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A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM AND EMPLOYEE MORALE WITH REFERENCE TO INTERNATIONAL BAKERY PRODUCTS LIMITED

SUMMER PROJECT REPORT Submitted by R.PRIYA REGISTER NO: 27348328 Under the guidance of Mr.G.BALA SENDHIL KUMAR B.E., MBA., M.Phil., Faculty, department of management studies
In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree Of

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES

SRI MANAKULAVINAYAGAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY PUDUCHERRY, INDIA


SEPTEMBER 2007

SRI MANAKULA VINAYAGAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY


DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES
BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
This to certify that the project work entitled A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM AND EMPLOYEE MORALE is a bonafide work done by R.PRIYA (REGISTER NO: 27348328) in partial fulfillment of the requirement for award of Master of Business Administration by Pondicherry University during the academic year2007-2008.

GUIDE

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

Submitted for the Viva-voce examination held on

EXTERNAL EXAMINER 1. 2.

ACKNOWLEGEMENT
First and foremost we thank the god for his blessings, showered on us in completing the project successfully. I whole heartedly thank my respected chairman MR.N.KESAVAN, Vice Chairman MR. S.P.SUGUMARAN, and beloved Managing director MR. DHANASEKARAN who helped us in all our endeavors and for his blessings on us to make this project a successful one. I would like to express my profound gratitude to all those who have been instrumental in the preparation of the project report. I wish to place on deep sense of gratitude to our principal MR.V.S.K.VENKATACHALAPATHY then keen interest and affection towards as through out the course. I convey my sincere thanks to MR.S.JAYAKUMAR head of the department, for his interest towards us throughout the course. I take the privilege to extend my heartily thanks to internal guide Mr. G.BALA SENTHIL KUMAR for his valuable suggestion throughout the project duration. I am grateful to my company guide Mr. MURUGAN personal manager HR, for his valuable guidance and inspiration extended all along the project. I also wish my sincere thanks to all the teachers and non-teaching staff of department of MBA, Sri Manakula Vinayager Engineering College, without whose cooperation this project would not be a success. Lastly, I wish to thank my parents and friends who supported and helped me in completion of this project.

ABSTRACT
The absenteeism is the major factor that affects the organization growth. Absenteeism is the emerging human resources issue in this organization. The study on employee absenteeism and employee moral in IBPL helps the management to evaluate the main cause of absenteeism and the mental attitude of the employee towards the organization. A structured questionnaire is prepared and the data are collected from the IBPL employees. The data are collected are analyzed using the statistical tools like percentage method, chi-square, weighted average method, Correlation, mean standard deviation. From the analysis it is inferred that the major factors for absenteeism are health problem, heavy workload. Certain facilities like transportation, canteen is not satisfactory to the employees. So the general morale of the employee is normal.

TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER
LIST OF TABLES LIST OF CHART I INTRODUCTION 1.1 CIMPANY PROFILE 1.2 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY 1

TITLE

PAGE NO

II III IV V VI VII VIII

REVIEW OF LITERATURE OBEJECTIVES OF THE STUDY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION FINDINGS OF THE STUDY & SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSIONS LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY & SCOPE FOR THE FURTHER STUDY ANNEXURE -I ANNEXURE -II

7 19 20 24 46 48 49 51 52

LIST OF TABLES S.N 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 TABLE NAME GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENT CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR DEPARTMENT CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR MONTHLY INCOME CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR EXPERIENCE CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR FAMILY MEMBWE CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR NEW IDEAS CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR LEAVE PER MONTH CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR SHIFT CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON PAGE.NO 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

THEIR LEAVE WITH PRIOR PERMISSION 5.11.1 ANALYSIS OF OPIONION RECORDING TO GENDER AND PROMOTION OBSERVED FREQUENCY 5.11.2 EXPECED FREQUENCY 5.11.3 CHI-SQUARE TABLE 5.12.1 ANALYSIS OF OPIONION OBSERVED FREQUENCY 5.12.2 EXPECTED FREQUENCY 5.12.3 CHI-SQUARE TABLE

