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THINGS AS THEY ARE, WERE ARE TO COME
The Gravity Problem
ANTHONY E. LARSON
It is accepted as fact by scientists and laymen alike that as long as the Earth has been at its present mass. an astronaut on the moon effortlessly bounds about like a gazelle because the mass of the moon — and. its gravity has been the same. but we have failed to recognize it or at least acknowledge it. The evidence has been before us for almost two centuries. that law.THINGS AS THEY ARE. . WERE AND ARE TO COME The Gravity Problem Copyright © 2000 Anthony E. Larson Ever since an apple inspired Newton to see the world held together by gravity. the first amphibian to wriggle its way onto land struggled against the same gravitational pull as we do today when we get up off the couch. its gravity — is less than on Earth. Thus. however. Jupiter-sized planet. if he were to set foot on a massive. like the stars. the greater the gravitational attraction between two bodies. Growing evidence argues. we’ve come to believe that. In their view. It is now called the law of gravity. that same astronaut would be crushed to the ground by gravity. It has been exalted to an axiom in science. hence. But a sober examination of historical facts disputes that assumption. based in mass: the more mass. Earth’s gravity has varied over the eons. that there was much less gravity in ancient times and that gravity itself may be much less important to our world than is electricity. Newton’s hypothesis is so universally accepted as fact that it is no longer referred to as a theory. Conversely. unable to stand. That evidence — the stones and bones buried in the earth — clearly demonstrates that gravity is not a constant. N ewton defined gravity as a constant. gravity has always been constant.
Rather than question the ‘immutable’ law of gravity. has served to help us successfully navigate our space probes throughout the solar system. based on Newtonian physics. These anomalous objects had a measurable gravitational influence that far exceeded expectations for their size. the only other variable in the equation was mass. they determined that the mass of these objects must be far greater than their size indicated. A reassessment A fresh view of the evidence begins with a relatively recent development. if something other than the mass of an object in space determined its gravitational pull. That would account for their untoward gravitational influence. This seems to be a strong argument on the face of it. they discovered a type of star or sun that did not seem to conform to the gravitational rules.” and Newton’s law remained intact. so it was rejected without comment. scientists speculated that these bodies represented a new. these new objects were called “ultra massive. . The alternate hypothesis — that gravity was not a function of mass — was never seriously considered. further out beyond our solar system we find that things are not so clear cut. For that reason. Well established orbital mechanics. While planets and moons in our solar neighborhood may appear to follow the gravity constant rule. then a relatively small body with low mass could nevertheless have tremendous gravitation influence. They insist that the smallest variation in gravity from planet to planet would cause orbital miscalculations that would send any space vehicle awry. for whatever reason.3 Of course. Hence. But closer examination will reveal that it may not be entirely accurate. As astronomers began looking further out in space in recent decades. these anomalous stars had an apparent gravity that was equal to objects many times their size. Our entire program of space exploration is anchored in the premise of Newton’s gravity constant. Because scientists considered gravity a constant. Put another way. denser state of matter. This alternative was unthinkable to scientists. they assert. scientists scoff at such assertions as nonsense. That is. They say that the mathematical equations necessary to send astronauts to the Moon or space probes to the outer planets would fail if gravity were not constant.
The paleontological record — the stones and bones of ancient prehistory. Consider the dinosaurs. dark matter and neutron stars. This set the stage for some strange inventions. Early textbooks allude to the Brontosaur’s need to ‘float’ in the water in order to displace the considerable weight of his massive body. such turns out to be the case. but beneath our very feet. scientists opted to invent ad hoc theories to explain the anomalies. without the buoyancy of water? Indeed. Very recent discoveries reveal that far from being cold-blooded. as envisioned in theory. One wonders what led early paleontologists to believe that Brontosaurus lived in a semi-aquatic environment? There was no evidence in paleontology to suggest such might be the case. but as time went on too many anomalies went unexplained. That is. Could it be that they considered it impossible for such a giant to stand on his own. much like a ship on the ocean. swamp-dwelling reptiles. early paleontologists were more analytical and intellectually honest that today’s crop. lumbering tail-dragger confined to shallow pools of water where his considerable weight would be displace by the water’s buoyancy. . dinosaurs were probably warm-blooded. They were contrived to account for observed anomalous gravitational phenomena. Early 20th century depictions in scientific journals and textbooks of the behemoth Brontosaurus showed him standing hip-deep in water. Apparently. Rather than consider the possibility that Newton’s theory was wrong. four-legged.4 Newton’s ideas about gravity were a step forward. theoretical constructs like black holes. given the gravity constant. these things probably do not exist. a long-necked. most logical and persuasive argument against the gravity constant can be found not in the stars. entombed in the earth — argues eloquently against gravity as a constant. Those of the ‘old school’ recognized a fundamental fact that modern paleontologists universally ignore: No land animal of that size could stand erect on dry land with our present gravity. Look to the past The simplest.
