ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I feel pleasure in expressing deep sense of gratitude, first of all to Mr. J. Singh (Deputy manager-Training) for giving me opportunity of doing internship in the prestigious company like Sawraj Tractors (PTL), Mohali. My debts for assistance in making this report are more numerous than can be identified here. This whole effort is the result of the guidance, assistance and inspiration of several people who helped me throughout my study and in the preparation of this report. I find no words to express my gratitude and thanks to all of them. I feel greatly honored to show my indebtedness and my profound gratitude in due to Mr. Ravi Diwan (Deputy Manager-Marketing), who¶s guidance and suggestions motivated me through the course of my training. Last but not the least I wish to thank the personnel working in the marketing department for their extended co-operation and assistance in completing my training.
Ankush Kumar 2

CONTENTS
Acknowledgement History and development of tractor Indian Tractor Industry
Introduction History Industry basics Segment wise analysis State wise analysis Challenges for tractor industry

Company Profile
PTL¶s birth Introduction to the company Growth of the company Origin of word ³Sawraj´ Current Scenario Formation of a new entity (M&M and PTL) PTL¶s journey of growth-A summary Project: - Mechanical Research
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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
History and Development of Tractor
Tractor is a self-propelled machine which provides traction for itself and power to pull or operate implements and other agricultural and non agricultural equipment attached to it. The word ³Tractor´ has been attributed to various sources, but according to the Oxford dictionary, the word was first used in 1856 in England as a synonym to traction engine. The term ³Tractor´ appeared in an 1880 U.S.A. patent for track laying steam traction engine. With the exception of manual labor, the animal power was practically the power used in agriculture. In 1870 a limited number of portable steam engines had been built earlier but did not find much application until after Civil war of America. Internal combustion engines came into successful use during the beginning of the twentieth century and have made a rapid rise since then. Although the steam engine gradually disappeared as the reliability of the petrol engine was improved the credit for first plough engine in the United States goes to J.W. Fakes who in 1858 built a steam engine that drew 8 ploughs at 3 miles per hour in virgin Prairie Sod. The internal combustion engine did not assume much importance until after expiration of the Otto Patents in 1890. By that time many had entered petrol engines field. Although there is some question as to who should get credit for building the first tractor, there is a record of 6 petrol tractors having been built in 1889 and shipped to farms. The first tractor trials were held in 1908 at winning (South Central Canada) where public was permitted an opportunity to compare field operation of steam versus petrol tractors. Succeeding trials were held each year until 1912 when they were discontinued. The first United States Tractor demonstration held at Omaha, Nebraska in 1911 was conducted as an exhibition and not as a competition between machines. From 1910 to 1920 a considerable number of firms went into the tractor business and developed rapidly by purchasing most of the parts from automotive sources and assembling them into tractors. The failure of most of these companies indicated an essential difference between the requirements for automobile and for farm tractors. The introduction of power take off mechanism in 1918 and of the power lift in 1928 doubled the ways of applying tractor engine power, which formerly had been limited to the drawbar and belt pulley. A summary of the Chronological Development of the Farm Tractor as collected from various sources is as follows: 1856 According to the Oxford dictionary, the word ³Tractor´ was first used in 1856 in England as a synonym to traction engine. 5

1858 Tractors with steam engine by J.W. Fakes drew 8 ploughs at 3 miles per hour in virgin Prairie Sod. 1868 The Standish Steam Engine Tractor ploughed over 100 acres in the Diablo valley in California. The plough was actually a form of Rotary Pulverizer. 1873 The Parvins Steamer was probably the first American attempt at a track laying device, although the United States plough office records Crawler Tractor developments in the early 1850¶s. 1876 Otto patents were issued for an Internal Combustion Engine. 1880 The term ³Tractor´ appeared in an U.S.A. patent for track laying steam traction engine. 1889 At least one company built a tractor with an Internal Combustion Engine. 1906 The First Tractor School was held in Minneapolis. 1908 The first Winnipeg tractor trials were held. 1910 About 56 concerns were manufacturing tractors. 1910-1914 The first Tractor demonstration was held in the United States at Omaha, Nebraska. Production and improvement of large tractors continued. Smaller, lightweight tractors were introduced. 1915-1919 Number of tractors and number of manufacturers expanded rapidly. Great improvement in reliability of tractors. Enclosed gears, alloy steels and anti friction Bearings were introduced. 1910-1924 Depression reduced number of small manufacturers. Tractors engines, lubrication systems and accessories such as air cleaners continued to improve. 6 A highly successful all purpose farm tractor was developed. 1925-1929 The power take off was introduced. Crankcase oil filters and power lifts were introduced. Garden tractors became increasingly popular. 1930-1937 The diesel engine was appalled to larger tractors. Pneumatic tyres and higher speeds were developed. Full electrical equipment was adopted.

Joginder Singh was the first farmer to use a tractor called a steam plough then. Sh. However the rate of adaptation of tractors is different in different parts of the country. could not cope with the requirement of the changed situation. Figuratively speaking. 7 Indian Tractor Industry Introduction India being a predominantly agricultural country. The biological source of energy especially bullocks. Battery ignition systems became increasingly popular.A. That and the highly fragmented land . If that sounds great let us face hard facts. rise in the level of their income and education. has been a traditional manufacturer of different types of farm machinery and implements. the use of advanced agricultural techniques in India started only in early sixties. Therefore introduction of tractors got accelerated in several agriculturally advanced states of the country like Punjab. Number of garden tractors expanded rapidly. Pressurized cooling systems were introduced. One of the achievements of green revolution has been that the farmers increasingly realized the advantage of tractor for obtaining the timeliness of operations. Tractors for burning liquefied petroleum gases were introduced. we are ranked a distant eighth. Haryana and Maharashtra etc. In terms of penetration. However. India is primarily an agrarian nation with a significant portion of our GDP being contributed directly or indirectly by agriculture. on the 1200 acres estate he had inherited in the remote Kheri district of Uttar Pradesh. 1941-1949 Live power take-off was introduced.E. India has a tractor density of 10. (Society of Automotive Engineer) power take off and hitch were generally accepted.S. Automatic hydraulic draft control was introduced.A. No wonder India is considered the largest tractor market in the world.5% of the geographical area of the country. Punjab possesses only 1. 1937-1941 Standardized A. This would only happen only because off awareness of new farm technology among the farmers. The all purpose tractor was introduced. The demand of tractors rose sharply in last two decades.E.5 tractors per thousand hectares of grass cropped area (GCA) as compared to an international average of close to 30 tractors per thousand hectares of GCA..Interest in high compression engine increased. India¶s large of grass cropped area (GCA) is next only to the big two-USA and Russia. where agriculture is the life and blood of the economy.5 tractors per thousand hectare. the density of 85 tractors per thousand hectare in Punjab is the highest as compared to national average of 10. (American Society of Agricultural Engineer) and S. Punjab occupies number one rank in this regard. In terms of total tractors use in the country. Modernization of tractor in Indian agriculture is only post independence phenomenon. Tractors were introduced to Indian agriculture in early twenties.

