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(e) Song is particular to [the art of] music; hence [the poet] will need to take his starting-points complete in themselves from that [art]. (f) Spectacle supplies * * as a great need to dramas. Plot, diction and song are observed in all comedies, reasonings, character and spectacle in [not] a few. 4.2 The quantitative parts of comedy There are four parts of comedy: (a) prologue, (b) choral [part], (c) episode and (d) exit. (a) A prologue is a part of a comedy that is up to the entry of the chorus. (b) A choral [part] is the song sung by the chorus, when it has sufficient magnitude. (c) An episode is the [part] between two choral songs. (d) An exit is the [part] uttered at the end by the chorus. 4.3 The three kinds of comedy [The kinds] of comedy are (a) old, which goes to excess in the laughable; (b) new, which abandons this, and inclines towards the grand; and (c) middle, which is mixed from both.

A Hypothetical Reconstruction of Poetics II
(based on the Tractatus Coislinianus and the fragments of Poetics II)

1. The field of the enquiry
Our [next] topic is lampoons and comedy, [and what potential each has; how many kinds of the laughable there are, of what sort they are, and how they should be used if the composition is to turn out well; also, from how many parts comedy is constituted, and of what sort they are; and likewise all other aspects of the same enquiry. Let us begin again, following the natural order, from first principles.]

1.1 The kinds of poetry are classified according to (a) representation [As we said,] poetry is of two kinds, non-representational and representational, [depending on whether the name "poet" is applied according to representation, or merely according to the media used, i.e. song and verse. The non-representational kind is divided into] (a) historical and (b) educational (whether this is for instruction or theoretical investigation). [As we said, even when someone puts such works into verse, he is not rightly called a poet according to representation.] 47

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1.2 The kinds of poetry are classified according to (b) the manner of the representation
[Representational poetry is divided according to the manner in which the representation is produced, into] (a) narrative [like epic], and (b) dramatic, i.e. enacted [like comedy and tragedy.]

3. The nature of comedy 3.1 The definition of comedy
Comedy is a representation of an action that is laughable and lacking in magnitude, complete, [in embellished speech], with each of its parts [used] separately in the [various] elements [of the play]; [represented] by people acting and [not] by means of narration; accomplishing by means of pleasure and laughter the catharsis of such emotions. It has laughter, [so to speak,] as its mother. [I explained what each of these things means when tragedy was defined.] 3.2 The qualitative parts of comedy may be deduced from the laughable [Since the function of comic representation is to represent the laughable, we must next consider from how many kinds] laughter has its structure, [i.e. how the pleasure that is particular to comic representation arises.] Laughter arises from (a) diction and (b) incidents. 3.2.1 The laughter of comedy comes from (a) diction Laughter arises from diction in seven ways. (i) First, [it arises] from homonymy, [when the same name has two or more meanings,] like "paying": [this means "defraying" and "profitable";] e.g. "metre", [which Aristophanes puns on in the Clouds.] (ii) Second, from synonymy, when two or more names have the same meaning, like "cloak", "wrap" and "mantle"; e.g. "I'm here and am arrived", which is the same thing, [as Aristophanes jokes in the Frogs.] (iii) Third, from verbosity, when someone [twice] uses the same name [with the same meaning]. (iv) Fourth, from paronymy, [when the standard name is in part the same and in part altered.] Paronyms are divided into those (a) by addition, when something extraneous is attached to the standard [name, e.g. "infamonous" instead of "infa-

1.3 The kinds of poetry are classified according to (c) the objects of the representation
[Dramatic poetry, as we said, represents people doing things, and these people and their actions are either good or inferior. The difference between] comedy and tragedy [is that the former aims to represent people as worse, the latter as better, than they are: we may add] mimes and satyr-plays. [So let this account of representation, its points of difference, and how many and what they are, suffice.]

2. The function of tragedy
[Just as I showed that tragedy and comedy arose from causes natural to man, so too they arose by nature for an end, namely the catharsis of human emotions. We have already seen how this is accomplished in tragedy. If it is properly constructed,] tragedy reduces the soul's emotions of [pity and] terror by means of compassion and dread, [which are aroused by the representation of pitiable and terrible events. By "reduces", I mean that] tragedy aims to [make the spectator] have a due proportion [i.e. the mean] of [emotions of] terror [and the like, by arousing these emotions through the representation. Tragedy, like epic, has as its end the catharsis of these emotions, which gives rise to the pleasure proper to tragedy.] It has, [as one might say, emotions of] pain as its mother. [As for how catharsis works in comedy, and how this differs from tragedy, I shall explain below when we have looked at the nature of the laughable. But now let us discuss comedy, taking up the definition of its essence that results from what has been said.]

