Defense Mechanisms

 Can be grouped hierarchically according to degree o maturity a/w them neurotic narcissistic immature
children & psychotically px
adolescents & some nonpsychotic px adults ↓ stress, hysterically px, obsessivecompulsive

•altruism •anticipation •asceticism •humor •sublimation •suppression

•denial •distortion •projection

•acting out •blocking •hypochondriasis •introjection •passive-aggresive behaviour •regression •schizoid fantasy •somatization

•controlling •displacement •externalization •inhibition •intellectualization •isolation •rationalization •dissociation •rx 4mation •repression •sexualization

  

Id: the most basic needs and desires, and the immediate gratification of those needs Ego: Works and exists only for balance between the Id and the Superego; between our urges and desires vs. our morals and values. Superego: The moral and somewhat idealistic compilation of judgment usually based on what society, parents, or others have taught us; or based on what we have chosen as our belief system.


narcissistic defenses Avoiding d awareness o some painful aspect o Used in norm & patho state reality by negating sensory data Denial Repression Declaring or thinking whatever is true is false. Refusal to accept reality, Abolishes Defends external facts, events, implications bc nature of the reality threatens xternal reality against drive individual. Emotional conflicts resolved by refusal to acknowledge derivatives
unpleasant external realities Alcoholic who refuses to believe his drinking makes an impact on his job performance or family life


 

Large reshaping of external reality to meet internal needs Individual convinces themselves everyone around them dislikes them to prevent attachments, risk of rejection; or, convinces self that everyone adores them to feed ego and avoid painful realities.

Grossly reshaped xternal reality to suit inner needs Using sustained feeling o delusional superiority or entitlement

Projection Perceiving & reacting to unacceptable inner impulse & derivatives as though they outside d self

Attributing one’s own unacknowledged unacceptable/unwanted thoughts and emotions to another. Reduces anxiety, allows expression of undesirable impulse or desire without conscious awareness. Assuming that someone you extremely dislike extremely dislikes you. Severe prejudice, severe jealousy, hyper vigilance to external danger, and “injustice collecting”.

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Acting out

Immature defenses Express unconscious wish/impulse through action to avoid being conscious an accompanying effect

Behaving in a manner that expresses impulse or unconscious wishes w/out awareness/understanding of the emotion driving behavior

Unconscious fantasy lived out impulsively in behavior→ gratifying d impulse (x prohibition against it) Temper tantrum, drug use, promiscuity …unconscious wish may be a desire for attention, emotion may be loneliness

Blocking Hypochondriasis

Temporarily/transiently inhibiting thinking Exaggerating/overemphasizing illness 4 purpose o evasion & regression Turning negative feelings into pain, illness, and anxiety instead of expressing feelings or addressing issues.


Passive aggressive behaviour

Reproach arise from :  Bereavement  Loneliness  Unacceptable aggressive impulse 2ward others ↓ Transformed into:  Self approach  Complain o pain  Somatic illness  Neurasthenia Internalizing d quality o an object Deeply associating a belonging w Identifying with some idea or object so deeply that it absent person; the object becomes a part of another person. mentally represents that person (in a very extreme form, necrophilia). Expressing aggression 2ward others Manifestation: indirectly through :  Failure  Passivity  Procrastination  Masochism  Illneses that affect other >  Turning against self oneself
Aggression towards others expressed indirectly or passively


Attempting to return to an early libidinal  phase o fx to avoid tension & conflict evoked at d present level o dvlpmnt Reverting to coping at an earlier stage of development. 

Schizoid fantasy


Basic tendency to gain instinctual gratification at a < delevoped period Adult throwing a temper tantrum Indulging in autistic retreat  Px x believe in fantasies Purpose:  Avoid interpersonal  To resolve conflict intimacy  To obtain gratification  Become eccentric Converting psychic derivatives into bodily  Desomatization symptoms Infantile somatic response → Tend to react w somatic manifestation thought & affect  Resomatization Px regress to earlier somatic forms to face unresolved conflict

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Neurotic defenses Attempting to mx or regulate events/objects in envirnmnt to :  Minimize anxiety Resolve inner conflict Shifting emotion or drive cathexis from 1 Mother may yell at child when idea/object to another that resemble d ori in she feels angry at husband. → some aspect/quality she displaces her anger toward Aggression or even sexual impulses redirected to a more child coz child → more acceptable party. Emotion pointed to safer outlet. Separation of acceptable target& less emotion from its real object. Emotion dissuaded to object, party threatening & < risk in outcome.
that brings less risk.

