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A Drying Experiment

(Laboratory Experiment 1)

Proponents: Reza A. Bation Carla R. Catedral Anie Lalane L. Lasquite Evannie Grace Z. Torres

ABSTRACT
Drying of materials is typically a final stage in a manufacturing process. I the material contains more moisture than its equilibrium value in contact with a gas of a given humidity and temperature, it will dry until it reaches its equilibrium value. If the material contains less moisture than its equilibrium value, it will absorb water until it reaches its equilibrium value. Almost all drying processes involve the removal of water by vaporization and usually require the addition of heat. In this experiment, drying a soil and sand samples in a stream of heated air is used to demonstrate the characteristics of drying. The drying experiment allows the investigation of drying curves for solid samples and water in a stream of warmed air.

INTRODUCTION Background of the Experiment


In almost all soil tests natural moisture content of the soil is to be determined. The knowledge of the natural moisture content is essential in all studies of soil mechanics. To sight a few, natural moisture content is used in determining the bearing capacity and settlement. The natural moisture content will give an idea of the state of soil in the field. Free moisture content in a sample is the moisture above the equilibrium moisture content. In amny texts and references, the moisture content is given as percent moisture on a dry basis. This is exactly the same as the kg 100. /100kg dry material multiplied by

Objectives of the Experiment


Determine the free moisture content of the soil and sand samples. Specifically, to learn how to use the moisture analyzer, to construct the drying rate curve and to compare the drying rate of the samples.

Materials and Methods Materials (APPENDIX A) Two Solid Samples Moisture Analyzer Two Petri Dishes Weighing Balance

Stop Watch Spatula Basin with water Preparation of Samples Solid samples (sand and soil) were gathered and were soak in water for 1 hour in the basin.

Experimental Procedure Get samples and soak them in water for 1 hour. Measure 50 g of the sample. Put the sample in a moisture analyzer. Record the time, temperature, and moisture reading until moisture reading is constant. Repeat above procedure for all samples. Perform two trials per sample. Set-up:

Bone Dry Samples:

Weighing:

Results Moisture Content: Sample Sand 1 Sand 2 Soil 1 Soil 2 W 9.506 9.429 9.550 W 50.019 50.033 50.023 W 52.391 51.624 51.119 Bone Dry 51.345 51.251 48.381

Bone Dry: Sample Sand 1 Sand 2 Soil 1 Soil 2 W 6.608 6.844 6.522 6.740 W 10.228 10.197 10.062 10.892 W 15.297 15.119 14.185 15.152

Equations:
   

Graph1 Graph2 Graph 3 Graph 4 Discussion Based on the results, the moisture content of the sand and soil samples are very similar.

Conclusion The moisture content of the soil samples are higher than those of the sand samples. This is expected because soil is more coarse and porous. Appendix A Materials Used

Literature Cited Geankoplis, Christie J. Transport Processes and Unit Operations Third Edition. Prentice Hall Edition. 1995 Harriott, McCabe, Smith. Unit Opeations of Chemical Engineering Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill International Editions. 1993.