the existing players have an eye firmly on the growing export market. There has been a boom in the tractor industry since 1997. New markets like Madhya Pradesh. Thus the Indian Tractor market. In 1947 central and state tractor organizations were set up to develop and promote the supply and use of tractors in agriculture and up to . Thus this sector is expected to continue to have an upward growth graph. the tractor density is very low at about 10. They are mainly concentrated in the North and North-West where Punjab. has to be viewed only after considering its position in the world. UP and Haryana account for nearly 50% of the tractor sales. High Transportation cost is one of the main reasons preventing brands from going national. Furthermore a good monsoon.444 170 2 Irrigated Area Million hectare 249. The sales of tractors are not evenly distributed.holdings in India have helped our country to become the largest tractor market in the world. Maharashtra and Gujarat are also growing at a faster pace. The main reason is comparatively larger land holdings and the affluence of the farmers in these states. Lured by the huge demand for tractor. Also the small size of land holding in India.8 2 8 Tractors in use Tractor/1000 hectare 28 10. the industry is all set for a virtual invasion by new and strong entrants and more importantly. Description Units World Total or Average India India's Rank Arable Land Million hectare 1. Andhra Pradesh. Tamil nadu. have led to low average power of tractors at 35 horse power(HP) which is far below than the global average of 80 HP.5 tractors per thousand hectares of grass cropped area (GCA) as compared to an international average of 28. History 1945 to 1960 War surplus tractors and bulldozers were imported for land reclamation and cultivation in mid 1940's. Punjab alone accounts for 26%. per se. Easy availability of bank finance coupled with declining interest rates has propelled the demand for tractors.6 45.5 tractors per thousand hectares of GCA.5 8 Despite a phenomenal increase in tractor population in the country. a strong growth in agricultural production and an increase in the irrigated area are expected to lead to a secured long term growth of 7-8 % in next years.

000. Haryana.500 tractors in use in 1951.000 units and the national tractor population had passed the two million mark. Harsha Tractors and Pittie Tractors) did not survive.a net importer up to the mid-seventies became an exporter in the 1980s mainly to countries in Africa. the demand was met entirely through imports. eastern Uttar Pradesh) tractors sales began a slow and slight decline. In 1998 Bajaj Tempo. began tractor production in Pune.000 in 1975 reaching 71. 1991 to 1997 Since 1992. Then India .000 units working in the country. Annual production exceeded 75.1960. By 1965 this had increased to over 5000 units per year and the total in use had risen to over 52. In April of the same year New Holland Tractor (India) Ltd launched production of 70 hp tractors with matching equipment. 1997 to 1999 Five new manufacturers have started production since 1997.000 during the following year.000 in 1955 and 37. 1999 to Present Facing market saturation in the traditional markets of the North West (Punjab. By 1997 annual production exceeded 255. already well established in the motor industry. Credit facilities for farmers continued to improve and the tractor market expanded rapidly with the total in use passing the half million mark by 1980. Larsen and Toubro have established a joint venture with John Deere. UK and total production climbed steadily to 33.000 in 1990 when the total in use was about 1.000 by 1960.000 units with over 146. There were 8. 9 1971 to 1980 Six new manufacturers were established during this period although three companies (Kirloskar Tractors. began local manufacture of Ford tractors in 1971 in collaboration with Ford. 1961 to 1970 Local production began in 1961 with five manufacturers producing a total of 880 units per year. Looking to South American export markets Mahindra and Mahindra are also developing a joint venture with Case for tractors in the 60-200 hp range. . it has not been necessary to obtain an industrial license for tractor manufacture in India. USA for the manufacture of 35-65 hp tractors at a plant in Pune. India now emerged as one of the world leaders in wheeled tractor production. 20. The company is making a $US 75 million initial investment in a state of the art plant at Greater Noida in Uttar Pradesh state with an initial capacity of 35000 units per year.000 by 1980. 1981 to 1990 A further five manufacturers began production during this period but only one of these survived in the increasingly competitive market place. Escorts Ltd. Total annual production was forecast to reach 300. Maharashtra and Greeves Ltd will produce Same tractors under similar arrangements with Same Deutz10 Fahr of Italy.000 units by 1985 and reached 140. By 1970 annual production had exceeded 20.2 million.

In 1970. which entered this business without any further collaboration. Punjab Tractor Limited is the only major tractor company. Manufacturers scrambled to push into eastern and southern India markets in an attempt to reverse the decline. there has been an increasing demand for powered tractors due to soil conditions. But these players have entered the higher powered category and thus pose little threat to the existing players who enjoy advantages of established distribution/service network and strong brand equity. Increased use of irrigational facilities. promotion of cooperatives and higher investment in agriculture also contributes to higher tractor demand. John Deere and Steyr have also set up facilities in India. Swaraj which control about 98% market share. and added to the market saturation problems also came increased problems of "prestige" loan defaults. A few international players like Case New Holland. By 2004 a slight up tick in sales once again due to stronger and national and to some extent international markets. Mahindra & Mahindra (M&M). Tractors and Farm Equipment (TAFE). Tractors available in India are ¼th of the prices of similar powered tractors internationally or in developed countries. Government and private banks have both tightened their lending for this sector adding to the industry and farmers woes. Gujarat and Maharashtra. PTL is one of the leaders in its business and has put up a heady performance in contrast to other private sector players. HMT. versatile and low to medium powered tractors. and began exploring the potential for overseas markets. which report a ROCE of 15% on an average. where farmers who were not financially able took tractors in moves to increase their families prestige.000. Escorts. Sales remained in a slump. As against other players. Availability of credit is the most crucial factor impacting tractor demand. the main reason being the inability of the farmers to invest in farm mechanization. PTL had major competition from other companies like Eicher.000 and now in 200708 have slid further to just over 200. TAFE. India is the 11 world¶s largest tractor market in tractors since 1996.000. There are also reported increased misuses of these loans for buying either lifestyle goods.By 2002 sales went below 200.1% in 1975. higher powered tractors are also being sold in states like Punjab where it is considered as a status symbol. The company has beefed up its capacity in the . Tractors are categorized on the basis of horse power (HP) of the engine. shift towards multi cropping. M&M. Punjab Tractors. consolidation of land holdings. PTL has consistently remained at a about 50% in the last few years though the industry is capital intensive. Industry basics The Indian tractor market is dominated by low price. Though large tractors were economically unviable in India. particularly in states of Madhya Pradesh. Punjab Tractors Limited is mainly promoted by Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation and has acquired the second highest market share in the tractor segment from 9. The tractor segment comprises players like Eicher. But more recently. rugged. as in India 90% of the tractors are financed by bank credit at concessional rates. or for social functions. In India the popular range of tractors is 20-40 HP as compared to 60HP in Europe and 90 HP in the USA. But by 2006 sales once again were down to 216. Escorts and HMT.

all of the companies had increased their production & the total production reached 296. Tamil Nadu & Gujarat have shown a tremendous growth in the 2005-2006 period of 63%. followed by 21-30hp category.000 units. The Indian tractor market is traditionally a medium horsepower market consisting mostly of 31-40 hp. The sharpest increase in production was in the 41-50hp category. Rapid prototyping-component development ii. In other size categories.87 % in FY 2005-2006 as compared to FY 2004-2005. Awareness about latest technologies viii. Madhya Pradesh. tractor sales in Bihar & MP fell by 28 % each 2.last 2 to 3 years.availability of latest technologies 13 . Higher expectations on comfort levels iii.5 % less than 2004-2005 sales. Punjab. 54%. Importance for styling & appearance iv. Gujarat. Challenges for Tractor Industry 1. Increasing demands ii. Better finish(paint finish like cars) v. Tamil Nadu. Importance for brand identities vi. Maharashtra. PTL¶s Swaraj-735 is in a class of its own and has been benchmarked by its competitors to which 16 new features has been added. Meanwhile. Longer life. New product Development i. The category in this category.080 in FY 2006. Maharashtra. Tractor sales in 12 states such as Karnataka. Rajasthan.7 %. Andhra Pradesh. Karnataka. However.resale value 2. Segment Wise Analysis 1. namely . 2. Engine performance and power iii. Bihar. Haryana. Orissa. by 21%. Buying Capacity. 41-50 hp category achieved the second highest growth of 34 % over 2004-2005 and constitutes 24 % of the total market. 47%. Incidentally this is 3. Likes on new models ix. State Wise Analysis 1. the 41-50hp category grew by 8. On the supply side. which constitutes almost 51% of the total market in 2005-2006. by 30 %. The total industry supply was increased by 18. The 21-30 hp categories had a market share of 17 % while the above 51hp category was around 8 %. Fuel economy vii. Styling. UP is the largest market with 44.reducing average age of tractor buyers from the age group of above 40 to younger people i. The category in 2005-2006 included a sales volume of 148. respectively. Growth of the industry is closely related to growth in this category. 93% of the tractor industry is concentrated in 12 major states.308 units sold in 2005-2006. up 18% over 2004-2005. & Uttar Pradesh.