RECORDING

TO

JOB

34 35 36

EXPERIENVE AND LEAVE WITH PRIOR PERMISSION 36 37

5.13.1 ANALYSIS OF OPIONION RECORDING TO MOTIVATION AND PROMOTION OBSERVED FREQUENCY 5.13.2 EXPECTED FREQUENCY 5.13.3 CHI-SQUARE TABLE 5.14.1 ANALYSIS OF OPIONION RECORDING TO MOTIVATION AND REWATD OBSERVED FREQUENCY 5.14.2 EXPECTED FREQUENCY 5.14.3 CHI-SQUARE TABLE 5.15 TO FIND THE RANK FOR ABSENTEEISM 5.16 TO FIND THE RANK FOR THE FACTORS 5.17 ANALYSIS OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUPERVISOR 5.18 AND COWORKER ANALYSIS FOR THE FACTORS

38

38 39 40

40 41 42 43 44 45

LIST OF CHART

S.N 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10

CHART NAME GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENT CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR DEPARTMENT CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR MONTHLY INCOME CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR EXPERIENCE CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR FAMILY MEMBWE CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR NEW IDEAS CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR LEAVE PER MONTH CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR SHIFT CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR LEAVE WITH PRIOR PERMISSION

PAGE.NO 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

CHAPTER -I INTRODUCTION 1.1 COMPANY PROFILE


Name of the company with address: International Baker Products Limited, Puducherry-Tindivannm highway, Post T.C.Balam-605111.

International Bakery Products Limited is a joint venture of Britannia Industries ltd and Auro food. Auro food started a biscuit plant in the year 1972 with the capacity of 400 tones of biscuits per month at Thiruchitrambalam, Villupuram-605111. Initially the biscuit plant had 3 baking zones and later this was extended by adding 2 more zones in the year 1995. In the year 1984 second plant was erected with 4 baking zones and it added an additional production tonnage of 450 tones. In the year 1996, as the production capacity of 850 tones was not fully utilized. Auro food offered to share the excess production capacity with Britannia. Hence Britannia started production of their products in this factory on a conversion basis. In the year of 1997 Britannia acquired 50% of shares from Auro food and formed a separate company with effect from 02-04-1997. Subsequently Britannia acquired another 25% of share from Auro food. The newly formed company is called International Bakery Products Limited. 1.1.2 Resource Management Purpose To define the policy and plant to provide the resources needed. To implement the quality management system effectively. To realize the production of biscuits fully meeting customer requirements.

Scope All the employees Infrastructure and work environment of the organization 1.1.3Responsibility Top Management Top management is responsible for the provision of adequate resources and ensuring effective utilization.

Employees All the employees are responsible in ensuring effective utilization of the resources provided.

Management representative Management representative is responsible for monitoring all areas where resources are required and communicating then to the top management. Provision of resources The management is providing all the necessary resources to implement and maintain the quality management system. Human resources o o o o It is ensured the persons employees are knowledgeable, competent to carryout the job assigned, and employees records are maintained. Training needs are identified and training is imparted at the time of induction of employees and also on periodical basis. All the employees are given awareness and training on the quality management system as per ISO9001 requirements. Selected persons are given training in internal quality audit methods and they will be carrying out the periodical internal quality audit.

Infrastructure The entire essential infrastructure has been provided to achieve conformity of the product requirements, there include; a. Building b. Workspace c. Machine/equipments, material management system d. Measuring instruments & gauges.

The maintenance and house keeping are effectively done as per plan and records maintained. Work environment The work area is will ventilated and a healthy and hygienic environment is provided for the employees. Organization chart The top management has structured the organization to streamline the execution responsibilities of various incumbents and their reporting system to achieve efficient quality management.