Externalization Inhibiting


Tend to perceive in external world & xternal object element own personality Consciously limiting or renouncing some ego fx, alone or in combination to evade anxiety that arise out o confict w :  Instinctual impulses  Superego  Environmental force  Figures Xcess using intellectual process to avoid After learning they have a affective xpression/xperience terminal illness, an individual Taking an extremely objective viewpoint w/out regard for begins spending all time emotions. Focusing on only intellectual parts of a situation to studying about the illness to create distance from relevant anxiety provoking emotions. avoid thinking abt the direct Avoiding unacceptable emotions by focusing on the intellectual effect in their own life. aspects. Thinking about wishes in emotionally bland, formal
ways, not acting on them.


Splitting/separating idea from affect that  accompanies it but is repressed separation of feelings from ideas and events 


Offering rational xplanation in attempt to justify attitude, belief, or behavior that may otherwise unacceptable

Creating false but credible justifications. Convincing oneself no wrong was done or all is or was all right through faulty/false reasoning. Indicator of this defense mechanism can be seen socially as the formulation of convenient excuses.

Social isolation : absence o object r/ship Describing a murder w graphic details w no emotional response. You are turned down by someone you are interested in, and rationalize that you were not that attracted to them. Protects self-esteem Manifestation:  Fugue state  Hysterical conversation rx Found in px w :  Counter-phobic behavior  Dissociative identity disorder  Religious joy  Use o pharmacological high
Individual day dreams excessively to avoid painful realities, even situation they currently experience


Temporarilt but drastically modify person’s character or sense o personal identity to avoid emotional distress

Mod of internal identity, character to avoid painful emotions. Separation of naturally occurring feeling from event or thought. Extreme compartmentalizing. Feel separated from their bodies. Feel events are not really happening. Conscious thought process is elsewhere, not in present moment

Rx 4mation

Transform unacceptable impulse into its opposite
Overacting in the opposite way to a fear. Converting unconscious wishes or impulses perceived to be dangerous into opposites; behavior completely opposite of what one really wants or feels; taking opposite belief because true belief causes anxiety. Works effectively for coping in the short term, will eventually break down.

Characteristic o obsessional neurosis
A manager treats employee whom they extremely dislike ultra kindly, making many special efforts to cater to that person and thus hide true feelings of dislike.

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Expelling or withholding from consciousness  10 repression : an idea or feeling Curbing o idea & feelings b4 Pulling thoughts into unconscious, preventing painful or they hv attained consciousness dangerous thoughts from entering consciousness; seemingly  20 repression unexplainable naivety, memory lapse or lack of awareness of Exclude from awareness what one’s own situation and condition. Emotion is conscious, idea was once xperienced at a behind it absent. Pushing uncomfortable thoughts into the conscious level subconscious.

Individual abused as a child represses feelings and memories, so that feelings and memories no longer remain in the conscious memory. The abuse continues to affect the individual’s behavior in relationships.



Endowing object/fx w sexual significance that did x prev hv/possed to a smaller degree to ward off anxieties a/w prohibited impulse or their derivatives Mature defenses A church member who volunteers Using constructive & instinctually gratifying service to others to undergo a vicarious xperience for any and every responsibility; the
Concern for other’s well-being, in an either excessive or successful manner. Actions/service to others that brings enjoyment, distraction, or avoidance of problems. friend who bends over backward to serve, at their own expense.


Realistically anticipating or planning for future inner discomfort

Realistic planning for future discomfort. Adequate anticipation may yield appropriate preparation for future event/circumstance creating anxiety.

Spending so much time planning for future events that events are not enjoyed.

Asceticism Humor

Eliminating d pleasurable effect o experience Using comedy to overtly xpress feelings & Excessive humor used to mask thoughts w/out personal discomfort or emotions and avoid addressing immobilization & w/out producing unpleasant underlying “true” issues. effect on others
Allows for exploration of absurdity, or emotions & ideas unpleasant to focus on or too terrible to talk about, in a way that brings pleasure to others. Wit, a type of humor that displaces. Wit brings attention to the distressing, which remains unpleasant.


Achieving impulse gratification & retention o goals but altering a socially objectionable aim or object to a socially acceptable one
Redirecting ‘wrong’ urges into socially acceptable actions.

Individual redirects murder impulses and becomes a surgeon.

Suppression Consciously or semiconsciously postponing attention to a conscious impulse or conflict

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