NATRIP would represent India in technical committees worldwide iv. With the dual objective of industrial and agricultural growth.Bharat TREM IV/ EURO 3/ US TIER 3 4. a public limited company. This task was entrusted to Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation (P. New Regulations. prompted it.Noise/Safety/ Other Regulations 5.49% Financial Institutions 37.C. New Regulations. Application of electronics ± the recent developments in applications of electronics on agriculture tractors like GPS & Auto Cruise have helped farmers greatly. which is an important township of Punjab. 3.) which has played a major role in bringing Punjab to threshold of industrial revolution.one of the challenges for export of tractors ii. 2003 the share holding pattern of the company was as follows: . Share Holder Percentage Holding Promoter (PSIDC) 23. is India¶s first large-scale project based company with a totally indigenous design. As on 31st Mach. 6.S. 1974. the public subscribed the remainder.iv.I. was established on 27th June. Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation (P. Introduction to the Company Punjab Tractors Limited. which was a major player. know how and technology.69% . Testing under various climatic conditions. Location: The factory is located at Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar (Mohali). Expert teams to coordinate with standardization 14 CHAPTER II PROFILE OF THE ORGANISATION COMPANY PROFILE PTL¶s Birth Keeping in mind Punjab agrarian economy it was decided by Punjab government to encourage the growth of industries which complements Punjab¶s agricultural growth.). Accelerated testing techniques reduce the development lead time to help industry to introduce new models in shorter periods.I.Emissions norms in near future. Testing & certification as per OECD iii.L. Export Potential i.D.T.C. P.S.D. the government of India and financial institutes 15 like Punjab Financial Corporation (PFC) provided significant support.

SAHAY S.20% However in 2004. BOARD OF DIRECTORS ANJANIKUMAR CHOUDHARI (Chairman) M.70 crores. INDUSTRIAL AREA.16% Retail Investors 22. NAGAR (MOHALI).L. CHANANA HARDEEP SINGH DALJIT MIRCHANDANI CHANDRA MOHAN V. PSIDC divested its¶ equity stake in the company to a multinational company CDC.T. KAUSHAL & COMPANY SECRETARY AUDITORS M/S. S.K.S. The capacity has increased to 24. S. RAGHAVENDRA K.000 tractors per annum. SWARAJ TRACTOR DIVISION .N.S. TANDON & ASSOCIATES CHARTERED ACCOUNTANTS BANKERS INDIAN OVERSEAS BANK 16 CANARA BANK STATE BANK OF INDIA REGISTERED OFFICE PHASE .A.PARTHASARATHY NARAYAN SHANKAR BISHWAMBHAR MISHRA (Managing Director & Chief Executive Officer) A.160 055 Growth of PTL Punjab Tractors Limited started with an annual capacity of 5000 tractors and with a capital of INR 3. has not looked back.95% Indian Mutual Funds 0.IV. It went into commercial production in the year 1974.51% FII¶s/NRI/OBC 8. In all.M. PUNJAB . which is a considerable achievement by any standards.6 BHP tractors given the name SWARAJ-720. Ever since then P. its first production was 26. Swaraj provides with a host of varied products which includes: yTractors yHarvesting Combine yFork Lifters yAgriculture Implements yAutomotive Castings Punjab Tractors Limited consists of three Units / Divisions. SAWHNEY (Deputy Managing Director) VICE PRESIDENT ± FINANCE M.LIC and subsidiaries 7.

1973. In the year 1995-96 the total sales turnover of SCD is 61000 crores. District Ropar. Diesel forklifts FD 20 and FD 25 with lifting capacity of 2 and 2. And Swaraj Engines Ltd. Swaraj Mazda Ltd. 1. From Chandigarh. Swaraj 720. Rs. In 1985 it brought out. Swaraj Mazda Limited and Swaraj Engines Ltd. a 26. Gradually the division has increased its product range. 1. 50 crore projects with annual installed capacity to manufacture 5000 number light comercial vehicles (3.5 BHP (SAE) tractor introduced in 1978. with a capital outlay of Rs. (i) SWARAJ TRACTOR DIVISION The construction work was started in March 1972 and the first batch rolled out on 14th November. This division supplies automotive castings to all other units of PTL and to SML and SEL i. Harvestor combines ³Swaraj 8100¶. Manufacture of tractor traitor (non-tipping type) and shelters for ONGC and PUNWIRE has also been undertaken at SCD. Japan in 1984 to set up another company by the name of Swaraj Mazda Limited. a 55 BHP (SAE) tractor introduced in 1983. The current production capacity is 8000 tonnes of grey foam wastings per annum on single shift basis. (ii) SWARAJ FOUNDRY DIVISION PTL set up a captive foundry unit with an investment of Rs.5 tonnes pay load) on two .e. In keeping its diversification plans. Which are active players in Industrial scene of Punjab. 26 million to manufacturer self propelled. Swaraj 855.SWARAJ COMBINE DIVISION SWARAJ FOUNDRY DIVISION Besides above it has promoted 2 new companies.3 INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL COLLABORATION LIGHT COMMERCIAL VEHICAL (LCV) Punjab Tractors Limited enter into a technical and financial Collaboration with Mazda Motor corporation.5 tonnes respectively. a product was totally based on its own design and technology. Presently its production range includes: Tractor Swaraj 724. a 19. 150 Million in the year 1980. Commercial production started in April. 1974. a 39 BHP (SAE) tractor introduced in 1975.2 (iii) SWARAJ COMBINE DIVISION SCD was set up in 1980 near Vill Chappercheri Tehsil Kharar. The division is located at village Majri in Ropar district a distance of 22 kms. 17 Agricultural Implements Disc plough Cultivator Disc Harrow Planter (Seed cum fertilizer) Shrub master. Later in the year. the company also entered into technical collaboration with kamatsu Forklift Company of Japan for manufacturing both diesel and electric forklifts up to 10 tonnes capacity.5 BHP (SAE) tractor introduced in 1974. Swaraj 735.