UNIT HEAD Personnel Manager Management Production representative In-charge Maintenance In-charge Lab In-charge

Shift

General stores

S&F

1.1.4 Distribution of the responsibility & authority:


I. Unit head: The unit head the company and is responsible To ensure that quality policy and objectives are met. To ensure continual improvement based on feedback from management review meetings. To ensure provisions of adequate resources for the effective functioning of the quality management system. The delegated responsibility and authority for the effective functionary of the system is attached as a responsibility matrix. II. Management representative

The management representative shall have the responsibility and authority for: Ensuring that the quality system is established, implemented and maintained accordance with ISO9001:2000. Organization internal quality audit, once in a quarter. Verifying the implementations of corrective and preventive action plans. Initialing incorporation of amendments to this quality manual and quality system procedure as and when necessary. Ensuring timely action of reporting to the top management about the performance of the quality management and the improvement needed if any. Ensuring that all reviews are organized as per documented plan and minutes maintained. Monitoring the control of external documents.

III. Internal communication: The organization has established a very effective system for internal communication to ensure that information reaches every point of importance in time by circular and also by notice board. 1.1.5 Quality policy We at IBPL are committed to manufacture and supply quality products meeting customer specifications and delivery schedules achieved by continually process improvements, up graduation, of technology, quality system, effective training of personnel and migrating towards being the lowest cost products.

1.1.6 Planning Quality objective Reduce product wastage. Reduce customer complaints. Implement GMPS progressively Upgrade infrastructure to ensure food safety.

1.2 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY A study on employee absenteeism and employee morale in IBPL. The absenteeism of employee in the organization is so many reasons. These reasons are thoroughly identify the study.

The morale of the employee in the organization is high or low, thoroughly identifies the study.

ABSENTEEISM

Unsuitable Working Conditions

absent of adequate welfare facilities

heavy workload

employer relation

health problem

family function

MORALE

Job

Salary

Canteen Facilities

Transport facilities

Medical facilities

CHAPTER -II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 ABSENTEEISM 2.1.1 Meaning of absenteeism

Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligations. 2.1.2 Definition of absenteeism Absenteeism is usually addressed through progressively stricter disciplinary measure that can result in the termination of the individuals employment. Employee absenteeism is not just an employee issue it is an organizational problem and therefore becomes everyones responsibility. Any failure of an employee to report for or to remain as scheduled, regardless of reason. 2.1.3 Employee absenteeism policy The absenteeism policy which addresses chronic absence from work. Guidelines for absenteeism policy Allowable absences Payment for work including payment for days missed before and after a holding. Types of excused and unexcused absences. Days/hours worked on a normal wok scheduled before payment. Days/hours worked on a normal work scheduled before payment of overtime hours occurs within a pay period. Policy about calling in absences. Supervisor management of absenteeism via paying attention to selected patterns of absences and tardiest. 2.1.4 Reducing employee absenteeism

Productivity is one of the keys to your success. However, productivity may be impacted as your employees cop with life events that keep them from the workplace and keep your business from being its most efficient Mass mutual has produced and services that can help your employees prepare for life events. Helping you to reduce the rate of employee absenteeism.

2.1.5 How to deal with employee absenteeism: The four strategies are used to deal with employee absenteeism. The four strategies is not only used reduce absenteeism you will reduce employee burnout, poor morale and workplace negativism.

2.1.5.1 Four strategies are * * * * * Change management style. Change working conditions. Provide incentives. Develop an attendance policy. Change management style Management styles that are too authoritarian tend to promote high levels of absenteeism among employees. Authoritarian style is providing management trading, reducing turnover, job burnout, and employee health problems such as backaches and headaches. * Changing working condition The working conditions I am referring to relate to coworker relationship. The relationship is stress occur the between the employee and manager, but it also exist between employees.

Provide incentives Giving employees incentives for absenteeism is not the same as rewarding or giving employees bonus for reduced absenteeism. An incentive provides an employee with a boost to their motivation to avoid unnecessary absenteeism.

Develop an attendance policy An attendance policy allows a manager to intervene with an employee who is frequently absent. Stress as a primary reason for employee absenteeism, other causes relate to alcoholism, domestic violence, and family problems.