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mous"]; and (b) by shortening, [when something is removed from the standard name,] e.g. "I'm called Midas the joke" [instead of "joker". Also] (c) from a diminutive, [when the standard name is lengthened or curtailed to trivialise something and make it laughable,] e.g. "Socratiddles, Euripidipides" [for "Socrates" and "Euripides" in Aristophanes. Again,] (d) from an alteration, [when the standard name is in part left unchanged and in part made up, e.g.] "the worstest of all" [instead of "the worst"]. [(v) Again, laughter arises from parody, when one name is pronounced instead of another,] e.g. "O Clod Almighty" instead of "O God". [(vi) Again, from metaphor. By "metaphor" I mean, as we said, the transference of names from things similar] either in sound or [in appearance or potential or some other perceptible quality, especially if ugly but not painful or destructive; one should not transfer a name from something too dissimilar, but use] something of the same genus [or similar by analogy, otherwise it will be a riddle but not a metaphor.] (vii) Seventh, from the form of the diction. [By this I mean e.g. what is a command, or what is a wish; this belongs to the art of delivery.] [These then are the seven kinds of the laughable that arise from diction, and it necessarily follows that diction is an element of comic representation.] 3.2.2 The laughter of comedy comes from (b) the incidents Laughter [also arises] from the incidents [on the stage,] in two ways. [As I said in the Rhetoric, a major cause of amusement is making something like something else, and the accompanying deception of expectations. Obviously this can happen in the incidents.] (i) [Laughter arises] first from deception, e.g. Strepsiades believing that the story about the flea was true [in Aristophanes' Clouds,] and (ii) secondly from making [something] like [something else]. Making something like something else is divided into two in its use: (a) making something like something better [than it is], e.g. [the slave] Xanthias [disguised as the hero] Heracles [in Aristophanes' Frogs,] or (b) making it like something

worse, e.g. [the god] Dionysus [disguised as the slave] Xanthias [in the same play]. [Other kinds of the laughable are errors in serious poetry, which can be used inappropriately on purpose to arouse laughter, as we said. Laughter arises] (iii) from the impossible, [or] (iv) from the possible and inconsequential, [i.e. the improbable; these are effective if they accomplish the function of the representation, i.e. the arousal of laughter; otherwise they are errors even in comedy. It also arises] (v) from things contrary to expectation. [From this it will be clear that the representation of the action or structure of the incidents is also useful for arousing laughter, and it necessarily follows that this is an element of comic representation.] [Laughter also arises] (vi) from making the characters incline to be wicked [without this being necessary or probable; this is of course an error in tragedy. Comedy represents persons who are inferior to us, as we said, but not in every kind of wickedness. What sort of people they are may be revealed] (vii) by their use of vulgar dancing [like the cordax, or] (viii) [by bad decision, e.g.] when someone who has the power [to decide] lets go the most important things and takes those most inferior. [Hence character too is a part of comic representation; but so also is reasoning, since actions are caused by the reasoning as well as the characters of the people acting. Therefore laughter can also arise] (ix) [from reasoning,] when the argument [for an action] is disjointed and lacking any sequence. [These, then, are the kinds of the laughable arising from the incidents.] [For this reason the elements of all comic representation are necessarily four, diction, plot, character and reasoning. Comedy is superior to lampoon in this, since it has song and spectacle also.]

3.3 The function of personal abuse in comedy and lampoon
[Again, comedy and abuse in verse, i.e. lampoon, differ in the representation of people. As we said in the Rhetoric, the elements of the laughable are people, words and deeds.] Comedy is superior to abuse, since abuse details without concealment the bad [qualities and actions] attaching to people, but comedy

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requires the so-called innuendo. [Whereas abuse represents how actual people like Alcibiades do behave, comedy, in its essential nature to which it has attained, aims to represent how people may behave in general; this is why, as we said, comic poets now use made-up names for their characters, and do not abuse real people as the writers of lampoons do.] [Even so, there is a place for jokes in comedy, since vice should be reproached, and a joke is a concealed reproach of an error. In both comedy and lampoon,] the joker wishes to expose errors of soul and body [in his victims, and this arouses laughter, provided that the error is not painful or destructive to the victim or others.]

