte des lments de rponses permettant dexpliquer comment la force du transfert dpend de divers facteurs et caractristiques dfinissant les sponsors et lvnement sponsoris lui-mme. Les conditions permettant le transfert de valeur positive ou ngative des sponsors vers lactivit bnficiant du support ont t identifies. De plus, nos rsultats peuvent constituer des lignes directrices permettant un choix clair de politiques de sponsoring qui ne dgrade pas limage de lvnement sponsoris ni la perception que ses consommateurs ont de la qualit. Les responsables de manifestations 7

culturels et de festivals peuvent se servir des rsultats produits par cette tude pour mettre en place des partenariats plus cohrents avec leurs sponsors.

Acknowledgements
I wish to express my sincere gratitude for M. Eric Olmedo, my director of research, for his guidance in the development of this study, for his knowledge, expertise, and insightful suggestions. I am thankful to M. Philip Wong and his patience and understanding during the development of the dissertation. I also wish to express my appreciation to the other member of the committee, for its time and willingness to contribute to my committee. I am deeply thankful to Ms Hema, for her kindness and assistance, and for her knowledge and expertise in statistics. This dissertation could not have been written without her.

To Prof. Daniel Edouard, thank you so much for your support and encouragement. I truly appreciate your insights and your understanding. I am as well grateful for the advice of Prof. Jean Pierre Poulain and its guidance. Thanks are extended to many of the Taylors college, staff, and graduate students. I wish to express my sincere appreciation to Prof. Franois Vellas for the time he granted me to finish this dissertation.

I also would like to acknowledge the many friends who have supported me through their words of encouragement, ideas, and assistance. I am deeply grateful to Fabien Ezedine, for his support and the time he devoted me. I am as well thankful to Leslie Bauchet and Martin Renier, for their technical support. I wish to express my sincere appreciation to Franois Keslair, Sophie and Jerome Darribeau, for their advises and assistance. Thanks are extended to Remy Marty. My most profound gratitude is received for my parents, Emilie Jouanne, Emilie Fernandez and Carole Monpoix, for their support and encouragement.

Table of Contents
Abstract. Acknowledgement Table of Contents.. List of Figures... p.6 p.9 p.10 p.17

List of Tables p.19 Appendix list. p.21

1. Chapter I: Introduction

p.22

1.1. Part 1: Research Background and stake of the question 1.1.1. Art as a paradox ................................................ 1.1.2. Music, an obedient art form for tourism development.. 1.1.3. Culture & economy, festivals instrumentalization & founding issues................................................................................................ 1.1.4. Quality in art .....

p.23 p.23 p.24

p.25 p.29

1.1.5. Image transfer & its impact on consumers quality perception p.31 1.1.6. Construction and methodology . p.32

1.2. Part 2: Aims and Objectives of the research . 1.2.1. Contribution of the Study . 1.2.2. Research Hypotheses ....

p.34 p.34 p.35

1.3. Part 3: Dissertations structure .

p.36

2. Chapter II: Literature Review............................................................... 2.0. Introduction ..

p.40 p.41

2.1. Part 1: Festival, general concern and definition of the concept... p.43 2.1.1. Section I: Historical approach of the support of music................ p.43 211.1. Sub Section I: A European perspective.. 211.11. Church support, the role of Christianity over musical p.43

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development .. 211.12. Support from noble courts, towards a golden age of music

p.44

creativity? ........................................................................................ p.45 211.13. The rise of private sector support, a gateway towards a structural and image metamorphose of musical culture 211.14. The popularization of musical culture, rise of the concept of festival 211.15. Modern Festival, image and identity crisis 211.2. Sub Section II: An Islamic and Asian perspective . 211.21. Historical illustration of the support of the art in Asia .. 211.22. Islam and music, an ambivalent position 211.3 Conclusion Section I .. 2.1.2. Section II: Festival Definition p.49 p.49 p.50 p.51 p.51 p.53 p.54 p.47

212.1. The concept of festival in the literature. p.54 212.2. Festival social and economic impact p.57

212.3. Space and time consideration ... p.58 212.4. Festival aesthetic object and cultural dimension... p.59 212.5. Attempt of festival typology 212.6. Conclusion Section II p.61 p.63

2.2. Part II: Quality, definition and different perspectives 2.2.1. Section I: Defining quality.. 221.1. The concept of quality in the literature .... 221.2. Service, tourism and festival specificities, process of

p.63 p.64 p.64

analysis............................................................................................. p.67 2.2.2. Section II: Stakeholders evaluation 222.1. Sub Section I: Festival, at the crossroad between cultural, public and commercial interest.. 222.2. Sub Section II: Types of private support, concept definition p.69 p.70 p.68

222.21. Patronage p.71 222.22. Sponsoring.. 222.23. Partnership 222.24 Conclusion sub section II p.71 p.72 p.72

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2.2.3. Section III: Consumers evaluation: perceived service quality p.73 223.1. Sub Section I: Service attributes, attribute expectation and affective judgement of festival quality.. 223.11. Service quality and service attributes 223.12. Attribute expectations... 223.13. Affective and cognitive assessment of festival perceived quality. 223.2 Sub Section II: Service quality assessment, analysis of different models ..... 223.21. SERVQUAL model ..... 223.22. SERVQUAL critics . 223.23. SERPERF. 223.24. FESTPERF.. 223.3. Conclusion Section III ... p.77 p.78 p.80 p.82 p.83 p.84 p.76 p.73 p.74 p.75

2.3. Part III Image definition, process of transfer & link with quality 2.3.1. Section I: Image definition and construction... 231.1. Image, definition of the concept .. 231.2. Mediascape powerful role in constructing image. 231.3. Travellers profile and previous experience, a major influence on image construction . 231.4. Conclusion Section I ..

p.86 p.86 p.86 p.87

p.88 p.91

2.3.2. Section II: Drivers of image transfer p.91 232.1. Event involvement.... 232.2. Event-sponsor congruence.... 232.3. Sponsorship Exposure.. 232.4. Sponsor Prominence 232.5. Conclusion Section II 2.3.3. Section III: Leads towards establishing relation between Sponsors image, sponsored activitys image and customers perception of quality 233.1. Sub Section I: Does sponsor can affect sponsored activitys image? ... p.97 p.96 p.92 p.93 p.94 p.94 p.96

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233.11. The use of funds provided by industry carrying a negative image: what impact on the sponsored activitys image? 233.12. Impact of corporate giving upon supported causes, when sponsors tarnish causes image .. 233.13. Conclusion Sub Section 1 233.2. Sub Section II: Image influence on expectation, experience and quality... p.100 2.3.4. Conclusion Part III .. p.102 p.98 p.100 p.97

3. Chapter III: Problematization and methodological review ... 3.0. Introduction and Study context .

p.104 p.105

3.1. Part I: Problematization hypothesis defining ... p.107 3.1.1. Section 1: Problematization. 3.1.2. Section 2: From Research question to hypotheses defining ... 312.1. Sub Section 1: Hypothesized relationship between our different variables .......... 312.2 Sub Section 2: Hypotheses relative to the drivers of Image transfer ... 312.21. Event involvement.. 312.22. Event-sponsor congruence...... p.111 p.111 p.112 p.109 p.107 p.108

312.23. Sponsorship Exposure..... p.113 312.24. Sponsor Prominence .. p.114

3.1.3. Section 3: Data requirement and method for data analysis p.115

3.2. Part II: Theoretical Framework and Instrument design 3.2.1. Section 1: Model design ..... 3.2.2. Section 2: Selecting the sponsors to include in our study... 322.1. Heineken .. 322.2. Water Genesis .. 322.3. Shell .....

p.117 p.117 p.119 p.121 p.121 p.122

3.2.3. Section 3: Instrument design.... p.123 323.1. Sub Section 1: Questionnaire Prior Experience .. p.123

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323.11. Image attributes .. p.124 323.12. Drivers of image transfer 323.2. Sub Section 2: Questionnaire post experience 323.21. Quality assessment . - Reliability / Professionalism . p.125 p.126 p.126 p.127

- Core Service .. p.128 - Environment .. p.129 323.22. Personal Information .. p.130 324. Section 4: Data requirement, Methods for data collection. p.131 3.3. Conclusion Chapter III . ............ p.133

4. Chapter IV: Results ........................... 4.0. Introduction ..

P.134 P.135

4.1. Part 1: Presentation of the results .....

P.136

4.1.1. Section 1: Sample Characteristics . P.136 4.1.2. Section 2: Survey outcomes .. 412.1. Sub Section I: Drivers of Image Transfer ... 412.11. Involvement ... P.137 P.137 P.138

412.12. Prominence.. P.140 412.13. Congruence. p.141

412.14. Exposure.. P.143 412.2. Sub Section II: Image .. P.144 412.21. RainForest World Music Festivals Image. 412.22. Heinekens Image .. 412.23. Water Genesis Image P.144 P.146 P.148

412.24. Shells Image .. P.149 412.25. Respondents rating of the festivals and sponsors image 412.3. Sub Section III: Quality Assessment .. 4.1.3. Section 3: Measurement Assessment . 413.1. Sub Section I: Reliability Test 413.11. Reliability test for the independent variables 413.12. Reliability test for the four drivers of Image Transfer ....... P.151 P.153 P.155 P.155 P.155 P.156

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413.13. Reliability test for the dependent variables P.156 413.2. Sub Section II: Factor analysis P.157 413.21. Factor analysis assumptions ... P.158 413.22. Factor loading analysis and components extraction .. 4.1.4. Section IV: Multiple Linear Regression Analysis (MLR) .. 414.0. Checking MLR assumptions 414.1. MLR analysis of the dependent variable RainForest Festivals image. 414.2. MLR analysis of the dependent variable Global Quality P.166 P.166 P.158 P.163 P.164

414.3. MLR analysis of the dependent variable Reliability P.169 414.4. MLR analysis of the dependent variable Core Service P.171 414.5. MLR analysis of the dependent variable Environment P.173 4.1.5. Conclusion Part 1 ... P.175

4.2. Part 2: Analysis and comparison with the existing knowledge P.178 4.2.1. Section I: Issues related to the MLRs Results analysis 421.1 Independent variables related legend 421.2. Moderator variables related legend 4.2.2 Section 2: Analysis of the sponsors impact on each one of the quality dimensions 422.1. Analysis of sponsors impact on Global quality . 422.2.Analysis of sponsors impact on Reliability and P.182 P.183 P.184 P.187 P.180 P.180 P.178 P.179 P.179

Professionalism .. 422.3. Analysis of sponsors impact on Environment 422.4. Analysis of sponsors impact on Core service . 422.5. Conclusion Section 2 . 4.2.3. Section 3: Analysis of each independent variables and their

congruences impact on the overall model P.187 423.1. Behaviour and impact of the RainForest World Music Festivals image .. 423.2. Heinekens role and the part that its congruence plays on the model 423.3. Water Genesiss role and the part that its congruence plays P.188 P.188

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on the model P.190 423.4. Shells role and the part that its congruence plays on the model ... P.192 423.5. Conclusion Section 3 . P.193

4.2.4. Section 4: Prominence as a major actor in the transfer process... P.195 424.1. Heineken and Water Genesis behaviour in the light of their degree of prominence: Value Rationality Assessment and influence on quality perception........................................................ P.195 424.2. Prominence and Magnitude of image transfer...................... 424.3. Assumptions relative to Shells behaviour and model review............................................................................................... P.201 4.3. Part 3: Limits ...... P.205 Chapter V: From results to Recommendations ....................... P.210 5.1. Part 1: Operational Recommendations. P.211 5.2. Part 2: Opportunities for further research... P.213 Chapter VI: Conclusion ............. P.216 1.1. Sponsors image influences global quality perception of a festival... 1.2. Partially unfulfilled objectives as regard to transfer drivers.. 1.3. Hypothesis adjustment... 1.4. Quality dimensions and festivals image influence on quality perception . 1.5. Drivers moderation effect on the transfer P.220 P.221 P.217 P.218 P.219 P.198

1.6. Congruence. P.221 1.7. Prominence P.223 1.8. Factors contradictory influences, issue in dissociating their individual impacts. 1.9. Production of operational recommendations and research opportunities. Bibliography ........... Appendices... P.225 P.227 P.256 P.225

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List of Figures
Figure 1: A Conceptual model of the construction of image transfer from the sponsor to the supported event and its impact on quality perception P.32 Figure 2: A Conceptual model of the research architecture and the instrument design P.33

Figure 3: Trends in composer employment over two centuries P.48 Figure 4: A Conceptual model of the construction of the concept of quality and its dimension in the festival context . Figure 5: SERVQUAL Modelization .. Figure 1: A Conceptual model of the construction of image transfer from the sponsor to the supported event and its impact on quality perception P.103 Figure 6: A Conceptual model of the construction of image transfer and its impact on quality defining the type of variables . P.109 Figure 2: A Conceptual model of the research architecture and the instrument design Figure 7: Sponsor prominence (Pre-test) P.118 P.120 P.68 P.78

Figure8: Shell dissonance (pre-test) P.120 Figure 9: Respondents level of involvement . P.138

Figure 10: Number of attendance to the RFWM festival P.139 Figure 11: Sponsor prominence .. Figure 12: Congruence between the RFWM Festival & each sponsor ... Figure 13: Sponsors Visibility ... Figure 14: Number of days spent at the RFWM Festival by the respondents. Figure 15: RainForest World Music Festivals image Figure 16: Heinekens image .. Figure 17: Water Genesiss image .. Figure18: Shells image .. Figure 19: Festivals and sponsors image rating -Positive image- Figure 20: Shells image rating according to respondents place of origin Figure 21: Normal Q-Q plot of the RainForest World Music Festivals image ... P.164 P.140 P.142 P.144 P.144 P.146 P.146 P.149 P.149 P.151 P.152

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Figure 22: Normal Q-Q plot of Heinekens image . Figure 23: Normal Q-Q plot of Water Genesiss image . Figure 24: Normal Q-Q plot of Shells image

P.165 P.165 P.165

Figure 25: Normal Q-Q plot of Heinekens congruence . P.165 Figure 26: Normal Q-Q plot of Water Genesis Congruence...... Figure 27: Normal Q-Q plot of Shells Congruence ... Figure 28: Normal Q-Q plot of Reliability . P.165 P.165 P.165

Figure 29: Normal Q-Q plot of Core Service .. P.165 Figure 30: Normal Q-Q plot of Environment . Figure 1-bis: Review of the Conceptual Model: The Construction of Image Transfer and its Impact on Quality Perception Figure 31: Sponsors Impact on Global Quality . P.176 P.181 P.165

Figure 32: Sponsors Impact on Reliability / Professionalism P.183 Figure 33: Sponsors Impact on Core Service Figure 34: Sponsors Impact on Environment Figure 35: Theoretical and Effective Impact of Congruence on the transfers magnitude P.194 Figure 36: Observed Positive Relationship between Prominence and Quality Perception of the Event ... Figure 37: Prominence and Magnitude of the transfer: a curvilinear Relationship...................................................................................................... P.199 Figure 38: Familiarity and Magnitude of the transfer . P.200 Figure 39: Final Model Review... P.203 P.196 P.185 P.184

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List of Tables
Table 1: Presentation of Sample Characteristics . P.136 Table 2: Presentation of respondents level of involvement ... Table 3: Presentation of number of attendance to the RFWM festival ... Table 4: Presentation of sponsor prominence . Table 5: Presentation of the level of congruence between the RFWM Festival and each sponsor P.141 Table 6: Presentation of the sponsors visibility . Table 7: Presentation of the number of days spent at the RFWM by the respondents .. P.144 Table 8: Presentation of the RainForest World Music Festivals Image P.145 P.143 P.138 P.139 P.140

Table 9: Presentation of Heinekens image . P.147 Table 10: Presentation of Water Genesiss image .. P.148

Table 11: Presentation of Shells image .. P.150 Table 12: Presentation of the festivals and sponsors image rating ... P.151 Table 13: Shells image rating according to respondents place of origin .. P.152 Table 14: Presentation of respondents quality assessment Table 15: Cronbachs Alpha Reliability Test: Involvement ... Table 16: Cronbachs Alpha Reliability Test: RainForest World Music Festival Image . Table 17: The result of validity analysis for independent variables ... Table 18: The result of validity analysis for drivers of Image Transfer . P.157 P.159 P.160 P.153 P.156

Table 19: The result of validity analysis for dependent variables ....... P.161 Table 20: MLR Results for the 6 Variables as the Predicators of RainForest Festivals Image .. Table 21: MLR Results for the 7 Variables as the Predicators of RainForest Festival Global Quality ... Table 22: Estimated unstandardised and standardized regression P.167 P.167 P.166

coefficients; Dependent variable: Global Quality ... Table 23: MLR Results for the 7 Variables as the Predicators of RainForest Festivals Reliability ..

P.169

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Table

24:

Estimated

unstandardised

and

standardized

regression P.170

coefficients; Dependent variable: Reliability .. Table 25: MLR Results for the 7 Variables as the Predicators of RainForest Festival Core Service .. Table 26: Estimated unstandardised and standardized regression

P.171

coefficients; Dependent variable: core service P.172 Table 27: MLR Results for the 7 Variables as the Predicators of RainForest Festival Environment .. Table 28: Estimated unstandardised and standardized regression P.174 P.173

coefficients; Dependent variable: Environment ..

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Appendices
Appendix A: Pre-test guide 1: Image, Prominence, Congruence.

P.257

Appendix B: Pre-test guide 2: Image, Prominence, Congruence.

P.259

Appendix C: Pre-test guide 3: Quality Assessement

P.261

Appendix D: Cover Letter Questionnaire Part 1, Internet Survey

P.262

Appendix E: Questionnaire Part 1, Internet Survey.. P.263

Appendix F: Questionnaire Part 1, Site Survey

P.265

Appendix G: Cover Letter Questionnaire Part 2... P.267

Appendix H: Questionnaire Part 2

P.268

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1. Chapter I: Introduction

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1.1. Part 1: Research background & stakes of the question


The first part of this introduction chapter will consider the background of this research by presenting the reason that conducted us to persue such a topic, the different options considered in its definition and what led our choices when making them fall behind the scope of our study. We will show in what extend this topic presents an interest, if it is potentially valuable for the industry or if it may shed a light on neglected research areas. We will then give state of the professional and scientific stakes of the question before presenting our research objectives in the following part.

1.1.1. Art as a paradox

Art is an ambiguous notion that holds contrast and contradiction. It is the expression of subjectivity looking for intersubjective recognition. This paradox can be illustrated by two quotations from Josette Frale and Rainer Rochlitz. Lart est avant tout un mode dexpression dun idal esthtique o

sinscrit une vision du monde (Josette Fral 1990, p.33), meaning that art is
above all a mode of expression of an aesthetic ideal in which the artist transmits its world vision. Art expresses the artists inner light and torments, its own sense of beauty, how he perceives the world. Art is the expression of an artists aesthetic sensibility engaging the audiences emotions and reflections. Art is the expression of an artists subjectivity, allowing the artwork to be labelled as unique. The subjective nature of perception, of taste, is as well decisive in understanding the notion of art. Greatness in art is a purely subjective question. Objective criteria universally acceptable to judge a works beauty or artistic greatness are hard to come up with.

In contrast, as highlighted by Rainer Rochlitz, partisan of aesthetic rationality (1994), Toute oeuvre nest dabord quune prtention la

reconnaissance esthtique which means in substance that any work of art

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primarily pretend to aesthetic recognition. This quest of artistic legitimacy implies a relation to intersubjectivity by pursuing an objective mark of aesthetic achievement. Though, we find some counterexamples in modern art and avant-garde. Art movements as Dadaism or Surrealism overshadowed this paradox by denying to the public the capacity of judging their work. Indeed, for over a century, art acted in response to the publics total refusal of innovation and its conservatism, translated by the litany this is not art. Artists, sometimes improperly, counter with their own litany: this is art (Rochlitz 1994). Art forms, as music, especially in its performing art acceptation, does not interact similarly with its public today. Indeed, its physical expression implies inextricably a direct contact with an audience and an almost physical research of aesthetic recognition. It is on this art form that will be focused our study.

1.1.2. Music, an obedient art form for tourism development

Music, and most specifically live music, presents a particular interest from a tourism point of view. Other forms of art or works of art, as painting or architecture, are less obedient in their tourism exploitation. By nature, they are often an indivisible part of a destinations cultural heritage. Their relative scarcity, for destinations that do not benefit of such heritage, makes their exploitation as a tool for tourism development much more difficult (unless of course concerning destination such as Abu Dhabi that can afford to rent part of the Louvres collection). Music however, appeared as a much more convenient tool and is nowadays part of many local authorities tourism development strategies, especially in Europe and United states. When it takes the form of cultural event such as concerts and festivals, it creates flow of tourists coming in one particular destination to assist to the event that it provides. Concerts and more specifically festivals are thus pull factor for tourism, they enlarge the cultural resources of the locality and are expandable for destinations benefiting of a rich heritage as well as for destinations enjoying less significant resources. Such events possess a considerable potential in terms of tourism and local development. A festival has normally a great impact on the hosting community. It 24

promotes tourism by serving as a major attraction and gives rise to a substantial amount of economic activity. It is as well a major asset in term of image building and destinations communication. Multitudes of cultural events are created each year to develop tourism and democratise culture. Festivals are the most widespread type of cultural celebration today (Getz 2004, quoted in Armbrecht & Lundberg 2005). In the past decade, the phenomenon took such extend in Europe and North America that festival are today beyond any possibility of complete inventory (Benito & al 2002). This uncontrolled proliferation of events, driven by institutional will, shows that questions of aesthetics, taste and style are today totally inextricable from political questions (Jackson 1989, 1993; in Waterman, 1998). Events created at first as cultural vectors are today part of local authorities strategies. As the number of event increase, public funds become scarce. Useem (1991) have noted that cultural activities seeking funding woo corporate support, which is now seen as a viable alternative to government funding.

1.1.3. Culture and economy, festivals instrumentalization and founding issues

Indeed, festivals display a constant tension between culture, which is their essence, and political and economical concern, to which they are most often submissive. This phenomenon, illustrating the debate between culture and economy, seems to be dedicate to perpetuate itself as the trend of making tools of festival by territorial bodies (Barre, 2002) and sponsors (Rolfe, 1992a; 1992b) endures. Both private and public players manipulate festivals to attract larger audiences and increase revenues. Festivals cultural dimension may be compromised by local community interest when partnerships with local bodies interested in revitalizing their economy or promote themselves are implemented. Festivals operating on cultural niche, presenting specific program designed for a particular audience, are particularly jeopardized. Local politicians, to demonstrate a judicious use of public funds, may feel uneasy with a festival presenting itself as elitist and may pressure organizer to open these events to a broader public (Waterman, 1998). While we can easily concede to public institutions having commonly general interest in mind when funding arts and festivals, it is not the case of corporations. 25

The differences in motivations that drive these two types of funding suggest that corporate support is not a true replacement for the government grant (Useem 1991). Corporate managers remain accountable to their shareholders, their decisions must be targeted at improving the fortunes of the firm, and so are donations (Useem 1991). Private sponsors strive to reach a wider audience and see festivals as a communication mean, a tool from which they will gain benefits in term of image. They are likely to found popular event for them to reach a broader population instead of the ones that present cultural interest. Useem (1991) noted that, unlike federal support, corporate contributions are seldom targeted at artwork considered too innovative or avant-garde. Kenyon (1996) developed this argument in his study of business sponsorship in Canada. He emphasizes that corporate support for visual and performing arts, tends to strengthen existing power relationships by

reinforcing corporate network structures. As a result, Kenyon asserts that such


donations are unlikely to be a force of social change (Kenyon, 1996 p.45). Festival directors and managers face a dilemma that arises from their relations with the entities founding their event: how to maintain artistic integrity and to reposition towards a wider audience. It seems more and more difficult to differentiate festivals cultural and economic dimensions.

Hence, organization that manage festivals are often subject to tensions created by the gap that exist between their will to provide an artistically and culturally satisfying event and at the same time fulfilling the needs of a place or a sponsor to promote themselves through the event. It is this relation, between festivals and bodies founding them, which conducted us to our departure question: what is the impact of the way to finance a festival upon the festival itself? As we have seen, public and private entities respond to different logics in funding festivals. Their impact on such events is thus likely to be very different. Our review of the literature has shown that public grant impacts have been extensively studied. The pervert effect of subvention for instance has been the object of Rochlitz (1994)s book, Subversion et subvention. Art contemporain et argumentation esthtique as well as the well known Pommerehne and Frey (1993)s example of the Salzbourg festival from La Culture a-t-elle un prix? Essai sur l'conomie de l'art, which presents the analysis of the aberrant functioning process of Salzbourg, where

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the subsidize policy of the Austrian government favours the enormous spending and the events increasing deficit. This aspect of the question has been well studied and thus, presents a limited interest for our research. Restriction over artistic freedom and creativity can also be an impact of public support. Censorship or control over artistic production has existed in every society at every age. Art that challenges the strongly held beliefs of any society

whether those be political, ideological, religious, or otherwise causes offence and creates pressure for censorship (Tun-Jen Chiang & Posner, 2006).
Art can and does cause offence and even a society as diverse as ours will find consensus in that matter for some extremes works or performances. It thus cannot be said that a work should never be censored. Not to fall in a portrayal of censorship as a simple black and white, which would be an overly simplistic and misleading analyse of the phenomenon, we will try to consider it as an objective limitation to creativity and artistic value, or more broadly freedom of expression, which constitute an essential element of artistic quality. However, the question remains highly controversial and polemic. Destroying a work permanently removes it from future generations and thus constitutes an irrevocable outrage to cultural heritage. Extreme and very alarming practices have been observed for instance, when the Taliban took control of Kabul in 1996. Musical instruments were destroyed, musicians caught playing music were severely beaten and even being identified as a former musician was dangerous (Baily 2001). It is sometimes difficult not to consider censorship as a dreadful threat for artistic freedom, and a frightful treat in itself. Violation of freedom of expression and restriction over artistic freedom and creativity does not only occur in undemocratic countries. This phenomenon is still very pregnant in modern society. It could have been very interesting to study the impact of censorship on a festival in a Muslim country such as Malaysia. Malaysia and South East Asia are particularly relevant examples. We are dealing with a region where political, religious, social, and by extension musical censorship has been prevalent. According to the Southeast Asian Press Alliance (SEAPA) and the International Freedom of Expression Exchange (IFEX), Malaysian juridical framework is at the origin of important restriction to freedom of speech and expression. Examples of censorship in Malaysia, either over local or international

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artists, are legion. We choose not to pursue in this direction, this aspect of the question being too polemic. Moreover, the important variations from one country to another would have limit the extent of our results and made more difficult to draw general conclusion. Thus, we choose to make censorship issues fall behind the scope of our study. If public grants impact appeared too polemic or already widely studied, private support seems particularly interesting and starts to be a source of founding in which cultural activities have more and more to rely on.

As stated by Useem (1991), to face the substantial decline in states grants, cultural activities and festivals had to find other sources of founding. Partnerships with private companies are today largely developed all over the world to support all types of cultural activities. The relation between private funding and festivals is a widely considered topic, which presents the particular interest of being studied from the opposite point of view of the one we intend to assume in this dissertation. Indeed, the corporate benefits drawn from the sponsoring of divers activities in the fields of sports, culture, social and humanitarian activities, research, etc, gave rise to a strong attention from the research community in the fields of marketing, economic or communication. Literature is concentrated in the study of the impact of sponsoring activities toward the sponsor; literature studies the impact of festivals or any sponsored activity towards the firms that support it. Once again, the activity benefiting of support is essentially seen as a communication tool, or a mean to improve image. However, there is hardly any research focusing on the effects of these partnerships on the sponsored activity, and studies in the particular field of cultural events and festivals seem inexistent. We will try in this paper to study the question from this new angle. What could be the impacts of sponsorship on the activity benefiting of support? For instance and as explained earlier, Useem (1991)s research illustrates the difference in motivations that drives public and private partners which could be a source of hindrance in terms of innovation. Artistic freedom has been considered in its relations with public grant; private founding may conversely influence creativity. Sponsors, in an instrumentalization process of the festival they support, may affect the event cultural integrity. Indeed, when submissive to corporate will (or audience 28

dictatorship), does festival still contribute the same in both the production and consumption of culture? Innovations, creativity, cultural value of a festival, are elements that can be gathered under one global concept. These questions lead to a more central problematic: the question of quality. To avoid a too theoretical research that would have failed to satisfy the requirement of operationalisation, we choose not to focus neither on festivals cultural dimension and on their role in cultural dissemination, nor on creativity and integrity of artistic freedom. The concept of quality transcends these questions and offers more concrete and practical outcomes. We thus choose to study private sponsors impact on festivals quality.

1.1.4. Quality in art

This problematic poses the complex question of quality in art or what Kant (1790) called judgement of taste, which is the discovery of what is required for defining the beautiful. It raises the problem of quality assessments legitimacy and stresses on the validity of the criteria employed. According to Rochlitz (1994), aesthetic judgement pertains to aesthetic rationality. Inter-subjective criterions allow us to assess the aesthetic and the artistic quality of a work. Conversely, Schaeffer (1996) asserts that quality in art is relevant of judgement of pleaser and that inter-subjective assessment of a works quality is by essence improper. Kant, in its Critique of Aesthetic Judgment (1790), affirms that we should not employ the term beauty that induces inter-subjective validity of our judgement of taste. Indeed, If we wish to discern whether anything is beautiful

or not, (...) we refer the representation to the subject and its feeling of pleasure or displeasure (Kant 1790, p.24). These feelings, according to Kant,
refer to a sentiment that we have of ourselves and to the way in which we are affected by the representation. The judgement of taste, therefore, is not a

cognitive judgement, and so not logical, but is aesthetic - which means that it (...) cannot be other than subjective (Kant 1790, p.24). How to transcend the
expression of an individual judgment? How to rise above subjectivity in the

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assessment of a work? Trying to measure quality in artistic and cultural fields is indeed a troublesome mission. Moreover, the problem cannot be reduced to the sole task of assessing the event as the addition of the works that composed it. Festivals quality cannot be resumed by the quality of its production, of its programming, of the performances. Other elements, sometimes more tangibles, play their part in the definition of such event quality. How to assess a whole event composed of such different elements as in a festival? According to Pommerehne & Frey (1993), Festivals should be submitted to a purely economic logic. Regulated by supply and demand, individual tastes would determine what is or is not art; thus, the quality of an event should be measured in terms of tickets sells. If this vision presents the interest of placing customers in the centre of the quality evaluation, and in that, presents similarities with what Evans & Lindsay (2005) named Customer-driven quality; their approach appeared very restrictive and seems to stamp on major part of the problem. Moreover, in this perspective, programming would be a direct function of audience without risk and innovation. This conception seems to lead to aesthetic standardization. Techniques have been developed to assess quality. Many authors studied service quality and attempted to implement methods or model aim to assess activities performances. Throsby (1990) studied the perception of quality in demand for theatre and established criteria according to a vision of quality largely oriented towards the cultural dimension of the show. Cronin and Taylor (1992) as well as Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985) create more general models aim to assess service quality in diverse industries. Based on their works, Stokes & Tkaczynski (2005) developed a method to evaluate quality in festival. These researches will be major contributors to our theoretical model. However, we will more specifically rely on the work of Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985) or at least on the theoretical framework they use in the development of their model (SERVQUAL). The disconfirmative paradigm appears indeed more appropriate in terms of the priorities that we established since it will allow us to include in our model other variables than the ones relative to quality and performance, our main purpose being not to assess a festivals quality but to see if its quality is affected by its relationship with its sponsors.

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This research will thus attempt to present an inventory of different quality assessment tools developed in marketing and economic literature and create an instrument specially design to assess festival quality that would be tested within the RainForest World Music Festival in Borneo, Malaysia.

1.1.5. Image transfer and its impact on consumers quality perception

After trying to bring some responses to the issues linked to the measurement of cultural events and festivals quality, we will try to assess the correlation existing between festivals quality and the sponsors used to found their activity. To do so, we will try to adapt in our specific context the concept of Image Transfer developed by Meenaghan (2001) and Grohs & Reisinger (2004). This notion refers to the transmission of distinctive attributes of brands personality or image values associated with a particular organization during the advertising or sponsoring process. Their researches focused on the transfer from the sponsored event to the firm granted its support. This transfer is driven by four variables. Event Involvement is consumers level of implication in the sponsored activity (Meenaghan 2001). Event/Sponsor Congruence or Dissonance is function of the logical connection between sponsor and sponsored activity (Meenaghan 2001). Sponsorship Exposure is characterised by the amount of time a person is exposed to a sponsor message (Grohs & Reisinger 2004). At last, Sponsor Prominence is the degree to which consumers are familiar with a sponsors brand. We aim to show that these variables also affect the strength of the relationship between sponsors and Festival, or impact on the strength of the image transfer from the sponsor to the festival. Previous researches bring evidence of a transfer between the sponsored activities toward sponsors, none has been carried out to analyse the possible transfer from the sponsor to the sponsored activity. To bring evidence of the influence of sponsorship on festival quality, we will investigate this problematic: The image transfer from the sponsor to the festival,

and the impact of this transfer on consumers quality perception of the event.

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Figure 1 below aims to illustrate the hypothesised relationships between the different variables and show the drivers: Involvment, Prominence, Dissonance or Congruence and Exposure, influence on the transfer between the sponsors and the festival image. The impact on the events image resulting from the sponsorship process by the association between the festival and different brands carrying values and having their own representation in attendees mind, is expected, consequently, to affect festivalgoers perception of the event quality.

Event Involvement

Sponsor Prominence Consumers Quality perception of the Event

Sponsor Image

Event Image

Event/Sponsor Dissonance

Sponsorship Exposure

Figure 1: A Conceptual model of the construction of image transfer from the sponsor to the supported event and its impact on quality perception

1.1.6. Construction and methodology

The disconfirmative paradigm will enable us to combine in one single model our instrument assessing the festival quality and the tool measuring the weight of the sponsors impact in this measure. The use of this paradigm implies to be focused on consumers quality perception and lead to consider the measurement of service quality as the difference between visitors expectations about a performance and their assessment of the actual quality (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, 1985). After showing that the notions of expectation and image are conceptually close and that image largely determines expectations construction (Leblanc, 1992; Jansson, 32

2002; Jennings & Nickerson, 2005), we will develop a model measuring the gap between vistors image of the festival and the different sponsors, and festivals quality. We will then regress sponsors image and Drivers of Image Transfer on festival quality to identify the impact of corporate contributions upon this variable.

Our research will thus attempt to associate different model employed in a different context to create an instrument aimed to assess the relations sponsor/festival from a perspective that has not been studied before. We will thus conduct an exploratory research in a positivist approach using quantitative methods in the specific context of the RainForest World Music Festival to empirically validate our statements. A questionnaire survey appeared to be the most appropriate means of collecting the necessary data. Our instrument, using SERVQUAL architecture, will be composed of two questionnaires. The first one, filled in by the respondent before the festival, will consider the image against which experience will be assessed in the second questionnaire that will be collected post event, as illustrated in Figure 2.

Disconfirmative Paradigm Adapted from SERVQUAL

Questionnaire prior experience


Involvement Reliability Core Service Environment

Questionnaire post experience

Grohs & Reisinger model: Drivers of Image Transfer

Prominence Dissonance

Quality Assessment

Image Attributes

From pre-test on a smaller sample

Exposure

Personal Information

Figure 2: A Conceptual model of the research architecture and the instrument design

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To explore the relationships between our variables we will use Multiple Linear Regression. Such approach, in line with Grohs & Reisinger (2004), enables us to explore the relationships between one dependent variable: festivals quality, and provides us with information about our overall model as well as the relative contribution of each of our variables: sponsors image and drivers of the transfer.

1.2. Part 2: Aims and objectives of the research


Part two expresses the aims and objectives that we will try to fulfill in the development of this study. We will first present the objectives and contribution of our research. We will then state our hypothesis.

1.2.1. Contribution of the Study

Researchers interest for the conditions which lead to successful and durable image transfer toward the sponsor grows as competition for fund raise and sponsorships become a significant proportion of companies marketing budget (Grohs and Reisinger 2004). However, little is known about the consequences of sponsorship toward the supported activity. Is the transfer reciprocal? What factors support an image transfer toward the festival in sponsorships? Can it harm its image and consumers quality perception? On what basis should festival managers, hence, implement partnership policies to support their activities without damaging their image, without damaging attendees quality perception, and even gain in terms of coherence and image consistency? This paper aims at proving sponsors influence on attendees quality perception of a festival. To reach this objective we aim to bring evidences of the existence of an image transfer from the sponsors toward a festival during the sponsoring process. This image transfer is believed to be affected by drivers: Involvement, Prominence, Dissonance or Congruence, and Exposure. We aim to analyse the impact of different sponsors on the studied event and show how these drivers influence the transfer

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between the sponsors and the festival image. The impact of the sponsorship process on the events image, resulting from the association between the festival and different brands carrying values and having their own representation in attendees mind, is expected to affect festivalgoers perception of the event quality. Our objectives are to understand and analyse the interrelationships among these constructs.

In that purpose, the study first attempts to provide a comprehensive and methodical assessment of all variables submitted to and affecting the image transfer in sponsorships. Hence, we postulate reciprocity in transfer and strive to gather factors assumed to display a causal relationship between them and the strength of image transfer. Then, we aim to create a conceptual model assessing the transfer and its influence on quality perception and test it by investigating in what extend empirical evidence supports it. We chose the RainForest World Music Festival as a case study to put our model into operation. We aim to produce an efficient quality assessment model of the Festival (which could eventually be generalised to other events) to measure the impact of the image transfer towards the event quality. The individual influence of all factors will be measured along with the simultaneous assessment of each drivers influence on the model. It will allow us to understand the interrelationships among the different constructs and assess the global and individual impact of each variable on the model. We aim to quantify the effects of each driver as well as possible interactions between them, and to draw leads towards the understanding of the conditions under which an image transfer will not be detrimental for the supported activity. At last, our purpose is to be able to give suggestions for festivals to adopt meaningful and consistent sponsoring and partnership policies in adequacy with their image and values to favours positive repercussions on quality perception.

1.2.2. Research Hypotheses

The studied hypotheses are stated as they relate to the objectives of the study presented in the section above. 35

Our general hypothesis postulates that H: Sponsors image affects global quality

perception of a festival. To bring evidences supporting this statement, we aim to


demonstrate that H1: Sponsors image has an influence on festivals image. This influence takes the form of an image transfer from the sponsors to the event. We assume that H2: Drivers of this image transfer act as moderator variables

and impact on the strength of the relationship between sponsors image and festival image in the process of image transfer from the sponsor to the festival.
These drivers are attendees involvement, the event-sponsor image dissonance or congruence, the sponsors prominence, and attendees exposure to sponsors messages or their potential over-exposure. We will study the influences and interaction of these four drivers and postulate that H.2.1: Event involvement

positively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsored event, H.2.2: Event-sponsor image dissonance impact negatively on the events image, H.2.2b: Event-sponsor functional dissonance does not affect the events image, H.2.3: Sponsorship over-exposure negatively affects the sponsored events image, and H.2.4: Sponsor prominence positively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsored event.
After bringing the proof that there is a transfer from the sponsors to the festival image, and that this transfer is influenced and oriented by these four drivers, we will show that H3: festivals image influences consumers quality perception.

1.3. Dissertations Structure


This dissertation will consist of six chapters. Following the introduction, the second chapter will strive to provide a comprehensive and critical review of the theoretical background to the concept of festival, quality and image. The first part will initially intent to understand festival as a concept. The study of its origins and of the relationship music activities developed with founding bodies will help us to perceive how the way to finance such activity had major impacts on its form, creativity and general quality. We will display the different processes that led

36

to the apparition of festival in its modern acceptation; which will aid us to understand what factors may influence them today. We will then try to appreciate how complex is the notion of festival and present a comprehensive description of the phenomenon in its different dimensions: economic, social, cultural, aesthetic, etc. The second part will present the concept of quality in the literature and try to define the notion as regard to its specificities when considered in festival context. We will first note that the different conceptions of festival quality among supporting partners may affect the event. We will then focus our analysis on private stakeholders and define the different type of supports that they can provide. We will then try to understand the construction of consumers evaluation of festivals quality. We will review and discuss the methodologies and models adopted by researchers in the field of service quality. These models relevance will be evaluated as regard to our researchs purposes. Define the concept of image and identify the bases in which the notion is build is the first objective of the third part. We will then show how this image can evolve during the sponsoring process because of the transmission of image value from sponsored activity to sponsor. The process of image transfer will be analysed and we will try to identify the vectors that drive it. Identifying leads enabling us to formulate hypothesis concerning the converse relationship: a transfer from the sponsor to the activity benefiting of support, is the last objective of this part. We will review the literature concerning the impact that sponsors may have on sponsored activitys image and show that this image is directly related to consumers perception of quality.

Chapter 3 describes and discusses how the research will be conducted and the methods that will be employed to reach our objectives. First, we will justify the selection of the festival chosen to operationalize our study. After defining our hypotheses, we will present the theoretical framework allowing us to build the empirical test of our conceptual model and explain the theoretical process leading to our model design. Our data requirement will then be the object of detailed explanations along with the presentation of the method that will be employed for analysing the data collected.