2.1.6 Major absenteeism Unsuitable working conditions. Absent of adequate welfare facilities. Heavy workload. Employer relation. Health problem. Family function & personnel problem. 2.1.7 Causes of absenteeism The causes of absenteeism are; o Stress. o Workload. o Poor physical fitness. o Inadequate nutrition. o Lack of job satisfaction. o Bourdon on the job. o Low morale.

o Poor working condition. o Personal problem. o The existence of income protection plan. 2.1.8 Poor attendance The problem of poor attendance includes absenteeism and/or tardiness. Poor attendance can become or serious problem that leads to discharge for just causes. If poor attendance is not managed properly, employee productivity can decline and group morale can forced to increased their efforts to compensate for people who shick their responsibilities. 2.1.9 Trends in absenteeism The higher the rate of pay and the greater the length of service of the employee, the fever the absences. As an organization grows, there is a tendency towards higher rates of absenteeism. Women are absent more frequently than men. Singly employees are absent more frequently than married employees. Younger employees are absent more frequently than older employees but the latter are absent for larger period of time. Unionized organizations have higher absenteeism rates than non-union organization.

2.2 MORALE 2.2.1 Meaning

Morale is a crucial component in the overall success of any company or organization. When the work environment is void of motivation, the employees have no energy or inspiration from which to build. The skills and experience to change the attitudes of your employees by building excitement and anticipation. This change will be seen in increased productivity levels of the entire structures. 2.2.2 Definition of employee morale Davis define moral is A mental condition of groups and individual which determines their attitude. Theo Harman defineMorale is the state of mind and emotions affecting the attitude and willingness to work, which in true affects individual and organizational objectives. Flippo define morale isA mental condition or attitude of individuals and groups which determines their willingness to co-operate with others to meet organization al objectives. M.S. Viteles defines Morale as an attitude or a desire to continue in and willingness of strive for, the goals of a particular group of organization. Milton Blum definesMorale as the possession of feeling of being accepted by and the belonging to a common goal and confidence in the desirability of these goals.

2.2.3 Employee morale assessment Employee relationship How you, your co-workers, and management get along.

Company communication: How well management keeps you informed. Appreciation & recognition: How appreciation you feel on a daily basis. Employee input: How you company values your creative ideas Fulfillment: How meaningful your job is to you. Personal & professional growth: Opportunities to develop both your career and your personal qualities. Employee spirit: How much positive energy and enthusiasm is generated at your workplace. 2.2.4 Poor employee morale The most important things that can be done to improve upon a businesss chances for success is to beat poor employee morale in the workplace and motivate team members at their jobs. By failing to prevent of employee burnout and overall dissatisfaction. Morale in the workplace is among the end results of the different elements the makeup the entire working environment. Examples of there elements includes salary, worker satisfaction, responsibilities, supervisory contributions, overall working conditions, status. Poor employee morale be watched for very carefully among all employees. Such symptoms can include frequent absences, increases in the number of errors, decreased productivity, decreased quality of work, frequent tardiness, apathy, sulking and moping, backstabbing, and increased in accidents or injuries. 2.2.5 Causes of poor employee morale Unstable financial health of the company.

Overwork or a consistently health workload. Feeling unappreciated or underappreciated for the work done. Conditions of the workplace. Demanding, rigid supervision that too involved in the work being done. Unsupportive, work supervision that does not offer enough input or guidance.

2.2.6 Improving employee moral o Improving employee morale benefits everyone involved in a work place. o Improve employee morale by showing your appreciation in simple ways, such as rewarding an employee by saying, job well done, or thank you for the good work. o Employee morale is by being friendly and interested in your employees. o Encouraging social interaction between employees and immediately resolving conflict o Social interaction positively influences co-operation and a general enthusiasm about coming to work everyday. o Improve employee morale is by offering reward incentives. o A very important factor in improving employee morale is the work environment. 2.2.7 Factors of employee morale 1. leadership 2. co-workers 3. nature of work 4. Work environment 5. Management body of the organization 6. Nature of supervision. 7. Job security 8. Job enrichment