indicate that bone. due to its exceptional weight. as the dinosaurs clearly had—would be sufficient to the task of propelling those massive bodies. Muscle. even though it flies in the face of current scientific dogma: They experienced less gravity! A weighty problem There is still another indication of attenuated gravity in the structural limitations of the dinosaurs’ bodies. even the largest among them moved about with remarkable ease.5 land-dwelling animals having more in common with modern birds than reptiles. Some twolegged dinosaurs were probably remarkably swift. has its limitation. The larger dinosaurs would simply have been incapable of lifting their own weight. Yet. somewhat smaller than T. no matter how massive. running much like a modern ostrich. even if they were able to stand. they would be unable to rise to their feet. given Earth’s present gravity. Some engineers doubt that muscle— even enormous amounts of it. the bones in their legs and feet would be crushed under the incredible weight of their own massive bodies. Many lived in herds or flocks. Like our theoretical astronaut on Jupiter. This begs the question: How did the really large ones manage to maneuver about with such ease. given the present gravity. grazing much like modern cattle. How did the massive dinosaurs manage to move about so deftly in spite of their tremendous size? There is only one reasonable answer. Engineers. What is more. can manage little more than an energetic shuffle when it runs. is incapable of supporting the exceedingly great weight of the larger dinosaurs. jumping and leaping with the agility of a modern Kodiak bear. the largest known carnivore on earth today. too. agility and alacrity? Today’s paleontologists correctly depict Tyrannosaurus rex running. a modern bull elephant. Taxonomy suggests that the modern elephant represents the upper limit of size for a land animal. Indisputable paleontological evidence of the existence of prehistoric creatures many . rex. who study things like the load bearing capacity of stone and steel. given their tremendous girth. More astounding still.
So it was. Their wingspan was several times greater than that of our largest birds. are massive. mute stones that speak loudly for an altered state of gravity even in historic times. the Sun Gate at Tiahuanaco. adds still more stress to the bird’s airframe. If an albatross or a condor had a longer wingspan. the bones in their wings would simply be unable to support them in flight — even if they only glided. Given today’s gravitational pull. historic times. erected by ancient man at the dawn of civilization. Megalithic evidence More compelling still is the evidence from recent. single-engine airplanes. the size of the flora and fauna is dictated by the gravity they experience. Getting off the ground The Pterosaurs were the flying dinosaurs — some of them the size of today’s small. Flapping wings to fly. these prehistoric mammals. Creatures that resemble modern animals characterized the Cenozoic era or the Age of Mammals. since modern man began his sojourn on the Earth. of course. such as giant sloths. That is. would have shattered the bones in his wings upon attempting to fly. which is about 14 to 16 feet. were much larger than their modern counterparts. Ice age mammoths and mastodons were noticeably larger than modern elephants. saber-toothed tigers and great bears. The fact that such huge dinosaurs actually flew is striking evidence that they had less gravity to contend with than do today’s birds. given today’s gravitational limitations. Even the more recent prehistoric record suggests diminished gravity.6 times more massive than the modern elephant argues persuasively that gravity was significantly less during the Jurassic than it is today. These so called “megafauna” suggest that gravity governs the general size of some animals. Ornithopterous. the largest of the flying dinosaurs. Yet. too. with the Pterosaurs. The pyramids on the Geza plateau in Egypt. Archeologists and anthropologists wonder out loud at the capacity of ancient man to build stone monuments that would challenge our best engineers and equipment. Megalithic structures. the ponderous stones in the walls .