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Subsequently, we will select the sponsors that will be part of our analysis and explicate what guided this choice. At last, we will try to clearly illustrate the construction of the instrument and the different variables. We will describe the construction of image scale to isolate brands personalities and image values associated by respondents to each sponsors and to the festival. Scales construction, as regard to the drivers of image transfer and to the assessment of consumers quality perceptions, will as well be depicted with precision. To conclude, we will mention the data collection procedure.

Chapter IV will report the results obtained from the empirical study. After presenting the sample characteristics, we will display the survey results as such, before utilizing statistical methods to explore the relationships between our variables. To assess the reliability and validity of the multi-item scales, we conduct Cronbachs Alpha reliability test and confirmatory factor analyses. The extraction of components will then be discussed. We will subsequently use Multiple Linear Regression to explore the relationship between our dependent and predicator variables. We decompose the festival quality into four components that we assess successively: Global Quality, Reliability / Professionalism, Core Service, and environment. The second part aims to present the process of analysis and to put into perspective our main findings with existing knowledge and theories. We will first present issues relative to the results reading of our multiple linear regression analysis. The results of our hypotheses testing will then be discussed. We will successively analyse the sponsors impact on each one of the quality dimensions as well as the role that our independent and moderator variables play in the image transfer. At last, we will conclude this chapter by a discussion of the studys limitations.

The fifth chapter will discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the studys results and present operational recommendations and suggestions for future researches. We will highlight three major operational implications we derive from our
empirical analysis that could constitute guidelines for festival managers to choose and implement effective sponsorship policies that do not damaged their activities image and attendees perception of events quality.

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Moreover, our study generates results that could be a starting point for more quantitative research in this field. A number of problems that we could not solve in the present research have been raised and could be the object of further studies aimed to improve the reliability and representativeness of our instrument. We propose, to

conclude this chapter, several steps for a new methodology.


. The final chapter of this dissertation draws the conclusions from the analysis according to the objectives of our study. Unfulfilled objectives will be highlighted and reasons preventing us to reach them will be explained.

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2. Chapter II: Literature Review

40

2.0. Introduction:
The first part will initially intent to understand festival as a concept. The study of its origins and of the relationships music had with founding bodies, will help us to see how, in the past and in different regions of the world, the way to finance such activity had major impacts on its form, on the standards and expectations of the public, on authors artistic freedom and on the general quality of the performances. We will display the different processes that led to the apparition of festival in its modern acceptation; which will help us to understand what factors may influence them today. We will then try to appreciate how complex is the notion of festival. Festival is a much diversified concept bringing together events of very different essence and gathering diverse meanings for different persons. We will attempt to present a comprehensive description of the phenomenon in its different dimensions: economic, social, cultural, aesthetic, etc. Despite original aesthetic aspirations of most festivals, we will show that nowadays, these events evolve in other spheres. Economic and politic considerations have very significant influence on this phenomenon and have to be taken into consideration to fully understand it.

The second part will present the concept of quality in the literature and try to define the notion as regard to its specificities when considered in festival context. We will attempt to conceptualize the different dimensions that are relevant in the process of constructing festival quality and thus differentiate stakeholders and consumers quality evaluation. Festival quality thus, from the stakeholders point of view, will be conditioned by the benefits they can draw from their participation. We will first note that these different conceptions of festival quality and the different objectives of the supporting partners may affect the event. We will then focus our analysis on private stakeholders and define the different type of supports that they can provide. We will then try to understand the construction of consumers evaluation of festivals. We will first study the different dimensions of service attributes; note the importance of attribute expectations in the construction of quality and its assessment 41

prior consumption, and show the affective dimension in the assessment of festival perceived quality. We will then try to review and discuss the methodologies and models adopted by researchers in the field of service quality and try to evaluate their relevance as regard to our research.

Define the concept of image and identify the bases in which the notion is build is the first objective of the third part. We will see that mediascape and previous experience play a major role in image construction along with consumers profile. We will then show how this image can evolve during the sponsoring process because of the transmission of image value from sponsored activity to sponsor. We will then try to understand the process of image transfer and identify the vectors that drive it. Identifying leads enabling us to formulate hypothesis concerning the converse relationship: a transfer from the sponsor to the activity benefiting of support, is the last objective of this part. We will review the literature concerning the impact that sponsor may have on sponsored activitys image and show that this image is directly related to consumers perception of quality.

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2.1. Part 1: Festival, general concern and definition of the concept


This part aims to understand the notion of festival. The study in the first section of its origins and its ancient roots with financial support providers will help us to see how, in the past, the way to finance such activity had major impacts on its form, on the standards and expectations of the public, on the artistic freedom of authors and on the general quality of the performances. The examination of the factors that influenced musical activity to give birth to modern festivals are of major importance to understand these events and to understand what factors may influence them today. The second section attempts to present a comprehensive description of the phenomenon in its different dimensions: economic, social, cultural, aesthetic, etc.

2.1.1. Section I: Historical approach of the support of music


If markets have gradually come to play an increasingly prominent role in the organization and supply of music, church and noble courts, political conditions and private sector, participate since the earliest times to a major part in the definition of its image as well as in the development or the inhibition of creativity, innovation, artistic freedom and thus the quality of musical production. We will examine the support of music from a European and then an Islamic and Asian perspective.

211.1. Sub Section I: A European perspective

We will in the section successively inspect the part of Christianity, noble courts and latter private support in the development of musical culture. We will then comment the rise of the concept of festival originated from the popularization of musical culture and conclude by mentioning the image and identity crisis that affects modern festivals.

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211.11. Church support, the role of Christianity over musical development

The historical relationship between artists and Christianity was complex. The Church exercised a huge influence over artistic development. The Church ()

was the most important patron of the arts for more than a thousand years, but also the greatest censor. Possessing both the carrot of patronage and the stick of excommunication, as well as other powers of persuasion and intimidation (Tun-Jen Chiang and R. A. Posner, 2006, p. 312).
F.M. Scherer (2006) estimates the origin of the roots between musician and the Christian church from at least the conversion of the Roman emperor Constantine (312-337). He shows the authority and control that the church had upon artists, and its power over the forms in which music should be performed. Control and censorship over music, vocal or instrumental, has been a major concern for the Church. Censorship of instrumental music is rare but should not be overlooked. Pagan music for example was long associated with decadence by the church and reprobate.

In Roman Catholic churches, music became increasingly elaborate until the 16th century, where the Council of Trent1 requisites that music during the Catholic mass retreat toward a simplified forms that may be clearly understood by all (F.M. Scherer. 2006). With the rise of capitalism in Europe, new markets for art rose and thus eroded the ability of the Church to use its patronage to dictate artistic standards. However, Christian institution benefited of other means of pressure. The sculptor Pietro Torrigiano was brought before the Inquisition in 1522 for sacrilege after smashing a statue of the Virgin Mary in protest against the small payment offered for the work. He starved himself to death before he could be executed (Tun-Jen Chiang and R. A. Posner, 2006). Strong differences of opinion within the Protestant dominations determined either musical expansion or censorship within the churches. At first, music flourished hold

Council of Trent was the 19th Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church, considered as

one of the Church's most important councils.

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by the Reformation1 but rapidly, divergence appeared. The puritan Oliver Cromwell (between 1649 and 1658) in England struck a blow to this development. Music was banned from church services and organs were removed or even destroyed. In Switzerland as well, singing and organs were eliminated from the services. The Restoration under Charles II among other things returned music to the churches both in England and on the European continent (F.M. Scherer. 2006). Eastern Orthodox Church has always been conservative in liturgical matters due to the absence of a central ecclesiastical authority that could enforce reforms. The ban over instrumental music persists to this day2.

With Renaissance, musicians began to move from itinerant or amateur status to regular employment. Churches provided one important source of long-term employment. European towns also hired musicians to perform regularly on flutes, trumpets, and drums with local militias and at town celebrations. Wealthy nobles began retaining musicians as regular members of their staffs, rather than relying upon occasional visits by itinerant minstrels. (F.M. Scherer. 2006).

211.12. Support from noble courts, towards a golden age of music creativity?

All over Europe, a strong bond connected church and state. Kings and local feudal lords established chapel at their residences and hired musicians to perform during church services as well as festive occasions and for some of them regularly during meals. Progressively some musicians were assigned to chapel duties and others were assigned to provide entertainment. The phenomenon which arose from the Thirty Years War in central and southern Europe was of the greatest significance for the development of music as a professional activity. When the war ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, what are now Germany, Austria, Hungary, what later became Czechoslovakia, and parts of northern Italy, were divided into many smaller political units where feudal
1

The Reformation gives birth to the forms of Christian faith and practices that initiate

Protestantism.
2

Bishop Kallistos, The Doctrine of the Orthodox Church: Worship and Sacraments, Orthodox

Church, http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/general/doctrine3.aspx

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lords governed at the local level. According to F.M. Scherer (2006) it became fashionable for local sovereigns and lords to establish their own court orchestras or their own opera houses. Local nobles began competing for prestige through a kind

of cultural arms race (p.128), so that by the first half of the 18th century, no self-respecting court in what had been the Holy Roman Empire could be without its court orchestra or other group offering regular musical entertainments (p.128). This proliferation of court orchestra is said to have given
rise to a golden age of musical creativity (p.128). According to William and Hilda Baumol (1994) obviously, economic and political conditions cannot

create talent, but they certainly can either inhibit it or provide opportunities for its exercise. They asserted that the political division of Europe into many
minor states worked to produce the circumstances (notably substantial

demand and a profusion of jobs) that help to explain the profusion of musical productivity. (p.172)
Court employment was for composers a secured position but full of obligations and constraint. Besides the fact that musicians had to use the most extremely deferential language when speaking to there masters, they were required to wear the livery (uniform) and could be discharged for their failure to do so as Niccol Paganini was in Parma (F.M. Scherer. 2006). Among other things, a musician could not leave that position without the lords express permission. Johann Sebastian Bach was imprisoned for a short period when he mad an attempt to break his contract with the Duke of Weimar. Mozart was fearful to return in Salzburg in 1783 because he left without permission the PrinceArchbishop Colloredo and thus might be imprisoned (F.M. Scherer. 2006). Masters strictly limited outside propagation of works composed by their court musicians. When Nicol Jommelli left the service of Duke Carl Eugen of Wrttemberg in 1769 he was not allowed to take with him copies of its own composition (F.M. Scherer. 2006).

During the second half of the 18th century and early decades of the 19th century, noble court support was substantially reduced. The costs of maintaining musical activities as such became too important to hold due to the competition

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between the different courts. Moreover many local and territorial governments were deeply affected by major wars1 which drained the treasuries. Furthermore, feudal system in which noble courts relied went done as a consequence of Enlightenment philosophical arguments and the emancipation of European peasants. The French revolution of 1789 and the abolition of many feudal rights by French occupying forces during the Napoleonic wars played a big part in the reduction of resources for the support of musical activities. Feudal reform also reduced religious support especially from Catholic Church (F.M. Scherer. 2006).

211.13. The rise of private sector support, a gateway towards a structural and image metamorphose of musical culture

Over a period of two-plus centuries, there was a transition from support of elite music composers by churches and the nobility to support through more marketoriented institutions, and especially free-lance activities2. After the industrial revolution 3 , the increase both in the number and wealth of middle-class citizens with sufficient means to enjoy the consumption of music, (notably through participation in public concerts) play a major part in fundamental changes in the structure of musical activities (F.M. Scherer. 2006). The growth of middle-class demand for musical performances takes the place to some extend of court and church support and opportunities for free-lance music composition and performance appeared for musicians. The substitution of religious and court sponsorship by a self financing process changed the structure and the image of musical performance which where not anymore perceive as sacred neither as a nobility privileges but as an entertainment made available for lower class of the society.
1
2

The Seven Years War between 1756 to 1763 and the Napoleonic wars between 1792 to 1815 Quantitative analysis drawn from Scherer (2004), with a sample of 646 music composers born

between the years 1650 and 1849, chosen based on notoriety - It provides insight into the ways composers earned their living. Only activities classified as primary or secondary to a sample members occupation are counted. Six categories are traced by 50-year birth date interval.
3

The industrial revolution arose in England during the 18th century before to spread progressively

all over the European continent.

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Figure 3: Trends in composer employment over two centuries Scherer (2004)

The system inherited from the early 17th, in which noble court built and support an opera house, created a managerial structure and participated in its decision making, will encountered private alternatives first in Venice, and then widely around Europe and the New World (F.M. Scherer. 2006). The first public opera house, San Cassiano, in 1637, presented two advantages according to F.M. Scherer (2006) upon the older pattern. It did not present the

tendency toward excessive or even ruinous expenditures (p.130) that the


competition for prestige among courts shaped, and it was released of the inflexibility or inhibition of creativity that could come from bureaucratic decision-making. Under the model established in Venice, a group of wealthy citizens joined to provide the funds needed to build an opera house. They nominated a management committee and benefited from preferred loges in exchange for their contributions. The impresario, nominated by this committee, sustained some of the financial risks related to the performances he organized, which could suffer substantial losses (F.M. Scherer. 2006).

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211.14. The popularization of musical culture, rise of the concept of festival

The change in audience for music, from the nobility and the wealthiest members of a relatively small middle class, to a gradually wide audience and ultimately a nearly universal public, have been signalled by the London premiere in 1728 of John Gays Beggars Opera. This open-air concert was taking place during the summer and charged admission sufficiently modest to welcome all class of society. It brought together above 6000 persons (F.M. Scherer. 2006) and transformed irrevocably opera and musics elitist image. In Paris as well, the monster concert by Hector Berlioz provided music to large numbers of listeners. Berlioz first such concert, in 1844, attracted an audience of 8000 persons to hear music performed by a thousand instrumentalists and singers. Augmenting similar statements advanced by Haloman (1989) and Fantel (1971), F.M. Scherer (2006) note that a later Berliozs monster concert in 1855 attracted an audience estimated at 40,000 attendees. The climax of 19th century monster concerts was probably reached during the Boston Peace Jubilee of 1872. For this occasion,

Johann Strauss Jr. was paid $100,000 plus travelling expenses to direct an orchestra of 2000 and a chorus of 20,000 performing Strauss compositions before audiences estimated at 100,000 persons (F.M. Scherer. 2006, p.139)

211.15. Modern Festival, image and identity crisis

Festivals in its modern acceptation arose in the early twentieth century. The phenomenon sprang from the willingness of artists wishing to promote their art. They won public recognition by the quality of artistic creation, for subjects such as classical and modern dance1 and theatre2. After the Second World War, in Europe, festivals become a tool for democratization of culture. The theatre festival in Avignon, which was established in 1947 by Jean Vilar, is a perfect example of the will to popularize artistic culture.

1 2

The first international festival of dance in 1933 in Massachusetts. The first theatre festivals in France: 1925 les Nuits saint George , and 1927 Chartres.

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Increasingly convinced by the economic potential and the effect on the image of their territories, governments will progressively, from the 60's, move from status of partner and patron to instigator. In France, La Caisse nationale des monuments historiques et des sites
1

is the first to use festivals as tools for economic

development. After the first law of decentralization in 1982, the phenomenon speed up and the number of festival start to grow.

Local governments and countries are now in strong competition from the point of view of tourism, and use the festival as a vehicle for their development. Numerous events arose from a desire to affirm or change territories identity or image and to differentiate itself from competitors and promote sites and cultural heritage. The events image is here closely related to the territory that it is suppose to promote and its authenticity is easily questionable. This situation led to a paradox highlighted by Claude Mollard (1993), how to develop an original image by multiplying the creation of festivals often geographically close? How to distinguish itself by using such events increasingly trivialized? The festival is experiencing an identity and image crisis in occident. The trend leading local authorities policies over the past two decades has encouraged the profusion of cultural events that have often illegitimately taken that name (L. Benito. 2002). Some of these events which altered their cultural essence are now improperly labelled festival. In addition, the phenomenon has assumed such magnitude that it is now very complex to define especially considering the variety of fields that a cultural event can be related to.

211.2. Sub Section II: An Islamic and Asian perspective

Before analysing the ambivalent relationship of Islam and music, we will illustrate in the following section the support of the art in Asia and its impact in terms of cultural development. We will here broaden the scope of our study due to
1

The National Fund for Historic Monuments and Sites (La Caisse nationale des monuments

historiques et des sites) was created on July 10, 1914, it give way on April 21, 2000 at the National Monuments Centre (Centre des monuments nationaux) then to Monum.

50

the limited literature describing the existence and evolution of the support of music in Asia.

211.21. Historical illustration of the support of the art in Asia

Art in China was influenced by Imperial tastes since various emperors were great patrons of art, especially during the Han, Tang, and Sung dynasties (Tun-Jen Chiang and R. A. Posner, 2006). Emperor Hui-Tsung of the Sung dynasty assembled an art collection of more than 6000 pieces, with Buddhist themes especially prominent. He kept tight control over the painters at Court, dictating the subjects to be painted and even giving artists examinations. By the Ming dynasty, political concerns had found their way into visual art. The use of certain colours was proscribed to ordinary artists, being reserved for the Imperial Court. Painters were executed for insulting the emperor in their art, or dismissed from the Court for lesser offences (Tun-Jen Chiang and R. A. Posner, 2006).

The Tokugawa shogunate in Japan, which came to power in 1603, enacted strict censorship laws and exercised considerable control over the production of both woodblock prints and printed books. Woodblock prints remained a powerful instrument of mass communication that was believed to require rigid state control. The Neo-Confucian ideology of the shogunate insisted upon a plain, strictly moral lifestyle. Tokugawa regulation of woodblock prints kept a watchful eye for political subversion and also censured sexual impropriety and excessive luxury (Tun-Jen Chiang and R. A. Posner, 2006).

211.22. Islam and music, an ambivalent position

Islam was and still is far more hostile than Judaism and Christianity to artistic freedom, though there is variation within different branches of Islam (Tun-Jen Chiang and R. A. Posner, 2006, p.316).

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The attitude toward music in the Islamic world has always been ambivalent, going from complete negation to complete acceptance. Even though Islam is today a significant source of musical creativity, the debate is still pregnant and concord is far from being found. A large consensus agrees that all forms of music that contain pagan, sensual themes or subliminal messages are clearly forbidden. However, while group of scholars consider all forms of music free of such themes and messages as permissible, others deem that music is intrinsically harmful without considering the presence or not of un-Islamic and unethical themes and messages, with the exception of ad-duff (tambourine) in weddings1.

Islamic literature does not seem to be strictly speaking opposed to music:

"That the Prophet said to him 'O Abu Musa! You have been given one of the musical wind-instruments of the family of David.'" 2

"We have sent thee inspiration, as We sent it to Noah and the Messengers after him: we sent inspiration to Abraham, Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes, to Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and Solomon, and to David We gave the Psalms." 3
The Qur'an does not explicitly allow or prohibit music; however religious authorities and group of scholars based there analysis using verses that they believe have implications on that matter. Opponents of music argue that diverting talk in verse

Statement by Sheikh Ahmad Kutty, senior lecturer and an Islamic scholar at the Islamic Institute Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Reported by the web site Islamonline.net.

of

http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-EnglishAsk_Scholar/FatwaE/ FatwaE&cid =1119503545728


2

Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Virtues of the Qur'an, Volume 6, Book 61, Number 568, found in Compendium of Muslim Texts of the University of Southern California

the
3

http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/ fundamentals/hadithsunnah/bukhari/061.sbt.html Translation of the Quran, Chapter 4, Verse 4:163, unknown translator, found in the Compendium

of Muslim Texts of the University of Southern California. http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/quran/004.qmt.html#004.163 The word psalms is derived from the Greek: Psalmoi, originally meaning, "songs sung to a harp", from psallein "play on a stringed instrument". From Online Etymology Dictionary, http://www.etymonline.com/

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XXXI: 5 refer to music: "There are some men who buy diverting talk to lead

astray from the way of God" (Shiloah, 1995).


Those who regard music as permissible, however, claim that verses XXXIX: 17-18 refer to singing: "So give good tidings to my servants who listen to al-qawl (the

spoken word) and follow the fairest of it" (Shiloah, 1995).1


Stronger support for or against music can be found base on the Hadith writings2. The story of two young girls performing song to a drum in Muhammad's wife A'isha's house is often used to support music as permissible. When Abu Bakr reprimands the girls for singing, Muhammad responds to "Let them alone" (Shiloah, 1995). When the two girls sang an inappropriate sentence, the Islamic Prophet asked them to Cut this sentence out, and continue singing what (they)

have been singing earlier3.


The hadith literature like the Qur'an does not come to any explicit conclusions regarding Islam attitude towards music. Even though Islamic literature does not unequivocally condemn music, some influent groups or governments used and use it to impose pressure upon artists.

211.3. Conclusion Section I

We have seen the different processes that led to the apparition of festival in its modern acceptation and how financial support providers influenced musical activities. We presented how Islam perceived music and mentioned possible impacts

Shiloah, Amnon (1995), Music in the World of Islam: A Socio-cultural Study. Scholar Press: A hadith is a narration about the life of the Islamic prophet Muhammad or what he approved - as

England. 262 pp. From http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~blackrse/islam.html


2

opposed to his life itself: the Sunnah which is the second source of Islamic jurisprudence, the first being the Qur'an. Hadith collections are oral traditions regarded by all traditional schools of jurisprudence as important tools for determining the Sunnah, or Muslim way of life. http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/
3

Statement by Sheikh Ahmad Kutty reported by Islamonline.net, see note 10.

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on artists and festivals; moreover, we displayed some examples of the art status in Asia. In the following section, we will try to define the concept of festival and present a comprehensive description of the phenomenon in its different dimensions: economic, social, cultural, aesthetic, etc.

2.1.2. Section II: Definition


To fully understand the concept of festival, we will study in this section how authors describe the notion in the literature. We will scrutinize festival social and economic impact as well as, among other space and time consideration, is role in place identity definition and conversely the part of place identification in the construction of the festival image. We will then focus on festival aesthetic object and cultural dimension to conclude in an attempt of festival typology.

212.1. The concept of festival in the literature

The research literature abounds of definitions of festival and what does the festival concept encompasses. The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians define festivals as: A generic term, derived from the Latin festivitas, for a

social gathering convened for the purpose of celebration or thanksgiving. Such occasions were originally part of a ritual nature and were associated with mythological, religious and ethnic traditions. From the earliest times festivals have been distinguished by their use of music, often in association with some kind of drama. In modern times the music festival, frequently embracing other kinds of art, has flourished as an independent cultural enterprise, but it is still often possible to discover some vestige of ancient ritual in its celebration of town or nation, political or religious philosophy, living or historical person. (Sadie, 1980: Vol. 6, 505 in S. Waterman, 1998, p.5)
Falassi (1987) quoted in Waterman (1998) describes as well festivals as a time of celebration. He adds that these events are periodically recurrent and often focused 54

on a single artist or genre. Falassi (1987) argues that festivals are cultural events consisting of a series of performances of works of arts, and instilled with conviviality and joyfulness.

In a study carried out in the USA, Judith Blau (1989) differentiates High Culture and Mass Culture, a finding that have been supported in more recent research (Carney, 1982; Billington et al., 1991; Waterman, 1998). Judith Blau describes High culture as quite homogenous among different regions. It is produced by and for elite which claim to be as such. She drew attention to the fact that Most,

if not all, forms of high culture are concentrated in a few prominent centers
(Judith Blau, 1989, p.430). Art museums, galleries, opera, theatres, symphony orchestras, ballet and dance companies pertain to this cluster. In contrast, live popular music concerts, cinemas, general-interest museums, commercial bands, dance halls, variety entertainment establishments, country music festivals and crafts fairs belong to the second category (Judith Blau, 1989). Carney (1982) quoted in Waterman (1998), using the same approach, classified American music into 3 categories: cultivated music, where the audience appreciates the music for its aesthetic, spiritual or moral values and approaches it with some effort; vernacular music, which is appreciated and performed for its entertainment value; and folk music, older traditional music often found in more isolated areas and among immigrant and ethnic groups. These classifications certainly hold truth for many other countries. Waterman (1998), based on this literature, differentiates high-brow or arts festivals and low-brow or ordinary festivals. Art festivals are supposed to be more professional and more commercially oriented (Frey, 1986 in Waterman, 1998), and provide elite culture performances such as opera, chamber music, modern jazz, avant-garde films; some are just improperly self-presented as such and exhibit success with varying extend (Waterman, 1998). Though, Waterman (1998) note that the bulk of festivals take is origin in small communities and in a more modest scale. They provide more `popular or `low-brow cultures but represent often the major arts provision to their particular locality. These festivals are recurrently under-rated in term of their quality or more precisely in term of their cultural value (Curtis, 1991 in Waterman, 1998).

55

However Gans (1974) and Peterson (1976) quoted in Blau (1989, p.430) bring some shade to this strict differentiation: the popular and traditional art

borrow styles from one another; () their respective audiences overlap (); and, the commercially supported arts are often more dynamic than the elite arts, as a comparison of popular music and symphonic music illustrates.
Festival is a concept gathering different meaning for different people. Some events considered as festival by some wouldnt be recognized as such by others (Bourdieu, 1984 in Waterman, 1998). Events are ... classified as being of

international, national, or regional/ local interest, although this information appears to be ... inconsistent and coloured by the perceptions of those who have supplied the information (Aldskogius, 1993: 56 in Waterman, 1998, p.8).
A festival is a periodic and often regularly recurring series of artistic or cultural performances, usually occurring in a specific location. In both Europe and North America, festivals are submitted to seasonality and occur mostly during the summer months. A festival has normally a great impact on the hosting community, economically, socially and culturally as well as physically and environmentally (Jackson & al., 2005). The festival experience does contain and is influenced by tangible elements, such as food, beverages, and other products (merchandizing). However, as highlighted by Getz & al. (2001) festivals are essentially a service since they consist of intangible experiences of limited duration within a managed atmosphere. The festival experience is produced and consumed simultaneously. It is a chain of services composed by satellite services revolving around musical performance: the core service. Festivals are non-standardized services highly heterogeneous, and as with all services, are very difficult to store and control (Getz & al. 2001). The enjoyment and satisfaction of festival attendees is shaped by complex interactions of

consumers and the program, setting, management systems, staff/volunteers, and other visitors (Getz 1997 in Getz and al., 2001, p.2), making evaluation of
quality a complex task.

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212.2. Festival social and economic impact

Fredline and Faulkner (2000) supported in more recent research by Small & al. (2005) demonstrate the social impact of events and festivals in a study carry out in Australia. They have shown that individuals which are part of the hosting community are affected both by the direct experience and also by personal and societal values. In there study they suggested that several sub-groups within the community that host a festival had to be distinguished. Different clusters exhibit different opinions based on their experiences and values, and react in varying ways. Bianchini and Parkinson (1994) quoted in Devesa & al. (2006), demonstrate the role that festivals can play in urban cultural and social regeneration. Matarasso (1996; 1997) in McQueen-Thomson & al. (2004) highlight the significance of Gaelic festivals in the promotion of self determination and community empowerment or more generally the positive role of festivals in the development of the community. Following this lead, Thomas A. Delamere lists the social impact of community festivals: enhancing community spirit and pride; meeting an educational

goal; promoting tourism by serving as a major attraction; broadening the cultural and recreational resources of the locality; providing opportunities for community residents to experience or display new activities in music, art, drama, craft, and sports; encouraging local leadership; self-esteem; identity; organizational expertise and community development; and, more generally, improving the quality of life of local residents (1997 p.295; in McQueenThomson & al., 2004). The success of festivals in terms of economical impact has been the object of a large amount of research trying to assess in what extend these events were benefiting the area in which they take place (Burns, Hatch & Mules, 1986; Crompton, Lee, & Shuster, 2001; Dwyer, Mellor, Mistilis & Mules, 2000; McCann & Thompson, 1992; Tyrrell & Johnston, 2001). Festival can play a determinant part into territories economic development. Dwyer, Mellor, Mistilis, and Mules (2000) stress that a festival may generate jobs and income in short run, and create an increase in tourism inflow as well as raising investment rate in the long term. A multitude of cultural events are created each year to develop tourism and

57

democratise culture. According to Getz (2004) quoted in Armbrecht, J. & Lundberg, E. (2005), festivals are the most widespread type of cultural celebration today. Subsidizers and sponsors saw as well the potential of such event in term of image building, image enhancement and marketing. In the past decade, the phenomenon took such extend in Europe and North America that festival are today beyond any possibility of complete inventory. Some authors argue that in such conditions, risks of saturation and standardisation are important (Benito, 2001). In Malaysia this phenomenon seems to have a lesser magnitude than in Europe and America. It seems that festivals less suffer of the over utilisation and exploitation by territorial bodies or corporation which may potentially spoilt and lower the cultural dimension of such event.

212.3. Space and time consideration

According to Rhydderch (1996) quoted in Waterman (1998), festivals can have strong place identification. The RainForest World Music Festival, located within Sarawak Cultural Village, hedge in a virgin rainforest and by the South China Sea, is a perfect example. As well the Route du Rock 1 festival experience is indivisible of the downfall medieval castle in Brittany where it takes place. Furthermore a festival may help to define a place: Marciac Jazz Festival2 in France totally changes the city which host it, the whole place is today oriented around the

La Route du Rock is a three days event, taking place in August in Saint-Malo (Brittany, France).

For its 17th edition in 2007, the event has welcome 25.000 festivalgoers and 30 bands performing contemporary musical creation whether pop, rock or electro.
2

Marciac Jazz Festival is an event taking place in Midi-Pyrnes (France) during two weeks in

August for more than 30 years. Three others session have been implemented all along the year.

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image created by the festival (Bord-Levere S., Boireaux C., 1998). Cannes 1 or Salzbourg2 image are as well indivisible from there festival.

All festivals have at least one thing in common in that they are ephemeral. Though some well established festivals may leave a permanent mark in the host destination such as the Marciac Jazz Festival which organize regular events link to the festival, workshop all over the year, etc. Festival theatre, concert hall or opera house, are some time acquire by a city thanks to festival it host such as in Salzbourg. Most festivals have a lesser impact but leave already their name and renown; the city that host them benefit of their image. In other words, the place identity and its valuation are conferred by the festival (Waterman, 1998).

212.4. Festival aesthetic object and cultural dimension

Artistically, festivals have several objectives. Some festivals aim to grant recognition to a particular composer or artist; others may be devoted to a specific period in the development of a particular art; yet some are devoted to a single art medium or a distinctive musical genre such as Opera, Rock or World music. Festivals intend to gather artists and public over a short period, to concentrate performances and to allow artists and public to enjoy these performances (Waterman, 1998). This statement is as true for popular or `folk' festivals as it is for elite ones. Artists participating to elite, popular or folk event may have different ambition, however, according to Rochlitz (1994), any work is initially pretending to the aesthetic recognition.

Cannes Festival is a more than 60 years old international film festival taking place in Cte-d'Azur

(France) during spring. It benefit from the most important media coverage in the world (Sry, 2007; L'vnement culturel le plus mdiatis au monde, Le Monde july 17th) with more than 3 500 journalist in 2008 (http://www.festival-cannes.fr/en/about/factsAndFigures.html)
2

Salzbourg Festival is a classical music, opera and theatre event taking place in Salzbourg (Austria)

each year in summer since 1920. It is one of the world most famous festival and attract each year nearly 250 000 festivalgoers with 2/3 of foreigners.

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Although people ostensibly attend festivals to participate in an aesthetic event, their attendance can also be seen as a group celebration of shared mythologies and values through managed interaction among performance, audience and place at which they share in the production and consumption of artistic performances and creations by artists (Waterman,
1998, p.7). The festival is here seen as a `cultural framework' reflecting the world view of a distinct socioeconomic cluster within the society. Festivals are cultural commodities, and as such provide examples of how culture is challenged (Waterman, 1998). Cultural intricate questions of aesthetics, taste and style are today totally inextricable from political questions (Jackson, 1989; 1993 in Waterman, 1998). Culture cannot be seen as a purely aesthetic sphere anymore. It is becoming a highly disputed expression in which subjectivity, identity and

ideology are prominent (Jordan and Weedon, 1995; in Waterman p.3).


Festivals can be seen as a form of cultural consumption in which

culture is created, maintained, transformed and transmitted to others (S.


Waterman, 1998, p.13). From this point of view, festivals might be assimilated with concerts, theatre performances, recorded music or other forms of cultural and artistic consumption. However, their specificity reside in their complex and heterogeneous structure of overlapping services, and in that they usually involve the concentrated production and consumption of these overlapping services in limited time and a unity of place (S. Waterman, 1998, p.13). Festivals contribute to both the production and consumption of culture and influence the cultural landscape of a particular area. These events are means by which people may integrate a cultural group or groups may attempt to maintain themselves culturally (Waterman, 1998) or differentiate themselves. It must raise the concept of local identities, claim territorial specificities, reflect the culture and highlight the artistic creation. It is an event composed of a cultural dimension which attracts public by the uniqueness of the moment offered (Benito, 2002). Visitors in festivals are likely to be seeking cultural enrichment, education, novelty and socialization (Crompton and MacKay, 1989; in So Yon Lee, 2005). Festivals can play a major role both in the dissemination of culture and in the integration of people in the local community.

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Festivals are cultural artefacts which should not be simply bought and consumed; a successful festival implies the active processing of culture (Falassi, 1987; Waterman, 1998). It is its essence and therefore, a festival should be much more than a tool generating economic or image impact, just as it is much more than a place to sell commodities.

212.5. Attempt of festival typology

Many authors endeavoured to establish a typology of festivals. However, this task is made difficult by the exponential number of event using sometimes illegitimately the label. Thus, Luc Bnito (2001) excludes from its classification festivals that do not have a real artistic project, such as those similar to fairs or exhibitions, as well as festivals lasting over a long duration. Because of their extreme diversity, any attempt of festival classification appeared very delicate. What variable use to establish cluster? Location (big city, rural area) the time it lasts (from a few days to several weeks), programming, budgeting, funding (public or private sponsoring) renown (how old or well known it is), radiation/influence (how fare people travel to attempt this event), are all parameters contributing to the specificity of festivals (Mercier, Bouchard, 2004). Dechartre (1998) suggest an approach in which festivals are distinguish by their origin or what impulse their creation. He differentiates "descendant festivals" driven by institutional will and "ascending festival", part of the history of a place (as for example the Puy du Fou1).

However, one of the most common and relevant typology used for festivals is a classification by objectives, the founding act of these events being considered as determinant in terms of their identity. As shown by Thibault (1993), we can

La Cinscenie du Puy du Fou is the worlds biggest nocturnal event located in France. This

historical son et lumire show takes place in a 23 ha scene (worlds biggest) and attract in summer more than 1 200 000 visitors. Each performance required 1 500 actors part of the 3 500 voluntary workers needed for each show.

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distinguish four major types of festival, function of the project who has driven their creation. "Festivals of creation" are initiated by the project of an artist. This is the result of the encounter between the artist and a place, for example between Jean Vilar and the city of Avignon1. In this case, artistic interest predominates (Thibault, 1993). "Touristic festivals" have been developed in the seventies, driven by the French National Fund for Historic Monuments and Sites9 after the success of festivals in Cannes and Avignon. Responding to an institutional ambition, these festivals are based on an element of heritage in which the organizer tries to integrate an art project as appropriate as possible to give a new life to these valuable places inanimate. The goal is to create a new attraction in the city and promote economic development (Thibault, 1993). "Image festivals" are of more recent origin. They correspond to the will of territorial communities to value their identity (Thibault, 1993) or to benefit of the media response generated by the event. It is as well the main reason why private sponsors are involved in the funding of such events. Using an event, local authorities aim to highlight their artistic heritage or benefit of its impact in terms of image. "Festivals dissemination", have been developed regarding the new concern of culture dissemination with the objective to make accessible culture in remote places (Thibault, 1993). The focus is here to display shows that the public cannot usually enjoy because of their geographic or socio-geographic situation.

Agram de Saint-Jores & al. (2005) note that in recent years, festivals have increasingly been diverted from their original artistic purposes. Events created at first as cultural vectors are today part of local authorities strategies. These new sponsors interests often prevail on the original cultural project. Moreover, many events today present the characteristics of two or more categories and combine, for instance, a real artistic project and valuable media coverage impact. This typology thus, suffers many limitations.

Avignon Festival is an annual arts festival held in Avignon. Founded in 1947 by Jean Vilar, it is

the oldest in existence festival in France.

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One can clearly see the difficulty to define and characterize festivals in general. They all are unique experiences and constitute a plural reality too complex to be reduced to a single concept. Common characteristics to all are not sufficient to determine the identity of each (ARSEC, 1990; in Robert, 2004). Therefore, typologies on festivals bring little information on what is the meaning and essence of this complex phenomenon.

212.6 Conclusion section II:

We observed in this section how complex the notion of festival was. Festival is a much diversified concept bringing together events of very different essence and gathering diverse meanings for different persons. Authors tried to differentiate them in terms of their cultural value, their objectives, programming, funding, etc. However, typologies on festivals suffer many limitations and bring little information on what is the meaning of this complex phenomenon. We have seen the social dimensions of festivals and that they can play a major role both in the dissemination of culture and in the integration of people in the local community. Moreover we noticed the intricate relationship uniting festivals and the places where they take place, economically speaking as well as concerning both event and place identity or image definition. Despite original aesthetic aspirations of most festivals, we mentioned that nowadays these events evolve in other spheres. Economic and politic considerations have very significant influence on this phenomenon and have to be taken into consideration to fully understand it. We will now study the concept of quality in its different dimensions and mention models enabling to assess festival quality.

2.2 Part 2: Quality, definition and different perspectives


In this part, we will present the concept of quality in the literature and try to define the notion as regard to its specificities when considered in the service industry, in tourism and in festival context. We will attempt to conceptualize the

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different dimensions that are relevant in the process of constructing festival quality and thus differentiate stakeholders and consumers quality evaluation. Festival quality thus, from the stakeholders point of view, will be conditioned by the benefits they can draw from their participation in terms of image, media impact, number of visitors, receipts generated or considering the cultural dimension and the benefit it can bring to the community. We will first note that these different conceptions of festival quality and the different objectives of the supporting partners may affect the event. We will then focus our analysis on private stakeholders and define the different type of supports that they can provide. We will then try to understand the construct of consumers evaluation of the quality. We will first study the different dimensions of service attributes; note the importance of attribute expectations in the construction of quality and its assessment prior consumption, and show the affective dimension in the assessment of festival perceived quality. We will then try to review and discuss the methodologies and models adopted by researchers in the field of service quality and try to evaluate their relevance to our research.

2.2.1. Section I: Defining quality


Quality is a confusing concept. Its meaning evolve from an industry to an other; its standards vary from a company to another, even people view quality in relation to different criteria based on their individual roles in the organization. Many studies have made significant contributions to better understanding this complex concept. Authors developed several models to understand and assess quality depending on which perspective they analyse this notion.

221.1. The concept of quality in the literature

One common notion often use by consumers, and define by Evans & Lindsay (2005) as Judgmental perspective, identify quality as synonymous with superiority and excellence. Quality is here both absolute and universally

64

recognizable, a mark of uncompromising standards and high achievement


(Garvin 1988, in Evans & Lindsay 2005, p.12). Luxury product image often benefits of these attributes. This perspective does not allow a precise definition. Excellence is abstract and subjective, and standards of excellence vary considerably among individuals. This vision exhibits little practical value and does not provide a mean by which quality can be measured or assessed. However it shows the importance of the image and the perception prior-consumption of a product in its quality assessment by consumers.

In a Product-Based perspective, quality is a function of specific and measurable variable. Differences in quality reflect differences in quantity of some product 1 attributes (Evans & Lindsay, 2005). In the context of our study, the difference in quality between two festivals or the evaluation of an events quality would be revealed by the difference in variables such as the number of artists, of restrooms, of bars and food stand etc. This assessment implies that higher levels or amounts of product characteristics are equivalent to higher quality.

If this model brings some element of answer, it presents little value to appreciate the cultural dimension of an event. Availability of restrooms and a sufficient or insufficient number of food and drinks outlets play a major part in visitors overall perception of the events organisational quality. These measurable attributes determine in a large extend visitors capacity to make the most of the event and as such will be include in our assessment. However, the number of artists does by no means reflects the quality of the event programming.

According to the User-based perspective, quality is determined by what a customer desires. Individuals have different wants and needs and thus different quality standards which lead to the conception that quality is depending on how well the product performs its intended function. Even though a product performance or characteristic is high, the product may not fit for use in a particular market or for a particular clientele segment (Evans & Lindsay, 2005). A festival of traditional Brittany music could be a tremendous success in this region since it call upon

Product is here -in this section- seen in a large acceptation and encompasses service.

65

specific cultural bond and references, and yet fail to satisfy Asian visitors if reproduced in such countries because users would not exhibit the same cultural background. This perspective shows the need for a product to be adapted to a particular segment, market or clientele.

Quality might as well be understood by analysing the relationship of usefulness and satisfaction to price. From this Value-based perspective, a quality product is one that is as useful as competing products and is sold at a lower price, or one that offers greater value at a comparable price (Evans & Lindsay, 2005). Based on this model, the quality of a festival will be function of its price compare to another event of similar size and features and displaying a comparable programming. The time and financial constraint will not allow the author of this paper to pursue a comparative study.