9. Organization structure 10. Grievance handling. 2.2.8 Measurement of morale Morale can be measured by assessing attitudes and job satisfaction. There are several techniques to measure employee attitudes: inference, prediction from behavioral data, interviews and questionnaires and scales of there techniques interviews have been frequently used to measure attitudes. questionnaires and scales have been used interviews or independently, to get increased reliability and objectively. There are two basic methods for selecting and scaling items: 1. likert method of summated rating The likert method is much simpler and therefore more suitable. In this method each statement in a series is usually followed by a five-step scale: strongly agree, agree undecided, disagree and strongly disagree. Statement which have the more discriminating power and selected on the basis of scale value difference analysis. Based on this method several techniques have been devised to measure employee attitudes and morale. 2. Guttmann method of scale analysis To measure job attitudes, the job description index (JDI), this techniques has been developed the scale provides the worker with a set of adjectives as possible descriptions of five dimensions of the job increasing working conditions, pay, promotion, supervision and co-workers. The worker is required give yes, no or dont know response, for each adjective. The scale provides a satisfaction score for the five job areas as well as an overalls score.

2.2.9 Morale and productivity

Morale and productivity had a circular causal relationship (i.e. better morale led to better productivity Morale had four dimensions: job satisfaction, satisfaction with wages and promotional opportunities, identification with the company, and pride in work group. They formed that only the last dimension was significantly correlated to productivity. Two dozen studies on the effects of morale on productivity. In 54 percent of the studies, high morale was related to high productivity: in 35 percent, morale and productivity were not related to low productivity. Morale improves productivity under certain conditions, specifically where creativity or craftsmanship influences the product. Morale is related to low productivity under conditions in which a frozen group develops for restricting productivity as a price of membership. 2.2.10 Morale as a responsibility of management Morale as a responsibility of management of management is following ways: A. Peoples ability to withstand stress The history of management employee relations, morale is also influenced by the ability of people to withstand stress at work when people habitually consider their work environment as benevolent, or at least as not specifically threatening, they may perceive job stress as a nuisance rather then a calamity. B. Controlling fluctuations in morale The basic factor which cause fluctuations in morale include perceived psychological advantage and existent of adequate grievance channels. The management must help employees to protect their psychological advantage by providing adequate grievance channels. The most powerful factor which the

management must consider is the relationship of the employee with his immediate supervisor. Morale improves a problem on its merit accessible keep to solve a problem on its merit and willing to promote the employees genuine interest. C. Expectations of people and reality Management should realize that morale also depends upon the relationship between expectation and reality. Morale improves if the employees work environment provides them the kinds of rewards they expect or at least shows that expected rewards are forthcoming. D. Morale cannot be permanent Finally, the management must understand that morale can never be permanently assured because new dissatisfactions keep arising as old ones are relieved, forgotten or replaced. 2.2.11 Indices of low morale Employee unrest. Absenteeism and tardiness. Employee turnover. Grievances. Need for discipline. Fatigue and monotony.

2.3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE FROM JOURNALS, THESIS & SEMINOR PAPER

Employee Morale By Barbara A. Glanz The workplace is enveloped by the fear of downsizing, loss of job security, overwhelming changes in technology, and the stress of having to do more with less, employee morale and job satisfaction are at the lowest point. Managers must recognize this phenomenon and do their best to counteract it if their organizations are going to survive.

Employee morale By David Javitch Morale is defined as the end result of many factors present in the workplace environment. Some of these factors are the work setting itself, worker satisfaction and action, salary, supervisory input, working conditions, status, and more.

EmployeeAbsenteeismbyEtienneAGibbs Employers pay a high price for absenteeism, often more than they may realize, in terms of both financial and production losses and employee morale. Managers may view the tasks of finding a substitute employee as a short-term inconvenience; however, absenteeism frequently has more serious long-term effects. Employers can, nevertheless, ensure that employees report in regularly and remain on the job. Before employers can determine the best way to combat absenteeism, they must identify the organizational and individual factors that contribute to the problem.

Employee Absenteeism By Ken Godevenos

Organizations are often working with limited resources, and those that arent still have to be productive and effective. In either situation, absenteeism of staff can and often does create undue pressure. The result can impact both results and morale, and our churches are no exception. Employee morale by F.william hubbartt Many issues or problem occurring in the workplace can be resolved through better communications. Errors in the handling of customer orders or service are often due to some sort of breakdown in communication. And, in employee attitude surveys, communication from management is almost always ranked low by employees. The problem is that most of us feel that we are good communicators it is the other guy who didnt get the message right.