200 tons each. Newton got it wrong. Ironically. allowing mankind to experience unique gravitational effects. The spark of understanding Thus. we see that prehistoric and historic evidence strongly suggests that gravity has not been a constant. would be almost impossible to move with the best modern heavy equipment. Gravity is not a function of mass. the Greek records indicate that the athletes carried a large stone in each hand as they competed for the highest and longest jumps. jump higher and further than ever before. perhaps the same electromagnetic phenomena that allowed them to levitate great stones also allowed them to offset their mass by carrying levitating stones as they ran and jumped.7 of Cuzco in Peru.’ perhaps all . gravity could be altered in an instant by changing the net charge on the Earth. There are indications that the first Olympic games celebrated the fact that men could suddenly run faster. Consistent with Wal Thornhill’s theory of an electric universe. How. Oddly. Just as bits of paper or hair cling to a comb that is filled with ‘static electricity.C. The first Olympiad. there is a strong suggestion in the historic record that just such a thing happened. did ancient cultures manage such Herculean feats? How were people with primitive tools and a rudimentary knowledge of engineering able to perform such exploits? The answer may be as simple as falling off a log: less gravity. If early Stone Age and Bronze Age man experienced periods of reduced gravity. may have been organized because the electromagnetic environment was altered. like the stones at Baalbek. then the opportunity to move massive stones for sacred structures would be irresistible. Stonehenge on the Aubrey Plain in England and the megaliths at Baalbek in Lebanon are only a few examples of stones so massive and well worked that modern man stands in awe at their sheer size and mass. then. But it may be a function of electrical charge.. held in Greece in 620 B. Scholars neglect to mention the stones because it seems odd that athletes wishing to jump as high or as far as possible would burden themselves with stones that could only impede their performance. Yet. Some. conservatively estimated at 1.
electrical effect. depending upon whether the change involved a net increase or decrease of charge. no exchange was possible and the attraction remained relatively weak. bring the comb close to your arm. there is no effect. You can both see it and feel it. No effect is observed.8 things are held on the Earth by a similar. We see this effect often in the lightning that leaps about in the clouds or between the clouds and the ground. the hair no longer rises to the comb. and things become heavier or lighter. Alter the charge on the Earth. Hold a static-charged comb at arms length. As long as the planets remained at a distance. Ancient observers saw lightning leap between nearby planets as well as to Earth. But when your arm and the comb come into close proximity. Now that the charge difference has been equalized by the exchange of charge. Bring the comb close enough. Now. As the comb comes closer. Past collisions or near collisions have allowed the planets to exchange their charge and change their orbits as well as their gravity. will attempt to reach electrical equilibrium by exchanging charge via interplanetary lightning bolts of epic proportion. While this example may seem simplistic. Distance is the determining factor. A similar phenomenon is at work between the stars. It is nothing more than a method of equalizing the electrical gradient differential between the ground and the cloud or between areas within the clouds. the hair on you arm rises as the comb passes over it. each with their own charge. attracted by the difference in charge between the comb and your hair. How is the charge on the Earth altered? Thornhill looks to ancient accounts of celestial thunderbolts to answer that question. The weapon of choice among the ancient celestial gods or planets was the thunderbolt — what we call lightning. Colliding or intersecting bodies in space. and a spark leaps between the comb and your arm. Sodom and Gomorrah may have been ground zero for . At a distance. it is by no means far fetched. the effect becomes pronounced. Try this experiment as a way of understanding electromagnetic attraction. their electrical nature asserted itself with a vengeance. But when events conspired to bring them into close proximity. planets and moons in space.
As noted astronomer Halton Arp put it. “Gravity is the ashes of formerly electrical systems.com/ For online classes. For more essays from this series: http://mormonprophecy. but it is electricity that lights the universe. isn’t it? Gravity is more like the pesky “static cling” in our clothes and our hair than the theory of mutual attraction of mass to which modern science clings. newsletters and published books exploring this material in depth: http://www. dictates the planets’ orbits and keeps our feet firmly planted on the ground.mormonprophecy.” Ironic.9 an interplanetary lightning strike that instantly incinerated those two hapless cities. videos.com . The fire that fell from the sky.blogspot. consumed Elijah’s sacrifice and alter as well may have been such an interplanetary lightning bolt. It may be that mass still plays a small role in the electromagnetic equation.com/ Your questions or comments are welcome: anthonyelarson@gmail.
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