The Manufacturing-based perspective defines quality as the desirable outcome of engineering and manufacturing practice, or conformance to specifications (Evans & Lindsay, 2005). Consistency in performance is as well an important consideration in service organizations. Any up scale restaurant or hotel around the world strive for ensure that its customers will have the same quality experience at each visit or at any of their properties. Respect of quality standards are not a major concern exclusively for restaurant benefiting of Michelin stars or international hotel chain. According to Evans and Lindsay (2005), conformance to specifications is a key definition of quality, because it provides a means of measuring it. However, these specifications are meaningless if they do not reflect characteristics that are significant to the consumer.

The Customer-driven quality, if not exhaustive, will provide powerful lead. The customer is the driving force for the production of goods and services. A product that meets customer needs can rightly be described as a quality product. Quality is reach when the organisation is able to grant a product or a service which meet or exceed customer expectations (Evans & Lindsay, 2005).

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Quality is a function of image and perception prior-consumption Quality is a function of specific and measurable variables Quality is function of how well a product fulfil the needs of a particular clientele Quality is function of reliability and respect of standards that are significant to the consumer A quality product meets or exceed customer expectations

221.2. Service, tourism and festival specificities, process of analysis

Organisation providing service may use these general theories and tools to understand and assess quality. Service quality may be viewed, for instance, from a manufacturing analogy (Evans & Lindsay, 2005); the components of a properly made-up guest room for a hotel, accuracy of information or respect of schedule for an event are technical standards that can be assess by these means. Like in other fields, tourism involves both goods and services, but the service component is relatively high in this sector. Moreover, tourism industry has to meet a more complex challenge than in other industry since it provides products composed by chain of services with tangible and intangible features, where the quality of each element may have an impact on the perception of the global quality. Festivals, like other leisure and tourism providers, exhibit a particularly intricate structure. It is a service package, with some tangible elements (restroom, food etc.) and intangible elements (performance of artists, etc.). Managing such a heterogeneous product is very complex and necessitates specific tools to understand its particularity.

Hence, to understand the impact of the way to finance a festival in its quality, it is important to investigate the different dimensions relevant in the process of constructing festival quality. The models used in this study to analyse the different aspects of the problem will be described and discussed in detail in the followings sections. The model presented below aims to illustrate the hypothesized relationships among the constructs of quality and will help us to structure our study.

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Visitors assessment of The actual Performance Environment Professionalism Core service

Consumers Evaluation

Experienced
Financial results, Benefit to the community Image and media Impact Previous Experience

Quality Stakeholders Outcomes Perceived


Visitors expectations About a performance

Stakeholders Evaluation

Number of Visitors, Media Spillover, Cultural Dimension

Image and Communication

Figure 4: A Conceptual model of the construction of the concept of quality and its dimension in the festival context

The second section aims to show public and private partners objectives in financing festival and their conception of quality. Private and public sponsor will not expect the same outcomes from the event, thus their visions of quality will be different and they will influence the festival towards different and sometimes opposite objectives. We will discuss about the future impacts that these different conceptions may have on the event. We will then try to understand the construct of consumers evaluation of festivals. It will help us to determine the dimensions that compose the concept of quality in festivals.

2.2.2. Section II: Stakeholders evaluation


The festival is by definition a unique instant, a special event. It is therefore supposed to be exploitable as a media tool since he places, during some days at least, the territory that hosts it under the spotlights of the cultural actuality. The

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festival is a source of image and can generate important media impact. This image is marketable and can be sold to local authorities who use it as vector of their communication, as well as to potentials private partners who look for any benefit to be gain from the effervescence that rules such context by setting up an adapted event communication. Festival quality thus, from the stakeholders point of view, will be conditioned by the benefits they can draw from it in terms of image and media impact, but as well in term of number of visitors and tourism receipts that they generate or considering the cultural dimension and the benefit it can bring to the community. We will first note that these different conceptions of festival quality and the different objectives of the supporting partners will affect the event. We will then focus our analysis on private stakeholders and define the different type of supports that they can provide.

222.1. Sub Section I: Festival, at the crossroad between cultural, public and commercial interest

At present, the cultural facets of festivals cannot be divorced from the commercial interests of tourism, regional and local economy and place promotion. Selling the place to the wider world or selling the festival as an inseparable part of the place rapidly becomes a significant facet of most festivals. Put another way, unless a festival is privately endowed, freeing the organizers to follow their artistic inclinations, it is likely to become caught up in the politics and economics of currying favour with government subsidizers or commercial sponsors (Waterman, 1998, p.8).
Organization that manage festivals are often subject to tensions created by the gap that exist between their will to provide an artistically and culturally satisfying event and at the same time fulfilling the needs of a place or a sponsor to promote themselves through the event. According to Waterman (1998), no matter how sincere the artistic intentions of festivals managers, such events face a funding dilemma that influences their production. Festivals display a constant tension between political and economical concern, to which they are most often submissive to, and culture, which is their essence. This phenomenon, illustrating the debate

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between culture and economy, seems to be dedicate to perpetuate itself as the trend of making tools of festival by territorial bodies (Barre, 2002) and sponsors (Rolfe, 1992a; 1992b) endures. It seems more and more difficult to differentiate festival as celebration and festival as enterprise. In Europe, USA and Canada, the decrease in public grant is source of other issues in terms of creativity. Reduced public subsidy demands an increase

in the search for private or corporate sponsorship, and the festival becomes a medium for business image-making, as well as an arena characterized by less adventurous and less expensive programming (S. Waterman, 1998, p.17). The
need to attract a wider audience may as well lead to more conventional programming missing the creative dimension of a festival. The lack of creation minimise the cultural enrichment of the audience and devaluate the event's cultural value. Cultural pretensions may as well be compromised by local community interest when partnerships with local bodies interested in revitalizing their economy or promote themselves are implemented.

222.2. Sub Section II: Types of private support, concept definition

Why do businesses sponsor arts? According to a survey carrying by the Council for Business and the Arts in Canada (2006 in Hill Strategies, 2007 p.3), businesses highlight the importance of enhancing the companys image and

reputation. They also emphasis on the importance of reaching a large public audience and targeting important constituents. They look for others benefits
including branding, awareness, visibility, niche marketing, community responsibility and more. This support can take different forms. In this sub-section we will try to differentiate them in order to have a better understanding of this phenomenon. However, it seems important to mention that, while many of French-speaking authors in Europe include mcenat (patronage) in their definition of sponsorship, many of their Englishspeaking counterparts regard philanthropy and sponsorship as synonyms. We will see that we cannot use the term sponsorship to refer to all form of financial support.

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222.21. Patronage

The main patrons of the arts are foundations which perform donations in cash or in kind to associations of general interest. Patronage concerns in general culture, art or social causes. To stimulate these donations, various countries implemented a tax system facilitating these practices. In France for example, this payment is deductible for a particular percentage according to the quality of the organism which benefit of it (2). Patronage looks forward to enhance the companys image in the medium or long term. The firm does not expect direct compensation; it supports a cause and gives way to the event. That is what differentiates patronage of sponsoring (Malaval, 2005).

222.22. Sponsoring

According to le journal officiel (April 3rd, 1982, in Lendrevie, 2004), sponsorship is a financial support brought by a silent partner in

compensation for the increase in fame and notoriousness which it expects . It


is an operation of communication, an advertising and commercial action. Contrary to the patron of the arts, the sponsor does not follow philanthropic purposes; he expects a counterbalance of the association in term of image and notoriety. Sponsorship consists therefore for a firm to finance all or part of sports, cultural or other events, and to link it to its name, its product or its mark, to make the maximum of profit of this association. By this type of action, the firm can mostly expect short term impact (Malaval 2005). The major characteristic which differentiates sponsorship from other forms of advertising and promotions is that it affects the consumer differently by providing support to an activity with which the consumer has an intense emotional

relationship (Meenaghan 2001, p.96). According to Meenaghan (2001) the fact


that the sponsors investment benefits an event will generate a goodwill effect among the consumer participant to this manifestation, which in turn will influence their attitude and behaviour toward the sponsors brand and product.

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222.23. Partnership

According to Philippe Malaval and Jean-Mark Dcaudin (2005), the partnership portrays the type of relationship that a firm maintains with its interlocutor, for action such as sponsorship and patronage. The partnership base itself on a winner / winner type of relation, where every party must find its interest. This concept takes place in relationship marketing strategy. The different parties have to establish relations of trust on long term so that the partnership generates the maximum benefits for both parties (Collin-Lachaud, 2001). It is necessary to define a tailor made partnership with every partner, taking into account the peculiarities of every festival. These distinctiveness express themselves in term of target customers (Angoulmes international festival of comics and La Route du Rock of saint Malo do not attract the same customers) as in term of activity (music, theatre, dance, etc do not transmit the same values, the same images) or from the point of view of the size of the manifestation or its location (within the same 'type ' of festival, relations between the partners will be very different depending on whether it is a large festival as Rock en Seine located in Paris or a more modest one in country side as the amateur music festival Hullabaloo Sound System of Saint Martin de Brhal in Normandie.

222.24 Conclusion sub section II:

While most authors in the Anglo-Saxon world assimilate any form of financial support provided by a private-sector company to an entity, we have to stress, for the purpose of our study, on a major characteristic that differentiate patronage and sponsorship: with donations coming from patronage, festivals do not have to meet any exterior expectations since the firm providing the support does not expect any direct compensation from the festival. The influential dimension in that case is thus much lesser than with sponsorship in its precise acceptation. The following section will scrutinize the perceived service quality from the point of view of the consumer. After presenting the different dimensions that pertain to

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consumers evaluation of service quality, we will describe and critic different models of service quality assessment.

2.2.3. Section III: Consumers evaluation: the perceived service quality


Service quality is very difficult to assess. Berry & al. (1988), define perceived service quality as the users judgment about a services overall excellence or superiority. Parasuraman & al. (1988) distinguish the perceived service quality from objective or actual quality, showing its high level of abstraction rather than being related to a specific attribute of a product. Gronroos (1982, 1984, in Leblanc 1992) distinguish functional quality, or what is perceived by customers, and technical quality, or the way in which the service delivery is conduct. Bojanic (1991) indicates that the difficulty in evaluating service quality reside in the lack of tangible evidence associated with services. According to Zeithaml & al. (1990), this difficulty for consumers such as tourists to appraise quality is inherent of the intangibility, heterogeneity, and inseparability, featuring services and tourism product. This analysis is equally true for festivalgoers assessment of festival quality. To implement an efficient assessment tool, we need to determine measurable variables. We will first study the different dimensions of service attributes; note the importance of attribute expectations in the construction of quality and its assessment prior consumption, and show the affective dimension in the assessment of festival perceived quality. At last, we will present different models aim to measure quality in services and festivals.

223.1. Sub Section I: Service attributes, attribute expectations and affective judgement of festival quality

We will first investigate the importance of the notion of service attributes or dimensions in the conceptualization of service quality. We will then focus on the service quality prior consumption characterised by consumers expectation about the

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service. To conclude we will differentiate affective and cognitive assessment of a service quality.

223.11. Service quality and service attributes

According to Crompton and MacKay (1989) the service quality can be define as the quality of service attributes. Their study, investigating perceptions of the importance of service quality dimensions, has been carried out among the participant of different types of recreation programs characterized by different degree of intensity in term of staff and facilities. They found that the importance of tangible elements (facilities and equipments) in the quality perception were function of degree and proportion of staff/facility intensity. The tangible elements are expected to be of crucial importance to a high quality perception in low staff/high facility intensive activity, while in a high staff/low facility intensive activity, the tangible elements were not expected to be crucial to that matter. Crompton and MacKay (1989) also suggest that among those using recreation facilities, the ability to perform the promised service consistently and accurately was a central dimension of service quality. Festival is an activity where attendees have usually very few contact with the staff and volunteer except for catering purposes. The activity may rely on the site organisation, ambiance and facilities and mostly on the technical equipment enabling a good diffusion of the core service: the musical performance. Thus, tangible elements such as the scene and the sound equipment seem to be major determinant of quality. Moreover, in the light of Crompton and MacKay (1989) findings, professionalism considered in terms of reliability and accuracy seems to be as well a major factor influencing perceived quality in festival.

Zeithaml (1988, in So Yon Lee, 2005) categorize attributes used to determine perceived quality as either intrinsic or extrinsic. The physical elements of the service itself are intrinsic attributes. For instance, the theme of the festival, the accommodations structure, capacity and accessibility (So Yon Lee, 2005), sometimes the place in which the event is located, are intrinsic attributes of the festival. These attributes cannot be modified without altering the nature of the 74

service itself (Olson and Jacoby, 1973 in So Yon Lee, 2005). Extrinsic attributes are product-related though they can be differentiated from the physical characteristics of the service. The cost of the tour package, the level of advertising and the perceived image of that festival can be identified as extrinsic attributes of the festival (So Yon Lee, 2005).

Love and Crompton (1996), based on the work of Herzberg (1966), divide festival attributes in two categories. According to them, some event attributes are dissatisfier, which means that they can damage the attendee experience without having the possibility to enhance it. They must be present to provide a quality event but do not in themselves satisfy festivalgoers. Information point, parking, restrooms and most of the physical elements of a festival are dissatisfier. Social involvement, relaxation, escape, excitement, and ambience are considered as satisfiers and are source of benefits and satisfaction for visitors. Events that endeavour to provide high quality services have to meet attendees expectations in both categories. Getz, O'Neill & Carlsen (2001) define these elements as non-compensatory and highlight that one or a few attributes can affect the perception of the overall quality. Some attributes perceived of such a high or low quality can lead attendees to overlook or ignore other attributes.

223.12. Attribute expectations

Attribute expectations have been widely used in the measurement of image. According to Crompton and Love (1995), this approach considers that priori perceptions of attributes are used by potential visitors to select a tourism product.

These perceptions are essentially expectations since they a priori reflect the performance that respondents anticipate will be forthcoming from a vacation opportunity. Such perceptions differ from evaluations of actual performance, which are post facto measures of an opportunity after it has been experienced. (Crompton and Love, 1995, p.4)
As Throsby (1990) points out in its study of the perception of quality in the demand for theatre, the quality of a production can be determined with the help of several

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criteria of differing types. Some of these can be observed in advance for instance, the ranking of a play in the repertoire, the reputation of the artists, and the financial resources of the cultural institution that organise the event. In the same way, criteria or attributes can be observed in advance for festival. Potential festivalgoers, based on these criteria, will develop expectation towards the event that will characterise their perception of the festival quality prior consumption.

223.13. Affective and cognitive assessment of festival perceived quality

Lutz (1986, in So Yon Lee, 2005) divided the concept of perceived quality into two dimension depending on the proportion of attributes that can be assess before purchase compare to the proportion of those assessed during the consumption of the service. According to Luz (1986), an affective judgement of quality occur when the proportion of attributes experienced during consumption is predominant; a higher cognitive judgement of the quality will be observed with higher proportion of attributes that can be assessed before consumption. Service industry is thus more likely to be submitted to an affective judgement.

For Festivals, most tangible attributes are assessed during the event but could as well be assessed before if visitors already attended to the festival or have certain knowledge of the site: The Sarawak Cultural Village where take place the RainForest Festival is a touristic attraction in itself. Does the festivals core service: the musical performance, might be assessed before consumption through the program? First of all if some international big events can afford programming international renowned artists and thus decrease the risk perception for the future visitors (we assume that higher the proportion of affective judgment, lesser the possibility to assess the quality before consumption, higher the risk perception) it is not the case for smaller festival programming less notorious artists. In the literature, a distinction initially due to Knight (1921, in Abb-Decarroux, 1994) is generally made between risk and uncertainty. In our case, we will use the notion of risk, assuming that consumers act as if they feel able to assign subjective probabilities to the alternative possible outcomes. Indubitably, in festivals, 76

numerous elements are left to chance and the unexpected could still occur. The sound quality, the weather, even considering the artists performance, the quality can fluctuate from one performance to another and have huge impact on the quality perception of the show. These attributes cannot be assessed before consumption. Even international renowned artists might provide varying performances. Polly Jean Harvey during the tour for her 2004 release Uh Huh Her burst into laughing in the middle of the live performance of her biggest single "Down By the Water"; Amy Winehouse, drunk on stage at a Lisbon music festival in may of this year, gave an underwhelming performance in front of 90,000 people, etc.

Cognitive judgement of quality has here to be differentiated from the expectation concerning the service. Cognitive judgment takes place when assessing attributes before consumption (Lutz, 1986); we speak here about the evaluation of actual performance, the reliable measure of an attribute relative to the notion of experience. The notion of risk is not relevant anymore since the judgment of the attribute took already place. It is more likely to concern a tangible element of the overall service: characteristics of the site, scene and sound equipment, etc, which may have been somehow experienced. Visitor expectation about the service a priori reflects the performance that respondents anticipate. The notion of risk is here still very pregnant. The quality of the program, considering the notoriety of the artists that composed it might be partially assessed prior consumption but the musical performance in itself cannot be assess before consumption and pertain to affective judgement.

The proportion of cognitive assessment of festivals quality seems to vary function of the number of time visitors attended to the event. Nevertheless, festivals quality relies essentially on an affective judgement.

223.2. Sub Section II: Service quality assessment, analysis of different models

Many authors studied service quality and attempted to implement methods or model aim to assess activities performances. Throsby (1990) studied the perception of quality in demand for theatre and established criteria, namely source material, 77

technical factors, benefits to audiences, benefits to society and benefits to the art form, according to a vision of quality largely oriented towards the cultural dimension of the show. Cronin and Taylor (1992) as well as Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985) creates more general models aim to assess service quality in diverse industry. Based on their works, Stokes & Tkaczynski (2005) developed a method to evaluate quality in festival. These researches presented below will be the major contributors to our theoretical model.

223.21. SERVQUAL model

The SERVQUAL approach developed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985) measure service quality as the difference between visitors expectations about a performance and their assessment of the actual quality. Considering, on a Customer-driven quality perspective (Evans & Lindsay, 2001), that providing quality service is meeting customers expectation in a coherent manner, they affirm that management prior objective should be to reduce the gap existing between customers expectations and evaluation of a service.

Individual needs Word of mouth Expected service Gap 5 Perceived service Gap 4 Gap 1 Gap 3 S ervice delivery External communication Prior experience

Gap 2

Management translation into service specifications Perception of consumers expectations by Management

Figure 5: SERVQUAL Modelization; Parasuraman & al. (1985)

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These authors identified five potential deficiencies leading to a gap between what customers expect and what they actually perceive. The first gap occurs when what managers perceive of clients expectations is different from what clients actually expect. The second gap takes place during the translation phase of managers perception of clients expectation into service specification, or in other world into the theoretical definition of the service. The third gap occurs between the theoretical servuction (Eiglier & Langeard, 1987) and the actual service delivery. The forth gap happens when the external communication differ from the actual service delivery. Finally the fifth gap, constituted by the aggregation of the four first non-quality gaps, characterises the difference between the expected service and the perceived service.

The SERVQUAL scale (Parasuraman et al. 1988) underline five dimensions: Tangible, Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance and Empathy, believed to be major determinant of consumer perception when assessing service quality.

Tangibles define the impression given by the appearance of physical facilities,


equipment, communication and the personnel during the service experience. According to Berry & al. (1994), it is the dimension producing the less significant impact on consumer perception of service quality. However, tangible elements are expected to be of crucial importance in activity which exhibit features such festivals. Crompton and MacKay, (1989); Flick and Ritchie, (1991); Crompton & Love, (1995) concluded that the tangible element was a major dimension in the festival they studied, especially ambience, sources of information at the site, comfort amenities, parking, and interaction with vendors.

Reliability defines the ability to perform the promised service dependably and
accurately. The evaluation occurs on post service experience to measure the results. Reliable services are consistent, dependable, on time, and accurate. This dimension according to Berry & al. (1994) is the most significant for customers.

Responsiveness is the ability and willingness to help customers, provide prompt


service and respond to service deficiency. The convenience and accessibility of the service are as well taken into account.

Assurance represents the guaranties of a comprehensive service. It encompasses


the knowledge and courtesy of the staff and their ability to inspire trust and

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confidence. It covers all elements related to competence, courteousness, security, credibility, and effective communication.

Empathy is the dimension relative to caring, individualized attention provided to


customers by employees and staff approachability. These five dimensions regroup a 22-item scale, which aims to measure consumers normative expectations acting as benchmark against which consumers perceptions of the service performance are assessed.

223.22. SERVQUAL critics

Iacobucci, Grayson, and Omstrom (1994; in Getz & al. 2001) suggest that sometimes customers do not have any expectation toward the service they will attend. The expectations may as well not be clear enough in respondents minds to act as a benchmark. Moreover, it has been suggested that expectations are only formed as a result of previous experience, thus, the border between perceptions and expectations become blur (Kahneman and Miller 1986; in Getz & al. 2001). Crompton & Love (1995) affirm that it appears that respondents either did not

form meaningful expectations or, if they ever formed, did not use them as criteria against which they measured performance to determine quality.
(p.10)

Moreover, Fick and Ritchie (1991) claim that the SERVQUAL instrument is not adapted for the measurement of tangible factors in the particular context of tourism industry. Indeed, facilities and equipments are usually situation-specific in the tourism context. A general measurement model using generic tools to assess such diverse type of tangibles as the ones of a five star hotel, a national park and a festival is likely to be inappropriate. In some activities as festival there is no process of delivery in itself, or at least delivery is not submit to the dimensions of responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and to a lesser extent, reliability. Rather, the dominant dimension is tangibles (Fick and Ritchie, 1991; Crompton and MacKay, 1989; Crompton & Love, 1995).

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According to Crompton & Love (1995), the SERVQUAL model is based on services that involve face-to-face transactions. However, leisure and tourism activities can be categorized according to the proportion in their delivery of staff compared to facilities (MacKay and Crompton, 1988 in Crompton & Love 1995). Many tourism activities involve a relatively high level of interaction with employees such as restaurant, hotel, etc; other such as visits to parks or festivals (Crompton & Love, 1995) necessitate minimum interaction. As Hamilton, Crompton, and More (1991, in Crompton & Love, 1995) notice in the comparable context of parks, employees and in our case staff and volunteers contributions is mostly indirect. Personnel, rather than having direct interactions with park users or festivalgoers, will be employed to the maintaining or improving quality of the resource. Thus, the utilisation of SERVQUAL to assess the quality does not seem to be fully satisfying.

The SERVQUAL model has been broadly criticized on its utilisation in some field such as tourism. Significant research advocates the assessment of quality through a more straightforward approach, on the basis of performance-based measures (Cronin and Taylor, 1992, in Crompton & Love, 1995). However, some as Bolton and Drew (1991, in Crompton and Love, 1995), support the disconfirmation paradigm and found that disconfirmation explains a larger proportion of the

variance quality than performance (p. 383).


Some researchers have debated whether SERVQUAL was consistent in the context of festivals. Crompton and Love (1995) show that performance-based measures are better predictors and are more efficient to assess festival quality. This finding has been supported in more recent research concerning festivals (O'Neill, Getz, & Carlsen, 1999; Baker and Crompton, 2000; Thrane, 2002). However, they acknowledge that scrutinize visitor expectations provides valuable information for managers. They highlight as well that the importance assigned to service attributes should not be underrate. Moreover, some of the five dimensions of SERVQUAL model have been identified as valuable tools to underline service quality in festival. The physical appearance and the respect of time and schedule for instance, referring to tangibles and reliability

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dimensions, have been identify as determinant contributors of festivals quality (O'Neill, Getz, and Carlsen, 1999 in Stokes & Tkaczynski, 2005). However, other factors such as creativity, sound quality and volume, access and cleanliness, which does not appeared in SERVQUAL instrument, have as well been highlighted as determinant factors of service quality in cultural events (Baker and Crompton, 2000; Thrane, 2002).

A consistent part of the literature seems to challenge the validity of


SERVQUAL

as an efficient tool of service quality measurement in festivals. Other

models have been developed such as SERVPERF to overcome SERVQUAL instrument. However, the disconfirmation paradigm continues to provide valuable definition of the quality construct, and customers expectations provides valuable information, especially in the construction of a complex model aiming to assess quality against another variable.

223.23. SERVPERF model

Cronin and Taylor (1992)s empirical results, supported by the literature in festival, tourism and other field (MacKay and Crompton, 1988; Crompton and MacKay, 1989; Hamilton, Crompton, and More, 1991; Fick and Ritchie, 1991; Iacobucci, Grayson, and Omstrom, 1994; Crompton & Love, 1995; O'Neill, Getz, & Carlsen, 1999; Baker and Crompton, 2000; Getz & al., 2001; Thrane, 2002; Stokes & Tkaczynski, 2005) observe limitation in the SERVQUAL model. They suggest that the performance-based measurement or SERVPERF explained more of the variation in service quality than did Parasuraman & al. (1985)s disconfirmation scale. Cronin and Taylor (1992) model can be qualified as more straightforward than
SERVQUAL

and is based on the postulate that service quality equals performance.

This measurement scale consists of series of questions traducing previously identified dimensions of service quality. While performance-based measurement seems widely accepted, the SERVPERF scale has yet to be empirically tested in

as wide a number of industries as has SERVQUAL (Burch & al., 1995).

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Moreover, the impact of the direction of those statements remains largely

untested (Lowndes, 2000, p.724) and may produce response bias.

223.24. FESTPERF model

Based on SERVPERF model, Stokes & Tkaczynski, (2005) developed a


FESTPERF

instrument aims to apply Cronin and Taylor (1992)s performance-based

scale to festival particular context, and identify what festival specific service quality factors were predictors of overall service quality, visitor satisfaction and repurchase intent. Their empirical study has shown that these festivals specific service quality factors were Professionalism, Core Service and Environment. Professionalism encompasses six variables: Trust, Promptness, Support, Transaction Safety, Understanding, and Accurate Information, largely inspired by the four
SERVQUAL

factors Assurance, Empathy, Reliability and Responsiveness.

Core Service, the second factor, covers the reason why a person attends the event, which is to assist to a musical performance: hear and see music. Four items in this factor are specifically related to the musical performance in itself (Ability, Music, Volume, Sound quality, Creativity), while one item: Equipment (e.g. stage and lighting) was associated with Tangibles in previous service quality study. The third and most innovative factor of this study: Environment composed by Cleanliness, Crowding, Toilets, Seating, Viewing, reflect specific tangible aspects of festivals service quality which did not appeared in past SERVQUAL or SERVPERF studies, although some items might be identify to some of the dimensions of previous instrument.

Tangible elements (scene, sound equipment, etc) as well as professionalism (reliability, accuracy) seem to be major factors influencing perceived quality in festival (Throsby 1990).

Festivals theme, capacity and accessibility (sometimes its location), are intrinsic attributes. They cannot be modified without altering the nature of the service itself. The cost, the level of advertising and the perceived image are examples of extrinsic attributes of the festival (Olson and Jacoby 1973, Zeithaml 1988, So Yon Lee 2005). 83

Most of the physical elements of a festival are dissatisfier. They can damage the attendees experience without having the possibility to enhance it. Social involvement, excitement, and ambience are examples of satisfiers. These elements are non-compensatory, one or a few attributes can affect the perception of the overall quality (Herzberg 1966, Love and Crompton 1996, Getz, O'Neill & Carlsen 2001).

The proportion of cognitive assessment of festivals quality seems to vary function of the number of time visitors attended to the event. Nevertheless, festivals quality relies essentially on an affective judgement (Lutz 1986, in So Yon Lee 2005). SERVQUAL measures service quality as the difference between visitors expectations and their assessment of the actual quality (Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry 1985) SERVQUAL scale identifies five dimensions: Tangible, Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance and Empathy, as being major determinant of consumers service quality assessment. (Parasuraman et al. 1988)

SERVPERFs performance-based measurement is based on the postulate that service quality equals performance (Cronin and Taylor 1992) SERVPERF offers the most predictive power in terms of festivals quality assessment (Crompton and Love 1995); however, the model remains largely untested (Lowndes, 2000, p.724)

FESTPERF scale is based on festivals specific service quality factors, being Professionalism, Core Service and Environment (Stokes & Tkaczynski 2005)

223.3. Conclusion Section III:

After studying the different dimensions of service attributes, we tried to review and discuss the methodologies and models adopted by researchers in the field of service quality. Moreover we tried to evaluate their relevance to our

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research. Although other models such as SERVPERF may offer the most predictive power in terms of quality assessment, we note that it seems to offer little diagnostic potential in our case, our main purpose been not to assess the RainForest Festivals quality but to see if sponsors image influence consumers quality assessment. In that case, visitors expectations will provide valuable information. Hence, the disconfirmative paradigm appear more appropriate in terms of the priorities that we established since it allow us to include in our model other variables than the ones relative to quality and performance. The following part will scrutinize the notion of image and we will try to adapt in our specific context the concept of Image Transfer developed by Meenaghan (2001); our final objective being to set the basis of the possible transfer from the sponsor to the sponsored activity.

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2.3. Part 3: Image definition, process of transfer and link with quality
In the following section, we examine the notion of image and scrutinize what influence its construction. The subsequent section will try to identify what are the drivers that transfer image value from one activity to another. To conclude this part we will review the literature concerning the impact that sponsor may have on sponsored activitys image and show that this image is directly related to consumers perception of quality.

2.3.1. Section I: Image definition and construction


The notion of image is omnipresent in modern society. Define this notion and identify the bases in which image is build is the first objective of this section. We will see that mediascape play a major part in image construction along with consumers profile and if it is or not their first experience of the service or destination.

231.1. Image, definition of the concept

Oxenfeldt (1974, in Leblanc, 1992) describes image as an overall impression greater than the sum of its parts, whether this impression is build on factual or emotional elements. Baloglu and McCleary (1999, in Ali-Knight & Robertson 2003) portray the image concept as an attitudinal construct shape by a persons mental representation, its knowledge, beliefs and feelings about an object or a destination. Authors note that this set of attitudes is modelled by customers assessment of the characteristics that they judge important (James, Durand and Dreves, 1976; Zimmer and Golden, 1988; in Leblanc, 1992). Crompton (1979), quoted in Tasci & Holecek (2007), depicts image as the sum of impressions, ideas and beliefs that an individual has on a destination for instance.

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Gartner (1993, in Tasci & Holecek 2007) suggest that this overall impression is formed through the selective reception of signals and information sent by diverse agents. These information cues are composed of perceptions through first experience (Baloglu & Brinberg, 1997; Fakeye & Crompton, 1991; in Tasci & Holecek 2007), communication (Bojanic, 1991a; in Tasci & Holecek 2007) and information coming from independent news and other media (Alhemoud & Armstrong, 1996; in Tasci & Holecek 2007). Keller (1993; in Becker-Olsen & Hill 2006) notes that a positive brand image depends on brand personality and value, user profile, as well as service reliability and service quality already experienced. Leblanc (1992), in his study of the factors affecting customer evaluation of service quality in travel agencies, relates corporate image to dimensions linked to the companys past performances. He associated firms image to its ability to satisfy costumer expectations and to the customers beliefs that the company is able to provide quality services. According to Leblanc (1992 p.13), Dichter (1985) provide the best definition of this concept: Corporate

image is best described as the total impression made on the minds of customers

231.2. Mediascape powerful role in constructing image

According to Nick Mirzoeff (1999), modern life takes place on screen.

Post modernity is dominated by the visual representation of meaning (Jay,


2000). Images have replaced texts as the dominant form of expression (Lash, 1988; Emmison and Smith, 2000; Potter 2001). The turn from the literary to the visual is not without consequences: Potter (2001) note that postmodern society and individuals that composed it, evolve in two worlds: the real world and the media world. These two different worlds, far from being hermetic to each other, are closely inextricable. Tuchman (1978, p.12) even states that today the act of making news

is the act of constructing reality itself rather than a picture of reality.


Reality and its perception, or our image of reality, is today closely related to the concept of mediascape (Jansson, 2002 in Jennings & Nickerson, 2005). In his

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article, Jansson (2002) study the link between tourism, imaging and media. He shows the impact of the mediascape in the reality construction.

The mediascape is the complete range of media that construct and reinforce the social reality. It plays a major part in tourism and influence visitors perception of an event, of a destination, etc. The mediascape is experienced before, during and after the actual landscapes and socioscapes. It is a persistent and invasive element of the tourism experience that affect the anticipation phase to action and real experimentation, as well as during the post experience reflection and analysis (Jansson, 2002). The mediascape production (articles, video documentaries, radio interviews and all information presented about an event, a destination or any tourism product) may

become the main image and expectation, particularly if the reader/viewer has no previous notion of the destination (Jennings & Nickerson 2005, p.34).
According to Jansson (2002, p.439) mediated images are thus becoming the

originals against which experiences of simulated landscapes and socioscapes are measured.
Mass-medias have the power to create collective image, they define the reality and visitors perception are shaped by them. Jennings & Nickerson (2005) stress on the harm that may cause these often oversimplified images. The mediascape constructs a too simplistic image that can be adopted by tourists, affecting their decisions

() and their perception of enjoyment, fulfilment and participation in a quality experience (p.34), on a biased basis.
Mediascapes are thus a major determinant of image and act on the quality perception, experience analysis and expectations, the latter being as well influenced by the outcomes the traveller desires to draw from the experience.

231.3. Travellers profile and previous experience, a major influence on image construction

Jansson (2002) established a travellers typology based on the concept of mediascape, following from the desired outcomes tourists seek when travelling. He 88

divides mediascapes into three categories based on travellers approach to the search experience. This typology might be useful to understand tourist behavioural pattern in many contexts. Symbiotic travellers are those looking for authenticity. Their approach of the tourism experience strives for the discovery of the real, the ordinary life of inhabitants. This cluster endeavours to avoid the created, the spectacular and the commoditised elements of a culture. They are not interested in what is transformed in a product, in what is made accessible for tourism purpose. They are those searching for the raw material of a destination and its culture. They look for interaction with the local population, authentic encounter with inhabitants not induced by mercantile motives link to the tourism activity. According to Jansson (2002), symbiotic travellers tend to utilize mediascapes through documentaries, photography and everyday life. Antagonistic travellers are those searching for more adventurous and spectacular experiences. There is a much lesser authenticity dimension in their approach of tourism. Their primary source of information, or mediascape, is composed by tourism brochures and popular travel programs (Jansson, 2002). It will participate to the construction of their image of the destination and will shape their expectation towards more commoditized products. Contextual travellers are focus on a particular practice or activity (Jansson, 2002). These activities are not site specific and can constitute niche markets. Wine tasting connoisseur, modern ballet or Jazz amateurs for instance will exhibit a very particular approach as they travel for the particular purpose of enjoying the practice of their activity, and thus they will display distinctive expectations. Their image of the destination will be considerably influenced by these specific expectations. Utilising the broader mediascapes of information related to their practice or activity, contextual travellers will assess the destination through peculiar criteria related to their peculiar interest.

Jansson (2002) typology shows that different types of tourists do not attach the same value to any experience. Two tourists seeking different outcomes when travelling may assess a same product using very different criteria. This difference in value will directly affect their perception of the product by influencing their expectations and thus their image of the product quality. 89

Furthermore, tourists socio-demographic profile and their experience as first-time or repeat visitors seem to have an impact on their perception of a destination or a tourism product; the literature abound of study illustrating this statement. Exploring the image perception in Australian resorts, Walmsley and Jenkins (1993, in So Yon Lee 2005) show that image perception is altered by visitors age and gender. In the same vein, Baloglu (1999, in So Yon Lee 2005) found a relationship between the perceived image and other variables such as tourists marital status and occupation, as well as, in a latter study, the relationship between a tourists level of education and perceived image of various tourist destinations (Baloglu and McCleary 1999, in So Yon Lee 2005). Fakeye and Crompton (1991, in So Yon Lee 2005) examined image differences among potential, first-time and repeat visitors. The study suggested that repeat visitors showed a greater awareness of the destination, they exhibit a better knowledge of social opportunities and attractions and perhaps stronger social networks than the first-time visitors do. Prior experience plays an important part in the image construction. Repeat visitors will base their image and their expectations on their previous experience.

Image is the sum of impressions, feelings, ideas, beliefs and knowledge made on the minds of a person and forming a mental representation of a service, a brand, a destination, etc (Oxenfeldt, 1974; Crompton, 1979; Dichter, 1985; Gartner, 1993; Baloglu and McCleary, 1999). Image is build from information coming from corporate or destination communication (Bojanic, 1991), independent news and other media (Alhemoud & Armstrong, 1996). The mediascape is the complete range of media that construct and reinforce the social reality, create collective image, influence visitors perception and expectation (Jansson 2002). Image varies depending on user profile (Keller, 1993).

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Different types of tourists (Symbiotic, Antagonistic or Contextual travellers) look for different outcomes when travelling and assess a same product using very different criteria: Typology influences tourists image, expectation and perception of a product (Jansson, 2002). Image is altered by visitors age and gender (Walmsley and Jenkins, 1993), tourists marital status, occupation and tourists level of education (Baloglu, 1999) Image is composed of perceptions through first experience of a service, a destination, etc (Fakeye & Crompton, 1991; Leblanc, 1992; Keller, 1993; Baloglu & Brinberg, 1997).

231.4. Conclusion Section I:

We showed in this section that image was the total impression made in the mind of a person principally by the mediascape and previous experience, and that the information was differently interpreted depending on consumers profile. In the next section, we will study the different factors that influence the strength of transfer of image value between two partners.

2.3.2. Section II: Drivers of image transfer


The medium by which sponsor carry out advertising activities possess particular qualities that affect consumer perceptions of the message broadcasted (Meenaghan, 2001). Each particular media vehicle (e.g., Time magazine)

possesses its own personality delivering specific image values. When combined with a brand in an advertising message, there is a transfer of values from the media vehicle to the brand (Meenaghan, 2001 p.104).
Different types of sponsored activities (i.e., sports, arts, or social causes) transfer different image values to the sponsor. Each particular sponsored activity (i.e., The RainForest World Music Festival, Beijing Olympics games, or Greenpeace) has

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intrinsic qualities base on a distinctive image and personality. Image transfer is characterised by the transmission of these qualities or image values. The literature gave evidence proving that the transfer takes place from the sponsored activity to the sponsor (Meenaghan, 2001; Grohs & Reisinger 2004). However, the inverse relationship (image transfer from the sponsor to the sponsored activity) benefited of very little attention. This section aims to examine the four driver of image transfer developed by Grohs & Reisinger (2004), namely event involvement, event-sponsor congruence, sponsorship exposure, and sponsor prominence.

232.1. Event involvement

As mention in Section 222.2, the major characteristic that differentiates sponsorship from other forms of advertising and promotions is the goodwill effect generated by sponsor association with cultural events, sports or social causes. According to Meenaghan (2001), the fact that the sponsors investment benefits an event will influence visitors attitude toward the sponsors brand and product. This goodwill effect depends on the level of implication of the consumer in the particular activity. Meenaghan (2001) calls this interest fan involvement. This concept designates the extent up to which customers identify themselves with a particular activity through their membership and engagement. The nearly fanatic loyalty that can be observed in some football fans or the devotion of many teenagers to famous rock-stars, as well as, to a lesser extend, the regular attendees to a festival that came each year and buy their tickets without even having seen the programme, are examples of fan involvement. According to Grohs & Reisinger (2004), event involvement is a driving factor for image transfer. They depict, in a study of sport events that the visitor involvement towards the event leads to greater resources employed to process information related to the event. With more detailed processing of event information, the consumer learns more about the connection between event and sponsor. This knowledge, which is the direct result of event involvement, positively affects the strength of image transfer towards the sponsor.

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232.2. Event-sponsor congruence

The concept of congruence, or fit, plays an important part in the image transfer process. Most authors in the sponsorship literature imply a positive relation between the degree of image transfer and the perceived event-sponsor congruence (Gwinner 1997, Meenaghan 2001, Grohs & Reisinger 2004, Becker-Olsen & Hill 2006). When congruence is high, consumers experience cognitive consistency and generally respond positively towards the brand and its promotion strategy (Speed and Thompson 2000, Grohs & Reisinger 2004, Becker-Olsen & Hill 2006). When congruence is low, consumers face cognitive inconsistency, which diminish the effect of the promotional action, and negatively influence their responses (Speed and Thompson 2000, Meenaghan 2002, Grohs & Reisinger 2004, Becker-Olsen & Hill 2006). Event-sponsor congruence affects positively the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsor because consumers value consistency in their thoughts

(Meyers-Levy and Tybout 1989) and report negative reactions to their violation. Furthermore, information that is inconsistent with prior knowledge causes consumers to question underlying motives for the pairing (Yoon and Gurhan-Canli 2003). Thus, low-fit sponsorships spark negative attributions and negative affect toward both partners. (Becker-Olsen & Hill 2006, p.75)
The level of congruence is function of the logical connection between sponsor and sponsored activity. The effect of congruence depend in which extend events participants perceived this connection. The ability of a consumer to perceive congruence is determined by the individuals level of knowledge concerning both sponsor firms and sponsored event. High activity involvement and thus high knowledge about the activity, enables the participant to recognize the sponsor,

judge the congruence of the relationship, and associate the image values of the activity into the sponsors brand (Meenaghan 2001, p.114).
The congruence between sponsor and sponsored activity can be divided into two dimensions, a functional dimension and a dimension relative to the image of both actors (Gwinner 1997). A high functional congruence takes place when a sponsors product is likely to be used at the event, for instance, when a guitar manufacturer as fender sponsors a musical event. High image congruence can be observed when attributes associated with a sponsor match with attributes associated with the event,

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like when a prestigious car manufacturer sponsors a high-class golf tournament (Grohs & Reisinger, 2004). Meenaghan (2001) illustrate this concept by explaining that dissonance rather than congruence are experienced when cigarette firms finance athletics. It is question here of a dissonance in terms of image. We easily see how negative might be the impact when it comes for an event to use for its funding the grant of an organisation conveying such opposite values. Incongruity in associations and partnerships might sometimes be offended for fans, visitors and participants.