1991. implements and harvester combines are operating in many countries like Africa. Location .shifts basis. Harvester Combines and forklift. This complex has following facilities: Advanced Research and development needs for Tractors. R&D team developed and commercially launched its product in the following order: MODEL YEAR Swaraj ±724 1974 Swaraj ±735 1975 Swaraj ±720 1978 Swaraj ± 855 1983 Swaraj ± 922 1985 Swaraj ± 922 1995 Swaraj ± 8100 1980 19 Forklift trucks 1985 Multicrop Thresher 1986 1. The company holds 29% equity shares in Swaraj Mazda Ltd. Research and Development has been the basic strength of every industry. Spare parts division of Tractors. supervising staff and workers. Harvester Combines and forklift. for the manufacturing of diesel engine. The emphasis on R & D in PTL is proud by a Long List of new products that have been introduced and established in the long years of PTL¶s existence. Mazda Motor corporation and their association sumitomo corporation hold 26% of the equity. the Middle east and South East Asia.4 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMPLEX Introduction Due to increased production targets of Swaraj Tractor and growing needs of greater Research and Development. PTL started in 1978. 18 FORK LIFTS The company entered into technical collaboration with Komatsu Forklifts Company of Japan in 1985 for the Manufacturing of high tecnology forklifts upto 10 tons lifting capacity both diesel and electric. EXPORT PERFORMANCE Having established Swaraj in the Indian Market. the remainder is being subscribed by the public. DIESEL ENGINES PTL set up Swaraj Engines ltd in technical and financial collaboration with Kirloskar oil engines Ltd. establish itself in the international market. Swaraj centre for HRD for the training of management staff. This complex was inaugurated by Governor of Punjab on 15th June. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Ever since the beginning of industrialization. in 1987f. Installed capacity is 15000 engines per year. Over the year a large number of Swaraj Tractors. a new R&D complex was set up.

Since. Escorts & Eicher have reported operating margins of 4. auto shop. PTL grew at the CAGR of 11-9%. Even when the company grew at a CAGR of 6. moreover fully based upon Indian technology. PTL garnered the operating margins of 19. Under these circumstances though the revenue has fallen by a 0.T.1%. Prototype and accelerated testing facilities.9% respectively. Harvestor combines and forklifts Include. Punjab Tractors Limited (PTL) is one of the leading manufacturers of tractors in India. in Hindi. so Swaraj was appropriately chosen as its brand name.5% to 21. SWARAJ CENTRE FOR H. Library with reading room for Technical books and journal Origin of the word ³SWARAJ´ The word ³SWARAJ´. Manual work shop which includes machine shop.6%.4% to INR 564 millions and the contribution of 40-50 HP tractors has increased by 30%. 20 This centre imparts training to Swaraj workers. SPD (Spare Parts Division) Spare Parts of all Swaraj Products are made available here.4%.. forklifts and spare parts accounted for the balance. means ³freedom from bondage´. PTL has been known as the industry out performer since inception. PTL tractors are sold under the SWARAJ brand name. In terms of market share PTL was the second largest player after Mahindra & Mahindra in FY 2001 with a market share of 18.38% the operating profitability has risen by 1.L. 0.4%. The net profit has increased by 1.1% during 1991-2000. PTL has a strong market share of around 20% in the northern region with the highest share in Punjab and Haryana and 16% in the western and southern regions of India. which indicates higher margins from . SAS Nagar.4% in the first half of FY 2001-02.1%.7% and 2.3% of PTL¶s turnover in FY 2001 whereas the harvester combines. the sales of PTL fell only a trifle 3. while the lead players like M&M. P. was the first largest tractor project in India. paint shop and welding shop.03%. Design office Prototype Manufacturing and Assembly facilities.R.The R&D complex is located at A-29-E Industrial Area phase VI. It has the following facilities: a) Two Auditoriums with a seating capacity of 100 persons each. Current Scenario 21 During the first half of 2001-02 PTL increased its market share from 18. With the total industry volumes plummeting by 16. supervisors and Management staff and new comers. Functions R & D WING Improvement of existing design of Tractors. fitting shop. In the east the company accounts for 11% market share.D. The tractor sales accounted for 83.

first Indian tractor company to have crossed a lakh mark in sales in a year and have entered elite club of tractor companies having a satisfied customer base of more than 12 lakhs. M&M acquired 64. the two renowned organizations have come together to form one operational entity with a strong potential to redefine tractor business. M&M and PTL through sustained efforts have developed a strong global foot print. tractors. FES¶s quest for quality in every sphere of activity has not only helped it to retain uninterrupted market leadership for 24 years in India.SHARE 14% 14% 15% 16% 19% 19% 18% 19% 15% 17% 15% 13% 11% 12% 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 In 2007. With the formation of a new entity (M&M and PTL). being the first tractor company in the world to have won Deming prize for quality.44% 9. Desire to be among the world¶s top players. INDUSTRY & M. As on 31st Mach.64% shares of PTL.64% 22. Farm Equipment Sector (FES) is one of the core businesses of the group and ranks among one of the top four tractor companies of the world. a new era has dawned upon. telecommunication software. It is a matter of pride that M&M and PTL.bigger tractors due to a strong foothold in Punjab and Haryana markets. 2009 the share holding pattern of the company was as follows: Share Holding Pattern 64.80% Mahindra and Mahindra Group LIC/Banks Mutual Funds/Banks Other FII's Public 23 .SHARE FORMATION OF A NEW ENTITY (M&M AND PTL) 22 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 20% IND. The group occupies leadership status in the country in utility vehicles. auto components and real estate. 161439 187628 216947 250665 257027 266552 244770 210918 158601 173051 225256 261167 315759 302377 M. new vistas of opportunities have opened.37% 0.75% 2. but earned many unique distinctions like.

1% 65 Total 11. Haryana & Uttar Pradesh) 13.a.Domestic Territorial Market Share and Dealer Network (Year End) Territory Swaraj Market Share No. Expansion of tractor capacity to 12000 p.5% 169 Central (Madhya Pradesh & Rajasthan) 8. Japan for manufacture of light commercial vehicles with . West Bengal. 1983: Swaraj 855 (55 HP) tractor launched. Swaraj combine division set up for manufacturing India¶s first self propelled harvester combine. 1977: 40 days strike 24 1978: SWARAJ 720(20 HP) tractor launched. Karnataka & Kerala) 11.8% 60 South (Andhra Pradesh. Orissa & Assam) 13. 1980: PTL takes over Punjab Scooters Limited (renamed as Swaraj Automotives Limited). of Models %age of Swaraj Sales Swaraj Share in Segment Upto 30 HP 4 25% 15% 31 .4% 86 East (Bihar. 1974: SWARAJ 724(26. of Dealers as on 31-03-05 North (Punjab. 1970: PTL promoted by PSIDC.0% 53 West (Gujarat & Maharashtra) 13. set up as India¶s first large scale totally indigenous project to take the commercial production of the country¶s first truly Indian tractor. 1975: SWARAJ 735(39 HP) tractor launched.5 HP) tractor launched. 1984: PTL promotes Swaraj Mazda Limited in collaboration with Mazda Motors Corporation.40 HP 2 53% 12% Above 40 HP 3 22% 7% PTL¶s Journey of Growth-A Summary 1965: Government of India¶s research institute CMERI.8% 433 Segment wise HP Range No. Tamil Nadu. Now manufacturing advanced automotive and rail coach seating systems. Durgapur sows the seed by initiating design and development of a totally indigenous tractor.

