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The design process usually consists of several steps as follows. Establish design objectives to satisfy a given set of customer attributes Generate ideas to create plausible solutions Analyze the solution alternatives that best satisfies the design objectives Implement the selected design

Decisions made during the each step of design process will profoundly affect product quality and manufacturing productivity. To aid design decision making, Axiomatic Design theory has been developed in the last decade. The Axiomatic Design approach to the execution of the above activities is based on the following key concepts: (1) There exist four domains in the design world, customer domain, functional domain, physical domain and process domain. The needs of the customer are identified in customer domain and are stated in the form of required functionality of a product in functional domain. Design parameters that satisfy the functional requirements are defined in physical domain, and in process domain manufacturing variables define how the product will be produced. The whole design process involves the continuous processing of information between and within four distinct domains. (2) Solution alternatives are created by mapping the requirements specified in one domain to a set of characteristic parameters in an adjacent domain. The mapping between the customer and functional domains is defined as concept design; the mapping between functional and physical domains is product design; the mapping between the physical and process domains corresponds to process design. (3) The mapping process can be mathematically expressed in terms of the characteristic vectors that define the design goals and design solution. (4) The output of each domain evolves from abstract concepts to detailed information in a topdown or hierarchical manner. Hierarchical decomposition in one domain cannot be performed independently of the other domains, i.e., decomposition follows zigzagging mapping between adjacent domains. (5) Two design axioms provide a rational basis for evaluation of proposed solution alternatives and the subsequence selection of the best alternative. The two axioms can be stated as follows: Axiom 1 (independence axiom): maintain the independence of the FRs. Axiom 2 (information axiom): minimize the information content of the design. The first axiom is the independent axiom, and it focus on the nature of the mapping between “what is required” (FRs) and “how to achieve it” (DPs). It states that a good design maintains the independence of the functional requirements. The second axiom is the information axiom and it

establishes information content as a relative measure for evaluating and comparing alternative solutions that satisfy the independence axiom. The four-domain structure is schematically illustrated in figure 1. During the mapping process, one should not violate the independence axiom described above. In the product design, the creation or synthesis phase of design involves mapping the FRs in the functional domain to design parameters (DPs) in the physical domain. Since the complexity of the solution process necessarily increases with the number of FRs, it is important to describe the perceived design needs in terms of a minimum set of independent requirements. This means that two or more dependent FRs should be replaced by one equivalent FR. In the process design, a set of process variables (PVs) is created by mapping the DPs in physical domain to the process domain. The PVs specify the manufacturing methods that produce the DPs.

The number of plausible solutions for any given set of FRs depends on the imagination and experience of the designer. Thus, the design axioms are used to determine acceptable design solution. Defining {FR} as a vector of functional requirements and {DP} as a corresponding vector of design parameters, and {PV} as vector of process variables, the mapping between the functional and physical domains, between physical and process domains can be expressed mathematically in equation (1) and (2). n equation (1) and (2), [A] and [B] are called design matrix. To satisfy the Independence Axiom, matrix [A] and [B] must be either diagonal or triangular. When the design matrix, for example [A], is diagonal, each of the FR can be satisfied independently by means of one DP and this design is an uncoupled design. When the design matrix is triangular, the independence of FRs can guarantee if the DPs are changed in a proper sequence, and this design is a decoupled design. When there are many FR&DP, two quantitative measures, reangularity and semangularity in equation (3) and (4), are used to determine the independence of the functional requirements.

A design’s information content is calculated according to the following logarithmic expression.

Where, P is the probability of successfully satisfying the functional requirements. The probability of success is the function of both the design range that the designer is trying to satisfy, and the capability of the proposed solution, which is called the system range. A desirable solution corresponds to the region of overlap between the design range and the system range shown in figure 2 (for uniform probability function). The region of overlap is called the common range. Then the definition for the information content given by equation (5) can be rewritten as in equation (6). When there are n functional requirements, the total information is given by equation (7).

(6)

Figure 3 is a graphic interpretation of the general mapping process between functional and physical domains, and between physical and process domains. The FR-to-DP mapping takes place over a number of levels of abstraction. A given set of FRs must be successfully mapped to a set of DPs in the physical domain prior to the decomposition of the FRs. Iterations between FRto-DP mapping and the functional decomposition suggest a zigzagging between the functional and physical domains.

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- PRODUCT FUNCTION INDEPENDENT FEATURES IN AXIOMATIC DESIGN.pdf
- Advance Design Theories
- mathematicalobjects.pdf
- Domain descriptions should be modular (preliminary report)
- Elements of Axiomatic Design
- Axiom of Global Choice
- Axiom of Constructibility
- Church's Type Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
- Set 2
- Large Cardinals
- McLarty, Exploring Categorical Structuralism
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- Well Founded Ness
- Martin's Axiom
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- Forcing (Mathematics)
- Kripke Platek Set Theory
- Axiom of Regularity
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- Axiom of Adjunction
- Axioms of Set Theory_2
- 0503-001.ps
- A Theory of Probabilistic Functional Testing
- Axiomatic Design Lecture Note

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