232.3. Sponsorship Exposure

Sponsorship exposure is characterised by the amount of time a person is exposed to a sponsor message. According to Grohs & Reisinger (2004), the literature in this area shows that message learning grows with additional exposures, although at a diminishing rate. Their empirical study demonstrates that sponsorship exposure positively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsor. Cornwell et al. (2001), confirm by Quester and Thompson (2001), reveal that the length of involvement in a particular sponsorship influences positively the image gain towards the sponsor. Consumers are sensitive to potential sponsor abuse (Meenaghan 2001). This sensitivity, most manifest among involved participants, can generate a greater return or goodwill for sponsor considered as having a positive effect on the sponsored event. Though, a perceived excessive exploitation may lead to hostility among involved participants towards sponsors (Meenaghan 2001). Does over-exposure also generates hostility towards the event?

232.4. Sponsor Prominence

Sponsor prominence can be defined as the degree to which consumers are familiar with a sponsors brand. Consumers might be familiar with well-known sponsors long before advertising campaigns or sponsorships attempt to condition their attitudes. In such circumstances, the attitudes toward the brand are fairly stable, 94

conditioning consumers is then more difficult to achieve since the sponsors image is already clearly stated and ingrained in their mind (Grohs & Reisinger, 2004). Empirical studies gave evidence that sponsor prominence negatively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsor (Parker, 1991; Speed & Thompson, 2000; Grohs & Reisinger, 2004).

Image transfer is characterised by the transmission of distinctive attributes of brands personality or image values associated with a particular organization during the advertising process (Meenaghan, 2001; Grohs & Reisinger 2004). Previous researches bring evidence of a transfer between the sponsored activity toward sponsor, none has been carried out to analyse the possible transfer from the sponsor to the sponsored activity.

Event involvement is a driving factor for image transfer (Grohs & Reisinger, 2004)

Congruence is function of the logical connection between sponsor and sponsored activity (Meenaghan 2001) There is a positive relation between the degree of image transfer and the perceived event-sponsor congruence (Gwinner, 1997; Meenaghan, 2001; Grohs & Reisinger, 2004). Differentiation between functional and image congruence (Gwinner 1997; Grohs & Reisinger, 2004)

Sponsorship exposure positively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsor (Cornwell et al., 2001; Quester & Thompson, 2001; Grohs & Reisinger, 2004). Consumers are sensitive to over-exposure. A perceived excessive exploitation may lead to hostility among participants (Meenaghan 2001).

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Sponsor prominence is the degree to which consumers are familiar with a sponsors brand. Sponsor prominence negatively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsor (Parker, 1991; Speed & Thompson, 2000; Grohs & Reisinger, 2004).

232.5. Conclusion Section II:

We have seen that during advertising activities such as sponsorship, attributes of brands personality are transmitted from the structure benefiting of support toward the sponsor. The magnitude of this process is submitted to the influence of drivers that are event involvement, event-sponsor congruence, sponsorship exposure, and sponsor prominence. The eventuality of an image transfer from sponsors to the activity benefiting of support have not been studied. Identifying leads enabling us to formulate hypothesis concerning this relationship is the primary objective of the following section. After a review of the literature mentioning possible impacts that sponsor may have upon sponsored activitys image, we will show that sponsored activitys image is directly related to consumers perception of its quality.

2.3.3. Section III: Leads towards establishing relation between Sponsors image, festivals image and customers perception of quality
The corporate benefits drawn from the sponsoring of divers activities in the fields of sports, culture, social and humanitarian activities, research, etc, has been widely studied; though, there is hardly any research focusing on the effects of these partnerships on the sponsored activity, and studies in the particular field of cultural events and festivals seem inexistent. However, using different approaches, the negative impacts in term of image of particular sponsors such as the tobacco industry has benefited of specific attention. Moreover, a few studies have been carried out assessing the impact of sponsor upon the cause it supports. We will then review the literature showing that, if the existence of image transfers from the

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sponsor to the sponsored activity has not yet been broadly proved, the role of image in the construction of customers quality perception benefits of extensive sources.

233.1. Sub Section 1: Does sponsor can affect sponsored activitys image?

We will first look into the particular case of tobacco industry sponsorship and the way it is perceived within structure subject to benefit of their support. We will then study examples in the social cause literature, showing how sponsors image can affect sponsored activities image.

233.11. The use of funds provided by industry carrying a negative image: what impact on the sponsored activitys image? The negative influences in term of image of particular sponsors such as the tobacco industry has benefited of specific attention notably in a study carry out by a group of scholar investigating sponsorship of tobacco industry of ethnic minorities organisations in United States. This study is concentrated in the partnership creation from the point of view of managers of structures subject to perceive a grant rather than a clientele perception based research. Even though it present a limited interest since it cannot be use as a benchmark against which build our model and compare our results, it can be useful as a starting point to build our hypothesis. To limit tobacco industry penetration, Portugal & al. (2004) carried out interviews among Californias Hispanic Chambers of Commerce (CHCC) fulfilling the conditions to perceive funds according to tobacco industry marketing penetration tactics. Managers were asked whether they accepted support from these sponsors and what were their opinion about this practice. More than 90% of respondents see advantages in accepting tobacco industry funds that provides a stable source of

funding (p.152). However, they maintain that seeing advantages in accepting


tobacco funds do not necessarily imply approval of this practice. Respondents identified as well disadvantages and were essentially concern about the impact in terms of image and reputation with constituents and other sponsors. Interviewed managers argue that image in the community would be hurt and

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that some of our co-sponsors for particular events might not approve of

tobacco sponsorships (i.e., health care organizations such as Kaiser or Blue Cross). Part of the sample population also felt that by accepting these funds,
one would be promoting tobacco use and negative images of the Hispanic

community.
According to Portugal & al. (2004), almost 16% of Californias Hispanic Chambers of Commerce, representing approximately 400 businesses, adopted anti-tobacco corporate sponsorship policy and give up substantial support to preserve their image.

Even though these results are limited by the nature of the sample and cannot be generalise since they do not attest of the community perception itself, they bring powerful lead concerning the impact of a partnership with a sponsor conveying a negative image.

233.12. Impact of corporate giving upon supported cause: when sponsors tarnish causes image

Klincewicz (1998, in Polonsky & Wood, 2001) has isolated a number of specific problems associated with corporate giving. He shows how CRM programs (cause related marketing) may, in specific occasion, negatively affect the causes resources. In some cases the firm providing support use its financial involvement as coercive power to exert control over the cause. The firm may as well abuse its power by not relaying full information to the cause. Lastly, partnerships with inappropriate sponsors can tarnish the causes image and its ability to raise funds from other sources.

According to Polonsky & Wood (2001), CRM programs are constructed as brand alliance. As such, both partners need to protect their respective image or more precisely in that case their brand equity, and avoid loss in credibility. Such loss would have a considerable impact on the cause. Firms and individuals funding would most probably decline, resulting in the inability for the cause (for short to

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longer-term) to properly serve its purpose as deprived of its resources (Abrahams 1996, in Polonsky & Wood, 2001). The loss in credibility might have an especially damaging impact if the tarnishing

event relates to the causes core issue of concern (Barnes, 1994; in Polonsky
& Wood, 2001; p.16). For instance, a cause promoting environmental awareness and fighting for the protection of biodiversity and fragile ecosystems may substantially suffer if a company supporting its activity is connected with an oil tanker accident or any environmental damage (Coddington 1993, in Polonsky & Wood, 2001). Any negative publicity will tarnish the firm and the causes image. A causes

image is of prime importance, and a careful evaluation of all potential partners is necessary to allow future problems to be identified and prevented (Polonsky & Wood, 2001, p.19). However, undesirable events exhibit
often an unpredictable character. The cause also needs to be sure that its involvement with a specific

organization does not conflict with the supporter bases perception of the cause. Any inconsistencies will be quickly identified and generate extensive negative publicity, which may harm the causes reputation (Polonsky &
Wood, 2001, p.19). Though, according to Polonsky & Wood (2001), dissonance between a cause and its sponsor, incongruity or inconsistence in their images or the values that they stand for, can damage the cause reputation and image. We easily imagine what impact it could have for an organization as Greenpeace for instance, to be sponsored by a big petroleum firm. Such awkward association would indubitably tarnish the NGOs image. What could be the impact of the association of a festival with a positioning strongly oriented towards nature and eco-friendly values, with a petroleum group such as Shell? Dissonance of lesser extend may affect the cause. Becker-Olsen & Hill (2006) study the impact of congruence (called here Sponsor Fit) on brand equity concerning causes. They show that congruence and dissonance contribute to the brand value construction and that causes leaders need to use strategically sponsorship programs since these partnerships have real impact on their own reputations. High-fit sponsorships or high congruence between partners are proved in BeckerOlsen & Hills article (2006) to enhance brand image of the cause. Conversely, negative impact on the causes brand image (among various brand factors) may

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occur because of perceived inconsistency between partners. Coherent partnership strategies may be a very efficient mean to improve donor loyalty, contributions and willingness to become volunteers.

233.13. Conclusion sub section 1

It seems that there is sufficient proof and examples of sponsors image impact on sponsored activitys image to found our hypothesis concerning sponsors image influence on cultural events and festivals image. The next section will show that image impact directly on quality perception.

233.2. Sub Section 2: Image influence on expectation, experience and quality

Leblanc (1992 p.14) in its study on travel agencies indicates that service

quality is derived principally from corporate image. The literature seems to


acknowledge that service quality is shaped by the notion of image. Scholars seems unanimous considering image as a major determinant of service quality, or one of the major dimensions constructing the concept of quality (Gronroos, 1982, 1984; Lehtinen and Lehtinen, 1982; Garvin, 1987; Leblanc 1992; Brown & Swartz, 1989). Using the disconfirmative paradigm as framework of our study, we break down in this section the concept of quality, to confirm that image impact on both expectations and perception of the experience and thus on the overall consumers quality perception.

Parasuraman & al. (1985) define service quality as the difference between consumers expectations and consumers assessment of the actual quality. Consumers perception of service quality is thus measured by the gap between consumers expectations and their perception of the experience. Leblanc (1992) show the impact of image on consumers expectations. He notes that in the context of travel agencies, image influences expectations and customer satisfaction. It seems to be expedient to briefly differentiate quality and satisfaction.

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Baker and Crompton (2000, in Brucks & al., 2000) demonstrate that while satisfaction is directly linked to consumers actual experience of the service, perceptions of service quality is not exclusively based on experience and can be founded on other customers experiences, image or advertisements. Jennings & Nickerson (2005) push further into the correlation by strongly associating image and expectation, almost using theme as synonymous in their study of mediascapes and their impact on tourism. Jansson (2002) as well bond the two notions considering that mediated image become the benchmark against which experiences are measured. Ali-Knight & Robertson (2003) show, in their examination of the cultural image of Edinburgh, that image significantly affects visitors perception of a place, their behavioural patterns as consumers (supported by Oliver, R. L., 1999) and their perceptions of the experience. Jennings & Nickerson (2005, p.34) note that image adopted by tourists affect their decisions () and their perception of

enjoyment, fulfilment and participation in a quality experience. These


findings are supported by numerous authors considering that image affects individuals subjective perception as well as their interpretation of the total experience (Chon 1990, 1992; Echtner and Ritchie 1993; Gallarza, Gil and Caldern, 2001). Consumers quality perception is based on the comparison of consumers expectations and their experience (Parasuraman & al, 1985). The literature seems to have found a common agreement and admit that image impact both on expectations and experience perception (Leblanc, 1992; Echtner and Ritchie 1993; Jansson, 2002; Ali-Knight & Robertson, 2003; Jennings & Nickerson, 2005). Though, if image impact on both variables constructing consumers quality perception, we should admit that image impact on consumers assessment of service quality.

Thus, what is at stake here is of major importance, festival managers should be more than careful in constructing their corporate image because it might have major impact on their activity 1 . Taking actions affecting image, as one of its components, will directly influence service quality.
1

Lehtinen and Lehtinen (1982) define the image attributed by the consumers (current or potential) to

the service provider as Corporate quality. They note that this quality dimension is more stable than

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Tobacco industry as a sponsor is believed to negatively impact on sponsored activitys image (Portugal & al., 2004) Sponsor tarnished reputation can result in a loss of cause credibility, especially if what damaged sponsors image relate to the cause core issue of concern (Barnes, 1994) Inconsistence between the causes values and its association with a particular sponsor can damage the cause image (Polonsky & Wood, 2001)

Image impact on expectations (Leblanc, 1992; Jansson, 2002; Jennings & Nickerson, 2005) Image influence experience perception (Chon 1990, 1992; Echtner & Ritchie 1993; Gallarza, Gil & Caldern, 2001; Ali-Knight & Robertson, 2003; Jennings & Nickerson, 2005) Quality is measured by the gap between expectations and experience perception (Parasuraman & al., 1985) Image is a major determinant of quality (Lehtinen and Lehtinen, 1982; Gronroos, 1982, 1984; Garvin, 1987; Brown & Swartz, 1989; Leblanc 1992)

2.3.4. Conclusion Part III


Image is the total impression made in the mind of a person. This impression is principally build from information derive from previous experience and mediascapes and is differently interpreted depending on consumers profile. During sponsorship activities, this flow of information evolves. Attributes of brands personality are transmitted from the structure benefiting of support toward the sponsor. The magnitude of this process is submitted to the influence of drivers that are event involvement, event-sponsor congruence, sponsorship exposure, and sponsor prominence. Is their as well transmission of image attributes from the
the two other components of quality developed in their theory (physical quality and interactive quality). Less situational, they show that this quality dimension is less manageable by the service provider.

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sponsor to the sponsored activity? This question has not been studied yet. However, leads show that in some occasion sponsor image negatively affect on sponsored activity image. The relationship between image and quality has been considered. It has been demonstrated that sponsored activitys image shape consumers perception of its quality.

Event Involvement

Sponsor Prominence Consumers Quality perception of the Event

Sponsor Image

Event Image

Event/Sponsor Dissonance

Sponsorship Exposure

Figure 1: A Conceptual model of the construction of image transfer from the sponsor to the supported event and its impact on quality perception

The correlation between sponsor image, event image and event quality will be described, discussed and analyse in detail in the followings chapters. The model presented above aims to illustrate the hypothesized relationships among the three constructs and will help us in the next steps of our study.

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Chapter III: Problematization and methodological review

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3.0. Introduction and Study context


The first objective of our study was to investigate the impact of the way to finance a festival on its quality. No previous study explored this particular topic, we thus conduced an exploratory research in a positivist approach using quantitative method: surveys; and observation, in the specific context of the RainForest World Music Festival, to empirically validate our statements. A questionnaire as been considered as the best way to collect the info we needed. Comprehensive interview brings much more information and a comprehensive understanding of respondents, their motivations and how they behave. It is some time more difficult to grasp the full implication of respondents answers and dissociates it from external influences using questionnaires. However, a positivistic approach presents the considerable advantages of providing much more convenient data to analyse and provide more precise, objective and efficient measurement to test hypothesis even if it sometimes misses contextual detail. The choice of survey to provide the information needed for the analysis has also been based on consideration relative to time constraint. Indeed, it would have been very difficult to submit attendees to a time-consuming comprehensive interview within the festival. For the empirical test of our model, we selected the RainForest World Music Festival. The event was started in 1998 and is held annually at the Sarawak Cultural Village, at 45 minutes away from Kuching, the administrative capital of Sarawak, in the island of Borneo. This three-days music festival takes place the second week end of July and typically draws 20 000 to 30 000 persons to hear its live music played by both local traditional musicians and international bands from all over the world, celebrating the diversity of ethnic music. The festival features events including workshops bringing together musicians of various bands, live music on two stages, food and craft market; taking place within the traditional houses of the Sarawak Cultural Village. We chose this event for the reason that it exhibits three features of particular interest, useful in the process of our study. First, we choose an example of cultural sponsorship, and more specifically a festival, because of the author particular interest in that field and because cultural events are most relevant for their tourist 105

exploitation. Second, we concentrate on an international event because at such large-scale sponsors receive similar standardised sponsorship packages (Grohs & Reseinger 2004) which make them comparable among each other. Finally, we select this event considering its three-day duration. It provides different scales of sponsorship exposure depending on the length of stay of participants. This chapter describes the study context, the theoretical framework chosen and the research design, the sampling and data collection procedure, and the analysis methods.

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3.1. Part 1: Problematization and hypothesis defining


This part aims to define the research question from the departure question. After pulling out our problematic from the literature review, we have been able to shape our hypotheses and define our data requirement. Proving these hypotheses right or wrong will be our task in the following development.

3.1.1. Section 1: Problematization


Our research starts from the question of festivals founding and its impact on the events quality. Our review of the literature allowed us to draw up more precisely the boundaries of our topic. After defining the concept of quality and presenting different models of quality assessment (Parasuraman & al. 1988, Cronin & Taylor 1992, Stokes & Tkaczynski 2005, etc), we chose to focus our study on corporate support impact. We examined how sponsors could influence an event, and concentrated our study on their impact on image since image is a major determinant of quality (Lehtinen and Lehtinen, 1982; Gronroos, 1982, 1984; Garvin, 1987; Brown & Swartz, 1989; Leblanc 1992). As mentioned earlier, image is the sum of impressions, feelings, ideas, beliefs and knowledge made on the minds of a person and forming a mental representation of a service, a brand, a destination, etc (Oxenfeldt, 1974; Crompton, 1979; Dichter, 1985; Gartner, 1993; Baloglu and McCleary, 1999). To discover if partnership with private firms could affect the impressions, feelings, ideas, beliefs and knowledge that people have about a festival, we studied the concept of Image Transfer. This notion refers to the transmission of distinctive attributes of brands personality or image values associated with a particular organization during the advertising process (Meenaghan, 2001; Grohs & Reisinger 2004). Previous researches bring evidence of a transfer between the sponsored activities toward sponsors, none has been carried out to analyse the possible transfer from the sponsor to the sponsored activity. These previous researches have shown that Event Involvement (Grohs & Reisinger, 2004), Event/Sponsor Congruence or Dissonance (Gwinner, 1997; Meenaghan, 2001; Grohs & Reisinger, 2004), Sponsorship Exposure (Cornwell et

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al., 2001; Quester & Thompson, 2001; Grohs & Reisinger, 2004), and Sponsor Prominence (Parker, 1991; Speed & Thompson, 2000; Grohs & Reisinger, 2004), are drivers of image transfer from the sponsored activity to the sponsor. Speed and Thompson (2000) affirm that fit or prominence is a moderator variable. Grohs and Reisinger (2004) consider in their research the four drivers as moderators. According to Baron and Kenny (1986), "a moderator is a qualitative () or

quantitative () variable that affects the direction and/or strength of the relation between an independent or predictor variable and a dependent or criterion variable. Specifically within a correlational analysis framework, a moderator is a third variable that affects the zero-order correlation between two other variables." p. 1174 We aimed to show that these variables also affect the
strength of the relationship between sponsors and Festivals image, or impact on the strength of the image transfer from the sponsor to the festival. The review of the literature has shown as well that, in some occasion, sponsor image negatively impact on sponsored activity image (Barnes 1994, Polonsky & Wood 2001, Portugal & al. 2004) and that the image of an activity plays an active part in shaping consumers perception of this activitys quality (Lehtinen and Lehtinen 1982, Gronroos 1982, 1984, Garvin 1987, Brown & Swartz 1989, Leblanc 1992).

Hence, we will try in the following chapters to identify the impact of corporate contributions upon festivals quality by focusing on the question of image transfer from the sponsors to the festival and its impact on the attendees perception of the festival quality. The proposed model mentioned in Chapter II (figure 3) is intended to explain how attributes of firms image, in the process of sponsorship, can be transferred to a festivals image and impact on the consumers quality perception. We will develop these hypotheses in the next section.

3.1.2. Section 2: From Research question to hypotheses defining


The objective of our study was to analyse the impacts of corporate contributions upon festivals quality. What are the relations between sponsors image, festival image and quality perception? Is there an image transfer from the sponsor to

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the sponsored event and does it affect consumers quality perception? Our hypothesis derived from the literature review sustains that:

H: Sponsors image affects global quality perception of a festival.


To understand how does sponsors image impacts on festival quality, we will have to first decompose this statement and identify the main hypotheses that will allow us to reach the conclusion we expect. We will first attempt to explain the hypothesized relation existing between the variables of our model. We will then develop the hypotheses relative to the concept of image transfer.

312.1. Sub Section 1: Hypothesized relationship between our different variables To better understand the hypothesized relationships between our variables, Figure 6, bellow, illustrates the process of image transfer from the sponsor to the festival and show the hypothesized correlation existing between the different constructs. The structure undergirding the development of this section is derived from this scheme.

Event Involvement

Sponsor Prominence Consumers Quality perception of the Event

Sponsor Image

Event Image

Event/Sponsor Dissonance

Sponsorship Exposure

Independent Variable

Moderator Variables

Dependent Variables

Figure 6: A Conceptual model of the construction of image transfer and its impact on quality defining the type of variables

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Advertising theory in terms of media-vehicle effect suggests that each particular media vehicle (e.g., Time magazine) possesses its own personality delivering specific image values. When combined with a brand in an advertising message, there is a transfer of values from the media vehicle to the brand. This transfer principle is known as media-vehicle effect in advertising studies (Meenaghan 2001). Similarly, sponsored activity has its own distinct personality and a transfer of the image values occurs from the sponsored activity to the sponsor. In effect, an individual sponsored activity is (. . .) possessed of a personality

and there is a rub-off or halo effect to corporate or product image from association (Meenaghan, 1983, p. 31). Conversely, we consider the opposite
relationship. We assume that firms and companies sponsoring an event exhibit as well a particular personality and we believe that sponsors brand do create a halo effect and that transfer of image value occurs from the sponsors to the sponsored activity, and in our case to a festival. Our hypothesis states that:

H1: Sponsors image affects festivals image


From the literature we also note that variables influence the strength of the relationship between sponsors and festivals image. Their role in the image transfer process from the sponsored activity to the sponsor have been demonstrated in the literature (Parker 1991, Gwinner 1997, Speed & Thompson 2000, Meenaghan 2001, Cornwell et al. 2001, Quester & Thompson 2001, Grohs & Reisinger 2004), but their impact in the opposite relationship we propose to study have not yet been considered. Event Involvement, Event/Sponsor Congruence or Dissonance, Sponsorship Exposure, and Sponsor Prominence are said to be drivers of image transfer when considering the transfer from the sponsored activity to the sponsor, we believe that they play the same part in the transfer of image from the sponsor to the sponsored activity and in our case to the festival. Consequently, we infer that:

H2: Drivers of image transfer act as moderator variables and impact on the strength of the relationship between sponsors image and festival image in the process of image transfer from the sponsor to the festival.

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We know from the literature that image plays an active part in shaping consumers perception of quality (Lehtinen and Lehtinen 1982, Gronroos 1982, 1984, Garvin 1987, Brown & Swartz 1989, Leblanc 1992). In the particular context of our study we believe that consumers quality perception of a festival is fashioned by their mental representation of the event, we hence assume that:

H3: festivals image affects consumers quality perception.

312.2. Sub-Section 2: Hypothesis relative to the drivers of Image Transfer

The level of attendees involvement in a particular festival, the level in which they perceive congruence or conversely the level of perceived dissonance between sponsors and festivals image, the level of perceived sponsors exposure and how familiar festival goers are with the sponsors brands, are quantitative variables affecting the strength of the relationship between an independent variable: sponsors image, and a dependent variable: the Festivals image. Event Involvement, Event-Sponsor Congruence, Sponsorship Exposure and Sponsor Prominence are thus assumed to be Moderator Variables affecting the strength of image transfer from the sponsors to the festivals image.

312.21. Event Involvement

The concept of Fan Involvement has been developed by Meenaghan (2001) to explain the magnitude of goodwill effect towards a sponsor. The extent in which consumers change their vision of a brand as a result of its pairing with a festival for instance, depends on consumers level of implication in this particular festival. Meenaghan (2001) calls this interest fan involvement. This concept designates the extent up to which customers identify themselves with a particular activity through their membership and engagement. According to Grohs & Reisinger (2004), event involvement is a driving factor for image transfer. They show in their study in sport field that event involvement positively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsor. Grohs & 111

Reisinger (2004) bring evidence that visitor involvement towards the event leads to greater resources employed to process information concerning the sponsored event. With more detailed processing of event information, festivalgoers are more sensitive to the connection existing between event and sponsors. As a result, our research hypothesis 1 states that:

H.2.1: Event involvement positively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsored event.

312.22. Event-sponsor congruence

The concept of congruence plays an important part in the image transfer process. Most authors in the sponsoring literature imply a positive relation between the degree of image transfer and the perceived event-sponsor congruence (Gwinner 1997, Meenaghan 2001). Grohs & Reisinger (2004) find evidence that eventsponsor congruence affects positively the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsor. The level of congruence is function of the logical connection between sponsor and sponsored activity. The effect of congruence depend in which extend events participant perceived this connection. The ability of a consumer to perceive congruence is determined by the individuals level of knowledge concerning both sponsor firm and sponsored event. High activity involvement and thus high knowledge about the activity, enables the participant to recognize the sponsor, judge the congruence of the relationship, and associate the image values of the activity into the sponsors brand (Meenaghan 2001). This affirmation, though, is limited and only describes the image flow from the event towards the sponsor. The congruence between sponsor and sponsored activity can be divided into two dimensions, a functional dimension and a dimension relative to the image of both actors (Gwinner 1997). A high functional congruence takes place when a sponsors product is likely to be used at the event, for instance, when a guitar manufacturer as fender sponsors a musical event. A high image congruence can be observed when attributes associated with a sponsor match with attributes associated with the event,

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like when a prestigious car manufacturer sponsors a high-class golf tournament (Grohs & Reisinger, 2004). Meenaghan, (2001) illustrate this concept by explaining that dissonance rather than congruence are experienced when cigarette firms finance athletics. It is question here of a dissonance in terms of image. We easily see how negative might be the impact when it comes for an event to use for its funding the grant of an organisation conveying such opposite values. Incongruity in associations and partnerships might sometimes be offended for fans, visitors and participants. For the 15th anniversary of the vielles Charrues, a famous and popular French festival, there new sponsor stand: Coca Cola, have been placed next to Breizh Cola stand. The latter been a brand defending anti-capitalism and altermondialism values, created to fight hegemony of multinational firms as Pepsy and Coca Cola. My personal working experience in this organisation allowed me to observe the direct impact of this blunder. During the two weeks following the event, attendees (a large majority were regular visitors) used the forum and the mail box meant for the festival goersfestival relationships to express there discontentment. Based on these observations our hypothesis 2 sustains that:

H.2.2: Event-sponsor image dissonance impact negatively on the events image or reciprocally congruence impact positively on the events image.
However, neither theoretical foundation nor observation allows us to think that functional dissonance brings on the same impact.

H.2.2b: Event-sponsor functional dissonance does not affect the events image.

312.23. Sponsorship Exposure

Lebrecht (1996; in Waterman 1998 p.68) portrays an extreme example of sponsor over-exposure during a music festival. ...every shop window in

[Salzburg] beams with artists' portraits ().Salzburg is so vital to the record

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trade that some labels spend half their promotions budget at the festival and one has been known to splash three quarters of a million DM on window space alone.
Sponsorship exposure is characterised by the amount of time a person is exposed to a sponsor message. According to Grohs & Reisinger (2004), the literature in this area shows that message learning grows with additional exposures, although at a diminishing rate. Their empirical study demonstrates that sponsorship exposure positively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsor. Cornwell et al. (2001), confirm by Quester and Thompson (2001), reveal that the length of involvement in a particular sponsorship influences positively the image gain towards the sponsor. Consumers are sensitive to potential sponsor abuse (Meenaghan 2001). This sensitivity, most manifest among involved participants, can generate a greater return or goodwill for sponsor considered as having a positive effect on the sponsored event. Though, a perceived excessive exploitation may lead to hostility among involved participants towards sponsors (Meenaghan 2001). The tension between festival view as celebration and view as an enterprise (Lebrecht, 1996) become then more patent. When the commercial interests overcome the cultural dimension of a festival, the mismatch with attendees expectations that, according to (Crompton and MacKay 1989), are mostly looking for cultural enrichment, education, novelty and socialization, might affect the events image. Consequently, our hypothesis 3 will test if:

H.2.3: Sponsorship over-exposure negatively affects the sponsored events image.

312.24. Sponsor Prominence

Sponsor prominence can be defined as the degree to which consumers are familiar with a sponsors brand. Consumers might be familiar with well-known sponsors long before advertising campaigns or sponsorships attempt to condition their attitudes. In such circumstances, the attitudes toward the brand are fairly stable,

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conditioning consumers is then more difficult to achieve since the sponsors image is already clearly stated and ingrained in their mind (Grohs & Reisinger, 2004). Whereas empirical study gave evidence that sponsor prominence negatively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsor (Parker, 1991; Speed & Thompson, 2000; Grohs & Reisinger, 2004), we aim to observe that image transfer is greater towards the festival if familiarity with the sponsor is high and attitudes toward the sponsor are strong, since more a brand is established and familiar to consumers, stronger is its image (Grohs & Reisinger, 2004). Based on these conclusions, we conjecture that:

H.2.4: Sponsor prominence positively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsored event.

H1: Sponsors image has an impact on festivals image H2: Drivers of image transfer act as moderator variables and impact on the strength of the relationship between sponsors image and festival image in the process of image transfer from the sponsor to the festival. H.2.1: Event involvement positively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsored event. H.2.2: Event-sponsor image dissonance affects negatively the events image or reciprocally congruence impact positively on the events image. H.2.2b: Event-sponsor functional dissonance does not affect the events image. H.2.3: Sponsorship over-exposure negatively affects the sponsored events image. H.2.4: Sponsor prominence positively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsored event. H3: festivals image affects consumers quality perception. Hence: H: Sponsors image influences global quality perception of a festival

3.1.3. Section 3: Data Requirement and methods for data analysis


To prove our hypothesis right, we needed to identify festival and sponsors image. We developed image scale to isolate brands personalities and image values

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associated by respondents to each sponsors and to the festival. A semantic study allowed us to extract the image attributes and constitute our scale. We then needed to identify respondents level of involvement and their perception of congruence or dissonance between events and sponsors image. We should then identify the degree to which respondents were familiar with sponsors brands and measured their perception of sponsorship exposure. Detailed data assessing consumers quality perceptions of the festival have as well been required. These data were then compute to form new constructs representing the three different festivals quality dimensions, sponsors and festivals image attributes, and the moderator variables.

Generally, reliability refers as the consistency of observations or measures (Nunnally and Bernstein 1994). The reliability is one index of the effectiveness of an instrument and should be investigated when measures are examined (Nunnally 1967). Therefore, it has been necessary to perform a reliability test before undertaking subsequent analyses. To ensure the internal consistency within our new constructs we conducted Cronbachs Alpha reliability test. Afterward, we refined and reduced the number of items to form smaller and more coherent constructs using confirmatory factor analyses. Within each construct, we removed from the scale the inconsistent items to obtain reliable and valid variables. To explore the relationships between our variables we used Multiple Linear Regression (MLR). This technique can be used to explore the relationship between one continuous variable and a number of independent variables considered as predicators. MLR is based on correlation; however, it allows investigation of more complex problems. This tool permits a more sophisticated exploration of interrelationship within variables interconnected in a complex model (Pallant 2007). Such approach, in line with Grohs & Reisinger (2004), enabled us to explore the relationships between one dependent variable: festivals quality, and provided us with information about our overall model as well as the relative contribution of each of our variables.

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3.2. Part II: Theoretical framework and Instrument design


This part states the theoretical framework allowing us to build the empirical test of our conceptual model. In the first section, we explained the theoretical process leading to our model design. At this stage, the next step was to select the sponsors that will be part of our analysis; we thus mentioned what guide the choice in the selection process in the following section. The subsequent section tried to describe clearly the instrument construction. To conclude, we mentioned the data collection procedure.

3.2.1. Section 1: Model Design


The model below (figure 5) aims to illustrate our methodologys theoretical construction and its impact on the questionnaire design. As we discussed part 223.22, the disconfirmative paradigm (Parasuraman & al. 1985, 1988) efficiency in quality assessment has been criticized in several points, especially in some service industry such as event organisation. Part of the literature (Cronin and Taylor 1992, Crompton & Love 1995) notice that performance base assessments are more efficient in that matter. Although other assessment formats may offer the most predictive power in terms of quality assessment, we note that it seems to offer little diagnostic potential in our case, our main purpose been not to assess the RainForest Festivals quality but to see if sponsors image influence consumers assessment of the quality. The disconfirmative paradigm appear more appropriate in terms of the priorities that we established since it allow us to include in our model other variables than the ones relative to quality and performance. Moreover, we carefully design our questionnaire to minimize or prevent any of the dysfunction of the model mentioned in the literature. As a result, the principles undergirding the development of the model were derived from SERVQUAL. We based or research design on the disconfirmative paradigm and we used SERVQUAL as guide or general framework to design our methodology. Let us be very clear on this particular concern: the point here was not to use the

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disconfirmative paradigm and SERVQUAL themselves as such, but to use them as a skeleton on which we aimed to build our model.

Disconfirmative Paradigm Adapted from SERVQUAL

Questionnaire prior experience


Involvement Prominence Dissonance Reliability Core Service Environment

Questionnaire post experience

Grohs & Reisinger model: Drivers of Image Transfer

Quality Assessment

Image Attributes

From pre-test on a smaller sample

Exposure

Personal Information

Figure 2: A Conceptual model of the research architecture and the instrument design

As we saw in part 233.2, image influence expectations (Leblanc 1992). Some authors are even considering that the two notions are almost on the same plan in term of their impact on experience. Jansson (2002) considers that mediated image become the benchmark against which experiences are measured and Jennings & Nickerson (2005) strongly associate the two notions, almost using theme as synonymous. Instead of comparing customers expectations to consumers experience in order to assess quality as did Parasuraman & al (1985) with the SERQUAL model; we compare customers image to customers experience to analyse their relationship. To expectations, we substitute the festivals and the sponsors images, and we add to our equation, based on Grohs and Reisingers work (2004), variables believed to affect the direction and the strength of the relation between these two constructs: Involvement, Prominence, Exposure and Dissonance or Congruence. The five

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dimensions used in SERVQUAL (Parasuraman & al. 1988) to assess the experience were modified to fit better in the particular context of festivals. Variables believed to be specifically relevant in the particular case of the RainForest Festival were incorporated in our model. The definition of the quality dimensions architecture was mostly inspired by Stokes and Tkaczynskis FESTPERF (2005); yet, many other researches were used to build consumers experience assessment (Throsby 1990, Cronin and Taylor 1992, etc)

3.2.2. Section 2: Selecting the sponsors to include in our study

The next step was to select our sponsors. To determine which of the various sponsors supporting the festival we would use in our study, we conduct a pre-test during a musical event in Kuala Lumpur: la Fte de la Musique. This event takes place every year in the Alliance Franaise in the form of an open scene and welcome 200 persons composed mostly of students and young workers, French and Malaysian, with an average age around 30. This population was believed to present similar characteristics with the RainForest Festival attendees. We aim at selecting a limited number of sponsors presenting distinctive characteristics in terms of prominence and feeling of congruence or dissonance. These sponsors, these brands, display defined identities and are associated with different values and images, which seems appropriate for our analysis. We list all sponsors of the RainForest World Music Festival and ask visitors to rank their familiarity with each sponsor on a six-point rating scale (see Appendix A & B). This approach is in line with previous research by Grohs & Reisinger, (2004). This scale proves during the test not to be adequate: respondent felt uneasy to rate their familiarity on a scale of this size which push the author to reduce the scale from six to four-point rating scale during the Festival. We then rank the sponsors and find that Heineken and shell are the most prominent sponsors, while water genesis exhibits the lower prominence rate. Pairwise t-tests ensure that the high prominence sponsors differ significantly from the low prominence brands (p < 0.01). Similarly, we compare high prominence sponsors. As expected, we do not find any significant differences (high/high: p = 0.06). 119

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
k n ell s tr o eke n e sis Win g As C Ba n Sh e in e A.S B H G HS te r M . Wa

Sponsor Prominence Very Familiar Sponsor Prominence Familiar Sponsor Prominence Hardly familiar Sponsor Prominence No Familiar

Figure 7: Sponsor prominence (Pre-test) We also ask the respondents to rate how they perceived the degree of congruence between the RainForest world Music Festival and the different sponsors using a 5 items / seven-point scale developed by Grohs and Reisinger (2004).
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Strongly agree Agree Desagree Strongly desagree

1: There is a logical connection between the Festival and Shell. 2: The RFWM Festivals image and the Shells image are similar. 3: Shell and the Festival share similar values. 4: Shell and the festival fit

together well. 5: It makes sense for me that the Festival uses Shell as a sponsor.

Figure8: Shell dissonance (pre-test)

Shell appeared to be the sponsor exhibiting the strongest dissonance. Water Genesis and Heineken in a lesser extend, display the strongest congruence. Pairwise t-tests ensure that the sponsor exhibiting high dissonance differ significantly from the high congruence brands (p < 0,08). Similarly, we compare high congruence sponsors. As expected, we do not find any significant differences (high/high: p = 0,46).

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Based on sponsor prominence and congruence we thus selected Heineken, Water Genesis and Shell for the following steps of our main study. One of these sponsors exhibits a defined image congruent with the festival image, one displays a define image dissonant with the festival and the last one shows a neutral brand, displaying an undefined image in respondents mind.

322.1. Heineken

The company was founded nearly 150 years ago in Amsterdam and as grown into a worldwide business. Heineken has wide international presence through a global network of distributors and breweries. The firm owns and manages one of the worlds leading portfolios of beer brands (170 beers and ciders brands including Amstel, Fosters, and Tiger: very much present in Malaysia and South East Asia) and is one of the world leading brewers in terms of sales volume and profitability. Heineken is as well the largest brewer and distributor in Europe. The brand Heineken is available in almost every country on the planet. The brand strive to display a strong reputation of citizenship and sustainability: Heineken exhibits leadership position in the beverage category of the SAM Dow Jones Sustainability Index; policies for the reduction of the brand environmental impact have been implemented, all raw materials use in the production of beers are G.M.O. free, etc. In addition of being a worldwide known brand, Heineken strive to show the most positive image as a responsible brand; and with its sponsoring policy as a brand exhibiting the closest values from the ones claimed by its customers.

322.2. Water Genesis

Water Genesis is a purified drinking water brand founded in 2005 in Sarawak, Malaysia. This wholly Sarawakians owned company is supported by the Malaysian Government in terms of branding and export market potential. This young brand does not exhibit any international radiance. Even in Malaysia mainland, the brand appeared to be relatively unknown.

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322.3. Shell

Shell is a global group of energy and petrochemicals companies present in more than 110 countries. This worldwide known company is associated, in many western countries, with environmental issues and pollution, as illustrated by the collective protest among artists participating in an Irish folk arts festival (Feile Iorrais) in 2007, when they learned shells participation in the event founding. When Shells sponsorship has been discovered, artists declared that they would feel

compromised to be paid for a performance benefiting to this multinational firm


(Siggins 2007).

Yet, shell developed very close relationship with Malaysia and became a long-term partner in the countrys development. Shell was granted the sole right to explore for petroleum in Sarawak in 1910, making the start of the Malaysian Petroleum industry in Miri; industry that would later support the countrys growth. After the introduction of the Petroleum Development Act (1974), Shell conducted its business through Production Sharing Contracts and now operates as contractors to Petronas, the national petroleum company. The firm has numerous offices in Malaysia mainland (Bagan Luar, Ipoh, Kuala Lumpur, Melaka, Kuantan, Pasir Gudang, etc) and Sabah Sarawak (Kuching, Sibu, Bintulu, Miri, Labuan, Kota Kinabalu Sandakan etc). Petronas, wholly owned by the Malaysian Government, has grown (in part thanks to shells expertise) to become the most profitable company in Asia (in 2008 CNN Money 2008). When created, Petronas role was to generate economic growth through the development of the petroleum industry. Since 1974, Petronas participation in the federal government revenue exceeds RM 403 billion, collected via dividends and taxes. In 2008, the firm contributed to 44% of the federal government revenue (with 67.6 billion in 2008 Petronas 2009).

Petronas is the symbol of Malaysian successful economic development and its driving force; symbol represented by the Petronas Twin towers (opened in 1998), the tallest twin towers and once the worlds tallest buildings, erected in Kuala Lumpur as the companys headquarters.