1997: Tractor manufacturing capacity increased to 42000 p. currently holds 1.equity Participation of INR 3.S. The Board of Directors of M&M and PTL today unanimously approved a Scheme of amalgamation of Punjab Tractors Limited (PTL). 1987: 90 days lock-out March-June. 25 Tractor capacity increased to 60000 tractors (30000 each plant). 2007: Mahindra and Mahindra acquired 64. Vice-Chairman and Managing Director. Mahindra Group. 1986: Swaraj promotes Swaraj Engines Limited in collaboration with Kirloskar Oil Engines Limited to manufacture diesel engines with equity participation of INR 0. Anand Mahindra. Equity moves to INR 3. MHFL. 1989: Reservation of 200 shares per employee.a. Punjab Tractors Ltd. of which M&M is the beneficiary. at tractor plant-I. 1992: Equity moves to INR 10.a. and is also in the process of being merged into M&M.a. to merge with Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. PSIDC divested its stake to UK based firm CDC. ³PTL is a strategic fit for M&M and its amalgamation with M&M will significantly add to shareholder value. 1985: Swaraj Industrial Forklift Trucks launched. with Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. Mr. 1956. 1999: Swaraj 744 FE (48 HP three cylinder tractor) launched. 2003: Launched single cylinder tractor Swaraj 722 Super. a wholly owned subsidiary of M&M. 1990: Equity moves to INR 5.A. 1998: Swaraj 733 FE (33 HP two cylinder tractor) launched. Upon the scheme becoming effective. PTL will be merged into M&M and all its assets and liabilities will be transferred to M&M at book values. said. M&M will issue its shares to PTL shareholders as on record date. The Appointed Date under this scheme is 1st August 2008.06 crores. pursuant to provisions of Sections 391 to 394 and other relevant provisions of the Companies Act. Under this amalgamation scheme. 2001: First consignment of tractors with global features exported to U. Mahindra owns a majority stake in Punjab Tractors Limited and had earlier acquired 63.69 crores (33%).31% of PTL. M&M will transfer all the equity shares held by it in PTL to a Trust. based on the swap ratio determined by independent valuers.04 crores (29%).33% stake in PTL in July 2007.16 crores.64% shares of Punjab Tractors Limited.12 crores 1993: Tractor manufacturing capacity increased to 12000 tractors p. Many of the new features incorporated in the tractors for domestic market. Bringing these two businesses under a single entity will . 2004: Launched new 34 HP (three cylinder tractor) Swaraj 834. an M&M subsidiary. 1995: Set up plant-II with Tractor manufacturing capacity of 12000 tractors p.

Equity shares of M&M will be issued to the shareholders of PTL in the ratio of 1 (one) equity share of Rupees 10 each of M&M for every 3 (three) equity shares of Rupees 10 each held in PTL. as its members. Investment and other branches of business. The 26 Scheme as approved by the Board is subject to such consents and approvals. M.M. Anand G. It also holds the distinction of being the only tractor company worldwide to win the Deming Prize. Keshub Mahindra chairman Mr. Murugappan Director Bharat Narotam Doshi Executive Director & Group Chief Financial Officer Arun Kumar Nanda Executive Director & Secretary Narayanan Vaghul Director Dr. retail and logistics.´An independent valuation exercise has been conducted jointly by Ernst & Young and N. including the financial services. as may be required including that of the shareholders and the High Courts of Bombay and Punjab & Haryana. the share exchange ratio for the amalgamation has been arrived at. Mahindra Vice chairman and Managing Director Deepak Shantilal Parekh Director Nadir Burjori Godrej Director M. Finance. Mahindra is the market leader in multi-utility vehicles in India It made a milestone entry into the passenger car segment with the Logan. help achieve greater integration benefits and reduce overall administrative costs. Mahindra is now poised to make an entry in the two-wheeler segment. The Board of Directors of the Company has. automotive components. Ashok Sekhar Ganguly Director R. The US based Reputation Institute recently ranked Mahindra among the top 10 Indian companies in its Global 200. Nominee of LIC 27 INTRODUCTION OF CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) . Based on this exercise. information technology and infrastructure development. who bring diverse experience and expertise to the Board The Company's current Board of Directors is as follows: NAME DESIGNATION Mr. after-market. trade. eminent persons from Industry. the only tractor company worldwide to be bestowed this honor.also result in a common management focus. About The Mahindra Group The US $6. Mahindra & Mahindra is the only Indian company among the top tractor brands in the world. The Group has a leading presence in key sectors of the Indian economy.K. Mahindra's Farm Equipment Sector has recently won the Japan Quality Medal.7 billion Mahindra Group is among the top 10 industrial houses in India. Raiji & Company.Kulkarni Director Anupam Pardip Puri Director Thomas Mathew T.

Mahindra Education Trust aims to µTransform the lives of people. 13. C. on a continuous basis towards Corporate Social Responsibility.C. 2) Environment 3) Health Education: 1) Established by the late Mr. Mahindra in 1953. the main donors which are the Mahindra Group of companies. . At present. In addition to giving impetus to the Nanhi Kali project for the girl child and the Mahindra All India Talent Scholarship for the economically disadvantaged. including training for Information Technology. A unique kind of ESOPs . with an emphasis on employability. The K. Mahindra Academy in Zaheerabad and a school in Khopoli. while others were founded recently. the Mahindra Group is planning to set up two Mahindra Pride Schools. the K. As part of its Corporate Social Responsibility activities.¶ 28 in India through education. These schools will offer a variety of courses. THREE SOCIAL INITIATIVES UNDER CSR: 1) Education. by providing financial assistance and recognition to them. It pledged to dedicate 1% of its profit (after tax). 1950. It was registered as a Public Charitable Trust under the Bombay Public Trusts Act. Chairman The Mahindra Group defines Corporate Social Responsibility as making socially responsible products. K.80 crores in the form of grants. At the Mahindra Group.Corporate Social Responsibility has always been an integral part of the Mahindra Group's vision and the cornerstone of our Core Value of Good Corporate Citizenship. Mahindra Education Trust has undertaken a number of education initiatives to make a difference to the lives of deserving students. under-privileged children. the Group has three schools that impart high standards of education ± Mahindra Academy at Malad in Mumbai. They will provide new skills and capabilities to the weaker sections of society. the Mahindra Group has established schools near its factories primarily for children of its employees.Employee Social Options was launched to enable Mahindra employees to involve themselves in socially responsible activities of their choice. the Group celebrated its 60th anniversary by renewing its commitment to Corporate Social Responsibility. Retail. These are funded through an investment portfolio. engaging in socially responsible employee relations and making a commitment to the community around it. across age groups and across income strata'. Corporate Social Responsibility is not just a duty. it's a way of life. Some of these scholarships were instituted as far back as the 1950¶s. scholarships and loans. Teachers at these . In 2005. particularly the scheduled castes and scheduled tribe youth.The establishment of these schools has not just benefited their employees but also the community around these schools. It has provided more than Rs. C. The Group also announced a special gift: to provide free cochlear implants to 60 profoundly hearing-impaired. The Trust promotes education mainly by way of scholarships. Automotive Engineering etc.Keshub Mahindra.