4. The parts of comedy 4.1 The qualitative parts of comedy, and how they should be used
The elements of comedy are, [as we have shown, six:] plot, character, reasoning, diction, song and spectacle. [These are the same as the elements of tragedy, and, as in tragedy, two of them refer to the media of the representation (i.e. diction and song), one to the manner (i.e. spectacle), and three to the object of the representation (i.e. plot, character and reasoning). There are no others except these.] 4.1.1 Plot in comedy Comic plot is one which is structured around laughable actions. [We have said of what sort these are. The action should be structured in accordance with probability, unless the comedy achieves its aim better by using impossibilities and improbabilities, as we have seen.] 4.1.2 Character in comedy [Comedy represents characters who are inferior to ourselves, i.e. worse than we are: therefore comic characters are those who are somehow in error in soul or body. Typical] characters of comedy are the buffoonish, the ironical, and the boasters. [Each of these diverges from the mean, and therefore deserves not praise but reproach. As we said in the Ethics, the buffoon errs in humour, as he will make any joke, even against himself, to please another, but an ironical person jokes to please himself. This is why we say that buffoonery is more suited to a slave and less to a free citizen than is irony. But even the ironical man errs, just as does the boaster in the opposite way; the first understates the truth, the second overstates it. Both, then, are liars, but the boaster seems more worthy of blame. But, as we said, not every kind of bad character is appropriate, but only those that are not painful or destructive.] 4.1.3 Reasoning in comedy The parts of reasoning are two, [as we said, namely] general statement and proof. [These are explained in the Rhetoric. In

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3.4 The function of tragedy and comedy compared
[Now that we have considered the laughable and its parts, we should explain what we stated above about the function of comedy, i.e. the catharsis of pleasure and laughter. Just as the function of tragedy is to arouse pity and terror through the representation of pitiable and terrifying actions, which come about through an error that is painful or destructive in some way, so too the function of comedy is to arouse pleasure and laughter through the representation of laughable actions, which also come about through an error, though not a painful or destructive one. Each kind of poetry aims to purify that part of the soul concerned with these emotions. By seeing a representation of terrifying things happening to others, one will learn to feel terror in the right way, for the right reason, to the right extent and so on; this will be accomplished by the catharsis of the emotion of terror.] [This applies not to the painful emotions only, but to the pleasant ones as well. Just as] in tragedies [the poet] aims to produce a due proportion of terror [in the souls of the spectators, so too] in comedies there is to be a due proportion of the laughable. [So much for the function of tragedy and comedy.]

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particular the comic poet should use the proofs that do not depend on art:] there are five [of these]—oaths, agreements, testimonies, ordeals and laws. 4.1.4 Diction in comedy [We have already discussed diction and its parts, and how laughter arises from it.] Comic diction is common and popular. [Therefore it uses standard names and metaphors more than exotic names, since it is closer to everyday speech than is tragedy. In tragedy the characters all speak in the same way, but in comedy the diction should be appropriate.] The comic poet should assign his characters their own ancestral dialect, and himself the local one. [Thus the Boeotian in Aristophanes' Acharnians uses his own dialect, but the poet in the parabasis uses the local Attic dialect.] 4.1.5 Song and spectacle in drama [The last two elements of comedy are shared with tragedy but not with epic, and as we passed over them before we will mention them now.] Song, [i.e. speech, rhythm and melody,] is particular to [the art of] music [and not to that of poetry.] Hence [the poet] will need to take his starting-points complete in themselves from that [art.] Spectacle [belongs still less to the art of poetry, but is enthralling. It] supplies, as a great benefit to dramas, [both tragic and comic, the masks, scenery and costumes.] 4.1.6 The qualitative parts of comedy are not equally important [Of these elements,] plot, diction and song are observed in all comedies, but reasonings, character and spectacle in [not] a few. [If there is no plot, there is no representation of an action, but an action can be represented without including the character and reasonings of those acting. Spectacle is least particular to the art of poetry, as the nature of a comedy can be apparent even when it is read. But a comedy could not exist without the means of representation, since each comedy consists of spoken verses and choral song in its separate parts. Preferably one should try to have all the elements; otherwise, as many as pos-

sible of them. So much for the parts of comedy that one should use as elements.] 4.2 The quantitative parts of comedy The [quantitative] parts of comedy, [i.e. the separate parts into which it is divided,] are four: (a) prologue, (b) choral [part], (c) episode and (d) exit. (a) A prologue is a [whole] part of a comedy that is up to the entry of the chorus. (b) A choral [part] is the song sung by the chorus, when it has sufficient magnitude. (c) An episode is the [whole] part [of a comedy] that is between two [whole] choral songs. (d) An exit is a [whole] part [of a comedy] uttered at the end by the chorus. [These, then, are the quantitative parts of comedy, i.e. the separate parts into which it is divided.] 17

5. The three kinds of comedy compared
[Comedy is superior to lampoon, as we stated. But comedy did not at once relinquish the form of the lampoon, but developed little by little to attain its nature.] The old comedy goes to excess in the laughable [as does the buffoon, since he desires to please everybody, including vulgar people.] The new comedy abandons this, and inclines towards the grand [or serious; but there should be jokes and laughter in comedy. Therefore] the comedy intermediate [between these is left,] which is mixed from both, [e.g. the comedies of Aristophanes. This kind is the best.] [Regarding comedy and lampoon, then, and indeed poetry as a whole, in themselves, their kinds and their parts, as to how many there are and how they differ, and what are the causes of doing well or not in them, let this account suffice.]

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