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We really can speak of a petrol identity in Malaysia. Shell, by radiation effect, benefit of a very particular status and exhibits an emblematic character in Borneo and Malaysia mainland.

3.2.3. Section 3: Instrument design


A questionnaire survey was seen to be the most appropriate means of collecting the necessary data. Our instrument, using SERVQUAL architecture, is composed of two questionnaires. The first one, filled in by the respondent before the festival, considers the image against which experience has been assessed in the second questionnaire.

323.1. Sub Section 1: Questionnaire prior experience

The first instrument is a questionnaire that has been completed by the selected sample before they entered the site. This tool aims to measure the image of the festival and of the three selected sponsors. In addition, the instrument, based on Grohs and Reisinger model (2005), assess the four drivers of image transfer: involvement, prominence, congruence or dissonance and exposure. Major critics on SERVQUAL model arise from this stage, when researcher attempt to operationalise expectation instrument. Respondents are said not to have clear expectation towards a service (Iacobucci & al. 1994; in Getz & al. 2001, Crompton & Love 1995), and that expectations are not clearly differentiate from experience (Kahneman and Miller 1986; in Getz & al. 2001) especially when collected during the festival. As shown in Section 322, our sponsors were selected based on respondent familiarity with the brand. Two over three of the selected sponsors exhibit a very clearly defined image and one were chosen as neutral agent to compare our results with a sponsor displaying an undefined image, thus respondents have mostly a clear image of the sponsors that should guarantee reliable results. Moreover, the limitation of using the disconfirmation paradigm can be rectified by asking visitors for their expectations before they enter the site and for their

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perceptions of performance when they exit the site (So Yon Lee 2005). In the context of our study, measurement of image has been conducted before respondents enter the site, which presents several advantages. The prior experience questionnaire prevents any image transfer taking place during the event to contaminate our data. It allows us to collect pure data representing respondents image unspoilt (as much as possible) by the process we attempt to study.

323.11. Image attributes

Developing image scales for the RainForest Festival and its sponsors appeared as a difficult task. Each particular brand possesses its own personality delivering specific image values. When combined with a festival during sponsorship activity, we believe that there is a transfer of values from the brand to the festival. However, each sponsor exhibits different attributes that may or may not affect our event, and an image transfer can only take place in the image dimensions a sponsor represents. The use of established image scales will thus distort the findings. The literature (Hansen &. al 1995, in Grohs & Reisinger 2004) keeps us from doing so. There are two approaches to circumvent this problem. McDonald (1991) suggests to conduct a qualitative pre-test to obtain the image items relevant for the event and the sponsor. Speed and Thompson (2000) propose to use established scales and choose the items that suit the purpose of the study. We chose to conduct a pre-test and leave to statistics (reliability test and factor analysis) the choice of the consistent items in order to prevent the author of this paper to influence the outcomes in selecting the relevant image attributes. From the pre-test mention earlier (section 322), we define 12 image attributes characterising the festival and its sponsors. To determine the image values associated to each of the selected sponsor, respondent were asked to associate values and images to each brand and to the festival. A semantic study allowed us to extract the attributes, authentic, namely: nature/eco-friendly, pollution, traditional/tribal,

multiethnic/multicultural,

international,

business/commercial,

capitalism, relax/dtente, festal/ambience, meeting people and positive image. Then, during the core data collection, festival attendees were asked to rate

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how the 12-item seven-point scale relate to the festival and each sponsors. From these results we create new variables representing the images of the festival and its three sponsors.

323.12. Drivers of image transfer We measured event-sponsor congruence by using a five-item seven-point rating scale from Grohs & Reisinger (2004). Respondents were asked to rate from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree) if they felt the logical connection between the RFWM Festival and each sponsor, the image similarity between the RFWM Festival and each sponsor, their values similarities, if each sponsor fit well with the festival, and if it makes sense for the respondents that the RFWM Festival use Heineken, Water Genesis and Shell as sponsors. To measure event involvement, respondents rated how interested they were in music, in World Music and in the event, as well as if they already attended to the festival. The scale used was a modified four-item seven-point rating scale relying on Grohs & Reisinger (2004). We measured sponsor prominence by listing the 3 selected brands and asking visitors to rank their familiarity with each one of them on a four-point rating scale from 1 (hardly familiar) to 4 (very familiar). As mentioned earlier (section 332) a first attempt of measurement on a bigger scale proved unfruitful, we selected a smaller even scale to push respondents to adopt a clear position about their familiarity with the brand, knowing that neutral answer on that particular question would have been difficult to analyse. To measure sponsorship over-exposure we asked respondents how they would define the sponsor visibility on a seven-point symmetrical scale from 1 (hardly visible) to 7 (very visible). Moreover, we collected their length of stay on site to analyse the impact of the duration of sponsor message exposure on their responses.

We list all scale items for these three constructs in Appendix.

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323.2. Sub Section 2: Questionnaire post experience

Within the week following the festival, we e-mailed the second part of our questionnaire to our sample. This questionnaire post experience assesses the attendees quality perception of the event and their personal information.

323.21. Quality Assessment

The remaining instruments used a different measurement method to operationalise quality in the context of a festival. We asked respondents to evaluate their perceptions of quality. The instrument was a relative measure that asked respondents to rate the quality of the festival compared to the importance of the factors1. The attributes were measured using a seven-point symmetrical Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (very unimportant) to 7 (very important) concerning the rating of the factors importance and 1 (very low quality) to 7 (very high quality) for the rating of the experience. In the tourism and recreation context, several researchers have developed service quality dimensions and reported that they are not generic across all services (Crompton and Love 1995, Childress and Crompton 1997). In these fields, there are many situations in which the five dimensions of SERVQUAL are not applicable because of minimum interaction with service personnel. Rather, most of the experience results from visitors direct interaction with tangibles elements of the service (Fick and Ritchie 1991, Crompton and Love 1995). Therefore, we chose to develop our own quality dimensions based on different cultural events and festivals studies. The service quality attributes generated for this festival were assigned to three domains: reliability and professionalism (4 items), core service (5 items) and environment (9 items). These domains were based upon the festival quality dimensions used in Stokes and Tkaczynskis (2005) model:
FESTPERF.

Multiple modifications, additions and re-wording of items were needed

to make the scale specific to our study and to the RainForest World Music Festivals.

Addition of importance weights from Crompton & Love (1995): Service Quality = Importance*(Performance).

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Reliability / Professionalism:

In the light of Crompton and MacKay (1989, see section 223.11) findings, professionalism considered in terms of reliability and accuracy seems to be a major factor influencing perceived quality in festival. Crompton and MacKay (1989) suggest that among services using recreation facilities, the ability to perform the promised service consistently and accurately was a central dimension of service quality. Our first factor: perform the promised service accurately: respect of schedule, etc. groups the notions of consistency of service, reliability and credibility found in the SERVQUAL dimensions (Parasuraman, 1988). The notion of trust (Stokes & Tkaczynski 2005) and accuracy of information (Parasuraman 1988, Crompton & Love 1995, Tkaczynski & Stokes 2005, So Yon Lee, Petrick & Crompton 2007) are as well characterised in this first item. As mentioned in section 223.11, festivals are low staff/high facility intensity (Crompton and MacKay 1989). Tangible elements are thus expected to be of more crucial importance to a high quality perception than the staff related dimensions. Therefore, we choose to group staff related dimensions in one single item. Staff understanding and helpfulness modified item from Tkaczynski & Stokes (2005) assembles part of the 3 last SERVQUAL dimensions: Responsiveness as the ability and willingness to help customers, Assurance or the guaranties of a comprehensive service and Empathy representing the staff approachability and caring, individualized attention provided to customers by employees, etc. We took off Tkaczynski & Stokess (2005) transaction safety exhibiting in our sense week diagnostic power. We utilize instead an item previously used in many studies (Parasuraman 1988, Crompton & Love 1995, Burch, Rogers & Underwood 1995, Armbrecht & Lundberg 2005): Feeling of safety on the site.

The fourth item Effective communication: before the event + on site (printed programme, etc) assess the printed program quality (Crompton & Love 1995) as well as the accuracy of information (Parasuraman, 1988, Crompton & Love 1995, Tkaczynski & Stokes 2005, So Yon Lee, Petrick & Crompton 2007). This item appears to be of major importance in our study considering communications role in image construction (Bojanic 1991b, see section 231). Moreover,

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communication is as well believed to play a major part in the quality construction, influencing quality expectations (figure 2, section 221.2). At last, organisers can relatively easily act on this extrinsic attribute (Zeithaml 1988, in So Yon Lee, 2005) which can be modified to improve quality without altering the nature of the event.

Core service

The second Domain assesses the festival core service and all quality dimensions related to it. This part is largely inspired by Throsbys work on the perception of quality in the demand for theatre (1990). We first assess the Standard of performance (singing, playing of instruments, sound quality) from Throsby (1990) supported in more recent research by Crompton & Love (1995) and Tkaczynski & Stokes (2005). From Throsby (1990)s benefits to the art form dimension we then ask respondent to consider the creativity of the performance (supported by Tkaczynski & Stokes 2005). The items Entertainment and recreation and Active (physical) participation and involvement of the audience are as well extract from one of Throsby (1990)s dimensions: benefits for the audience.

We chose to include, in the measurement of the core service quality, an item assessing the Authenticity of the performances. Even though this dimension were absent of the quality assessment methods previously cited, we believed that it is of particular importance in the context of the RainForest World Music Festival. This approach is in line with Chhabra, Healy and Sills (2003, in Armbrecht and Lundberg 2005). They measure the quality of a heritage festival by measuring the perceived authenticity of the event. Although The RFWM Festival is not a heritage festival stricto sensu, it presents characteristic making the connection interesting. Moreover, as stated by (XXXXX), authentic tourism experience is sometimes use as a synonym to quality tourism experience. The concept of authenticity might be difficult to manipulate. Cohen (XXXX) argues that its definition is pointless. Indeed, the notion is utterly subjective, depending of tourists perception, and assume a different meaning depending of the community in which we aim to observe it. Moreover, some authors note that authenticity does not

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exist anymore in modern society. MacCannell (1996) highlight the futility of the quest for authenticity in the postmodern world, where no untouched cultures or environment subsist no longer. Besides, if this quest still presents a major motivation for some clientele segments; postmodern tourists more and more trade this quest for the experience of authentic for the quest of fun and ludic activities (Ritzer and Liska 1997). Tourists consume nowadays signs of tourism that become more valuable than authentic and quality experiences (Baudillard 1981). Even though the quest for authenticity in tourist experiences may appeared artificial in modern society, the RFWM Festival seems to use authenticity as a marketing tool to attract tourists. The festival exhibits the particular feature of presenting artists from all over the world playing ethnic, traditional music. The authentic dimension is here significant in the construction of the experience, and is expected by visitors, constituting a major element of the festival image (see pre-test, semantic study and elaboration of the 12 image attributes: 323.11). The authenticity of the performance reflexes the cultural authenticity of the show and thus its cultural value. As can be observed by any visitor during the event, accent is as well put in local traditional players, the shows striving to exhibit an authentic past as foundations for the Malaysian identity. These shows are portrayed as authentic testimony of Malaysian traditional culture and are presented as something to be proud of1. The festival itself thus emphasises on the authentic dimension. Therefore, considering that the notion participates to the definition of the festival image and concept, we include this item within our scale.

Environment

The third domain, Environment, is constituted of dimensions that mainly relate to the Tangibles from SERVQUAL model (Parasuraman 1988) which reflex, among other things, the impression given by the appearance of physical facilities, equipment, etc. Tangible elements are expected to be of crucial importance in activity which exhibit features such festivals. Crompton and MacKay (1989), Fick and Ritchie (1991), Crompton & Love (1995), concluded that the tangible element
Before the performance of the traditional Malays band , the speaker announced the exceptional presence of Malaysian Prim Minister, especially here to assist to the show.
1

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was a major dimension in the festival they studied, especially Ambience, our first item, sources of information at the site, comfort amenities, parking and interaction with vendors. Source of information and interaction with vendors are already assessed in our first domain: reliability / professionalism. Our second item, Appearance and appealing of the site, physical facilities & equipment from Parasuraman (1988) is supported by Burch, Rogers & Underwood (1995) and Crompton & Love (1995) and include the assessment of the previously cited dimension: comfort amenities (supported by So Yon Lee, Petrick & Crompton, 2007). The following items: Lots of Crowds from Tkaczynski & Stokes (2005); Quality of food and beverage from Crompton & Love (1995) supported by Jingxue Yuan & SooCheong Jang (2007); as well as the disatisfiers General cleanliness (Crompton & Love 1995, Tkaczynski & Stokes 2005) added with Eco-friendly issued from the festivals image attributes (333.12); and Restrooms availability & cleanliness (Crompton & Love 1995, Armbrecht & Lundberg 2005, Tkaczynski & Stokes 2005); are tangible dimensions of quality. Number of places to sit down and rest (Crompton & Love, 1995) and Accessibility (accessibility, convenient parking, good location: Parasuraman 1988, Jingxue Yuan & SooCheong Jang 2007) are two items more closely related to Responsiveness dimension from SERVQUAL (Parasuraman 1988) when taking into account the convenience and accessibility of the service. Our last item Art and craft as good addition to the festival from Jingxue Yuan & SooCheong Jang (2007) seemed appropriate considering the importance give to the art and craft markets during the festival and on the web site.

323.22. Personal information

Respondents were asked to communicate their gender, their age, their place of origin, their level of education and their occupation. The socio-professional classification was based on Malaysia Standard Classification of Occupations (Labour Force Survey Report Third Quarter 2007 Malaysia).

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324. Section 4: Data requirement, Methods for data collection


In the context of a festival, the limitation of using the disconfirmation paradigm can be rectified by asking visitors for their expectations before they enter the site and for their perceptions of performance when they exit the site (So Yon Lee 2005).

An invitation to the participation to our study was e-mailed to 263 potential festival attendees. This sample was selected from a Facebook group (RainForest World Music Festival RWMF) lunch by the RainForest Festival. This group is gathering past and future festival attendees enabling participant to share information about the event and receive advertisement and communication from the festival management as regard to programming, hosting availabilities during the festival, etc. Such a sampling administration presented numerous advantages. It was supposed to overcome the problems relative to the distribution of two questionnaires that had to be answered by one same respondent before and after the event. It presented the advantages, compare to site distribution, to widen the period in which both part of the questionnaire would be collected and to facilitate the implementation of questionnaire pre-test in a representative sample. Moreover, the selected population exhibited a very high representativeness and strong likelihood of festival attendance. The prior and post administration was thus supposed to be made easier in terms of accuracy and taking into account the size of the sample that the author aimed to gather.

However, the e-mails inviting future attendees to participate to our study has been automatically stopped by Facebook after 263 successful messages, considering it as spamming. Furthermore, the response rate has been extremely low. On the 263 invitations, 52 agreed to participate to the study, 28 sent back the first part of the questionnaire and only 11 questionnaires were usable regarding both parts responses, representing only 4.2% response rate.

The internet attempt being proof unfruitful, we thus had to proceed to the data collection on site. 23 future attendees were surveyed in Kuching (guesthouses,

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restaurants, touristic attractions) during the four days preceding the event using convenience and snowball sampling. 158 visitors were asked to fill in the first instrument before entering the site in the bus from Kuching to the festival. 19 responds were approached at the entrance gate of the Sarawak Cultural Village, before entering the festival, using convenience sampling. They were asked to communicate their e-mail in order to receive the second part of our questionnaire. A list were established comprising visitors names, e-mail addresses, places were they have been surveyed and any details permitting the researcher to make subsequent personalised contact with them in the future. The visitors quality assessment questionnaires were sent within the next week to all respondents. There has been wide acceptance that to minimise response error, the higher response rate was suitable. A broad utilization of Dillmans (2000) two follow-up questionnaires to non-respondents (Crompton & Tian-Cole 2001, So Yon Lee 2005) has been observe and proofed efficient and reliable. Crompton and Tian-Cole (2001) show in their study that the utilisation of the additional questionnaires received after non-respondent follow-up led to no significant changes in the accuracy of the results. In the second week after sending the second instrument, a semi-personalised reminder was e-mailed to respondents for which the answer had not been yet received. It expressed appreciation for their participation and reminded them to email back the completed questionnaire. Two weeks after a replacement questionnaire were enclosed in a last personalised attempt to reach our objectives. The message reiterated the authors appreciation for their participation and reminded them the importance of the second questionnaire without which their first participation was ineffective (annexe xxx). Responses received from 93 festivalgoers on site (46.5% response rate) were usable. Added with the web answers, we collected 103 complete two parts questionnaires.

Moreover, the author of this paper collected a great deal of useful data by being himself present during the festival. Being on site helped us to put information into perspective. We used participant as observer technique for data collection.

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3.3. Conclusion Chapter III


This Chapter 3 described and discussed how the research has been conducted and the methods that have been employed to reach our objectives. We first justified the selection of the festival chosen to operationalize our study. After defining our hypotheses, we presented the theoretical framework allowing us to build the empirical test of our model and explain the theoretical process leading to our model design. Our data requirement has then been the object of detailed explanation along with the presentation of the method that has been employed for analysing the data collected. Subsequently, we selected the sponsors part of our analysis and explicated what guided this choice. At last, we tried to clearly illustrate the construction of the instrument and the different variables. We described the construction of image scale to isolate brands personalities and image values associated by respondents to each sponsors and to the festival. Scales construction as regard to the drivers of image transfer and to the assessment of consumers quality perceptions have as well been depicted with precision. To conclude, we mentioned the data collection procedure. The next chapter will describe in detail how the empirical study has been carried out. Our findings will be presented and discussed and the consistency and limits of the research will be depicted.

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4. Chapter IV: Results

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4.0. Introduction
After presenting the sample characteristics, we will display the survey results as such, before utilizing statistical methods to explore the relationships between our variables. We will first display the survey outcomes presenting the moderator variables: involvement, prominence, congruence and exposure. Then, we will show how the respondents perceive the image of the festival and the three selected sponsors and we will isolate brands personalities and image values associated by respondents to each sponsors and to the festival. We will then present the data assessing consumers quality perceptions of the festival. To assess the reliability and validity of the multi-item scales developed above, we conduct Cronbachs Alpha reliability test and confirmatory factor analyses. The first technique ensures internal consistency within our factors. The second technique is used to refine and reduce the number of items to form smaller and more coherent constructs. The extraction of components will be discussed. We will then use Multiple Linear Regression to explore the relationship between our dependent and predicator variables. We decompose the festival quality into four components that we assess successively: Global Quality, Reliability /

Professionalism, Core Service, and environment. The second part aims to present the process of analysis and to put into perspective our main findings with existing knowledge and theories. We will first present issues relative to the results reading of our multiple linear regression analysis. We will then successively analyse the sponsors impact on each one of the quality dimensions as well as the role that our independent and moderator variables play in the image transfer. At last, part three will report the limits of our study.

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4.1. Part 1: Presentation of the results


After presenting the sample characteristics and the survey outcomes, we will display the results of the models measurement assessment and the Linear Regression.

4.1.1. Section 1: Sample Characteristics


Table 1 Presentation of Sample Characteristics (N = 104) Demographic Variable Gender Age Male Female 18 to 23 24 to 29 30 to 39 40 to 49 Above 50 Percent (%) 31.7 68.3 25 43.3 18.3 9.6 3.8 8.7 49 12.5 26.9 2.9 16.3 55.8 27.9 5.8 52.9 9.6 1.9 1.9

Place of Origin Sabah / Sarawak Malaysia mainland Asia Australia Europe America Education Level Secondary School Diploma Degree Post Graduate school Other Legislators, Senior officials & managers Professionals Technicians & associate professionals Clerical workers Service, shop & market workers Skilled agricultural & fishery workers Craft & related Trade Workers Plant & machine-operators & assemblers Elementary occupations Student

Occupation

27.9

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While considering the sample, as shown in Table 1, females were at a high proportion (68.3%), mostly at an age below 30 years (68.3%). From the total respondents, almost half were from Malaysia mainland (49%) and more than were from Europe. In terms of educational background, More than 1/4 of the respondents had completed post graduate studies (27.9%) while a large majority of them had a degree (55.8%) and a less significant cluster (16.3%) exhibited a diploma. Considering our sample occupation, a marginal proportion of service, shop and market workers (1.9%) as well as clerical workers (1.9%) have been observed. Legislators, senior officials and managers (5.8%) as well as technicians and associate professionals (9.6%) were represented. Student (27.9%) and Professionals (52.9%) characterized 4/5 of the respondents.

4.1.2. Section 2: Survey outcomes


This section aims to present the survey results as such, before utilizing statistical methods to explore the relationships between our variables. We will first display the survey outcomes presenting the four drivers: involvement, prominence, congruence and exposure. Then, we will show how the respondents perceive the image of the festival and the three selected sponsors and we will isolate brands personalities and image values associated by respondents to each sponsors and to the festival. To conclude we will present the data assessing consumers quality perceptions of the festival.

412.1. Sub Section I: Drivers of Image Transfer

In this sub section, we will identify respondents level of involvement and their perception of congruence or dissonance between events and sponsors image. We will then identify the degree to which respondents are familiar with sponsors brands and measure their perception of sponsorship exposure.

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412.11. Involvement

To present respondents level of Involvement, we computed the three first variables: music importance for the respondents, their particular interest in world music and the frequency of their attendance to concerts and festivals. The variable measuring the respondents number of attendance to the RFWM Festival is presented separately since its measurement implied the utilisation of a different scale.

Table 2 Presentation of respondents level of involvement


From 1 Strongly Disagree to 7 Strongly Agree

Frequency 2 1 1 2 25 38 35 104
Involvement

Valid Percent 1.9 0.9 0.9 1.9 24 36.7 33.7 100

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Frequency

Figure 9: Respondents level of involvement As we can see in Table 2 and Figure 9, 94.4% of the respondents exhibit a positive degree of involvement in this type of musical activity. Grohs & Reisinger (2004) bring evidence that visitor involvement towards the event leads to greater resources employed to process information concerning the sponsored event. With more detailed processing of event information, festivalgoers are more sensitive to the connection existing between event and sponsors. 138

However, we cannot consider that our sample presents a 94.4% rate of involvement in the RFWM Festival and that 94.4% of festival attendees perceive the connection between our Festival and its sponsors. As we can see in Table 3 and Figure 10, more than half of the respondents attended to the event for the first time this year. This variable is of major importance to define the level of involvement to this particular event. As shown by Meenaghan (2001), involvement designates the extent up to which customers identify themselves with a particular activity through their membership and engagement. In our case, 55.8% of the respondents never attend to the festival before and thus do not show proof of membership or engagement in this event.

Table 3 Presentation of number of attendance to the RFWM festival Frequency 0 1 to 3 4 to 6 7 to 10 58 39 6 1 Valid Percent 55.8 37.5 5.8 1

Frequency

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 to 3 4 to 6 7 to 10 Frequency

Figure 10: Number of attendance to the RFWM festival Almost 7% of the respondents attended to the festival between 4 to 10 times which demonstrates their engagement and membership to the event. This cluster can be considered as highly involved in the RFWM Festival and thus are supposed to strongly perceive the connection between the RFWM Festival and its sponsors.

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37.5% of the respondents attended to the festival from 1 to 3 times, considering the outcomes of the 3 first questions, we can consider that almost 40% of the festival goers are somehow involved in our event and exhibit in some extend an engagement and membership.

412.12. Prominence Sponsor prominence is the degree to which consumers are familiar with a sponsors brand (Grohs & Reisinger, 2004). As shown in Table 4 and Figure 11, Shell and Heineken exhibit a very high level of prominence with respectively 72.1% and 71.2% of respondents declaring their very high level of familiarity with the two brands. Shells and Heinekens image are clearly stated and ingrained in respondents mind, their attitudes toward the two brands are very stable. Conversely, 66.3% of the respondents declare being hardly familiar with Water Genesis, the brands image is thus not clearly stated in respondent mind. Table 4: Presentation of sponsor prominence Sponsor Prominence
hardly familiar somehow no familiar familiar very familiar

Heineken
Frequency Valid %

Water Genesis
Frequency Valid %

Shell
Frequency Valid %

0
10 20 74 104

0
9,6 19,2 71,2 100,0

Total

69 24 7 4 104

66,3 23,1 6,7 3,8 100,0

4 10 15 75 104

3.8 9.6 14.4 72.1 100,0

80 70 60 50 40 30 Heineken 20 Water Genesis 10 0 Shell


fa m ilia r fa m i.. . fa m ili ar fa m ilia r

Shell Water Genesis Heineken

so m eh ow

ha rd ly

no

Figure 11: Sponsor prominence

ve ry

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More a brand is established and familiar to consumers, stronger is its image (Grohs & Reisinger 2004). We aim to demonstrate that image transfer is greater towards the festival if familiarity with the sponsor is high and attitudes toward the sponsor are strong: our hypothesis is that sponsor prominence positively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsored event (H.2.4). Thus we will try to verify in the following development if Shell and Heineken, as two very prominent brands, positively affect the image transfer towards the RFWM Festival, and that if Water Genesis negatively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the event.

412.13. Congruence

The level of congruence is function of the logical connection between sponsor and sponsored activity. The effect of congruence depend in which extend events participant perceived this connection, their individuals level of knowledge concerning both sponsor firms and sponsored event and thus their level of involvement (Meenaghan 2001). To present respondents perception of the congruence existing between the RFWM Festival and the three selected sponsors, we computed the five variables measuring the perceived connection between the event and each sponsors, their perceived similarity in terms of image as well as in terms of values, the perceived fit between the event and each sponsors, and the variable measuring if it makes sense for the respondents that the RFWM Festival use each selected brands as a sponsor.

Table 5: Presentation of the level of congruence between the RFWM Festival and each sponsor
From 1 Strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree

Heineken
Frequency

Water Genesis
Frequency

Shell
Frequency

Valid %

Valid %

Valid %

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total

4 6 12 15 42 23 2 104

3.8 5.7 11.5 14.4 40.5 22.2 1.9 100

0 3 1 42 39 12 7 104

0 2.9 0.9 40.5 37.5 11.5 6.7 100

31 12 10 24 21 5 1 104

29.9 11.5 9.6 23.1 20.2 4.8 0.9 100

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45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Heineken Water Genesis Shell

Shell Water Genesis Heineken

Figure 12: Congruence between the RFWM Festival & each sponsor As we can see in Table 5 and Figure 12, 51% of the respondents judge shells image as dissonant with our event. 23.1% had no opinion and only admit a positive congruence with the event, in which more than 20% is a weak congruence. 40.5% of the respondents had no opinion concerning Water Genesis congruence with the festival and 37.5% consider that somehow, the brand is congruent with the event. Heineken exhibits the higher level of congruence since approximately 65% of the respondents admit a positive congruence in which almost of the respondents judge the brand congruent or strongly congruent with the festival.

As mentioned in section 2.3.2., the congruence between sponsor and sponsored activity can be divided into two dimensions, a functional dimension and a dimension relative to the image of both actors (Gwinner 1997). High image congruence can be observed when attributes associated with a sponsor match with attributes associated with the event (Grohs & Reisinger, 2004). Our questionnaire aimed to measure this aspect of congruence and we will see in the following development what sponsors image attributes are congruent or dissonant with the festival image. A high functional congruence takes place when a sponsors product is likely to be used at the event and is related to the core service activity, for instance, when a guitar manufacturer as fender sponsors a musical event (Grohs & Reisinger 2004). This aspect of the question has not been assessed in our survey to minimise its length and complexity. However, we can easily draw simple conclusion regarding the three sponsors.

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Even if Heineken is likely to be used during the event, its utilisation is not related to the festival core activity, we cannot thus consider that the beer brand exhibits a functional congruence with the event. The congruence observed is thus most probably an image congruence. We will see in the following development, which attributes match with the event. Following the same argument, Water Genesis and Shell do obviously not benefit of functional congruence.

412.14. Exposure

Sponsorship exposure is characterised by the amount of time a person is exposed to a sponsor message (Grohs & Reisinger 2004). Consumers are also sensitive to potential sponsor abuse. This sensitivity is manifest among involved participants (Meenaghan 2001). Table 6 Presentation of the sponsors visibility Frequency Not at all visible Hardly visible Not so visible Neutral Visible Very visible Extremely visible Total 2 11 10 16 33 17 15 104 Valid Percent 1,9 10,6 9,6 15,4 31,7 16,3 14,4 100,0

As shown in Table 7 and Figure 14, most of the respondents (86.5%) were exposed to the sponsors messages between 2 and 3 days. Half experienced the maximum amount of time under the sponsors messages. According to Table 6 and Figure 13, almost 70% of the respondents define the sponsor visibility from not visible at all to visible. 16.3% consider that the sponsors are very visible and 14.4% extremely visible. We can thus estimate the perceived sponsor over-exposure between 14.4% and 30.7%. This perceived over-exposure can only be observed among involved festivalgoers.

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35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Frequency not at all visible hardly visible not so visible neutral visible very visible extremely visible

Figure 13: Sponsors Visibility


Table 7: Presentation Of the number of days spent at the RFWM by the respondents

Frequency Valid Percent 1 day 14 2 days 38 3 days 52 Total 104 13,5 36,5 50,0 100,0

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Frequency

1 day 2 days 3 days

Figure 14: Number of days spent at the RFWM Festival by the respondents

412.2. Sub Section II: Image

This sub section displays the associations made by the respondents between image attributes and the festival and between the attributes and the three selected sponsors.

412.21. RainForest World Music Festivals Image As shown in Table 8 and Figure 15, the Festival exhibits a resolutely multiethnic and multicultural image and is seen as an international event (respectively 88.5% & 82.7% of the respondents answer that they are agree or strongly agree with the association between the event and these image attributes). 144

According to the respondents, the RainForest Festival is traditional and tribal and is associated with authenticity (84.6% & 72.1% are agree or strongly agree with this statement). Festivalgoers consider the festival as resolutely relaxed and dtente (84.7% are agree or strongly agree) as well as festal and associate with ambience (79.8% are agree or strongly agree). Moreover they regard the event as a place where they are likely to meet people (76% are agree or strongly agree). 72.1% of the respondents associate the festival with nature and judge it eco-friendly (agree or strongly agree); while 63.4% disagree that the event is a source of pollution. The image attributes business and commercial as well as capitalism are less clearly stated and seem not to define the event. Table 8 Presentation of the RainForest World Music Festivals Image
RFWM Image (%) 1 Nature / Ecofriendly 2 Pollution 3 Traditional / Tribal 4 Authentic 5 Multiethnic / Multicultural 6 International 7 Business / Commercial 8 Capitalism 9 Relax / Dtente 10 Festal / Ambience 11 Meeting people 12 Positive image Strongly disagree Disagree Somehow disagree Neutral Somehow agree Agree Strongly agree

1 39.4 1.9 1.9 2.9 1 1.9 9.6 1 7.7 5.8 9.6

5.8 14.4

4.8 10.6 6.7 11.5

16.3 13.5 6.7 14.4 8.7

25 5.8 19.2 24 21.2 25 16.3 10.6 26 29.8 26 23.1

47.1 6.7 65.4 48.1 67.3 57.7 11.5 7.7 58.7 50 50 66.3

1.9 6.7 15.4 6.7 1.9

2.9 11.5 32.7 6.7 4.8 5.8 3.8

10.6 33.2 18.3 6.7 13.5 15.4 6.7

1.9

145

1 70 2 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 12 11 10 9 8 7
Strongly agree Neutral

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Strongly disagree

Figure 15: RainForest World Music Festivals image

412.22. Heinekens Image

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Heineken's Image
70 60 50 40 30 20 10
Strongly agree Somehow agree Somehow disagree Strongly disagree

0
1 3 2 5 4 7 6

1 10 12 1

Figure 16: Heinekens image Heinekens image show several similarities with the RainForest Festivals image, confirming thereby its image congruence with the event. The brand exhibits a festal image and is seen as a source of ambience (61.7% of the respondents agree to this statement). Heineken conveys relaxed values (76.9%) and is associated with

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meeting people (81.8%). The firm is as well recognised as an international brand (83.7%), concordantly with our result in terms of prominence. Heineken does not exhibit the same similitude with the festival in terms of its mercantile attributes. The brand is resolutely seen by the respondents as commercial and business oriented (84.6% are agree or strongly agree) and is associated with Capitalism (72.1% are agree or strongly agree).

Table 9 Presentation of Heinekens image


Heineken Image (%) 1 Nature / Ecofriendly 2 Pollution 3 Traditional / Tribal 4 Authentic 5 Multiethnic / Multicultural 6 International 7 Business / Commercial 8 Capitalism 9 Relax / Dtente 10 Festal / Ambience 11 Meeting people 12 Positive image
Strongly disagree Disagree Somehow disagree Neutral Somehow agree Agree Strongly agree

7.7 4.8 26.9 10.6 10.6

17.3 4.8 16.3 4.8 5.8

18.3 4.8 12.5 8.7 2.9

42.3 43.3 30.8 27.9 42.3 5.8

8.7 26 5.8 26 10.6 10.6 11.5 12.5 23.1 15.4 20.2 23.1

1 13.5 1.9 14.4 15.4 18.3 18.3 26.9 17.3 18.4 22.1 13.5

4.8 2.9 5.8 7.7 12.5 65.4 66.3 45.2 36.5 27.9 37.5 25

2.9 1.9 6.7 2.9 7.7 4.8 8.7 1.9 5.8 4.8 1 4.8 1 .4.8

1 8.7 13.5 25 11.5 20.2

Other attributes seem to define less accurately the brand according to the respondents. More than 40% of the attendees do not pronounce themselves when asked to judge the association between the brand and values of multiculturality and multiethnicity. Similarly, the association between Heineken and nature (42.3% are neutral) or pollution (42.4%) as well as with authenticity (27.9%) and traditional or tribal (30.8%) does not appear as consistent according to the large amount of respondents that remain indecisive.

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412.23. Water Genesis Image

Table 10 Presentation of Water Genesiss image


Water Genesis (%) 1 Nature / Ecofriendly 2 Pollution 3 Traditional / Tribal 4 Authentic 5 Multiethnic / Multicultural 6 International 7 Business / Commercial 8 Capitalism 9 Relax / Dtente 10 Festal / Ambience 11 Meeting people 12 Positive image
Strongly disagree Disagree Somehow disagree Neutral Somehow agree Agree Strongly agree

1.9 15.4 11.5 4.8 8.7 7.7 2.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 7.7 3.1

1.9 4.8 3.8 5.8 3.8 9.6

5.8 5.8 6.7 1.9 1 3.8 1.9

63.5 57.7 67.3 68.3 63.5 52.9 40.4 49 66.3 61.5 60.6

9.6 6.7 7.7 7.7 10.6 8.7 20.2 17.3 4.8 10.6 5.8 6.7

9.6 5.8 1 2.9 6.7 6.7 12.5 11.5 14.4 2.9 7.7 8.7

7.7 3.8 1.9 8.7 5.8 10.6 22.1 9.6 6.7 9.6 6.7 16.3

3.8 4.8 8.7 11.5 2.9

6.7 1 4.8

1.9

59.6

The results produced concerning Water Genesiss image need obviously to be evaluated side by side with the results already mentioned concerning the brands prominence. For each one of the 11 images attributes an average of almost 60% of the respondents remain hesitant (Table 10). Attendees stay neutral in their evaluation of the attributes association with the brand. Considering that 66.3% of the respondents declare being hardly familiar with Water Genesis (e.g.: 412.12), the brands image is thus not clearly stated in respondent mind as we can clearly observe in Figure 17.

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Strongly disagree

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Disagree Somehow disagree Neutral Somehow agree Agree Strongly agree

Water Genesis

Strongly agree Somehow agree Somehow disagree

10 11

Strongly disagree

12

Figure 17: Water Genesiss image

412.24. Shell Image

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Strongly disagree Disagree Somehow disagree Neutral Somehow agree Agree Strongly agree

Shell
Strongly agree Somehow agree Somehow disagree

9 10 11 12

Strongly disagree

Figure18: Shells image

The survey reveals major difference between Shell and RFWM Festivals image, confirming thereby its image dissonance with the event. The firm is clearly considered as an international and business oriented company (respectively 83.7%

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and 85.6% are agree or strongly agree), undeniably associated with capitalism (76% are agree or strongly agree). While 69.2% of the respondents regard the brand as a source of pollution and 52.9% (disagree or strongly disagree) strongly dissociate it with nature, almost 27% consider in some way that the firm carry eco-friendly values. In average, approximately 30% of the respondents are doubtful as to the connection between the brand and the attributes relax/dtente, festal/ambience meeting people traditional/ tribal, authentic and multiethnic/multicultural. However, Shell is generally dissociated with festal and relaxed values as well as with meeting people image attribute (for these three attributes, more than 50% of the respondents strongly express their disagreement -disagree or strongly disagree).

Table 11 Presentation of Shells image


Shell (%) 1 Nature / Ecofriendly 2 Pollution 3 Traditional / Tribal 4 Authentic 5 Multiethnic / Multicultural 6 International 7 Business / Commercial 8 Capitalism 9 Relax / Dtente 10 Festal / Ambience 11 Meeting people 12 Positive image
Strongly disagree Disagree Somehow disagree Neutral Somehow agree Agree Strongly agree

35.6 7.7 43.3 22.1 20.2 1

17.3 7.7 5.8 9.6 12.5 1

11.5 1.9 11.5 6.7 6.7 2.9 1.9

8.7 13.5 23.1 44.2 28.8 7.7 8.7 12.5 31.7 29.8 27.9 25

21.2 12.5 10.6 7.7 8.7 3.8 3.8 3.8 7.7 6.7 6.7 8.7

3.8 22.1

1.9 34.6 5.8

2.9 10.6 12.5 13.5 15.4

6.7 12.5 71.2 72.1 60.6 3.8

2.9 41.3 44.2 44.2 29.8

1.9 11.5 7.7 6.7 4.8

2.9 3.8 2.9 4.8 9.6

4.8 2.9 11.5

3.8 6.7 10.6

150

412.25. Respondents rating of the festival and sponsors image

Table 12 Presentation of the festival and sponsors image rating Positive Image Strongly disagree Disagree Somehow disagree Neutral Somehow agree Agree Strongly agree Total RFWMF Heineken 4.8 8.7 4.8 20.2 23.1 13.5 25 100 Water Genesis 3.1 2.9 1.9 59.6 6.7 8.7 16.3 100 Shell 29.8 4.8 9.6 25 8.7 11.5 10.6 100

3.8 6.7 23.1 66.3 100

As expected, the RainForest Festival benefits of a very positive image among attendees. None of the respondents expresses a negative opinion of the event. In accordance with our previous results, most of the respondents stay neutral (59.6%) in their evaluation of Water Genesiss image.

RFWMF Heineken 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 RFWMF Heineken Water Genesis strongly disagree somehow disagree somhow agree strongly agree Shell Water Genesis Shell

Figure 19: Festival and sponsors image rating -Positive image-

While Heineken exhibits mostly a positive image (61.6%), Shell suffers of a less positive opinion from the respondents. Almost 30% consider the firms image

151

as very negative, 25% are neutral and 30.8% regard the brands image as positive (from somehow agree to strongly agree). Table 13: Shells image rating according to respondents place of origin Shell has a positive image (Valid percent) Strongly disagree Disagree Somehow disagree Neutral Somehow agree Agree Strongly agree Total Sabah Sarawak (8.7%) % of the sample from: Malaysia Australia Europe Mainland (12.5%) (26.9%) (49%) 11,8 61,5 50,0 5,9 7,7 3,6 7,8 15,4 14,3 31,4 15,4 25,0 15,7 15,7 7,1 11,8 100 100 100

America (2.9%) 100

11,1 11,1 22,2 55,6 100

100

To better understand respondents image of the sponsor, we present in Table 13 and Figure 20 shells image rating according to respondents place of origin. It is quiet obvious that depending of the geographic region where respondents come from, their image of the sponsor vary.

Sabah Sarawak (8.7%) Malaysia Mainland (49%) Australia (12.5%) Europe (26.9%)

100 80 60 40 20 0
ee gr e i sa re d ly ag e ng dis re ro ag St ow ee w eh o gr eh om ya l S m ng So ro St

America (2.9%)

America (2.9%) Europe (26.9%) Australia (12.5%) Malaysia Mainland (49%) Sabah Sarawak (8.7%)

Figure 20: Shells image rating according to respondents place of origin

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Similarly to American and Australian respondents, Europeans, which represent more than of our sample, have a negative opinion of Shell. However, respondents from Malaysia mainland bring some shade in their evaluation of Shells image which appeared to be more positive (43.2%) than negative (25.5%). In contrast, people from Sabah and Sarawak have a very positive opinion of Shell. None of them expresses a negative view concerning the firm and 77.8% display a very positive perception of Shell (from agree to strongly agree). These results reveal the emblematic role played by Shell in Malaysia and most particularly in Sabah and Sarawak (e.g. 322.3). The economic as well as sociocultural role that the firm has played in the country has a strong influence in our study. We will see in the following development of this paper how it should be taken into account.