the Mahindra United World College of India brings together students of various nationalities for a pre-university degree. Mexico. religion. wealth. This international mix facilitates global exposure and helps students transcend all artificial barriers based on race. New Zealand. The striking feature of the United World Colleges is that they embrace the entire world across all divides of race. 29 Located 40 kms. The teacher-student ratio is 1:9. Malaysia. the Mahindra family has got together and always provided support either by way of financial help or by way of sending vehicles. The foundation has helped patients suffering from cancer. with colleges situated in United Kingdom. Norway and India. Health The Mahindra Foundation has been set up with a specific objective: to provide medical relief to the poor and needy sections of society. Australia. Canada. Ecuador. Austria. Swaziland. Her Majesty Queen Noor of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is the President of the United World Colleges and Mr.class education with an emphasis on the ideals of peace and understanding. Sweden. UK and USA. ± Nelson Mandela. religion. United States of America. ethnicity. Each year¶s batch of about 100 students accommodates about 65 to 70 from abroad. India. Japan. The school is global not only because of the International Baccalaureate degree. was founded by the late Harish Mahindra in 1997. France. the Netherlands. Right from Mahindra products such as vehicles which are designed meeting . Nelson Mandela. Keen focus is given on all-round development. Their teaching methodologies are constantly evaluated and modified when necessary. Singapore. Whether it's been the tsunami or the Gujarat earthquake. class. United World College Honorary President The Mahindra United World College of India. It is the Group¶s endeavour to promote world. and students are encouraged to think innovatively by involving themselves in socially and environmentally relevant issues. Canada. Germany. former President of the Republic of South Africa. Colombia. West of Pune. The faculty includes professors from Argentina. Environment Environment protection is a part of everyday being at the Mahindra Group. The Mahindra Group has always been very responsive to any major disaster in India. history. culture.schools are qualified and undergo regular training as well as attend relevant workshops. Venezuela. economic status and political belief: they are unique and they are conscious of their responsibilities. There are 10 United World Colleges spread across the globe. Italy. but also because of the true international culture in which the students study. live and learn. part of the United World College movement. heart ailments as well as burn victims. The students also contribute to the local neighborhood through community service programs. Cameroon. gender or nationality. central to the ethos of the United World Colleges. is the Honorary President of the United World College International Council. South Africa. Hong Kong. Italy. supplying material or manpower.

Shramdaan by Mahindra employees (and their families) themselves and even Mahindra dealers is a major driver of the initiative. SWARAJ GLOBAL PRESENCE 31 Egypt Zimbabwe USA S¶Lanka Nepal Bangladesh Zambi a Tanzani a Nigeria Ghana Australia Indonesia Malaysia Sudan Kenya Syria Duba i India 32 THE SWARAJ WAY OF SELLING .5 Lakhs. trusts. The third garden is located at the junction of Madame Cama Road. 6 Lakhs The Traffic Island Garden (opposite Regal Cinema) has been completely renovated by the Mahindra Group at the cost of Rs. With strong and meaningful partnerships with various stakeholders in the civil society such as schools. and also the Government (Forest Departments etc). 30 Since 1984.be it a Plant/factory setting or a corporate office. developed by the group from scratch.International standards of Safety and emission. the Group has vowed to plant a One Million Trees across the Nation by October 2008 under the Mahindra Hariyali initiative. colleges. efficient water management and with the most recent Green IT. is a mass tree plantation initiative undertaken by each and every Mahindra location . 1 Lakh. Mahindra shows that it care of planet earth proactively. the Group has transformed three municipal gardens: The Shivaji Garden (near Gateway of India) is admired for its beautiful architecture and flourishing plants and flowers. Completely renovated by the Mahindra Group at a cost of Rs. to the south of Oval Maidan. Towards making planet earth greener. 1. at a cost of Rs. Mahindra Hariyali. This is a brand new garden. to all Mahindra plants across the nation which comply way beyond necessary environmental regulations by setting new standards in natural resource conservation. the Mahindra Group has been lending a hand to the µGreen Bombay¶ movement by developing and maintaining municipal gardens.

Will give consistent results. RCSC NPCC (New Prospective Customer Card) The starting point for all Sales Processes. The NPCC contains:Names and addresses of customers * wanting to exchange their existing tractors in the next 6 months. Will make us more productive.´ The 3 milestones for a customer in tractor buying? 1st Milestone: When the customer is certain he has the need for a tractor 2nd MilestoneWhen he is convinced which is the right tractor for him? 3rd Milestone he commits his purchase. RCSO Step 3: Summarize status & state the Call Objective Step 4: Achieve the objective through Questioning Step 5: Summarize & Agree on the next steps Step 6: Raise the Customer Spirit Close. convinced he is getting the right terms for the tractor he has chosen The 6 steps of the Swaraj Way:Step 1: Prepare like a Professional Step 2: Raise the Customer Spirit Opening. It is the card used by the sales person to obtain and note the customer details and enquiry. * Who hire out implements and thus are prospective customers for implements An NPCC bank gives the dealer and salesmen the right to choose and select A correctly filled NPCC gives comprehensive data and knowledge of the prospect and the market It is the starting point for all actions of the dealership including Business strategies / plans for the month / qtr / year Identifying and addressing customer needs Travel plans of dealer personnel Budgeting sales promotion and service activities NPCCs become performance indicators of dealerships and dealer personnel when reviewed in context with coverage and loyalty ratios NPCCs bring out major reasons for Winning or Loosing customers . * Who are dissatisfied with the competitor tractors.The Swaraj Way: Has a simple. * Who are dissatisfied with Mahindra tractors * Who are satisfied with Mahindra tractors and want to buy another one in the next 8 months 33 * Who are satisfied with Mahindra tractors and want to upgrade to a higher HP model * Who do not have a tractor but want to buy one soon * Who hire out tractors but want to buy their own. logical structure. A good and effective sales person always has 5 to 6 enquiries in his pocket.

Mandi. 34 Milan Definition: Aggressive and planned way of contacting old customers. Objective: Showcasing ³Swaraj´ spirit to all through celebration and belongingness. They are BTL (below the line) ATL (above the line). Objective: To establish newly appointed dealers. Scope: Dealerships which have large database of old customers. STSC (Swastha tractor. Dealerships which have lost market share due to some reasons. generate enquiries and promote exchange business. To regain lost market share. Milan. There are number of activities performed under BTL. swasth chalak) Definition: Mega goodwill after sales service event at big dealership where PTL market is strong. BTL includes activities like Sahashtra. Jalsa Definition: A form of a road show where a special discount is offered to customers. They are: Sahashtra Definition: The process of delivering and retailing large number of tractors in a single day (21/31/51/71/101) and making big impact in the market motivating whole dealer team and creating brand image. 35 Mela (Swaraj mahotsava) Definition: A brand building/ Brand recall exercise at big dealerships where PTL . ATL includes advertisements in magazines. Scope: Dealerships which are newly appointed to be installed and established. To promote exchange business. Objective: To generate enquiries by contacting old PTL customers. newspapers. Mandi: Definition: Road show similar to Jalsa but at a somewhat smaller scale. Mela. television and radio.. Objective: To strengthen PTL service image. To increase workshop revenue through parts and service. Objective: Showcasing ³Swaraj´ spirit to all through celebration and belongingness. Scope: Dealerships which have good workshop with high PTL population.Brand and product preferences / issues if any can be identified Competitor product perception and strategies EVENTS There are two types of promotional activities initiated by Swaraj Tractors for their brand promotion. Jalsa and STSC. Scope: Dealerships which are losing market share due to some reasons. Scope: Dealerships which are losing market share due to some reasons.

I collected data through various sources primary & secondary. accurate and systematic. also known as statistical research.market is strong. where one 38 variable affects another. Scope: Dealerships which are running good with high PTL market share.3 Research Design ± The research design is of Descriptive Type.1 Introduction to Research MethodologyResearch Methodology comprises defining and redefining the problem. collecting. To regain lost market share at big dealerships. In other words. Descriptive research. what. 36 37 CHAPTER III RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODOLOGY 3.. the research cannot describe what caused a situation. During my project. Research Methodology is a way to solve research in study and solving research problems along with logic behind them are defined through research methodology. Descriptive research answers the questions who. where. . Dealerhips which were strong but have lost market share due to some reasons. Descriptive research cannot be used to create a casual relationship. organizing and evaluating the data. Objective: To strenghthen brand PTL recall. Although the data description is factual. Thus. describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. Thus while talking about research methodologies we are not only talking of research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods. .. making deduction and reaching to conclusions and determines whether the formulated hypothesis is right and wrong. 3. when and how. formulating hypothesis or suggesting solution.

Sampling Technique 39 3.4SAMPLING METHODOLOGY:B) Sampling Unit Sample size was 30 Foreman¶s of Distt Ferozepur which includes customer Satisfaction C) Sample size The sample size was 30 Foreman in Distt Ferozepur D) Sampling Area The area of the research was Distt Ferozepur. the logical procedure is to ask them.The description is used for frequencies. The questionnaire were structured non disguised questionnaire because the question which the questionnaire contained. The respondents were aware of the objective so that they know why they were asked to fill the questionnaire. A pilot study was done in order to know the accuracy of the Questionnaire. This has led marketing researchers to use the questionnaire technique for collecting data more than any other method. The questionnaire was non-disguised because the questionnaire was constructed so that the objective is clear to the respondent. a rough draft was prepared keeping in mind the objective of the research. Often the best approach. were arranged in a specific order besides every question asked were logical for the study. prior to writing descriptive research. 3. 3.5TOOLS USED:If one wishes to find what the prospects think or know.6 Sources of Data CollectionA) Primary source includes:1) Discussion with branch manager . Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are. Thus my sampling came out to be convenient. no question can be termed as irrelevant. The final Questionnaire was arrived only after certain important changes were done. Research Instrument Initially. averages and other statistical calculations. is to conduct a survey investigation. In this method questionnaire were distributed to the respondents and they were asked to answer the questions in the questionnaire.

2. To study the market survey for purchase of tractors. 41 PROJECT On Mechanical Research OBJECTIVE of THE RESEARCH 42 1. under which the researcher had to work are as follows: Ø Although all attempts were made to make this an objective study. To study the customer awareness regarding Swaraj Tractors. resulting in biased results. B) Secondary source includes: 1) Books related to Marketing Management 2) Web sites were used as the vital information source 3) References given by Manager. using deeper statistical techniques in analyzing and interpreting data may not be ruled out. 40 3. biases on the part of respondents might have resulted in some subjectivity. Ø This being the maiden experience of the researcher of conducting study such as this.7 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY A few limitations and constraints came in way of conducting the present study. the possibility of better results. Ø Though. no effort was spared to make the study most accurate and useful. 3) Live trading in the market 4) Data collected from questionnaire. the ³sample Size´ selected for the same may not be the true representative of the Company. .2) Discussions with Foreman of the Distt.

In distt Ferozepur I have conduced more than 30 workshops. 4. Now I will told about my visit and experience during the survey period. During this in my training period I had visited many workshops in different cities. At the workshops I have collected a lot of data about Swaraj tractors. To study consumer¶s satisfactions towards purchased tractors. In my research I have collected the relevant information about Swaraj tractors. Guru Har sahai. To study the major market leader among various market payers. Mechanical Research 43 I have conducted mechanical research of Sawraj tractors. They have also told me that how will Swaraj improve its quality. 5. They have told me about features and problems of Swaraj tractors. It is the diesel tractor. It has a quality which is not in any other tractor.3. They had told me:What the customer¶s requirement? What they want? What are the problems that they often face? They have also told me the features of Swaraj but the most important thing which they told me. I did my survey in distt. fazilka and in Ferozepur cantt. To study the various problems faced by customers in their tractor. Ferozpur. the reason for 44 which the sale of Swaraj is going down or not equal than . Jalalabad. Swaraj Company is in top five tractor manufacturing companies.

The farmers push the half clutch when he is working in the field and rounding the tractor according to the area of the field. They told me that the company should must listen the problems of tractors and then take a correct action to improve the efficiency of tractors. power steering diesel tank . low horse power and fry clutch plate. The it make a problem that the clutch will become loss very soon or it will not work 1) . duplicacy in material . Because tractor is made to pull the material like sand. break. Those mean half clutch to manage the tractor and half for PTO. Minor problems The minor problems which occurs in Swaraj tractors are their clutch . pipe leakage of power steering . soil and other agriculture material. So first of all we discuss the minor problems. Actually all models of Swaraj is DC (duel clutch). spinder problems .other tractors. The company must give the training to the agency Forman so that they will improve the problems that are often occurs before them Problems In distt Ferozepur the Forman told me some major and some minor problems about Swaraj tractors. lift pump problems. And when the farmer ploughing in the field with tractors¶ and the load is so high then the tractors could not work properly as it struck out of the order.. lift air switch .These are the minor problems which are explained below:45 In clutch problems the clutch become out of work very shortly.

2) In break problem the breaks are soon make a problem in work. It is the pipe leakage in hydraulic pump of power steering. This problem also occurs in dry wheel breaks. It will cause decrease in sale of Swaraj tractor. But they do their best to satisfy customers. When the farmer is working in the fields the water gone in breaks and then the ladder of breaks would jam. The Forman of agency are not so trained that could solve this type of problem. The farmer has complaint it. It¶s not a big problem for the company. The distt. When the lift is lifted over load it would not manage the load then its pump create problem as its pump leakage oil.properly. The agency holder told the inspection officer about this problem yet there is not taken any kind of action. Ferozepur is a flood area means its land has more moisture than other areas. In power steering tractor every 5) . 3) The third problem is of its lift problem. 47 There is also one more problem in power steering tractor. Or it would not work any more so the tractors do not work 46 properly. 4) In Swaraj the model 855 power steering there is a problem of leakage in diesel tank. Like other tractors Swaraj has not much lifting capacity. The diesel tank is leaks even the tractor is new. It is one of the main problems in Swaraj tractors. The company told the lifting capacity of tractor is high but in actual the capacity is not that as the company told.

Some of the workshop holder told me that its parts design is shows that the material is duplicate. When engine start all the movement start working. Because the back side of Swaraj tractor is same as compare to Swaraj tractors. The workshop holder told me that the customer sold the Swaraj tractor in a short time because of low affiances of the tractors. Also its parts look duplicate. Only the tag of Swaraj is their but the affiance of Swaraj tractor¶s parts are not in that parts. 48 Low horse power is also a main problem in all minor problems. All though there is a lot of variety in tractors of Swaraj yet they are not equal in affiance as compare to other tractors. The Forman has to face problem because the customer become in anger when this type of problems occurs especially when the tractor is new. That means the other tractors do more work in less time as compare to Swaraj tractors. Some told me that the parts of Swaraj tractors are duplicate. But in a very short time it starts leaking. 6) Now there is also a problem of duplicity in the material in Swaraj tractors. We know that Swaraj is in top five tractor manufacturing company yet there are some problems. It will cause in decrease in the sale of Swaraj tractors. There are pipes which gives oil to all parts which are working. Let us take a example that Swaraj tractor of 30 HP could not work more than other tractor of 25 HP. 7) .movement is base on power. So it¶s not a big problem but the company is avoiding this problem.

spare parts problem and hub problem. Engine repair need 4 to 5 days to recover. But the material of these gravies is very poor. In gear box there are round zigzag type¶s 50 gravies. When tractor works in field there is enough need to change gear in very short time. Although the tractor is old or the new one this type of problem is mostly 8) 49 occurs in Swaraj tractors. Now we discuss the major problems as below:1) In engine problem the engine break down the whole work. When the tractor took heat it was choked and on the meter board it shows signal. There is a button in air clyinder. The customer has to stay the tractor on workshop for two days minimum. But these are not correctly fit on plates so they need to fill kharad. That reason the engine broke down and then need repair of whole engine. Mostly what happens that Swaraj tractor took heat in short time. 2) Second major problem in Swaraj tractors is their gear box problem.The last minor problem in Swaraj tractor is their fry wheel clutch plates. They have a little type of ladder on clutch plates. Also these gravies need more . That is why the sale of Swaraj tractor goes down. But some time it could not do so. In season when there is a lot of need of tractor in field then the Swaraj tractor gives that type of problem. Major problems The major problems that occur in Sawraj tractors are their engine problem. The gravies depreciated very soon. gear problem.