412.3. Sub Section III: Quality Assessment

Table 14 Presentation of respondents quality assessment

Reliability / Professionalism
Perform promised service accurately Staff understandig & helpfulness Feeling of safety on the site Effective communication

Scale
Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating

2
1.9 4.8 1.9 7.7

3
1.9 2.9 1 1 1.9 16.3

4
3.8 8.7 14.4 14.4 8.7 8.7 3.8 13.5

5
15.4 19.2 8.7 26.9 8.7 15.4 16.3 25

6
21.2 31.7 21.2 23.1 25 26.9 31.7 24

7
55.8 32.7 53.8 26.9 57.7 48.1 46.2 6.7

1.9

12.5

Core Service / On the scene


Standard of performance Creativity of performance Authenticity Entertainment and recreation Active participaton and involvement

Scale
Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating

3
3.8 2.9 1.9 13.5

4
5.8 3.8 10.6 7.7 6.7 1.9 5.8 11.5 12.5

5
1 18.3 6.7 27.9 2.9 15.4 6.7 26 14.4 37.5

6
26.9 41.3 20.2 28.8 25 33.7 35.6 35.6 34.6 14.4

7
72.1 30.8 69.2 29.8 60.6 27.9 55.8 32.7 37.5 29.8

1.9 2.9

1.9

1.9 3.8

Mean Imp. 6.19 Rat. 5.41 6.19 5.68 6.09 5.38 6.32 6.13 6.16 4.46 Mean Imp. 6.39 Rat. 5.64 6.71 5.58 6.55 5.72 6.29 5.47 6.45 5.95 5.94 5.48

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Environment
Ambience Appearance & appealig of the site Lots of Crowds Number of places to sit down and rest Accessibility Quality of food and beverage General cleanliness / Eco-friendly Restrooms availability, cleanl. Art & craft as good addition to RF

Scale
Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating

2
1.9

3
3.8 3.8 1.9 1.9 7.7 9.6 4.8 2.9 8.7 12.5 2.9 26.9 4.8 17.3 1.9 6.7

4
1 4.8 11.5 10.6 17.3 11.5 20.2 6.7 6.7 7.7 16.3 4.8 15.4 1.9 25 30.8 25

5
24 21.2 29.8 34.6 34.6 14.4 22.1 5.8 33.7 18.3 24 18.3 23.1 12.5 20.2 22.1 22.1

6
25 33.7 30.8 25 30.8 32.7 44.2 26 26 31.7 35.6 27.9 13.5 15.4 25 19.2 23.1 23.1

7
71.2 35.6 41.3 31.7 14.4 11.5 18.3 23.1 59.6 16.3 29.8 11.5 60.6 18.3 55.8 5.8 13.5 19.2

1.9 3.8 1.9 1.9 4.8 1.9 1.9 3.8 7.7 1 3.8 1.9 1.9 8.7 6.7 1.9

Mean Imp. 5.87 Rat. 5.16 6.67 5.90 6.05 5.73 5.28 5.27 5.42 5.29 6.33 5.21 5.70 4.87 6.24 4.80 6.25 4.30 4.88 5.10

The 18 items scale consisted of three dimensions: Reliability and Professionalism, Core Service and Environment. All items were measured on seven-point Likert-type scales anchored by 1 (very unimportant) to 7 (very important) concerning the rating of the factors importance and 1 (very low quality) to 7 (very high quality) for the rating of the experience. Table 14 shows that respondents assigned the highest ratings (importance mean of 6.39; rating mean of 5.64) to the Core Service dimension, while the lowest rating (importance mean of 5.87; rating mean of 5.16) was given to the Environment dimension. Based on Crompton and MacKay (1989), tangible elements were expected to be of crucial importance to a high quality perception in low staff/high facility intensive activity such as festivals. They also suggested that among those using recreation facilities, the ability to perform the promised service consistently and accurately was a central dimension of service quality (see 223.11.). Indeed, our results show the importance of such quality attributes (all tangibles a rated above 6 over a 7 point scale where 7 is the highest mark; the same is true for attributes revelling accuracy and consistency). The standard of performance, creativity of the show and its value in term of entertainment and attendees recreation from the Core Service dimension appeared as the most important items with the ambiance from the Environment dimension (respectively 6.71, 6.55, 6.45 and 6.67 of means). 154

The extrinsic attribute communication is an important item (mean of 6.16) which is not considered as effective as it should be with a relatively low rating compare to the overall evaluation (mean of 4.46). Tangibles such as the general site cleanliness as well as restrooms availability and cleanliness suffer of a relatively bad rating (mean of 4.80 and 4.30) compare to their importance (mean of 6.24 and 6.25).

4.1.3. Section 3: Measurement Assessment


To assess the reliability and validity of the multi-item scales developed above, we conduct Cronbachs Alpha reliability test and confirmatory factor analyses. The first technique ensures internal consistency within our factors. The second technique is used to refine and reduce the number of items to form smaller and more coherent constructs.

413.1. Sub Section I: Reliability Test

Table 15 and 16 provide examples of the reliability test procedure used to improve the internal consistency of the factors of our scale using Cronbachs Alpha value. From the factors presenting low alpha value (less than 0.70 Pallant 2007) such as involvement (table 15) and RainForest Festival Image (table 16), we remove the items having a negative impact on internal consistency, as can be observed in the column alpha if item deleted, until the factor alpha value became acceptable. The following section presents the results of the reliability test for independent, moderator and dependent variables.

413.11. Reliability test for the independent variables Heineken, Water Genesis and Shell image are the 3 independent variables that have been tested here. Heineken (Alpha = 0.7306), Water Genesis (Alpha = 0.7380) and Shell image (Alpha = 0.7126) exceed the recommended minimum standards proposed in the literature (Grohs & Reisinger 2004, Pallant 2007) in terms

155

of construct reliability (i.e., Cronbachs Alpha greater than 0,70). Our sponsors images exhibit sufficient internal consistency and will no suffer any modification.

413.12. Reliability test for the four drivers of Image Transfer Table 15 Cronbachs Alpha Reliability Test: Involvement
Alpha Involvement Involve 1 Involve 2 Involve 3 Involve 4 .6669 .5388 .5252 .6454 .6674 If item deleted Involvement Involve 1 Involve 2 Involve 3 Involve 4 Alpha .6674 .4754 .5146 .7525 If item deleted Involvement Involve 1 Involve 2 Involve 3 Involve 4 Alpha .7525

The four drivers tested here are Involvement, Prominence, Congruence and Exposure. Heinekens (Alpha = 0.8481), Water Genesiss (Alpha = 0.8665) and Shells congruence (Alpha = 0.9155) exhibit very high internal consistency. They exceed the recommended minimum standards proposed in the literature in terms of construct reliability (Grohs & Reisinger 2004, Pallant 2007). However, two items had to be removed from the variable involvement to reach internal consistency (Alpha = 0.7525 table 15). The three items factor prominence never exceeds Alpha = 0.5167 and the two items factor exposure exhibit a negative Alpha (-0.0403) showing that the items are not measuring the same underlying characteristics. Prominence and exposure were thus eliminated from the model because of poor reliability.

413.13. Reliability test for the dependent variables

The RainForest World Music Festival Image as well as the different dimensions that compose its quality are the dependent variables of our model. Pollution, Business and Capitalism had to be removed from RFWM Festival image (table 16). After the elimination of these three items, the factor presents an acceptable Cronbachs Alpha (0.7085).

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Table 16: Cronbachs Alpha Reliability Test: RFWM Festival Image


Alpha
RFWM .4692

If item deleted
RFWM

Alpha
.6079

If item deleted
RFWM

Alpha
.7085

If item deleted

image Nature Pollution Traditional Authentic Multiethnic International Business Capitalism Relax Festal Meeting p. Image +

.4782 .6079 .3628 .3403 .4451 .4093 .4357 .5277 .4443 .3957 .3967 .4635

image Nature Pollution Traditional Authentic Multiethnic International Business Capitalism Relax Festal Meeting p. Image +

.6073 .5345 .5207 .6002 .5669 .5963 .6762 .5805 .5510 .5656 .6073

image Nature Pollution Traditional Authentic Multiethnic International Business Capitalism Relax Festal Meeting p. Image +

.7097 .6491 .6353 .7058 .6963

.6665 .6687 .6943 .7114

Reliability, Core Service and Environment were assessed in terms of their importance for the respondent and rated in terms of their quality in the particular context of the RFWM Festival. Core Service Importance failed to reach the minimum alpha value (best alpha = 0.5740). Therefore, we chose to eliminate Importance from the three constructs. Similarly, we remove the aggregate construct composed by Importance and Rating since its best alpha value after several attempts never reach the minimum alpha requested (best alpha 0.5154). After removing the item Authenticity, the rating of all three constructs Reliability, Core Service and Environment indicate a satisfactory and even good internal consistency (respectively Alpha = 0.7037; 0.7768 and 0.8262)

413.2. Sub Section II: Factor analysis

Our sponsors image, drivers of image transfer as well as the festival image and its quality dimensions were subjected to exploratory factor analysis. After verifying that the necessary assumptions to the application of factor analysis are respected, results will be presented and the extraction of components will be discussed.

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413.21. Factor analysis assumptions We are in this paragraph looking at the sample size and the factorability of the correlation expressed by a significant sphericity and the sample adequacy. Sample size: Tabachnick and Fidell (2007, in Pallant 2007) suggest that, to proceed to factor analysis, the sample should exhibit at least 300 cases. However, they concede that a smaller sample size is acceptable (e.g 150 cases) when solutions have several high loading marker variables (above 0.80). As we can see in the column factor loading in table 17, 18 and 19, it is the case for almost the 3/5 of our factors: involvement, Heineken, water Genesis and shell congruence, Shell image, as well as reliability and core service exhibit high factor loading. Other authors suggest that the ratio of respondents to items tested is of more importance that the sample size itself (Nunnally 1978). Recommendations vary between 10 and 5 cases for each item to be factor analyzed. We proceed to our factor analysis with 104 cases and a ratio of 8 respondents to items tested. Factorability of the correlation matrix: As we can see in table 17, 18 and 19, Bartletts test of sphericity is significant (p < 0.05; Bartlett 1954, in Pallant 2007) for all 12 constructs. Except from involvement (KMO = 0.500), all the factors present a Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value above the recommended minimum (0.6; Kaiser 1970, 1974; in Pallant 2007) expressing an acceptable sample adequacy. The validity of the variable involvement is thus questioned. Therefore we choose to remove this factor from our model.

413.22. Factor loading analysis and component extraction

The component extraction is based on factor loading selection according to the component matrix. Each item was considered to fall within a scale based on factor loadings of .50 or higher. Items with factor loadings of less than .50 were eliminated from the analysis (Pallant 2007). Table 17 outlines the factor analysis results for the independent variables composed of our sponsors image.

158

Table 17 The result of validity analysis for independent variables Independent Factors
Factor 1: Heineken Image
Factor Loading KMO Adequacy Bartletts Test Explained Variance Cronbachs Alpha

Nature / Eco-friend. Pollution Traditional / Tribal Authentic Multicultural International Business Capitalism Relax / Dtente Festal / Ambience Meeting people Positive image
Factor 2: Water G. Image

.569 .687 .684 .656

.725

Sig.: .000

36.006%

.8601

.728 .780 .712 .799 .620


Sig.: .000

Nature / Eco-friend Pollution Traditional / Tribal Authentic Multicultural International Business Capitalism Relax / Dtente Festal / Ambience Meeting people Positive image
Factor 3: Shell Image

31.031%

.8194

.521 .659 .751

.537 .719 .779 .785 .828


Sig.: .000

Nature / Eco-friend. Pollution Traditional / Tribal Authentic Multicultural International Business Capitalism Relax / Dtente Festal / Ambience Meeting people Positive image

.809 .722 .609 .552 -.643 -.661 .729 .890 .883 .828

46.858%

.7893

159

Four items were eliminated from Heinekens image construct. Pollution, International, Business and Capitalism exhibit factor loadings inferior to .50. From the factor analysis conducted on Heinekens image, it explains 36% of the variance. According to Pallant (2007), Heinekens image has good consistency, with a Cronbachs Alpha coefficient reported of 0.86. Nature/Eco-friend, Pollution, Traditional/Tribal, Business and Capitalism exhibit factor loadings inferior to .50. These five items were thus eliminated from Water Genesiss image construct. The factor analysis conducted on this sponsor explains 31% of the variance. Water Genesis image has good consistency, with a Cronbachs Alpha coefficient reported of almost 0.82 (Pallant 2007). Pollution and International exhibit factor loadings inferior to .50. These five items were thus eliminated from Shells image construct. The factor analysis conducted on this sponsor explains almost 47% of the variance. Shells image has good consistency, with a Cronbachs Alpha coef. reported of almost 0.79 (Pallant 2007).

Table 18 outlines the factor analysis results for the Drivers of Image Transfer. Prominence and Exposure failed reliability tests. Moreover, Involvement exceed KMO Adequacy tests limit. Therefore, our results display exclusively the different sponsors congruence. None of the factor loadings for the three constructs was found inferior to .50. No item was eliminated. The factor analysis conducted on Heinekens congruence explains almost 63% of the variance. The construct has good consistency, with a Cronbachs Alpha coefficient reported of almost 0.85 (Pallant 2007). The factor analysis conducted on Water Genesis and Shells congruence explains respectively 65% and 73% of the variance. Both constructs have good consistency, with a Cronbachs Alpha coefficient reported of respectively more than 0.86 and 0.91 (Pallant 2007). Table 18: The result of validity analysis for drivers of Image Transfer Drivers of Image Transfer Factor 1: Involvement Music is important for the r. Particular interest in W.M.
Factor Loading KMO Adequacy Bartletts Test Explained Variance Cronbach s Alpha

.500 .900 .900

Sig.: .000

80.963%

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Factor2: Congruence Hein. Logical connect. RF/Hein. Similar Image RF/Hein. Similar values RF/Hein Fit together well Makes sense RF use Hein.

.842 .885 .694 .648 .863 .841

Sig.: .000

62.724%

.8481

Factor3: Congruence W.G. Logical connect. RF/W.G. Similar Image RF/W.G. Similar values RF/W.G. Fit together well Makes sense RF use W.G.

.789 .840 .795 .690 .857 .848

Sig.: .000

65.351%

.8665

Factor 4: Congruence Shell Logical connect. RF/ Shell Similar Image RF/ Shell Similar values RF/Shell Fit together well Makes sense RF use Shell

.832 .811 .818 .891 .934 .907

Sig.: .000

76.268%

.9155

Table 19 The result of validity analysis for dependent variables Dependent Factors Factor 1: RFWM image Nature / Eco-friendly Pollution Traditional / Tribal Authentic Multiethnic / Multicultural International Business / Commercial Capitalism Relax / Dtente Festal / Ambience Meeting people Positive image
Factor Loading KMO Adequacy Bartletts Test Explained Variance Cronbach s Alpha

.656

Sig.: .000

31.484%

.7316

.729 .774

.662 .643

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Factor 2: Quality (global) Accuracy Staff helpfulness Feeling of safety Effective communication Standard of performance Creativity of performance Entertainment & recreation Participation Ambience Appearance of the site Lots of Crowds Places to sit down Accessibility Qlty of food & beverage Gal. cleanliness / Eco-friend Restrooms av. & cleanliness Art and craft Factor 3: Reliability Accuracy Staff helpfulness Feeling of safety Effective communication Factor 4: Core Service Standard of performance Creativity of performance Entertainment & recreation Participation of the audience Factor 5: Environment Ambience Appearance of the site Lots of Crowds Places to sit down Accessibility Quality of food & beverage Gl. cleanliness / Eco-friend. Restrooms av. & cleanliness Art and craft

.773 .754 .525 .675 .755 .661 .659 .709 .823 .680 .588 .513 .577 .631

Sig.: .000

39.811%

.8961

.669 .651 .870 .772 .768 .738 .855 .799 .759 .706 .743 .792 .701 .591 .739 .551 .700 .569 .767 Sig.: .000 43.756% .8270 Sig.: .000 61.090% .7768 Sig.: .000 53.698% .7560

Table 19 outlines the factor analysis results for the dependent variables composed of RFWMs image and quality dimensions. Nature/Eco-friendly, Pollution, Multiethnic/Multicultural, International, Capitalism, Business

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/Commercial, Meeting people and Positive image exhibit factor loadings inferior to .50. These eight items were thus eliminated from RFWMs image construct. The factor analysis conducted on the festival image explains more than 31% of the variance. RFWMs image has good consistency, with a Cronbachs Alpha coefficient reported of almost 0.73 (Pallant 2007). Three items were eliminated from Global Quality construct. Gal. cleanliness / Ecofriend, Restrooms av. & cleanliness and Feeling of safety exhibit factor loadings inferior to .50. From the factor analysis conducted on Global Quality, it explains almost 40% of the variance. According to Pallant (2007), Global Quality has good consistency, with a Cronbachs Alpha coefficient reported of almost 0.90. Feeling of safety exhibits a factor loading inferior to .50. This item was thus eliminated from Reliability construct. The factor analysis conducted on this quality dimension explains more than 53% of the variance. Reliability has good consistency, with a Cronbachs Alpha coefficient reported of more than 0.75 (Pallant 2007). None of the factor loadings for Core Service was found inferior to .50. No item was eliminated. The factor analysis conducted on this quality dimension explains than 61% of the variance. Core Service has good consistency, with a Cronbachs Alpha coefficient reported of more than 0.77 (Pallant 2007). Restrooms av. & cleanliness exhibits a factor loading inferior to .50. This item was thus eliminated from Environment construct. The factor analysis conducted on this quality dimension explains almost 44% of the variance. Environment has good consistency, with a Cronbachs Alpha coef. reported of almost 0.83 (Pallant 2007).

4.1.4. Section IV: Multiple Linear Regression Analysis (MLR)


In this section, we use MLR to explore the relationship between our dependent variables: festivals image and then festivals quality, and all or independent variables and Drivers of Image Transfer (congruence is the only driver that pass the reliability and validity test, no other drivers will thus be included in the MLR). We first regress sponsors image along with sponsors congruence on the festivals image. Then we regress the sponsors image and congruence on the

163

festivals quality, together with the festivals image that become an independent variable as stated in our hypothesis and express in Figure 1. We decompose the festival quality into four components that we assess successively: Global Quality, Reliability / Professionalism, Core Service, and environment. According to our hypotheses, we expect a transfer between sponsors image and festivals image followed by an impact of the festivals image on the quality dimensions. The strength of the transfer is expected to be influenced by sponsors congruence. This method is in line with Grohs and Reisinger (2004).

414.0. Checking MLR assumptions

Sample Size: Different authors tend to give different guidelines as regard to the minimum sample size needed for a reliable Multiple Linear Regression. Stevens (1996, p.72; in Pallant 2007) advised to produce at least 15 respondents for each predicator variables. Our MLR counts seven predicators for 103 respondents. We thus assume a satisfying sample size with a 14.7 ratio. Outliers, Normality and Linearity of the residuals: One of the ways permitting to verify the respect of these assumptions is by inspecting the Normal Q-Q Plot of the Regression Standardised Residual (Pallant 2007). As we can see, the points lie in a reasonably straight diagonal line from bottom left to top right for all of our constructs. It suggests no major deviation from normality (Pallant 2007).

Normal Q-Q Plot of RF_IMAGE


1.5 1.0 .5 0.0 -.5

Expected Normal

-1.0 -1.5 -2.0 -2.5 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5

Observed Value

Figure 21: Normal Q-Q plot of the RainForest World Music Festivals image

164

Heineken, Water Genesis and Shells image Normal Q-Q Plot

Normal Q-Q Plot of H_IMAGE


3 3

Normal Q-Q Plot of WG_IMAGE


2

Normal Q-Q Plot of SH_IMAGE

1 0

Expected Normal

Expected Normal

-1

-1

Expected Normal
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

-1

-2

-2

-2

-3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

-3

-3 1 2 3 4 5 6

Observed Value

Observed Value

Observed Value

Figure 22: Normal Q-Q plot of Heinekens image

Figure 23: Normal Q-Q plot of WGs image

Figure 24: Normal Q-Q plot of Shells image

Heineken, Water Genesis and Shells congruence Normal Q-Q Plot

Normal Q-Q Plot of CONGRU_H


2
1.5 1.0

Normal Q-Q Plot of CONGRU_W


3

Normal Q-Q Plot of CONGRU_S

1
.5

0.0 -.5

Expected Normal

Expected Normal

-1.0 -1.5 -2.0 -2.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

-2

Expected Normal

-1

-1

-3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

-2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Observed Value

Observed Value

Observed Value

Figure 25: Normal Q-Q plot of Hs congruence

Figure 26: Normal Q-Q plot of WGs congruenc

Figure 27: Normal Q-Q plot of Shells congru.

Reliability, Core Service and Environment Normal Q-Q Plot

Normal Q-Q Plot of RELIABIL


3 2

Normal Q-Q Plot of CORE_SER


3

Normal Q-Q Plot of ENVIRON

1 0 0

Expected Normal

Expected Normal

-1

Expected Normal
3 4 5 6 7 8

-1

-1

-2

-2

-2

-3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

-3

-3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Observed Value

Observed Value

Observed Value

Figure 28: Normal Q-Q plot of Reliability

Figure 29: Normal Q-Q plot of core service

Figure 30: Normal Q-Q plot of environment

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414.1. MLR analysis of the dependent variable RainForest Festivals image

Tables 20 provides the results of the MLR analysis for the independent variables Heineken, Water Genesis and Shell image, and the moderator variables Heineken times Heineken congruence, Water Genesis times Water Genesis congruence, and Shell times Shell congruence, as the predicators of RainForest Festivals image.

Table 20 MLR Results for the 6 Variables as the Predicators of RainForest Festivals Image
Sum of Squares df Regression 5.386 6 Residual 64.553 97 Total 69.940 103 Dependent variable: RainForest Festival Image Mean Square .898 .665 F 1.349 Sig. .243

Table 20 provides the data needed to assess the statistical significance of our model. Sig. tests the probability of the null hypothesis, which means that to reach statistical significance, p (the probability of the null hypothesis) should be inferior to .005, expressed in the table by Sig. < .005 (Pallant 2007). Based on the results in Table 20, there is insufficient proof to support that the overall MLR model with the 6 predictors has worked well in explaining the variation in RainForest Festival Image (F = 1.349; df = 6, 97; p = .243). The probability of the null hypothesis to be true is not small enough to exclude it. Thus, we do not possess enough evidence to prove our first hypothesis, which is H1: Sponsors image impact on festivals image.

414.2. MLR analysis of the dependent variable Global Quality

Tables 21 and 22 provide the results of the Multiple Linear Regression analysis for the independent variables Heineken, Water Genesis, Shell and RainForest Festival image, and the moderator variables Heineken times Heineken congruence, Water Genesis times Water Genesis congruence, and Shell times Shell congruence, as the predicators of the festivals global quality.

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Based on the results in Table 21, the overall MLR model with the 7 predictors has worked well in explaining the variation in consumers perception of RainForest Festival global quality (Global quality: F = 3.456; df = 7, 96; p = .002). Table 21 MLR Results for the 7 Variables as the Predicators of RainForest Festival Global Quality
Sum of Squares Regression 14.533 Residual 57.663 Total 72.197 Dependent variable: Global quality df 7 96 103 Mean Square 2.076 .601 F 3.456 Sig. .002 R Square .201

From table 22, Heineken image (t = 2.053, p = 0.043, b = +0.358) and Water G. x W.G. Congruence (t = 1.998, p = 0.049, b = +0.041) were found to exert a significant positive influence on global quality (Sig. < 0.05; Pallant 2007). Water Genesis Image was found to exert a significant negative influence on global quality (t = -2.612, p = 0.010, b = -0.440). However, Shell image (t = -0.003, p = 0.998, b = 0.000), Hein. x H. Congruence (t = -0.837, p = 0.404, b = -0.017), Shell x Shell Congruence (t = 1.605, p = 0.112, b = +0.026), RainForest Festival image (t = 1.312, p = 0.193, b = +0.127) showed a non significant influence on global quality. This may be due to overlap with other variables in the model. The result interpretation process is in line with Subramonian (n.d).

Table 22 Estimated unstandardised and standardized regression coefficients


Unstandardised Coefficients Std. Error .705 .174 .169 .144 .021 .021 .016 .096 Standardized Coefficients Beta .468 -.502 .000 -.187 .341 .265 .125 5.793 2.053 -2.612 -.003 -.837 1.998 1.605 1.312 .000 .043 .010 .998 .404 .049 .112 .193

Terms in the equation

Sig.

B (Constant) 4.086 Heineken image .358 Water G. image -.440 Shell image .000 Hein. x H. Congruence -.017 W.G. x W.G. Congruence .041 Shell x Shell Congruence .026 RainForest Festival image .127 Dependent variable: Global Quality

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According to Baron and Kenny (1986) evidence of moderation are produced by the estimated equation regression. When running a test for moderation, the main effects of the predictor and moderator variables on the dependent variable are analysed, as well as the interaction between the predictors and the moderators. If the interaction term is significant (i.e. significantly different from zero) then, moderation has been demonstrated.

The estimated equation regression (equation 1) Global quality = 4.086 + 0.358 Heineken image 0.440 Water Genesis image + 0.000 Shell image 0.017 Hein. x H. Congruence + 0.041 Water G. x W.G. Congruence + 0.026 Shell x Shell Congruence + 0.127 RainForest Festival image

In our case the interaction term is characterised by b in the equation expressed as Y = (constant) + a1X1 + a2X2 + a3X3 + b1 (X1*M1) + b2 (X2*M2) + b3 (X3*M3) Where the main effects are characterised by a and b, Y is the dependent variable, Xn are the predicators, and Mn the moderators. The bn terms must be significantly different from zero. Table 22 shows that Water Genesis congruence is significantly different from zero with B = .041 and sig. = .049. Shells congruence is moderately insignificant. Thus, moderation has been partially demonstrated.

The proportion of explained variance as measured by R Square for the above regression equation is 0.201. In other words, 20.1% of the variation in global quality is explained by Heineken, Water Genesis, Shell and RainForest Festival image, Heineken times Heineken congruence, Water Genesis times Water Genesis congruence, and Shell times Shell congruence. To know which of the variables included in our model contribute to the prediction of Global Quality, we analyze Beta under Standardised Coefficients. The Standardised values have been converted to the same scale so that a comparison of the different values is made possible (Pallant 2007). The beta values given in table 22 seemed to indicate Water Genesis image (beta = 0.502), Heineken image (beta = 0.468) and Water G. x W.G. Congruence (beta = 0.341) as more important indicator of global quality than Shell x Shell Congruence (beta =0.265) and Hein. x H. Congruence (beta =0.187). RainForest Festival image 168

(beta = 0.125) and Shell image seems to have no influence on global quality. Water Genesis makes the strongest unique contribution with beta = 0.502 in explaining Global Quality. The result interpretation process is in line with Subramonian (n.d).

414.3. MLR analysis of the dependent variable Reliability

Tables 23 and 24 provides the results of the Multiple Linear Regression analysis for the independent variables Heineken, Water Genesis, Shell and RainForest Festival image, and the moderator variables Heineken times Heineken congruence, Water Genesis times Water Genesis congruence, and Shell times Shell congruence, as the predicators of the reliability dimension of the festivals quality. Considering Table 23s results, the overall MLR model with the 7 predictors has worked well in explaining the variation in consumers perception of RainForest Festivals reliability (Reliability: F = 3.770; df = 7, 96; p = .001).

Table 23: MLR Results for the 7 Variables as the Predicators of RainForest Festivals Reliability
Sum of Squares 31.528 114.690 146.218 df 7 96 103 Mean Square 4.504 1.195 F 3.770 Sig. .001 R Square .216

Regression Residual Total

Dependent variable: Reliability

From table 24, Heineken image (t = 2.387, p = 0.019, b = +0.587) was found to exert a significant positive influence on reliability. However, there is insufficient proof to support that Water Genesis Image (t = -1.894, p = 0.061, b = -0.450), Hein. x H. Congruence (t = -1.254, p = 0.213, b = -0.037), Water G. x W.G. Congruence (t = 1.237, p = 0.219, b = +0.036), Shell x Shell Congruence (t = 1.186, p = 0.238, b = +0.028), Shell image (t = 0.876, p = 0.383, b = 0.178) and RainForest Festival image (t = 0.449, p = 0.619, b = +0.068) have a significant influence on reliability. The result interpretation process is in line with Subramonian (n.d).

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Table 24 Estimated unstandardised and standardized regression coefficients


Unstandardised Coefficients B 3.059 .587 -.450 .178 -.037 .036 .028 .068 Std. Error .995 .246 .238 .204 .029 .029 .023 .136 Standardised Coefficients Beta .539 -.361 .156 -.278 .209 .194 .047 3.075 2.387 -1.894 .876 -1.254 1.237 1.186 .499 .003 .019 .061 .383 .213 .219 .238 .619

Terms in the equation (Constant) Heineken image Water G. image Shell image Hein. x H. Congruence W.G. x W.G. Congruence Shell x Shell Congruence RainForest Festival image Dependent variable: Reliability

Sig.

According to Baron and Kenny (1986), if in the equation regression the interaction term is significant, then, moderation has been demonstrated. In our case the interaction term is characterised by b in the equation expressed as Y = (constant) + a1X1 + a2X2 + a3X3 + b1 (X1*M1) + b2 (X2*M2) + b3 (X3*M3) Where the main effects are characterised by a and b, Y is the dependent variable, Xn are the predicators, and Mn the moderators. The bn terms must be significantly different from zero. Table 24 shows that no moderators reach the required level of significance. The estimated equation regression (equation 2) Reliability = 3.059 + 0.587 Heineken image 0.450 Water Genesis image + 0.178 Shell image 0.037 Hein. x H. Congruence + 0.036 Water G. x W.G. Congruence + 0.028 Shell x Shell Congruence + 0.068 RainForest Festival image The proportion of explained variance as measured by R Square for the above regression equation is 0.216. In other words, 21.6% of the variation in reliability is explained by Heineken, Water Genesis, Shell and RainForest Festival image, Heineken times Heineken congruence, Water Genesis times Water Genesis congruence, and Shell times Shell congruence. The beta values given in table 24 indicate that Heineken image (beta = 0.539) is a more important indicator of reliability than Water Genesis image (beta = 0.361), H. x H. Congruence (beta = 0.278), W.G. x W.G. Congruence (beta = 0.209) and Shell x Shell Congruence (beta = 0.194). Shell image (beta = 0.156) and RainForest Festival image (beta = 0.047)

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have the less significant impact on festivals reliability. The result interpretation process is in line with Subramonian (n.d).

414.4. MLR analysis of the dependent variable Core Service

Tables 25 and 26 provide the results of the Multiple Linear Regression analysis for the independent variables Heineken, Water Genesis, Shell and RainForest Festival image, and the moderator variables Heineken times Heineken congruence, Water Genesis times Water Genesis congruence, and Shell times Shell congruence, as the predicators of the core service, component of the festivals quality. According to Table 25s results, the overall MLR model with the 7 predictors has worked well in explaining the variation in consumers perception of the Festivals core service (Core service: F = 2.969; df = 7, 96; p = .007).

Table 25: MLR Results for the 7 Variables as the Predicators of RainForest Festival Core Service

Sum of Squares Regression 12.777 Residual 59.021 Total 71.797 Dependent variable: core service

df 7 96 103

Mean Square 1.825 .615

F 2.969

Sig. .007

R Square .178

From table 26, RainForest Festival image (t = 2.408, p = 0.018, b = 0.235) and Shell x Shell Congruence (t = 2.289, p = 0.024, b = 0.038) were found to exert a significant positive influence on consumers perception of the Festivals core service. However, there is insufficient proof to support that Water Genesis Image (t = -1.520, p = 0.132, b = -0.259), Water G. x W.G. Congruence (t = 0.783, p = 0.436, b = 0.016), Heineken image (t = 0.723, p = 0.471, b = 0.128), Shell image (t = 0.497, p = 0.620, b = -0.073) and Hein. x H. Congruence (t = -0.063, p = 0.950, b = 0.001) have a significant influence on core service quality. The result interpretation process is in line with Subramonian (n.d).

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Table 26 Estimated unstandardised and standardized regression coefficients


Unstandardised Coefficients B
4.307 (Constant) .128 Heineken image -.259 Water G. image -.073 Shell image -.001 Hein. x H. Congruence .016 W.G. x W.G. Congruence .038 Shell x Shell Congruence RainForest Festival image .235 Dependent variable: core service

Terms in the equation

Standardised Coefficients Beta

t
6.034

Sig.
.000 .471 .132 .620 .950 .436 .024 .018

Std. Error
.714 .177 .171 .146 .021 .021 .017 .098

.167 -.297 -.091 -.014 .136 .383 .232

.723 -1.520 -.497 -.063 .783 2.289 2.408

According to Baron and Kenny (1986), if in the equation regression the interaction term is significant, then, moderation has been demonstrated. In our case the interaction term is characterised by b in the equation expressed as Y = (constant) + a1X1 + a2X2 + a3X3 + b1 (X1*M1) + b2 (X2*M2) + b3 (X3*M3) Where the main effects are characterised by a and b, Y is the dependent variable, Xn are the predicators, and Mn the moderators. The bn terms must be significantly different from zero. Table 26 shows that Shell congruence is significantly different from zero with B = .038 and sig. = .024. Thus, moderation has been partially demonstrated.

The estimated equation regression (equation 3) Core Service = 4.307 + 0,128 Heineken image 0.259 Water Genesis image 0.073 Shell image 0.001 Hein. x H. Congruence + 0.016 Water G. x W.G. Congruence + 0.038 Shell x Shell Congruence + 0.235 RainForest Festival image

The proportion of explained variance as measured by R Square for the above regression equation is 0.178. In other words, 17.8% of the variation in core service is explained by Heineken, Water Genesis, Shell and RainForest Festival image, Heineken times Heineken congruence, Water Genesis times Water Genesis congruence, and Shell times Shell congruence. The beta values given in table 26 indicate that Shell x Shell Congruence (beta =0.383) is a more important indicator of core service quality than Water Genesiss image (beta = 0.297) and RainForest

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Festivals image (beta = 0.232) Heineken image (beta = 0.167), W.G. x W.G. Congruence (beta = 0.136), Shell image (beta = 0.091) and Hein. x H. Congruence (beta =0.014) have the less significant impact on the core service. The result interpretation process is in line with Subramonian (n.d).

414.5. MLR analysis of the dependent variable Environment

Tables 27 and 28 provide the results of the MLR analysis for Heineken, Water Genesis, Shell, and RainForest Festival image, as well as Heineken times Heineken congruence, Water Genesis times Water Genesis congruence, and Shell times Shell congruence, as the predicators of the environment dimension of the festival quality. According to the results in Table 27, there is sufficient proof to support that the overall MLR model with the 7 predictors has worked well in explaining the variation in consumers perception of the festival s environment (Environment: F = 2.722; df = 7, 96; p = .013).

Table 27: MLR Results for the 7 Variables as the Predicators of RainForest Festival Environment
Sum of Squares Regression 13.752 Residual 69.282 Total 83.035 Dependent variable: Environment

df 7 96 103

Mean Square 1.965 .722

F 2.722

Sig. .013

R Square .166

From table 28, Water Genesis Image (t = -2.719, p = 0.008, b = -0.503) was found to exert a significant negative influence on consumers perception of festivals environment quality and Water G. x W.G. Congruence (t = 2.485, p = 0.015, b = 0.057) was found to exert a significant positive influence on consumers perception of festivals environment quality. However, there is insufficient proof to support that Heineken image (t = 1.513, p = 0.134, b = 0.289), Shell x Shell Congruence (t = 1.331, p = 0.186, b = 0.024), RainForest Festival image (t = 1.167, p = 0.246, b = 0.123) Shell image (t = -0.627, p = 0.532, b = -.099) and Hein. x H.

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Congruence (t = -0.291, p = 0.772 , b = -0.007) have a significant influence on environment quality. The result interpretation process is in line with Subramonian (n.d).

Table 28 Estimated unstandardised and standardized regression coefficients


Unstandardised Coefficients B
4.384 (Constant) .289 Heineken image -.503 Water G. image -.099 Shell image -.007 Hein. x H. Congruence .057 W.G. x W.G. Congruence .024 Shell x Shell Congruence RainForest Festival image .123 Dependent variable: Environment

Terms in the equation

Standardised Coefficients Beta

t
5.670

Sig.
.000 .134 .008 .532 .772 .015 .186 .246

Std. Error
.773 .191 .185 .158 .023 .023 .018 .106

.352 -.535 -.115 -.066 .433 .224 .113

1.513 -2.719 -.627 -.291 2.483 1.331 1.167

According to Baron and Kenny (1986), if in the equation regression the interaction term is significant, then, moderation has been demonstrated. In our case the interaction term is characterised by b in the equation expressed as Y = (constant) + a1X1 + a2X2 + a3X3 + b1 (X1*M1) + b2 (X2*M2) + b3 (X3*M3) Where the main effects are characterised by a and b, Y is the dependent variable, Xn are the predicators, and Mn the moderators. The bn terms must be significantly different from zero. Table 28 shows that Water Genesis congruence is significantly different from zero with B = .057 and sig. = .015. Shells congruence is moderately insignificant. Thus, moderation has been partially demonstrated. .

The estimated equation regression (equation 4) Environment = 4.384 + 0.289 Heineken image 0.503 Water Genesis image 0.099 Shell image 0.007 Hein. x H. Congruence + 0.057 Water G. x W.G. Congruence + 0.024 Shell x Shell Congruence + 0.123 RainForest Festival image

The proportion of explained variance as measured by R Square for the above regression equation is 0.166. In other words, 16.6% of the variation in environment is explained by Heineken, Water Genesis, Shell and RainForest Festival image,

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Heineken times Heineken congruence, Water Genesis times Water Genesis congruence, and Shell times Shell congruence. The beta values given in table 28 indicate that Water Genesis image (beta = 0.535), Water G. x W.G. Congruence (beta = 0.433) and Heineken image (beta = 0.352) are more important indicators of environment quality than Shell x Shell Congruence (beta =0.224), Shell image (beta = 0.115) and RainForest Festival image (beta = 0.113). Hein. x H. Congruence (beta =0.066) has the less significant impact on the festivals environment. The result interpretation process is in line with Subramonian (n.d).

4.1.5. Conclusion Part 1:


From the results presentation arise some problems. The scale adapted from Grohs and Reisinger (2004) appeared no to be fully efficient in our context. Data concerning Involvement and Exposure are quite complex to read. Problems arise from the introduction of two questions necessary to meet our objectives, namely the frequency of visits and attendees perceptions of sponsor visibility. The author of this papers awkward scale modification favoured internal consistency and coherence issues; both variables had thus to be removed from our model. Consequently, H.2.3 and H.2.1 cannot be verified and will be excluded from the analysis. Results concerning sponsors Prominence are in adequation with our pre-tests results. Heineken and Shell appeared to be extremely prominent and Water Genesis not at all prominent. The scale, this time directly adapted from Grohs and Reisinger (2004), presents nonetheless internal consistency issues and fail the reliability test. However, we benefit of sufficient elements, as we will see in the following development, to expose some strong presumption concerning the role of this variable in our model. Congruence worked well. The scale is reliable and coherent and shows that Heineken and in a lesser extend Water Genesis are congruent whereas Shell is dissonant. No major problems arise from the analysis of the festivals quality. Core Service has been judge as the most important dimension.

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However, while the MLR analysis of the dependent variables Global Quality, Reliability, Core Service and Environment worked well in explaining the relationships between our variables, the MLR analysis of the dependent variable RFWMs image (Table 20, 414.1) fail to reach the limit of significance. Thus, we do not have sufficient proof to support that H.1: Sponsors image impact on festivals image. To proof sponsors impact on global quality perception of a festival, we aimed to show that sponsors and drivers of image transfer affect festivals image, which in return would affects festival quality perception. However, along with our first hypothesis, a major conceptual step of our argument collapsed.

Eve n t Image

Sponsor Image

Sponsor Prominence Event Involvement

Consumers Quality perception of the Event

Event/Sponsor Dissonance

Sponsorship Exposure

Figure 1-bis: Review of the Conceptual Model: The Construction of Image Transfer and its Impact on Quality Perception

Although, our principal goal remain unchanged; we want to show that H: Sponsors image impact on global quality perception of a festival. If an intermediary step of our reasoning fell down, we still can analyse the direct impact of our sponsors and drivers of transfer on the festival quality. To do so we will thus need to rephrase our hypothesis: Hypothesis H.2.4 (Sponsor prominence positively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsored event) and H3 (festivals image impacts on consumers quality perception) do not need modification, however:

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H.2: Drivers of image transfer act as moderator variables and impact on the strength of the relationship between sponsors image and festivals quality in the process of image transfer from the sponsor to the festival. H.2.2: Event-sponsor image dissonance impact negatively on the events quality perception. H.2.2b: Event-sponsor functional dissonance does not affect the events quality perception.

At last, despite the fact that three drivers have been excluded from the MLR analysis, we partially confirm our second hypothesis H.2.. Congruence as been submitted to moderation test. Even though we do not have sufficient proof to verify moderation for all sponsor/festival congruences in every dimensions, the quality of Water Genesis Congruence as a moderator variable has been proven in Global Quality and Environment, Shell Congruence is proved to be a moderator variable in Core Service quality dimension. Moreover, we bring evidences that will be discussed in the next part supporting that the Congruence of the different sponsors alters the causal relationship between sponsors and each quality dimensions (in a lesser extend as regard to core service), characterising moderation.

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4.2. Part 2: Analysis, findings and comparison with the existing knowledge
This part aims to present the process of analysis and to put into perspective our main findings with existing knowledge and theories. We will first present issues relative to the results reading of our multiple linear regression analysis. We will then successively analyse the sponsors impact on each one of the quality dimensions, each sponsors impact upon the overall model, as well as the role that our moderator variable: comgruence, play in the image transfer. We will then present the strong presumptions that conduce to the analysis of Prominences part in the model. Lastly, we will produce models adjustments bring in by the introduction of the variable relative to the positive or negative image of the sponsors, that will shed a new light in the model reading.

4.2.1 Section 1: Issues related to the MLRs Results analysis


We will draw the readers attention on a crucial point that could lead to misunderstanding during the forthcoming analysis. Our model regresses together independent variables and moderator variables on festivals quality dimensions. The MLR measures exclusively the impacts of the different variables on the dependent variable. The outcomes are expressed in such a way that it could be tempting to confuse the different variables range of influence. However, our study of the literature prevents us to do such a mistake: the difference in the range of influence stands in the variables conceptual acceptation. On the one hand, the independent variables: sponsors images, impact directly on the festival quality. Our study analyses the transfer from these sponsors to the events quality. On the other hand, congruence (as a moderator variable) influences the relationship between our sponsors and the festival quality. It affects directly the strength and type of the transfer and thus indirectly on quality. The MLR displays the results of this indirect impact. In order to facilitate the results reading and analysis, we will try to translate these different ranges of influence with schemes.

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The two following paragraphs explain in details the legend used to differentiate these multiple interactions and the theoretical background of the differentiation.

421.1 Independent variables related legend

The red arrows characterise the transfer from the sponsors to the studied quality dimension. It shows the sponsors contribution in the dimensions variance. The arrows varying size symbolizes varying impacts intensity (thick arrow = major contribution in the variance or major transfer; thin arrow = moderate contribution or moderate transfer). The dotted arrows symbolize an inconsequential relationship between a sponsor and the quality dimension. It shows that there is not a significant transfer; in other words that the sponsor does not contribute to the dimensions variance. The signs added to the red arrows qualify the transfer; they define the type of the relationship between both

variables.

A negative sign symbolizes a sponsors negative influence on the quality dimension, whereas a positive sign shows that the quality dimension benefits from the transfer. The signs sizes vary according to the magnitude of the negative or positive influence. The question mark added with a sign show that the influences type is assumed with respect to the global picture of our results. The question mark alone shows that we have insufficient evidence to mention the type of influence.

421.2. Moderator variables related legend

The black arrows stand for the impact of the moderator variable on the strength of the transfer from the sponsor to the quality dimension. The arrows varying size symbolizes varying impacts intensity on the magnitude of the transfer (thick arrow = major influence on the strength of the transfer; thin arrow = moderate influence on the strength of the transfer).

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The signs added to the black arrows qualify the impact

on the transfer from the sponsor to the quality dimension.

They establish a positive or negative relationship between the moderator variable and the transfer. The positive sign shows that the transfer is greater thanks to the variables influence (when the variables influence is high). A negative sign would mean that higher the variables influence is, lower is the transfer, in other words it would mean that the moderator variable prevents the transfer. The signs sizes vary according to the magnitude of the negative or positive influence. The question mark added with a sign show that the influences type is assumed with respect to the global picture of our results. The question mark alone shows that we have insufficient evidence to mention the influences type (positive or negative).

4.2.2 Section 2: Analysis of the sponsors impact on each one of the quality dimensions
In this section, we will analyse the results provided by the MLR analysis. We will successively assess the sponsors impact on Global Quality, Reliability, Core Service and Environment and compare these dimensions.

422.1. Analysis of sponsors impact on Global quality

Our model explains 20.1% of the variance in Festivals Global Quality, which means that 20.1% of the variation in respondents rating of Global Quality is due to the sponsors influence on the festival. Thus, we brought evidences confirming our main hypothesis that is H: Sponsors image impact on global quality perception of a festival.

Our results mentioned in paragraph 412.13 display a modest image congruence between Water Genesis and the festival. We observe an important

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impact and a slightly positive relationship (b = +0.041) connecting this congruence and the transfer between the brand and the events global quality. It indicates that congruence increases the magnitude of the transfer between the quality dimension and the brand. The brands impact on this dimension is strong and we observe a negative relationship between Water Genesis and the Festivals global quality. In other words, there is a high transfer from Water Genesis toward this quality dimension, eased by the brand/festivals congruence, which induces a decline in respondents perception of the festivals global quality.

This model Explains 20.1% of the v ariance in Festiv als Global Quality

Water Genesis Congruence

Heineken Congruence

Water Genesis

Festivals Global Quality

Heineken

Shell

Shell Di ssonance

Figure 31: Sponsors Impact on Global Quality

Heineken influences strongly and positively the quality dimension. Its congruence with the event affects moderately on the transfer, yet there is insufficient proof to know with certainty the type of relationship linking the brands congruence and the strength of the transfer (the moderator variables behaviour will be the subject of more advanced inquires in the following developments).

The results stated in paragraph 412.13 demonstrate shells dissonance with the festival. We can observe a moderate impact on the strength of the transfer between the firm and the festivals global quality; however, the MLR analysis of 181

Global Quality does not provide sufficient proof to define the type of relationship. The relation with the transfer does exist, only our results fail to bring sufficient evidence to proof with certainty the type of relation there is between shells dissonance and the magnitude of the transfer. Shells dissonance affects the transfer between shell and Global Quality; however, this transfer is nonexistent. It could indicate that the moderator variable curbs the strength of the transfer, and thus, that the variable has a negative relationship with the transfer. However, we may assume a global modest positive relationship between Shells congruence and the force of the transfer (Global Quality: sig.: .112, B: +.026; Reliability: sig.: .238, B: +.028; Core Service: sig.: .024, B.: +.038; Environment: sig.: .186, B.: +.024). As we can observe, Shell congruences positive influence is significant regarding Core Service quality dimension. Concerning the other dimensions, sig. values are relatively close to the significance limit and all B values are positive even though the influence appeared as modest. Moreover, no evidence leads us to think that the nature of the relationship between a sponsors congruence and the transfer towards festivals quality may change according to the studied quality dimension. Therefore, we assume that the type of relationship connecting a sponsors congruence and the transfer do not vary depending on the quality dimension. Even though the influence is slightly above the significance level in three quality dimensions, we assume that dissonance has a moderate positive impact upon the strength of the transfer. We do not have sufficient leads yet to draw conclusion about shells impact on the festival quality, neither concerning the exact part of shells dissonance in the process.

422.2. Analysis of sponsors impact on Reliability and Professionalism

Our model explains 21.6% of the variance in Festivals Reliability and professionalism, which means that 21.6% of the variation in respondents rating of Reliability is due to the sponsors influence. Thus, we brought evidences confirming our main hypothesis that is H: Sponsors image impact on global quality perception of a festival.

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The MLR analysis of Reliability presents similar results regarding Heinekens and Shells relationships with the quality dimension. Shell and Heineken interact comparably with Reliability and Global quality.

This model Explains 21.6% of the v ariance in Reliability / Prof essionalism

Water Genesis Congruence


?

? ?

Heineken Congruence

Water Genesis

Reliability / Professionalism

Heineken

Shell

Shell Dissonance

Figure 32: Sponsors Impact on Reliability / Professionalism

Water Genesis as well seems to present the same characteristics in its connection with the quality dimension. Indeed, the brands impact is strong and we observe a negative relationship between Water Genesis and the Festival reliability only slightly above the significance limit (sig.: .061). The brand congruence with the festival influences this relationship, following the previous argument (422.1) and since our results are only moderately insignificant, we assume that this influence is positive. In other words, there is a high transfer from Water Genesis toward Reliability, assumed to be eased by the brand/festivals congruence, which induces a decrease in respondents rating of the festivals Reliability.

422.3. Analysis of sponsors impact on Environment

Our model is here slightly less pertinent in explaining the variance in environment than it is for the two previous dimensions. It still explains 16.6% of the 183

variance in Festivals Environment, which means that 16.6% of the variation in respondents rating of the environment is due to the sponsors influence. These results confirm our main hypothesis that is H: Sponsors image impact on global quality perception of a festival.

Water Genesi s Congruence

This model Explains 16.6% of the v ariance in Festivals Env ironment quality

Water Genesis

Environment

Heineken

Shell

Shell Dissonance

Figure 34: Sponsors Impact on Environment

The MLR analysis of Environment presents similar results regarding Water Genesiss and Shells relationships with the quality dimension. Shell and Water Genesis interact comparably with Environment than they did with Global quality. Heinekens congruence role in the model is not significant. The sponsor impacts on Environment but the type of relationship connecting both variables is not defined. As previously, we assume a positive relationship.

422.4. Analysis of sponsors impact on Core service

Our model is here slightly less pertinent in explaining the variance in Core Service. It still explains 17.8% of the variance in Festivals Core Service, which means that 17.8% of the variation in respondents rating of the Core Service is due to

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the sponsors influence. These results confirm our main hypothesis that is H: Sponsors image impact on global quality perception of a festival.

This model Explains 17.8 % of the v ariance in Core Serv ice

Water Genesis

Core Service

RainForest Festi vals Image

Shell

Shell Dissonance

Figure 33: Sponsors Impact on Core Service

When compared with Reliability and Environment, Sponsors seems to have a less important and less defined impact on Core Service quality dimension. Only Water genesis has a determinant impact assumed to be negative. Its congruence with the festival does not seem to play any part in the magnitude of the transfer towards the quality dimension. Shells dissonance has a significant positive impact on the strength of the transfer between shell and the core service, which transfer is still not perceptible in our model for reasons that will be inferred in the next section.

Global Quality, Reliability and Environment are most subject to sponsors influence. Core Service, that constitutes the festivals essence, its essential purpose, seems to be less permeable to the image transfer from the sponsor. It is interesting to note that, whereas Core Service is composed of satisfiers, the other dimensions are composed of quality attributes that are mostly dissatisfiers (see 223.11; Herzberg 1966, Love and Crompton 1996). Disatisfiers can damage the attendee experience

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without having the possibility to enhance it. They must be present to provide a quality event but do not in themselves satisfy festivalgoers. Satisfiers are source of benefits and satisfaction for visitors; thus, they play a more important role in determining the experiences quality. Our results concerning the importance of quality attributes (see 412.3) confirm this statement: The satisfier attributes that are grouped under the Core Service dimension are the most essential determinant of festival quality. These satisfiers appeared as clearly related to the essence of the RainForest Festivals quality. Attendees attitudes toward these attributes are consequently less ductile by extrinsic factors. Attendees receptivity to the transfer is then more difficult to achieve since their attitudes towards these attributes are more stable.

As a result, we can observe that Core Service is more receptive to festivals image influence than the other dimensions (Global Quality: sig.: .193, B: .127; Reliability: sig.: .619, B: .068; Core Service: sig.: .018, B.: .235; Environment: sig.: .246, B.: .123 / Beta Value: Global Quality: .125; Reliability: .047; Core Service: .232; Environment: .113). Results show that the festivals image do impact and play a significant positive influence on Core Service, which seems to validate that while this dimension is less permeable to sponsors influences or extrinsic factors, Core Service is more receptive to intern influence: the festivals image. It brings evidence to confirm that the events image play a role in attendees perception of quality and thus validates our third hypothesis stating that H3: festivals image impacts on consumers quality perception. However, no element allowed us to generalise these results in the festivals other quality dimensions.

If Core Service constitutes the festivals essence and is the most essential determinant of festival quality, why does the festivals Global Quality presents obvious major similarities with the two other dimensions, while Core Service appeared as an outcast ? We may find elements of answer in the structure of our instrument and in Getz, O'Neill & Carlsen (2001) that define quality attributes as non-compensatory. They state that one or a few attributes can affect the perception of the overall quality. The high or low quality perception of some attributes can lead attendees to overlook or ignore other attributes.

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To assess the maximum range of respondents quality perception, we utilized in our survey a large number of items in which disatisfiers are overrepresented. Moreover, the attributes suffering of the less good rating are some of these disatisfiers. It may have influenced our global results.

422.5. Conclusion Section 2

The MLR analysis of the different festivals quality dimensions brought evidence that sponsors image influence the festivals quality. We explained in details the importance and functioning of these impacts. Moreover, our model explains between 16.6% and 21.6% of the variance in attendees rating of festivals Quality. It shows that the sponsors influence on the festival constitute a substantial share of the qualitys variance. Thus, we brought evidences confirming our main hypothesis that is H: Sponsors image impacts on global quality perception of a festival. Moreover, we started to collect evidence that will determine the role of congruence and dissonance within the image transfer process. Further analysis will be carried out in the next section to establish with certainty their behavioural pattern and their exact influence on the transfer process.

4.2.3. Section 3: Analysis of each independent variables and their congruences impact on the overall model
We will study in this section the impact of our independent variables on the festivals quality from the global picture. Based on the last section, we will draw general pattern translating the transfers behaviour of our variables. We need first to review our results concerning the differents independent variables characteristics to better understand what come into play in the process of the now demonstrated transfer. After promptly analysing the behaviour and effect of the RainForest World Music Festivals image, we will concentrate our study on each sponsors role in the

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model, as well as the part that their congruences play on their impacts on the festival.

423.1. Behaviour and impact of the RainForest World Music Festivals image

Sponsors image impact on festivals image cannot be verified; however, the models outcomes concerning the impact of the RainForest Festivals image on quality perception bring some information. We do not possess sufficient evidence to prove the events image global influence on its quality (Global Quality: sig.: .193, B: .127; Reliability: sig.: .619, B: .068; Core Service: sig.: .018, B.: .235; Environment: sig.: .246, B.: .123). As we can observe, the results largely exceed the required level of significance, except for Core Service. Indeed, we observe a moderate positive influence of the festivals image on Core Service dimension. Beta Values analysis shows that RFWMs image moderately contribute to the variance in Core Service quality perception (Beta Value: Global Quality: .125; Reliability: .047; Core Service: .232; Environment: .113). The variable is not a significant indicator of other quality dimensions. Thus, we can conclude that the RainForests image has a moderate positive impact on one dependent variable: Core Service. We explained in the previous section that it might come from characteristic of the quality dimension itself.

423.2. Heinekens role and the part that its congruence plays on the model

Beta Values analysis shows that Heineken is a major indicator of each dimensions of the RainForest Festivals quality except Core Service for reasons previously cited (Beta Value: Global Quality: .468; Reliability: .539; Core Service: .167; Environment: .352). Our results show that the brand exerts globally a major positive influence on the RFWM Festivals quality especially for global quality and reliability dimensions (Global Quality: sig.: .043, B: .358; Reliability: sig.: .019, B: .587; Core Service: sig.: .471, B.: .128; Environment: sig.: .134, B.: .289). We assume a global positive influence on the festivals quality. There is two quality dimensions that reach the 188

required level of significance, namely the global Quality and the Reliability. Indeed, Heineken seems to exert a positive influence on Core Service dimension; yet the results largely exceed the required level of significance. Heineken shows as well a positive influence on the Environment dimension, it displays Sig. value relatively low, yet, above the significance limit. Moreover, nothing leads to think that the type of relation connecting a sponsors image and the festival quality may change depending of the studied dimension. Thus, we can conclude that Heineken has a strong positive impact in the festivals quality perception. Its influence on the different quality dimensions is globally powerful and very positive.

The level of congruence is function of the logical connection between sponsor and sponsored activity (Gwinner 1997, Meenaghan 2001, Grohs & Reisinger 2004). We have seen in the literature that the congruence between sponsor and sponsored activity can be divided into two dimensions, a functional dimension and a dimension relative to the image of both actors (Gwinner 1997). A high functional congruence takes place when a sponsors product is likely to be used at the event and is related to the core service activity, for instance, when a guitar manufacturer as fender sponsors a musical event. High image congruence can be observed when attributes associated with a sponsor match with attributes associated with the event (Grohs & Reisinger, 2004). First, Heinekens image shows several similarities with the RainForest Festivals image (e.g.: 412.22). The brand and the festival both exhibit a festal image and are seen as a source of ambience, they convey relaxed values and are associated with meeting people. Both the firm and the event exhibit an international dimension. Heinekens image attributes match, to a significant extend, with the festivals image. However, even if Heineken is largely consumed during the event, its utilisation is not related to the festival core activity. Thus, we cannot consider that the beer brand exhibits a functional congruence with the event, though the brand seems to be congruent in term of its image.

Heinekens congruence has a proven impact on the strength of the transfer between Heineken and Global Quality as well as Reliability (Beta Value respectively: .187 and .278). However a positive or negative influence of 189

Heinekens congruence cannot be assumed since the results of our MLR are by far not significant concerning the type of relationship between the two variables (as we can observe with the Sig. values in section 414. - Heinekens congruence: Global Quality: sig.: .404; Reliability: sig.: .213; Core Service: sig.: .950; Environment: sig.: .772). Thus, we cannot provide any evidence concerning the type of relationship connecting Heinekens congruence with the strength of the transfer. However it might be interesting to highlight that Heinekens image has the strongest positive influence and is a most significant indicator of quality on the dimensions where its congruence with the festival has a proven impact, namely Global Quality and Reliability (B: .358 and .587; beta values are respectively .468 and .539). It could indicate that when the brands congruence affects the transfer towards a quality dimension, the sponsors impact became more important. Of course, we do not possess sufficient proof to confirm this assumption; however, it is an interesting lead that could indicates that congruence does facilitate the transfer on top of affecting the strength of the relationship between sponsor and festival.

423.3. Water Genesiss role and the part that its congruence plays on the model

Beta Values analysis shows that Water Genesis is a major indicator of each dimensions of the RainForest Festivals quality (Beta Value: Global Quality: .502; Reliability: .361; Core Service: .297; Environment: .535). Our results show that the brand exerts an extensive negative influence on the RFWM Festivals quality. We may assume a global important negative influence on the festivals quality: Two quality dimensions reach the required level of significance, namely the global Quality and the Environment (Global Quality: sig.: .010, B: -.440; Environment: sig.: .008, B.: -.503). Moreover, Reliability dimension hardly exceed the required level of significance (sig.: .061, B: -.450) and the Core Service dimension display Sig. value relatively low (Core Service: sig.: .132, B.: .259). Besides, nothing leads to thing that the type of relation connecting a sponsors image and the festival quality may change depending of the studied dimension. Thus, we can conclude that Water Genesis has a strong negative impact in the festivals quality perception. Its influence on the different quality dimensions is powerful and very negative. 190

With respect to the literature previously cited (Gwinner 1997, Meenaghan 2001, Grohs & Reisinger 2004) we can conclude that Water Genesis exhibits moderate image congruence with the festival. Indeed, following the same argument than with Heineken, we cannot consider that the beer brand exhibits a functional congruence with the event. As regard to the study of the sponsors image, we see that attendees stay neutral in their evaluation of the attributes association with the brand (Table 10). Results stated in part 412.13 show that the brands image is moderately congruent with the event. The analysis of the Beta Value shows that Water Genesiss congruence has an impact on the strength of the transfer between the sponsor and Global Quality as well as Environment and that it is a moderately important indicator of Reliability (Beta Value: Global Quality: .341; Reliability: .209; Core Service: .136; Environment: .433). Our results show, with varying levels of significance, a positive influence even though this influence is low (Global Quality: sig.: .049, B: +.041; Reliability: sig.: .219, B: +.O36; Core Service: sig.: .436, B.: +.016; Environment: sig.: .015, B.: +.057). We may assume a global slightly positive influence since a slightly positive significant influence is proved on the strength of the transfer between the brand and the Global Quality as well as the Environment dimension, and that, for Reliability and Core Service, a slightly positive but not significant enough influence can be observed. Thus, we can conclude that Water Genesiss congruence impact globally on the strength of the transfer and that its influence is slightly positive. Moreover it is interesting to highlight that Water Genesis has the strongest negative influence and is a most significant indicator of quality on the dimensions where its congruence with the festival has a proven impact, namely Global Quality and Environment (B: -.440 and -.503; beta values are respectively .502 and .535). It supports our previous results showing that when the brands congruence affects the transfer towards a quality dimension, the sponsors impact became more important. It does indicate that congruence, as a moderator variable, on top of affecting the strength of the relationship between the sponsor and the festival, does facilitate the transfer.

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However, these results do not explain the reason why the sponsors impact on the quality dimensions is negative. We will bring some elements of understanding in this particular aspect of the question in the next section.

423.4. Shells role and the part that its congruence plays on the model

The results stated in paragraph 412.13 demonstrate shells dissonance with the festival (more than half consider the firms image as dissonant with the event, almost had no opinion and only admit a positive congruence with the event, in which more than 20% is a weak congruence). First of all the analysis of the Beta Value shows that Shells dissonance with the festival has globally a substantial impact (Beta Value: Global Quality: .265; Reliability: .194; Core Service: .383; Environment: .224). We may assume a global modest positive relationship between Shells dissonance and the force of the transfer (Global Quality: sig.: .112, B: +.026; Reliability: sig.: .238, B: +.028; Core Service: sig.: .024, B.: +.038; Environment: sig.: .186, B.: +.024). As we can observe, Shell dissonances positive influence is significant regarding Core Service quality dimension. Concerning the other dimensions, sig. values are relatively close to the significance limit and all B values are positive even though the influence appeared as modest. We assume that the type of relation connecting dissonance and the transfer does not vary depending of the studied dimension. Consequently, we assume that the firms dissonance augments the strength of the transfer between Shell and the festival quality. However, what is the nature of this transfer?

Beta Values analysis shows that Shells contribution to the variance in quality is negligible (Beta Value: Global Quality: .000; Reliability: 156; Core Service: .091; Environment: .115). Moreover the results of the MLR concerning shell type of influence on the event largely exceed the required level of significance (Global Quality: sig.: .998, B: .000; Reliability: sig.: .383, B: .178; Core service: sig.: .620, B.: -.073; Environment: sig.: .532, B.: -.099). Let us highlight the MLR analysis results of Global Quality: It shows that the type of relationship as well as the magnitude of the transfer between Shell and the dimension are undefined and null (B value: .000; Beta Value: .000) with excessively high sig. value (.998) 192

confirming an extremely low level of significance. These atypical results may reveal a model dysfunction. If Shells congruence increases the magnitude of the transfer, why does the transfer is nonexistent? We will see in the next section that a variable that have been deleted from the model may explain the relationship between shell and the festival quality.

423.5. Conclusion Section 3

The MLR analysis does not bring evidence to validate H.2.2: Event-sponsor image dissonance affects negatively (or conversely congruence affects positively) the events quality perception. Indeed, one of our sponsors (Shell) is dissonant but does not affect the festival quality, and the two others are congruent but one (Heineken) displays a positive influence on quality perception whereas the other (Water Genesis) shows a negative impact. Moreover, if Heineken displays a stronger positive influence in quality dimensions where its congruence has a proven impact (423.2, Global Quality & Reliability), Water Genesis exhibits a stronger negative influence on quality dimensions where its congruence plays a determinant parts (423.3, Global Quality & Environment). Concluding that these findings show that their congruence with the festivals image has no impact on the nature or the type (positive or negative) of value transmitted during the transfer would be erroneous. These findings indicate that if congruence has an influence on attendees quality perception, this influence has not been dissociated from other variables influences. It seems as well to indicate that another variable play a part in determining the type of value transmitted.

If we fail to establish congruence interaction with sponsors positive or negative influence on festivals quality, we nonetheless brought evidences that it has a major impact on the transfer. We have proven that the moderator variable congruence and dissonance do affect the strength of the transfer between a sponsor and festivals quality. From our empirical test, we have shown that congruence and dissonance have a positive relationship with the strength of the transfer, which means that when congruence or dissonance are high, the transfer is facilitated (however, this transfer can be either 193

positive or negative). Thus, we bring evidence partially supporting H.2: Drivers of image transfer act as moderator variables and impact on the strength of the relationship between sponsors image and festivals quality in the process of image transfer from the sponsor to the festival; even though drivers of image transfer are here resumed to congruence.

However when we analyse more carefully our results we see, as illustrated in figure 35, that some variables do not behave has they should according to the proven relationship connection them. As we can see, a much more important transfer between shell and the festival should be observed. Moreover, Water Genesis being less congruent than Heineken, the transfer from the brands to the event should not be approximately at the same level.

+
Magnitude of image transfer towards the event

+
Important Transfer Important Transfer

Strong Dissonance

Strong Congruence
Heineken

X
Water G.

Minor Minor Dissonance congruence

Shell

Minor Transfer

Minor Transfer

- +

Dissonance

- magnitude

Congruence

Figure 35: Theoretical and Effective Impact of Congruence on the transfers

How to explain the gap taking place between the theoretical model coming from the proven relationship between our variables and the field reality? It shows the limits of the statistical model. It is an ideal representation of reality, much simpler, and

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thus cannot encompass the full range of elements playing a part in the process of transfer and influencing our sponsors behaviour. However, it seems that a major determinant have been excluded from the model. We will see in the next section how prominence, which has been rejected from our model for lake of reliability, could bring some interesting elements for us to understand better the situation.

4.2.4. Section 4: Prominence as a major actor in the transfer process


As we have seen in the previous section, prima-facie evidences attest that other factors than Congruence play a part in determining the nature of the transfer. Strong presumptions appeared concerning sponsors prominence determinant role in the model when analysing side by side our previous results with results concerning this variable. However, we had to exclude Prominence along with Involvement and Exposure because of poor reliability (413.12). Thus, we cannot brings conclusive evidences that the variable affect the strength or type of the transfer, neither can we show indisputable evidence of the nature of its direct impact on quality. However, we will discuss the strong presumptions that lead us to think that Prominences role in our model is determinant. We will first compare both Heinekens and Water Genesis behaviour in the light of their degree of prominence, and try to dissociate the variable impact on quality perception. Then, we will attempt be distinguish Prominences influence on the strength of the transfer. At last, we will try to explain shell behaviour and the interaction between prominence and respondents evaluation of sponsors negative or positive image, which will lead to model adjustments.

424.1. Heineken and Water Genesis behaviour in the light of their degree of prominence: Value Rational Assessment and influence on quality perception

Sponsors prominence can be defined as the degree to which consumers are familiar with a sponsors brand (Grohs & Reisinger, 2004). Our results show that

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Heineken is very prominent and that its influence on the different quality dimensions is globally powerful and very positive. We know that respondents are not at all familiar with Water Genesis. The brand exhibits a very low degree of prominence and its influence on the different quality dimensions is powerful and very negative. Figure 36 represents these empirical results and shows the strong presumption of positive correlation connecting Prominence and the festivals quality perception. Indeed, in a positive relationship, high values on one variable are associated with high values on the other and low values on one variable are associated with low values on the other. Obviously, as incidence of High prominence, a strong positive impact increases and vice versa, when the level of prominence decreases, so does the quality perception.

+
Negative Impact - Quality - Positive Impact

+
We observe a strong positive impact
e.g. Heineken

High prominence Low prominent


e.g. Water Genesis

We observe a strong negative impact Level of sponsors prominence


100 %

0%

Figure 36: Observed Positive Relationship between Prominence and Quality Perception of the Event

How to explain that respondents rating of the festivals quality varies according to their perception of sponsors prominence? We may find some elements of answer in Weber theories on social actions. The concept of social action is used to observe how certain behaviours spring from a certain environments. Our aim is here to analyse the subjective meaning that human attached to their actions and their 196

interactions within a specific social context. An action can be considered as a social action when it arises in reaction to other individuals; in opposition with a mechanic reaction or an interaction with an object that is not derived from a social phenomenon. Our respondents rate the quality of a social event and are influenced by their perception of companies that are social entities; we are indeed in a context of social action. According to Weber, each area of private and public life is subject to a process of rationalization responding to different and independent logics. It will thus create different forms of rationalization determined by different systems of values and modes of representation. These forms of Rationalities will sometimes enter into conflict and compete (Mazuir 2004). Weber differentiates four main types of social actions. To Affective actions motivated by sentiments and emotions, and exhibiting no logic in the choice of the means through which is pursued a goal - and to Traditional actions - guided by customs or habits - Weber opposes two types of rational actions toward which modern society has evolved. Instrumental or goal-oriented rational actions, can be defined as actions in which the means to reach a particular goal are rationally chosen. Value-oriented actions strive to attain a goal that is not rationally chosen, however, the means through which it is pursued are rational. Value-rationality is based upon individuals values, moral, ethical, philosophical or even emotional reasons. These reasons are the basis of a consciously decided conduct. Individual behaviours obey to this logic based on these personal values, moral, etc, and thus are constitutive of a rational behaviour. Motivations of individuals behaviours are seldom determined by only one type of rationality.

Respondents, here, may react according to what Weber call value rationality in opposition to instrumental rationality. Respondents assessing quality based upon Instrumental Rationality would have considered sponsors as a source of found, as a mean to reach a goal: the production of a satisfying festival. Values associated with sponsors would not have been taken into account since this rationality obey to a logic where factors considered within the decision process are reduce to a end, a goal, and the choice of the most efficient means to reach it.

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Conversely, to assess festival quality in value rationality logic, respondents base their judgement upon their own value system where values and images transmitted by the sponsors are taken into account. In our case, Heineken displays the established image of a well-known international firm. The brand is present everywhere in the world, selling products well known by every festivalgoer. We can conjecture that the strong reputation of the firm impact on the festivals image by legitimating effect. On the contrary, the poor image of Water Genesis in terms of renown may affect the events credibility in some way. Respondents assessment is rational as regard to the value they associate with the brands. Being associated with a brand lacking of reliability in terms of its image rubs off on the festival itself. It seems that, in opposition to instrumental rationality where a sponsor is exclusively seen as a mean to found the event, the sponsor is here associated with the event in terms of the value he carries and transmits, and that this association affects the festival. Prominence seems to display a legitimization effect when attendees are highly familiar with the brand; whereas it appears to have a negative impact on the event credibility when the brand is unknown. This assumption, of course, need to be verified. However, our results may constitute an interesting lead for further research in this question.

424.2. Prominence and Magnitude of image transfer

Our hypothesis as regard to Prominence was H.2.4 Sponsor prominence positively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsored event. We aimed to observe that image transfer is greater towards the festival if familiarity with the sponsor is high and attitudes toward the sponsor are strong; conversely, in a positive relationship we should have observed that when a brand is not at all prominent, image transfer should be inexistent.

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+
Magnitude of image transfer towards the event

Negative impact on quality Important Transfer Major negative influence

Positive impact on quality Important Transfer Major positive influence

X
Water Genesis

X
Heineken

Minor Transfer Minor negative influence

Minor Transfer Minor positive influence

X
Shell

0%

Level of sponsors prominence

100 %

Figure 37: Prominence and Magnitude of the transfer: a curvilinear Relationship It is very interesting to see that even though Heinekens case exhibits a strong prominence going hand in hand with an important transfer (and a positive impact on quality); it seems that the case of Water Genesis does not confirm our hypothesis. Indeed, to a very low prominence is associated an important transfer, though, the transfer convey a negative influence. Our observations appeared to refute the possibility of a positive relationship between prominence and image transfer and thus invalidate the hypothesis H.2.4. As we can see in Figure 37, Prominence and the strength of the image transfer seem to have a more complex pattern of relationship. Their relationship is curvilinear and parabolic. We need to rephrase our hypothesis, moreover, Linear Regression has been developed to analyse linear data. Such "non-linear" relationships need to be modified to fit with MLR assumptions for later research. A parabolic relationship may be well-modeled by a (modified) linear regression, since a parabola is a linear equation, as far as its parameters are concerned (Lohninger, 1999)

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+
Magnitude of image transfer towards the event

Negative impact on quality Important Transfer Major negative influence

Positive impact on quality Important Transfer Major positive influence

X
Wat er Genesis

X
Heineken

Minor Transfer Minor negative influence

Minor Transfer Minor positive influence

X
Shell

Unfamiliarity

Familiarity

Figure 38: Familiarity and Magnitude of the transfer

As shown in Figure 38, we can transform the curvilinear model to a linear model, by applying a proper conceptual transformation to our moderator variable Prominence. Similarly to Congruence and Dissonance, we transform the U-shaped relationship between these two variables in two positive relationships by dividing the concept of prominence into unfamiliarity and Familiarity.

Prominence appears as a variable that influences the nature of the transfer as well as its amplitude. The moderator variable that is prominence appears to impact qualitatively and quantitatively on the strength of the relationship between the sponsor and the festival: A strong and positive prominence appeared to have a positive impact on the event whereas null prominence seems to have a negative impact on the festival. We already mention our assumptions as regard to the legitimating effect generated by Prominence and theories supporting them. We need to rephrase our hypothesis: H.2.4.: Sponsors Prominence positively affects respondents perception of the festival quality.

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Moreover, Prominence, composed of the two concepts Unfamiliarity and Familiarity, affect the magnitude of the transfer: H.2.5.: Respondents Familiarity with the sponsor positively affects the magnitude of image transfer. H.2.5.bis: Respondents Unfamiliarity with the sponsor positively affects the magnitude of image transfer.

However, we observed that even though Shell is a very prominent brand, the magnitude of the transfer from this sponsor to the event is negligible and its impact on quality perception is null. How to explain than Shell does not affect the events quality? It seems that another variable that has not been included in the Multiple Linear Regression play a part in explaining this variable behaviour and the overall model.

424.3. Assumptions relative to Shells behaviour and model review

To better understand Shells behaviour as well as the overall model, it seems interesting to analyse our results in the light of respondents rating of the sponsors positive or negative image. Indeed, if strong presumptions lead to think that Prominence influences the quality perception of the festival and affects the magnitude of the transfer from the sponsors toward the event; we nonetheless have not been able to include this variable within our MLR analysis and thus we did not bring proof of its moderator nature. Kenny (2009) notes that in some case, variable believed to be moderator and exhibiting characteristics of such variables is only a proxy moderator. A proxy moderator indirectly affects the strength of the causal relationship between independent and dependent variables; it is not a moderator

but some other variable with which the moderator correlates (p.1, Kenny
2009). Prominence and quality rating of sponsors positive or negative image seem closely correlated. Respondents are unfamiliar with Water Genesis; most of them stay neutral in their evaluation of the sponsors image (59.6%, 412.25). Moreover, while the very prominent sponsor Heineken displays mostly a positive image (61.6%) and

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impact positively on respondents quality perception of the event, Shell, as well very prominent but having no impact on the event, exhibits a blur or bipolar definition of its image. Indeed, almost 30% consider the firms image as very negative, almost 15% as negative (from somehow disagree to disagree), 25% are neutral and 30.8% regard the brands image as positive (from somehow agree to strongly agree). As previously explained, respondents are believed to assess sponsors and festival quality according to Weber concept of value rationality where respondents base their judgement upon their own value system where values and images transmitted by the sponsors are taken into account. Concerning Shell, different groups of respondents associate very different values to the sponsor as regard to their place of origin: this multinational firm is associated, in many western countries, with environmental issues and pollution. The extremely large majority of these respondents express a negative to very negative opinion of the brand. In contrast, people from Sabah and Sarawak have a very positive opinion of Shell. None of them expresses a negative view concerning the firm and 77.8% display a very positive perception of Shell (from agree to strongly agree). Regarding respondents from Malaysia mainland, only 11.8 % testify of a very negative image of the firm. The global perception appeared to be mostly positive (43.2%) or undefined (31.3%). These results reveal the emblematic role played by Shell in Malaysia and most particularly in Sabah and Sarawak (e.g. 322.3). The economic as well as sociocultural role that the firm has played in the country has a strong influence on the value associated to the sponsors by 57.7% of the respondents.

Values associated to Shell exhibit bipolar characteristics. The legitimating effect that could arise from the brand prominence and emblematic status in Malaysia seems to be revoked by western respondents having a very negative image of the sponsor. It could explain why Shells contribution to the variance in quality is negligible. According to this reading of the model, Prominence and respondents rating of sponsors positive or negative image are highly correlated. It could be very interesting to carry out further research on that particular matter and try to analyse and dissociate influences of each variable.

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Following this interpretation, we can shed a new light on our model, represented by Figure 39. Heineken has a strong positive impact in the festivals quality perception. Respondents are very familiar with this international brand and associate it with mainly positive values; its image is mostly positive. The firms influence on the different quality dimensions is globally powerful and very positive. A legitimization effect seems to arise from strong prominence added to a positive image. We cannot provide any evidence concerning Heinekens congruence influence upon respondents quality perception. However it might be interesting to highlight that Heinekens image has the strongest positive influence and is a most significant indicator of quality on the dimensions where its congruence with the festival has a proven impact, namely Global Quality and Reliability. It seems to indicate that congruence affects the strength of the transfer towards a quality dimension; it could as well indicate that the brands congruence with the festival has a positive impact on attendees quality perception. However, if congruence has a direct positive influence on attendees quality perception, this influence cannot be dissociated from other variables influences.

Congruence
Heineken
Positive Image

Prominence Congruence
Neutral Image

Reliability

Water Genesi s

Global Quality

Core Service

Prominence
Env ironment

Dissonance
Shell
Bipolar Image

Prominence

Figure 39: Final Model Review 203

Water Genesis exerts an extensive negative influence on the RFWM Festivals quality. Respondent are very unfamiliar with the brand that exhibits a very neutral image in respondents mind; they do not associate the brand with strong and clear values. Its influence on the different quality dimensions is powerful and very negative. The poor image of Water Genesis in terms of renown seems to affect the events credibility. We can conclude that Water Genesiss congruence impact globally on the strength of the transfer and that its influence is slightly positive. Moreover it is interesting to highlight that Water Genesis has the strongest negative influence and is a most significant indicator of quality on the dimensions where its congruence with the festival has a proven impact, namely Global Quality and Environment. However, if congruence has a direct positive influence on attendees quality perception, this influence is annulled by other variables negative influences.

Shell does not display any significant impact on the festival, although respondent are very familiar with the brand, its influence seems to be revokated by the bipolar nature of its image where a clear tendance cannot be extract from respondents rating. A modest positive relationship between Shells congruence and the force of the transfer can be assumed; however, a direct negative influence of dissonance upon quality perception cannot be extract from other variables influences.

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4.3. Part 3: Limits


The study succeeds in proving that sponsors affect attendees quality perception of the festival in a manner that had not been reported previously. The model has been empirically verified and brings positive results in explaining the relationships between our variables. However, the study does have limitations.

The primary limitation arises from the authors double status: researcher and learning student, while conducted this dissertation. The utilization of tools that were not fully mastered during the study process generated an erratic research progression. Post mortem analysis and corrective actions regulated the development of this dissertation and some of our research objectives may have not been fully reached because of this conflicting status. However, this study has been the source of great benefices for the author that has been able to see theories becoming operative and had the opportunity to gain substantial knowledge in terms of research methodologies and procedures as well as research, instrument and questionnaire design. This research, for its author, threw light on the utilization of statistical instrument such as SPSS or theoretical model relative to quality assessment or measurement of image transfer, and allowed the author to attempt to create an operational model adapted to a specific context with a relatively positive success. However, this relatively positive success has to be put into perspective with the range of our results. Another major limitation arises from our results generalizability. This study focused on one particular festival. While the results that we obtained and the instrument we developed are likely to be useful to the RainForest World Music Festival, they may not be directly applicable to other events since festivals are inherently diverse. The profusion of themes, the abundance of settings and the variety of contexts declined in complex socio-economico-historic characteristics of the population that host it and its audience, make festivals a highly un-homogeneous phenomenon. Moreover, the nature and characteristic exhibited by the selected sponsors played a determinant role in the production of our results. Although our research may constitute a starting point for further research in this poorly studied topic, the general nature of the findings need to be confirmed in other festivals and with sponsors presenting different characteristics. However, according

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to the diverse nature of the selected brands, product categories and sponsors activities, we may assume that our results are robust for all sponsors categories. The limited sample size and number of respondents is constitutive of another major limit and minimizes our results reliability. Previous studies suggested that low response rates might be acceptable within a relatively homogenous sample (Becker and Iliff 1983; Becker, Dottavio and Mengak 1987, Goudy 1978, So Yon Lee 2005). This study did not achieve more than 70% response rate (Hammitt and McDonald 1982). Even without taking into account the very unfruitful attempt to reach our target sample using Facebook (section 324), only 43% of a very heterogeneous population mailed back the complete two parts questionnaire. This low response rate constitutes a limit to our results reliability; to bring irrefutable evidences supporting our hypothesis, our model should be re-implemented in a larger scale.