Ferozepur the spare parts problem is the one of the major problem that cause there is not much 4) The last major problem in Swaraj tractor is their hub problem. Ferozepur area. So there is a big problem of spare parts in distt. That is why Swaraj tractor is not in good sale. So that is a major problem in Swaraj tractor because it took 4 ton 5 days to recover the problem. Yet there is not taken any kind of action. 51 First the Swaraj tractors parts are not easily available. But the Swaraj tractor could not fulfil the requirement of farmers. Actually Swaraj has manufactured near about 25 tractors. The hub broke down and tractor becomes in two parts. In distt. The agency holder told me that they have seen 3 case of hub problem. 3) And the third major problem of its spare parts problem. If available they have high in price and cheap in quality. The tractors hub is made of the curvy material. Ferozepur. So because of lack of spare parts the tractor would stand in workshop unless the parts are not available. Every farmer wants a tractor which¶s parts is easily available. It is very poor material.oil and more repair than other tractor. They had told the company. But it is not easy for a shopkeeper or for agency holder to keep stock of whole tractors. 52 Problems said by workshop Forman . The spare parts problem is one of the major problems that would decrease the sale of Swaraj tractor in distt.

In my survey of mechanical research the problems which are faces are as below with their percentage:1) 90% people have a problem of Diesel Problem. 4) All models are available in mechanical and power steering tractor. 2) 80% people have a problem of lift pump. Ferozepur told me about the feature of Sawraj tractors with their problems.It is the graphically representation of distt. 3) Swaraj tractor has different type of models from 25 HP to 90 HP. 53 4) 68% have a problem with gear box. Feature of Sawraj tractors The Forman in distt. 6) 48% people said that the engine is not good. Ferozepur workshop problems. The features of Sawraj tractors are as below:1) Swaraj tractors are not costly as compare to other tractors. Althoth there are many problems in Sawraj tractors yet these tractors are very good as compare to other tractor companies. 5) Customer will choose the tractor according to their uses. 54 . 5) 55% said problem in pipe leakage of power steering tractors. 3) 75% said that they have problem with clutch. 2) It has a power steering facility.

6) Its seats are adjustable.C) model from March 2010. 7) Now Swaraj has an air conditioner (A. Amritsar and hosiharpur. 8) Its body is made of a ceramic metal which is durable and has a good quality.What the customers are satisfied with Sawraj? 56 45 30 20 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Survey 45 30 20 5 0 Strongly Agree Agree Undecid ed Disagree Strongly Disagree Q: Is the spare part easily available? 57 Q: What horse power the customer require . 10) It has a good quality in its battery. 12) In Swaraj tractor there is fuel affiance that is not in other tractors. 55 Q. Jalandhar. 9) It is not so much heavy as compare to other tractors. 11) It shows best result in developed area like Ludhiana. Swaraj is a diesel saving tractor.

60 FINDINGS: Sawraj855fe is less used because of more expenditure of oil. Swaraj s spare part is easily available in the market. .the most and why? 58 Available Not Available 80% 20% 10 70 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1st Qtr 10 70 20 3-D Column 3 80 HP 50-60 HP 30-40 HP Q: Does it work equal in field or at road? 59 NO 64% YES 25% EQUAL 11% WORK Figure 1 In the survey of swaraj tractors 60% consumers purchase the swaraj tractors.

2) The company must improve its quality. All spare parts of all models. Because the customers want his tractor to be recover as soon as possible. In oldest model of swaraj there is dissatisfaction of breaks. As these pipes will remove leakage. Swaraj tractors are mostly less heavy from front part. There are some competitors of swaraj tractors like ford. hmt5911. ford3600. escort etc Recommendation and suggestions 61 1) The company should pay attention on the problems. john Deere. 7)Swaraj tractors need more advertisement. 62 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Although I have done sincere efforts to collect authentic and relevant information. the study may have the following limitations: . 4)The company should send their trainer to the agencies to give advance training to the agency Forman and also tell the market position and problems of tractors. 3)The company must provide their spare parts in all areas and to all agency holders. 40%people who do not use swaraj tractors mostly use ford. sonalika. 5) Change the pipes of power steering. 6)Improve the quality and affiance in underdeveloped areas. hmt5911 and other tractors of Hmt Company.Swaraj tractor is also useful in the sandy areas because of heavy back. Mahindra.

So results of study may not be generalized.It was very difficult for me to get fulfill the forms because of respondent's busy schedule and not providing me sufficient time to fill the form seriously Scope of study is limited to Few Villages which is exit in Dinanagar only because of limited time and money. But low sale in underdeveloped areas. Company must improve its quality. Sawraj export their tractors so it gives all their attention on those tractors and then the quality of domestic tractors goes down. This study is based on the assumption that responses are true and factual although at times that may not be the case. So the company should take care of these things. Sawraj has good sale in developed areas. but considering the human factor the possibility of small bias having come up cannot be ruled out altogether. The company must pay attention on the problems which are faces by agency holders in different areas. But if it will solves the problems it will reaches at no 1 position. It has all qualities that are necessary in a tractor. Though every care has been taken to eliminate such biases. Because of this problem the tractor often not ready for sale. 64 65 CHAPTER VI . Sawraj Tractor Company is in top five tractor manufacture companies. 63 Conclusion Sawraj tractor is a good tractor. And the major problem of spare parts will remove as soon as possible. Sawraj tractor has more problems and less quality.

com Search Engine : www.com Books : Philip Kottlar: marketing management eleventh edition. Kothari: Research Methodology.sonalikaagro.com www.sawrajenterprise.BIBLIOGRAPHY Websites: www.icml. Sontaki: marketing management kalayani publishers second edition.google.iafl.com www. 66 67 CHAPTER VII APPENDIX MECHANICAL RESEARCH Q: How many tractors come for services/repair in a day? Ans: Q: What are their problems? Ans: Q: Is the problems are major or minor? Ans: Q: What type of minors problems? Ans: Q: What type of major problems? Ans: Q: What customer said about Sawraj? Ans: Q: Is the spare parts easily available? Ans: Q: What horse power the customer require the most and .com www.

..... Workshop name ««««««««««««««««««.. City ...why? Ans: Q: Does it work equal in field or at road? Ans: 68 Q: Which type of tractors the customer prefer power or mechanical? Ans: Q: What are the advantages& Disadvantage of power steering tractors? Ans: Q: What are the advantages & disadvantages of mechanical steering tractors? Ans: Q: After how much time it took heat? Ans: Q: Is the company improving its quality and efficiency? Ans: Q: What should company do to improve its quality of tractors? Ans: 69 Personal detail Name ««««««««««««««««««««««. Address ««««««««««««««««««««.

No. Timing of repair ««««««««««««««««««. of workers ««««««««««««««««««« Mobile no..«««««««««««««««««««««««. (Signature) 70 .. ««««««««««««««««««««.

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