More pragmatics limits follow from the particular time constraint linked to the study of festivals and the construction of our image scale. Hansen &. Al. (1995, in Grohs & Reisinger 2004) suggest that using established image scales distorts the findings. They argue for the development of individual image scales for each sponsor. McDonald (1991) suggests to conduct a qualitative pre-test to obtain the image items relevant for the event and the sponsor. In our case, we construct general image scale using a qualitative pre-test and leave to statistics the choice of the consistent items. It appeared during the data collection that the respondents were sometimes disturbs by the general scale presenting sometimes incoherent association. The general scale associate in one single scale relevant image attributes for each sponsors (established from the pre-test). However, what is relevant for one sponsor might be totally unrelated to another. The author expected that respondents would show neutral opinion concerning the irrelevant association between unrelated image attributes and sponsors. Surprisingly, respondents found correlations and expressed it in the rating. However, they would not have thought about these correlations by themselves, thus, the general scale suggested irrelevant association and creates, in some extend, artificial correlation between sponsors and image attributes, and thus, distorts the results. The lack of time to add to our qualitative pre-test a full pre-test of our instrument prevents us to take corrective measures. The ephemeral nature of festivals

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constituted here a major constraint. Indeed, researchers studying such events have at their disposal only a few days each year to collect needed information. Further research should try to produce better results by measuring sponsor image with distinctive image scale for each sponsor. However, the construction of separate image scale would not necessarily make more reliable the calculation of sponsors influence on the event image. Indeed, un-customized scale for each sponsor may create bias but no necessarily more important than if the author customized the scale himself using his own subjective judgment to identify which attributes to include in the scale. Moreover, Individual scale will make the comparative analysis more difficult. This issue shows the limits of surveys and questionnaires comparatively to the comprehensive interview. The former brings much more information and a comprehensive understanding of respondents, their motivations and how they behave. It is some time more difficult to grasp the full implication of respondents unswears and dissociates it from external influences using questionnaires. However, a positivistic approach presents the considerable advantages of providing much more convenient data to analyse and provide more precise, objective and efficient measurement to test hypothesis even if it sometimes misses contextual detail. The choice of survey to provide the information needed for the analysis has also been based on consideration relative to time constraint. Indeed, it would have been very difficult to submit attendees to a time-consuming comprehensive interview within the festival.

Our model appeared as such as too absolute, even though it provides information in understanding the overall structure of the transfer. Other aspect of the question should be taken into account. The respondents value system and its impact in assessing sponsors and their influence in quality are not characterised by the instrument and appeared in the analysis as assumptions lacking of statistical evidences to support them. Moreover, in terms of our quality dimensions, Core Service has been judge as the most important dimension and thus should be the most essential determinant of festival quality. However, the festivals Global Quality presents obvious major similarities with the two other dimensions, while Core Service appeared as an outcast.

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It shows the limits of the statistical model. It is an ideal representation of reality, much simpler, and thus cannot encompass the full range of elements playing a part in the process of transfer and influencing our sponsors and respondents behaviour. The nature of the measurement issues, their origin and potential solutions will be exposed in the recommendations. We will see how weighting of our different variables could bring interesting leads toward the production of a more efficient model. An adjustment in terms of the socio-historico-cultural context in which the transfer takes place seems necessary to produce a more comprehensive picture of reality. Indeed, the socio-historico-cultural context has a major impact on respondents answers, as illustrated by our quality pre-test results. Our pre-test as been conducted during the fete de la musique; a musical event that gathers a very large proportion of French people. We tested our instrument within this event presented characteristics believed to be close from the RFWM festival. From these results, we selected the sponsors that would appear in our study, and we used qualitative test to define the festival and sponsors image scale. An important limit to the validity of our results takes place in the nature of our pre-test sample. The pre-test respondents socio-historico-cultural background presented major dissimilarities with the festival respondents (they were by a majority from France). From their answers, we defined our image scale and chose our sponsors based on data that were not representative of our final sample. In fact, these dissimilarities within our samples produced very useful outcomes and allowed use to better understand the behaviour of our variables in perspective of the context in which they evolve. Based on the pre-sample perception of the brand, Shell for instance, was believed to suffer of a very negative image. Our final results show that Shells image was mostly positively perceived by more than half of the respondents. These respondents are from Malaysia, which has very particular relationships with the brand (section 322.3). If it proves that differences between both sample limit the reliability of our image scale and interfere with the choice of our sponsors (conducting the author of this paper to expect very different results from the one we finally found); our results show that the sociohistorico-cultural context in which evolves more than half of our final sample had a major impact on their perception of the brand and on the overall model itself.

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At last, the world economical conditions constitute a major limit to the operational impact of our study. Kirchberg (1995) examined the relationship between the socioeconomic environment in urban areas and the resulting level of corporate sponsorship of the arts. He demonstrated that corporate supports rise and fall with the profitability of the corporate sector, especially in recession periods. With the global crisis going on and the more than probable fall of corporate supports, choosing its sponsors will be a luxury that most festivals will not be able to afford. Rare will be the cultural event able to implement efficient sponsorship strategy in adequation with their image. In such a context, festival will need to take the money where it is if they want to sustain their activities. The immediate operational interest of our study is thus limited in such circumstances.

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Chapter V: From results to Recommendations

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5.1. Part 1: Operational Recommendations


Our research brings evidence of the existence of a transfer from the sponsors to the supported festivals. It helps to clarify how the strength of image transfer from sponsors to a festival depends on various factors regarding to the sponsors and to the sponsored event itself. We identified conditions that lead to a transfer of positive or negative values from the sponsors to the activity supported.
Managers of cultural events and festival can use our empirical findings to increase their knowledge for developing and conceptualising partnerships with sponsors. Although our results are not generalisable over all different kinds of supported event, neither they pretend to be applicable to all types of sponsors, they still represent useful guidelines for choosing and executing effective sponsorship policies that do not damaged the supported activity image and attendees perception of its quality. We highlight three major implications we derive from our empirical analysis:

Privileged event-sponsor image congruence: Earlier studies have already

pointed out the importance of event-sponsor congruence within the image transfer process. However, none of them studied this phenomenon from the festival point of view and none of them tried to compare the effect of congruence and dissonance on image transfer with the effects of other drivers (except the notable Grohs and Reisingers (2004) study, from the sponsors point of view). Our results suggest that event-sponsor congruence and dissonance are by far the most important factor influencing the strength of image transfer (however, as stated in the limits, these results need to be confirmed in a larger scale). Hence, we strongly recommend to choose sponsors that share either a functional or an image congruence with the sponsor. Moreover, to fully benefit of congruence effects, it is essential to communicate this link between the sponsor and the event to avoid any missperception due to a sponsor lack in prominence. If congruence facilitates the transfer, we have seen with Water Genesiss example that the drivers can facilitate a transfer of negative values. It is thus crucial to assess and combine others elements such as prominence and a positive sponsor image.

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Debatable effects of sponsor prominence: Grohs and Reisinger (2004) and

Lardinoit and Quester (2001) found contradictory results in terms of Prominence effects within the image transfer process from the festival to the sponsor. Our study fail to bring unquestionable evidence in the inverse relationship, even if strong presumption suggest that sponsor prominence influences the nature of the transfer as well as its amplitude: the driver seems to positively affect respondents perception of the festival quality, and familiarity or unfamiliarity with a brand seems to positively affect the magnitude of image transfer. These controversial and unconfirmed findings make us conclude that the role of sponsor prominence within the image transfer process remains not fully understood. Differences in the effects between our different sponsors seem to arise primarily from interactions with other moderator variables, congruence and mostly positive or negative sponsors image. Hence, further study should investigate this particular issue. However, we recommend that festivals use the support of prominent brand since it seems to generate a legitimating effect towards the event. Moreover, when festivals use un-prominent sponsors to found their activity, they should communicate on elements offsetting the negative impact of unfamiliarity. Indeed, as suggested by Shells example, variables influencing the model variance seem to exhibit compensatory characteristics. Indeed, to stress within the communication process on the sponsors positive image or its congruence with the event could counterbalance the negative impact of its lack of prominence by influencing attendees lack of familiarity toward the brand and stimulating the transfer of positive values. The selection of a sponsor capable of conveying positive image and values is here essential.

Selecting sponsors exhibiting a positive image: Strong presumptions lead to

think that a positive or negative perception in the consumers mind of the companies supporting the festival is a determinant factor in the quality perception of the supported event. Festivals should select sponsors exhibiting a positive image in the mind of their segment of clientele, which will thus be likely to transmit positive values toward the event.

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5.2. Part 2: Opportunities for Further Research


So far, there have been little empirical work analysing sponsorships in its impact upon the supported activity. In particular, no researchers studied sponsorship within festival context under this perspective, neither do they conducted simultaneous tests of relations between sponsors image, drivers of image transfer, strength of image transfer, and influence on quality perception. The development of a model capturing all these variables supposed to have an impact on image transfer (sponsors image, event-sponsor congruence or dissonance, sponsor prominence, event involvement and sponsorship exposure) combined with a quality assessment instrument specifically designed for festivals, offers a starting point for more quantitative research in this field. Our methodology also presents a viable approach to understand and manage issues of image transfer in sponsorships in a quantitative way; however, it raises a number of problems that could be the object of further studies aimed to improve the reliability and representativeness of our instrument. We can already propose the following steps for a

new methodology:

The adaptation to our specific context of Grohs and Reisinger (2004)s scale

regarding Involvement and Exposure favoured internal inconsistency and coherence issues. Problems arise from the introduction of two questions necessary to meet our objectives, namely the frequency of visits and attendees perceptions of sponsor visibility that appeared to disturb the variables internal consistencies. Both drivers had thus to be removed from our model. The development of a more reliable scale appeared as a precondition to include these two drivers within the model. A particular attention should as well consider Prominences scale, even though it has been directly adapted from Grohs and Reisinger (2004)s model without any modification of the author of this paper, the scale failed reliability tests. To verify the strong presumption leading to consider this driver as a major determinant of the festivals quality variance, further research should strive to include this variable within the Multiple Linear Regression Analysis by developing a more reliable scale.

To improve the consistency of our quality assessment, weighting of the

different quality dimensions and attributes according to their respective weight should be implemented. Core Service has been judge as the most important 213

dimension and thus should be the most essential determinant of festival quality. However, the festivals Global Quality presents obvious major similarities with the two other dimensions, while Core Service appeared as an outcast. The measurement issue may arise from the structure of our instrument and because of the noncompensatory characteristics of quality attributes (Getz, O'Neill & Carlsen 2001). A few attributes can affect the perception of the overall quality. The high or low quality perception of some attributes can lead attendees to overlook or ignore other attributes. Moreover, to collect as exhaustive information as possible as regard to respondents quality perception, we utilized in our survey a large number of items in which disatisfiers are overrepresented. The attributes suffering of the less good rating are some of these disatisfiers, which had influenced our global results. The representativeness of our measurement may be improved by applying a weight according to the importance of the attributes and of the quality dimensions. This study measured the respondents rating of attributes importance. It thus provides the basis to apply weighting in further research.

Our model appeared as such as too absolute, even though it provides

information in understanding the overall structure of the transfer. Other aspect of the question should be taken into account. The respondents value system and its impact in assessing sponsors and their influence in quality are not characterised by the instrument and appeared in the analysis as assumptions lacking of statistical evidences to support them. Sponsors weight in the process should be pondered according to their sociohistorico-cultural dimensions. We have seen with Shells example that assessing the impacts and comparing the different sponsors as equal players in the process had many limitations and proved not to be fully efficient. An adjustment in terms of the socio-historico-cultural context in which the transfer takes place seems necessary to produce a more comprehensive picture of the reality, and to generate more precise results in terms of the exact interaction between our variables. In the context of this study, our sample could have been splited to compare the different populations testifying of a very different vision of Shell, in their assessment of the festival quality. It would have provided us with useful information in terms of the contextual weight of our sponsor and its impact in respondents assessment of the festival quality, based on value system. However, the lack of time prevents us to go deeper 214

in that matter, yet, further research should investigate in this direction to extend the range of the analysis. As mentioned earlier (Part 4.3), further research should investigate the possibility to produce distinctive image items for each sponsors. The construction of separate image scale would make more reliable the calculation of the effect of each sponsor separately on the event image and could be an efficient tool to implement weighting. However, it will make the comparative analysis much more difficult.

Our study demonstrates the necessity to separate Congruence, Prominence

and sponsor positive or negative image in order to completely understand their individual impact with respect to quality assessment. Indeed, if our analysis gives insights into the understanding of drivers influence in the strength of the transfer; their relative importance as predicator of festival quality needs to be clarified.
Sponsor prominence and positive or negative image seem intercorralated, which

would confound the true effects of both variables. Future studies could revisit this relation and separate the observed effects into true effects and intercorrelations. Empirical tests have to ensure that no correlations between these three variables alter the results. A first step should measure sponsor prominence (divided into two variables: familiarity and unfamiliarity, to maintain positive relationships), sponsor congruence and sponsor positive or negative image separately to analyse their individual impact. Then, simultaneous tests of relations between our three constructs
should be conducted. It could bring valuable information on how the variables are interconnected.

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Chapter VI: Conclusion

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As very few is known about the consequences of sponsorship toward supported activities, the present work tried to shed a light on the impact of corporate funding on the particular case of music festivals. To reach this goal, this research began with the objective of creating tools with which to assess the transfer of image and values from the sponsors to the festival, and its impact on consumers quality perception. At this stage of our research, some findings have emerged, which may constitute a starting point for further research in this topic and form the basis for the development of operational recommendations. Our instrument produced findings, some times intriguing, that will be discussed and summaries in the present chapter.

1.1. Sponsors image influences global quality perception of a festival

This paper appeared to confirm sponsors influence on attendees quality perception of an event. The MLR analysis of the different festivals quality dimensions brought evidences that sponsors image influence the festivals quality. Indeed, our model explains between 16.6% and 21.6% of the variance in attendees rating of festivals quality, depending of the studied quality dimension. It shows that the sponsors influence on the festival constitutes a substantial share of the qualitys variance. Thus, we brought evidences confirming our main hypothesis that is H: Sponsors image impacts on global quality perception of a festival. These findings are supported by a more detailed analysis of each sponsors contribution. According to our pre-test, two over three of the selected sponsors exhibit a very clearly defined image (mostly positive for Heineken and negative as regard to Shell), whereas one were chosen as neutral agent, in order to compare our results with a sponsor displaying an undefined image (Water Genesis). Surprisingly, our results turned out to be very different from what we expected. Indeed, if evidences have been brought of Heinekens strong and positive impact on the festivals quality perception, the MLR analysis show that Shells contribution to the variance in quality is negligible and Water Genesis influence on the different quality dimensions has shown powerful and very negative. These results support our main hypothesis; however, if they do prove the existence of a transfer, they do not bring any understanding of the process neither of the interrelationships taking place between our variables. 217

1.2. Partially unfulfilled objectives as regard to transfer drivers

To shed a light on the transfer process, the present study required to both identify and explore a number of important elements, namely, attendees Involvement towards the supported activity, Prominence of the sponsors, Dissonance or Congruence between sponsors and festival image, and Exposure to the sponsors messages. These elements are believed to influence the transfer and are labelled as drivers in the transmission of image and values within the sponsorship process. The integration of these elements in a proposal of comprehensive model to assist understanding of sponsorship effects was a major objective of this research. Unfortunately, the objectives regarding the transfer drivers have been partially unfulfilled.

Indeed, we aimed to quantify the effects of each driver as well as possible interactions between them; however, some problems arise from the reliability tests and factor analysis. The scale adapted from Grohs and Reisinger (2004) appeared not to be fully efficient in our context. Problems arise from the introduction of two questions in the scale measuring Involvement and Exposure; namely, the frequency of visits, and attendees perceptions of sponsor visibility. The authors scale modification favoured internal consistency and coherence issues; both variables had thus to be removed from our model. We do not have at our disposal enough elements to draw conclusions or even to dig out presumptions as regard to the positive effect of event involvement on the magnitude of the transfer; neither can be determined the existence of a negative over-exposure impact on the events image. Consequently, hypotheses H.2.3 and H.2.1 cannot be verified. Both Involvement and Exposure have been excluded from the analysis. Hence, the full range of the factors influencing the transfer cannot be studied. As regard to Prominence, the scale, this time directly adapted from Grohs and Reisinger (2004) without any alteration, presents nonetheless internal consistency issues and failed the reliability test. However, we benefit of sufficient elements to expose some strong presumptions concerning the role of this variable in our model. Even though this driver has been excluded from the MLR analysis, and thus, its impact on the quality variance has not been quantified, the survey outcomes and the overall results structure allowed us to formulate assumptions with strong 218

presumption concerning the part that Prominence play in the explanation of the transfer process and the behaviour of our sponsors. The scale measuring festivalsponsors congruence worked well. Its reliability and coherence as not been questioned.

1.3. Hypothesis adjustment

Another objective has been unfulfilled, or more precisely, we did not produce sufficient statistical evidences to confirm an important step of our argumentation. While the MLR analysis of the dependent variables Global Quality, Reliability, Core Service and Environment worked well in explaining the relationships between our variables, the MLR analysis of the dependent variable RFWMs image fail to reach the limit of significance. Even though our first hypothesis has not been proved wrong, we do not have sufficient proof to support the assumption stating that H.1 sponsors image impact on festivals image. To demonstrate sponsors influence over festival quality perception, we aimed to show that sponsors and drivers affect festivals image, which in return affects festival quality perception. However, along with our first hypothesis, a major conceptual step of our argument collapsed. Yet, our final goals remain to bring evidences supporting that sponsors image impact on global quality perception of a festival and enhance our comprehension of the transfer process. We chose to analyse the direct impact of our sponsors and drivers on the festival quality and simply suppressed the intermediary conceptual step. Thus, we slightly modified our objectives and hypotheses for them to suit the new requirement of the study, as follow:

Hypothesis H.2.4 and H.3 did not need any modification. However: H.2 stating that the drivers act as moderator variables and impact on the strength of the relationship between sponsors and festival image, as well as H.2.2 and H.2.2b that argues that image and functional dissonance impact negatively (and conversely congruence has a positive impact) on the events image, need to be rephrased.

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H.1: Un-sufficient proof to support the assumption. H.2: Drivers of image transfer act as moderator variables and impact on the strength of the relationship between sponsors image and festivals quality in the process of image transfer from the sponsor to the festival. H.2.1: Exclude from the analysis for lack of reliability. H.2.2: Event-sponsor image dissonance impact negatively on the events quality perception or reciprocally congruence impact positively on the events quality perception. H.2.2b: Event-sponsor functional dissonance does not affect the events quality perception. H.2.3: Exclude from the analysis for lack of reliability. H.2.4: Sponsor prominence positively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsored event. H3: festivals image influences consumers quality perception. Hence H: Sponsors image influences consumers perception of a festival quality.

1.4. Quality dimensions and festivals image influence on quality perception

This study also brought elements of understanding of festival quality dimensions structures and characteristic. Global Quality, Reliability and Environment are most subject to sponsors influence. Core Service seems to be less permeable to the image transfer from the sponsor. Attendees attitudes toward Core Service attributes appeared as more stable, less ductile by extrinsic factors than in other dimensions. Attendees receptivity to the transfer is then more difficult to achieve. However, we observed that Core Service is more receptive to festivals image influence than the other dimensions. Results have shown that the festivals image do impact and play a significant positive influence on Core Service, which seems to validate that while this dimension is less permeable to sponsors influences or extrinsic factors, Core Service is more receptive to intern influence: the festivals image. We thus brought evidence to confirm that the events image play a role in attendees perception of quality and thus validates our third hypothesis stating that H3: festivals image impacts on consumers quality perception. However, no 220

element allowed us to generalise these results in the festivals other quality dimensions.

1.5. Drivers moderation effect on the transfer

Despite the fact that three drivers have been excluded from the MLR analysis, we partially confirmed our second hypothesis H.2 stating that drivers of image transfer act as moderator variables and impact on the strength of the relationship between sponsors image and festivals quality. Congruence as been submitted to moderation test. Moderation has been statistically demonstrated as regard to Water Genesis Congruence in Global Quality and Environment; Shell Congruence is proved to be a moderator variable in Core Service quality dimension. We shown in the analysis how Congruence alters the causal relationship between sponsors and each quality dimensions (in a lesser extend as regard to core service), which characterises moderation. We highlighted that Heinekens and Water Genesis images have respectively the strongest positive and negative influence and are the most significant indicators of quality on the dimensions where their congruence with the festival have a proven impact. We have proven that congruence and dissonance do affect the strength of the transfer between a sponsor and festivals quality. Hence, we have at our disposal sufficient evidences to assume congruence and dissonance general moderation effect on the transfer, even though it has not been firmly statistically demonstrated for every sponsors in each quality dimensions.

1.6. Congruence

Hypothesis H.2.2 states that Event-sponsor image dissonance impact negatively on the events quality perception or reciprocally congruence impact positively on the events quality perception. The MLR analysis does not bring evidence to validate this hypothesis. Indeed, a clear pattern among sponsors impacts on quality perception, as regard to their level of congruence or dissonance, cannot be drawn from our results. Shell is dissonant but does not affect the festival 221

quality. Heineken is congruent and displays a positive influence on quality perception whereas Water Genesis is also congruent but shows a negative impact. Concluding at this stage of our research that congruence or dissonance has no impact on the type (positive or negative) of value transmitted during the transfer would be erroneous. Indeed, these findings indicate that if congruence has an influence on attendees quality perception, this influence has not been dissociated from other variables influences. It seems as well to indicate that another variable play a part in determining the type of value transmitted. As previously recommended, further studies should investigate separately and dissociate from other variables the role of congruence in the model. If we fail to establish congruences positive or negative influence on festivals quality, we nonetheless brought evidences that it has a major impact on the transfer. We have proven that the moderator variable congruence and dissonance do affect the strength of the transfer between a sponsor and festivals quality. From our empirical test, we have shown that congruence and dissonance have a positive relationship with the strength of the transfer, which means that when congruence or dissonance are high, the transfer is facilitated (however, this transfer can be either positive or negative). Thus, this study show that if Event-sponsor image congruence or dissonance have no determinant positive or negative impact on the events quality perception, image congruence and dissonance positively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsored event.

Hypothesis H.2.2b states that Event-sponsor functional dissonance does not affect the events quality perception. We have not been able to produce any evidences validating or infirming this hypothesis. Indeed, statistical models are ideal representations of reality; reality is not always exhibiting models ideal required characteristics. Our three sponsors were functionally dissonant. Without a functionally congruent sponsor against which assessed and compare our results we could not draw any conclusion. We could not selection sponsors exhibiting all the required characteristics to fit perfectly our model requirement. We choose to favour other criteria during the sponsors selection process and thus, image and functional congruence or dissonance would have to be dissociated in future studies.

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1.7. Prominence Hypothesis H.2.4 aimed to investigate Prominences role in the transfer process. Since we had to exclude Prominence from the MLR analysis because of poor reliability, we cannot bring conclusive evidences that the variable affect the strength or type of the transfer, neither can we show indisputable evidence of the nature of its direct impact on quality. Although it is far too soon to draw any firm and definitive conclusions concerning the drivers part based on the slight evidences produced in this study, it seems indeed to be some elements supporting Prominences role in the model, and strong presumptions lead to think that this variables role in our model is determinant Hypothesis H.2.4 affirms that sponsor prominence positively affects the magnitude of image transfer towards the sponsored event. We aimed to observe that image transfer is greater towards the festival if familiarity with the sponsor is high and attitudes toward the sponsor are strong; conversely, in a positive relationship we should have observed that when a brand is not at all prominent, image transfer should be inexistent. We have seen that Heineken exhibits a strong prominence going hand in hand with an important transfer (and a positive impact on quality); however, in the case of Water Genesis, to a very low prominence is associated an important transfer, though, the transfer convey a negative influence. Our observations appeared to refute the possibility of a positive relationship between prominence and image transfer and thus invalidate the hypothesis H.2.4. A more complex pattern of correlation has been observed where our variables relationship is curvilinear and parabolic. Moreover, results seem to induce a direct correlation between Prominence and quality perception. We transformed the curvilinear model to a linear model by applying a proper conceptual transformation to our moderator variable Prominence. Similarly to Congruence and Dissonance, we transform the U-shaped relationship between these two variables in two positive relationships by dividing the concept of prominence into un-familiarity and Familiarity. We observed that image transfer is greater towards the festival when, on the one hand, familiarity with the sponsor is high and attitudes toward the sponsor are strong, but the transfer is also higher, on the other hand, when respondents are totally un-familiar with the sponsor. Thus, our empirical results seem to confirm that strong familiarity and strong un-familiarity are

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positively correlated with the strength of the transfer. Further study should try to confirm these findings and investigate the two hypotheses stating that H.2.5.: Respondents Familiarity with the sponsor positively affects the magnitude of image transfer and H.2.5b: Respondents Unfamiliarity with the sponsor positively affects the magnitude of image transfer. If strong presumptions support Prominences impact on the strength of the transfer, prima-facie evidences attest that Prominence plays also a part in determining the nature (positive or negative) of this transfer. Our results show that Heineken is very prominent and that its influence on the different quality dimensions is globally powerful and very positive. We know that respondents are not at all familiar with Water Genesis. The brand exhibits a very low degree of prominence and its influence on the different quality dimensions is powerful and very negative. Empirical results show the strong presumption of a positive correlation connecting Prominence and the festivals quality perception. Obviously, as incidence of High prominence, a strong positive impact increases and vice versa, when the level of prominence decreases, so does the quality perception. We can conjecture that the strong reputation of Heineken affects the festivals image by legitimating effect. On the contrary, the poor image of Water Genesis in terms of renown may affect the events credibility in some way. Prominence seems to display a legitimization effect when attendees are highly familiar with the brand; whereas it appears to have a negative impact on the event credibility when the brand is unknown. We formulated hypothesis H.2.4.: Sponsors Prominence positively affects respondents perception of the festival quality. This assumption, of course, need to be supported by more tangible evidences. However, our results may constitute an interesting lead for further research on this question.

However, we need to put these assumptions into perspective. If the analysis revealed the strong presumption previously mentioned, it also reveal a risk. Prominence could indirectly affect the causal relationship between sponsors and quality perception by being correlated to another variable displaying the real influence. Although we do not benefit of sufficient proof to produce conclusive evidences, it seems to be some elements supporting that a positive or negative rating of sponsors image influences directly consumers quality perception. Respondents rating of sponsors positive or negative image appeared as a potential major 224

determinant of quality perception variance. Moreover, it seems that this variable and Prominence are highly correlated. Carrying out further research on that particular matter to analyse and dissociate influences of each variable appeared as an essential step in the production of a more comprehensive model describing the process of image transfer and its impact on quality.

1.8. Factors contradictory influences, issue in dissociating their individual impacts

At last, investigation of Shells influences and behaviour revealed some shade in our analysis. We demonstrated the conflict taking place in its image definition generated by the contradictory perception dividing our sample in two opposite cluster; one cluster characterised by a positive perception of the brand, the other by a negative one. The legitimating effect that could arise from Shell prominence and emblematic status in Malaysia seems to be revoked by western respondents very negative image of the sponsor. It could explain why Shells contribution to the variance in quality is negligible, supporting respondents rating of sponsors positive or negative image as a potential major determinant of quality variance. Shells contribution to the variance in quality is negligible and no significant transfer toward the event can be observed from our results. However, according to our previous conclusions, Shell exhibits characteristics that should influence quality perception. Our model did not bring sufficient information to dissociate, in that case, different factors impacts and influences. Strong presumptions lead to think that contradictory influences reduced Shells impact on quality perception to a negligible element. Our model did not brought sufficient information to dissociate the individual impacts of the sponsor Dissonance, Prominence and blur image. As recommended earlier, further study should investigate this question.

1.9. Production of operational recommendations and research opportunities

Our Last objective was to produce operational recommendations. The findings generated by this study and the assumptions presented above aimed to draw 225

leads towards the understanding of the conditions under which an image transfer will not be detrimental for the supported activity. We gave suggestions for cultural events and festivals managers to adopt meaningful and consistent sponsoring and partnership policies in adequacy with their image and values to favours positive repercussions on quality perception. This research constitutes as well a starting point and prepares the ground for further studies.

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Appendices
Appendix A: Pre-test guide 1: Image, Prominence, Congruence P .257

Appendix B: Pre-test guide 2: Image, Prominence, Congruence P.259

Appendix C: Pre-test guide 3: Quality Assessement... P.261

Appendix D: Cover Letter Questionnaire Part 1, Internet Survey... P.262

Appendix E: Questionnaire Part 1, Internet Survey. P.263

Appendix F: Questionnaire Part 1, Site Survey... P.265

Appendix G: Cover Letter Questionnaire Part 2.. P.267

Appendix H: Questionnaire Part 2... P.268

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Appendix A: Pre-test guide 1: Image, Prominence, Congruence Image of the RainForst World Music Festival:

Sponsor Prominence:
Astro HSBC Bank Shell Tourism Malaysia Ministry of Urban Development Hardly Familiar 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 Very Familiar 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7

Sponsor image:
Astro

HSBC Bank

Shell

Tourism Malaysia

257

Ministry of Urban Development

Event-Sponsor Image Congruence


Astro -There is a logical connection between the festival and Astro -The image of the event and the image of Astro are similar - Astro and the RFWorld Music Festival have similar values - Astro and the festival fit together well -It makes sense to me that Astro sponsors the RFWM Festival HSBC Bank -There is a logical connection between the festival and X -The image of the event and the image of X are similar -X and the RainForest World Music Festival have similar values -X and the festival fit together well -It makes sense to me that X sponsors the RFWM Festival Shell -There is a logical connection between the festival and X -The image of the event and the image of X are similar -X and the RainForest World Music Festival have similar values -X and the festival fit together well -It makes sense to me that X sponsors the RFWM Festival Tourism Malaysia -There is a logical connection between the festival and X -The image of the event and the image of X are similar -X and the RainForest World Music Festival have similar values -X and the festival fit together well -It makes sense to me that X sponsors the RFWM Festival Ministry of Urban Development -There is a logical connection between the festival and X -The image of the event and the image of X are similar -X and the RainForest World Music Festival have similar values -X and the festival fit together well -It makes sense to me that X sponsors the RFWM Festival 1 to 7 scales strongly disagree to strongly agree 1 to 7 scales strongly disagree to strongly agree 1 to 7 scales strongly disagree to strongly agree 1 to 7 scales strongly disagree to strongly agree 1 to 7 scales strongly disagree to strongly agree

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Appendix B: Pre-test guide 2: Image, Prominence, Congruence Image of the RainForst World Music Festival:

Sponsor Prominence:
Heineken Water Genesis M.A.S Wings Ministry of Tourism Malaysia Sarawak Tourism Board Hardly Familiar 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 Very Familiar 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7

Sponsor image:
Heineken

Water Genesis

M.A.S Wings

Ministry of Tourism Malaysia

259

Sarawak Tourism Board

Event-Sponsor Image Congruence


Heineken -There is a logical connection between the festival and Heineken -The image of the event and the image of Heineken are similar - Heineken and the RFWorld Music Festival have similar values - Heineken and the festival fit together well -It makes sense to me that Heineken sponsors the RFWM Festival Water Genesis -There is a logical connection between the festival and X -The image of the event and the image of X are similar -X and the RainForest World Music Festival have similar values -X and the festival fit together well -It makes sense to me that X sponsors the RFWM Festival M.A.S Wings -There is a logical connection between the festival and X -The image of the event and the image of X are similar -X and the RainForest World Music Festival have similar values -X and the festival fit together well -It makes sense to me that X sponsors the RFWM Festival Ministry of Tourism Malaysia -There is a logical connection between the festival and X -The image of the event and the image of X are similar -X and the RainForest World Music Festival have similar values -X and the festival fit together well -It makes sense to me that X sponsors the RFWM Festival Sarawak Tourism Board -There is a logical connection between the festival and X -The image of the event and the image of X are similar -X and the RainForest World Music Festival have similar values -X and the festival fit together well -It makes sense to me that X sponsors the RFWM Festival 1 to 7 scales strongly disagree to strongly agree 1 to 7 scales strongly disagree to strongly agree 1 to 7 scales strongly disagree to strongly agree 1 to 7 scales strongly disagree to strongly agree 1 to 7 scales strongly disagree to strongly agree

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Appendix C: Pre-test guide 3: Quality Assessement

Professionalism
Reliability of the service Effective communication Respect of schedule Feeling of safety on the site Staff understanding and helpfulness Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

Core Service
Technical factors Standard of performance (singing, playing of instruments, dancing) Acoustic standard (music volume, sound quality) Benefice to the audience Creativity Entertainment and recreation Active (physical) participation and involvement of the audience Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

Environment
Ambience Appearance and appealing of the site, physical facilities & equipment Crowding annoyance Number of place to site down and rest Accessibility Quality of food and beverage Restrooms availability & cleanliness Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

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Appendix D: Cover Letter Questionnaire Part 1, Internet Survey


Mathieu Lemaitre
mathieu.yd.lemaitre@gmail.com

June 26, 2008

Dear RainForest World Music Festival Visitor, Thank you very much for taking the time to filling out this questionnaire! Your feedback will help us learn more about what people want and what they think about the festival. Our study is divided into two parts: You are about to participate to the first step of our survey that aims to measure the impact of the festivals sponsorship on the events image. This part need to be mail back before the event. The second part will be send to you after the RainForest festival to understand the factors that influenced your festival experience. Remember that all information you provide are strictly confidential. After analysis of the data is completed, all the names and addresses of respondents will be destroyed, and you will receive no further correspondence or solicitations. If you have any questions, please contact me at mathieu.yd.lemaitre@gmail.com Thank you again for taking the time to help us! Be sure that your cooperation and support is greatly appreciated.

Mathieu Lemaitre Master Student at Taylors College, Malaysia

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Appendix E: Questionnaire Part 1, Internet Survey

Welcome to the first part of our questionnaire concerning your visit of the RainForest World Music Festival 2008!
Read the instructions carefully for every single question and try to answer as accurate as possible. All the data you fill in will be treated with great care and complete anonymity. Thank you very much for taking the time to help us!

1. Please set the number which best reflects your opinion in bold type from 1: Strongly Disagree, 2: Disagree, 3: Somehow Disagree, 4: Neutral, 5: Somehow Agree, 6: Agree to 7: Strongly Agree.

Strongly Disagree to Music is important for me I am particularly interested in World Music I frequently attend concerts and festivals
1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4

Strongly Agree
5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7

How many times? I have attended to the RFWM Festival


0 1 to 3 4 to 6 7 to 10

2. Please set the number which best reflects your familiarity with the brand in bold type from 1: Hardly Familiar, 2: Somehow no Familiar, 3: Familiar, to 4: Very Familiar with the brand.
Sponsor Brand Heineken Water Genesis Shell Hardly Familiar 1 1 1 to 2 2 2 3 3 3 Very Familiar 4 4 4

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3. We had listed from a previous study, a number of image attributes that might be related to the festival and its sponsors. We would like you to go through every attributes and write the number which best correspond with your image of the festival; with your image of Heineken; with your image of Water Genesis; and with your image of Shell from 1: Strongly Disagree, 2: Disagree, 3: Somehow Disagree, 4: Neutral, 5: Somehow Agree, 6: Agree, to 7: Strongly Agree.

1 Strongly Disagree

to Water Genesis

Strongly Agree 7 Shell

Image attributes
Nature / Eco-friendly Pollution Traditional / Tribal Authentic Multiethnic / Multicultural International Business / Commercial Capitalism Relax / Dtente Festal / Ambience Meeting people Positive image

RainForest

Heineken

4. Please write the number which best reflects your opinion from 1: Strongly Disagree to 7: Strongly Agree.
1 Strongly Disagree Heineken There is a logical connection between the RFWM Festival and the sponsor The RFWM Festivals image and the sponsors image are similar The sponsor and the RFWM Festival share similar values The sponsor and the festival fit together well It makes sense for me that the RFWM Festival use this brand as a sponsor to Water Genesis Strongly Agree 7 Shell

Thank you very much for your cooperation! Enjoy the festival, se there!
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Appendix F: Questionnaire Part 1, Site Survey

Welcome to the first part of our questionnaire concerning your visit of the RainForest World Music Festival 2008!
Read the instructions carefully for every single question and try to answer as accurate as possible. All the data you fill in will be treated with great care and complete anonymity. Thank you very much for taking the time to help us!

1. Please circle the number which best reflects your opinion from 1: Strongly Disagree, 2: Disagree, 3: Somehow Disagree, 4: Neutral, 5: Somehow Agree, 6: Agree to 7: Strongly Agree.
Strongly Disagree to Music is important for me I am particularly interested in World Music I frequently attend concerts and festivals
1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4

Strongly Agree
5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7

How many times? I have attended to the RFWM Festival


0 1 to 3 4 to 6 7 to 10

2. Please circle the number which best reflects your familiarity with the brand from 1: Hardly Familiar, 2: Somehow no Familiar, 3: Familiar, to 4: Very Familiar with the brand.

Sponsor Brand Heineken Water Genesis Shell

Hardly Familiar 1 1 1

to 2 2 2 3 3 3

Very Familiar 4 4 4

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3. We had listed from a previous study, a number of image attributes that might be related to the festival and its sponsors. We would like you to go through every attributes and write the number which best correspond with your image of the festival; with your image of Heineken; with your image of Water Genesis; and with your image of Shell from 1: Strongly Disagree, 2: Disagree, 3: Somehow Disagree, 4: Neutral, 5: Somehow Agree, 6: Agree, to 7: Strongly Agree.

1 Strongly Disagree

to Water Genesis

Strongly Agree 7 Shell

Image attributes
Nature / Eco-friendly Pollution Traditional / Tribal Authentic Multiethnic / Multicultural International Business / Commercial Capitalism Relax / Dtente Festal / Ambience Meeting people Positive image

RainForest

Heineken

4. Please write the number which best reflects your opinion from 1: Strongly Disagree to 7: Strongly Agree.

1 Strongly Disagree Heineken There is a logical connection between the RFWM Festival and the sponsor The RFWM Festivals image and the sponsors image are similar The sponsor and the RFWM Festival share similar values The sponsor and the festival fit together well It makes sense for me that the RFWM Festival use this brand as a sponsor

to Water Genesis

Strongly Agree 7 Shell

Thank you very much for your cooperation! Enjoy the festival, see you there!
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Appendix G: Cover Letter Questionnaire Part 2, Internet Survey

Mathieu Lemaitre
mathieu.yd.lemaitre@gmail.com

June 26, 2008

Dear RainForest World Music Festival Visitor,

You are now about to participate to the second step of our survey that aims to understand the factors that influenced your festival experience. Thank you very much for taking the time to filling out this questionnaire! Your feedback will help us learn more about what people want and what they think about the festival. Please take into consideration that your participation in the second step of our study is essential for us. Without it, we will not be able to use the outcomes of your first contribution since the results of our research will proceed from the comparison of both of your answers. Remember that all information you provide are strictly confidential. Your responses will be combined with those of other visitors so that no single survey respondent will be identified. If you have any questions, please contact me: Mathieu Lemaitre at mathieu.yd.lemaitre@gmail.com Thank you again for taking the time to help us! Be sure that your cooperation and support is greatly appreciated.

Mathieu Lemaitre Master Student at Taylors College, Malaysia

267

Appendix H: Questionnaire Part 2

Welcome to the second step of our questionnaire concerning your visit of the RainForest World Music Festival 2008!
Read the instructions carefully for every single question and try to answer as accurate as possible. If you have any questions concerning the questionnaire, do not hesitate to contact us. All the data you fill in will be treated with great care and in complete anonymity. Thank you very much for taking the time to help us!

5. We have listed here a number of factors that might have influence your experience. We would like you to: a. Evaluate how important these factors were for your total experience, b. Rate the actual quality of that factor you experienced during the festival.

Please set the number which best reflects your feelings about your visit in bold type from 1 very unimportant for my experience, and very low quality rating, to 7 very important for my total experience, and very high quality rating. Reliability / Professionalism
Perform the promised service accurately: respect schedule, etc. Staff understanding and helpfulness Feeling of safety on the site Effective communication: before event + on site (printed prog.,etc) Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

268

Core Service / On the scene


Standard of performance (singing, playing of instru., sound quality) Creativity of performance Authenticity Entertainment and recreation Active (physical) participation and involvement of the audience Ambience Appearance and appealing of the site, physical facilities, equipment Lots of Crowds Number of places to sit down and rest Accessibility Quality of food and beverage General cleanliness / Eco-friendly Restrooms availability & cleanliness Art and craft as good addition to the festival Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating Importance Rating 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

Environment

6. Please set the number that best reflects your opinion in bold type from 1: Hardly Visible to 7: Very Visible.
Hardly Visible to How would you define the sponsor visibility? How many days have you spend at the RFWM? 1 2 1 day 1 3 4 2 days 2 Very Visible 5 6 7 3days 3

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Personal information
7. Are you male of female? (Please set one in bold type) Male Female 8. What year were you born? 19_____ 9. Please set in bold type the area that best indicates your place of origin.
Sabah / Sarawak Malaysia mainland Asia Australia Europe America

1 2 3 4 5 6

Other : ________________________

10. Please set in bold type the category that best indicates your level of education.
Secondary School Diploma Degree Post Graduate school Other 1 2 3 4 5

Other : ________________________

11. Please set in bold type the category that best indicates your occupation?
Legislators, Senior officials and managers Professionals Technicians and associate professionals Clerical workers Service workers and shop and market workers Skilled agricultural and fishery workers Craft and related Trade Workers Plant and machine-operators and assemblers Elementary occupations Student

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Other : ______________

Thank you very much for your cooperation!

270