CHAPTER - III

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Primary objective: To study on employee absenteeism & employee morale in International Bakery Products Limited.

Secondary objective: To study & evaluate the work environment & working conditions. To identify employee welfare measure. To focus on reasons for employee absenteeism. To study the financial status of employee.

CHAPTER - IV

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4.1 Research Research is defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. 4.2 Methodology Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. 4.3 Research design A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. 4.4 Sample size The sample size is 125 out of 211 employees. 4.5 Types of data Primary data Secondary data Primary data The primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus happen to be original in character. Secondary data The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which already been passed through the satisfaction process.

4.6 Defining the population Total employer work in organization 211. 4.7 Sampling plan Out of 211 employees give study for only taking for 125 employees.

4.8 Period of study The period of study is one days. 4.9 Analytical tools percentage method chi-square method weighted average method correlation mean & standard deviation

4.9.1 Percentage method The percentage procedure provides statistics and graphical displays that are useful for describing many types of variables. The percentage procedure is a good place to start looking at your data. For a percentage report and bar chart, you can arrange the distinct values in ascending or descending order, or you can order the categories by their percentage. The percentage report can be suppressed when a variable has many distinct values. You can label charts with percentage. FORMULA No. of respondents Percentage of respondents = Total no. of respondents X 100

4.9.2 Chi-square test Tabulates a variable into categories and computes a chi-square statistic based on the differences between observed and expected frequencies. The chi-square test procedure tabulates a variable into categories and computes a chi-square statistic. This goodness-of-fit test compares the observed and expected frequencies in each category to test that all categories contain the same proportion of values or test that each category contains a user-specified proportion of values. FORMULA (O-E)2 Chi-square = E O = observed frequency E = expected frequency 4.9.3 Weighted average method The weighted average method, where the importance of the items varies, it is essential to allocate weights to the items. Thus weightage is a number standing for the relative importance of the items. Weighted average can be defined as an average of component items. FORMULA WX Weighted average method = X1 4.9.4 Correlation

Correlation analysis attempts to determine the degree of relationship between variables. The correlation expresses the relationship or inter-dependence of two sets of variables upon each other in such a way that the changes in the values of one variable are in sympathy with the changes in the other. Correlation is the numerical measurement showing the degree of correlation between two variables. FORMULA Cov (X,Y) Co-efficient of correlation R = S.D X*S.D Y 4.9.5 Mean & standard deviation Mean Mean is the most common type and widely used measure of central tendency. Mean of a series is the figure obtained by dividing the total value of the various items by their number. Standard deviation It is the most important measure of dispersion and is widely used in many statistical formulae. Standard deviation is also called root-mean square deviation. The reason is that it is the square root of the means of the squared deviation from the arithmetic mean

FORMULA Standard deviation Co-efficient of variance = Mean CHAPTER - V

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS TABLE 5.1 S.N 1 2 Gender Male Female No. of respondents 83 43 Percentage 66.4 33.6

GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS CHART 5.1


70
P E R C E N T A G E

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Male GENDER Female


33.6 66.4

INTERPRETATION: Majority of respondents are more then female respondents.

AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS

TABLE 5.2 S.N 1 2 3 4 Age Below 25 25-35 35-45 45-55 No. of respondents 3 13 78 31 Percentage 2.4 10.4 62.4 24.8

AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS CHAT 5.2


70

P E R C E N T A G E

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Below 25 25-35 35-45 45-55

62.4

24.8 2.4 10.4

AGE

INTERPRETATION: The 62.4% of respondents age between 35-45, 24.8% of respondents age between 45-55, 10.4% of respondents age between 25-35, 2.4% of respondents age is below 25.

CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENT BASED ON THEIR DEPARTMENT

TABLE 5.3 S.N 1 2 3 Department Production Packing Maintenance No. of respondents 30 89 6 percentage 24.0 71.2 4.8

CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENT BASED ON THEIR DEPARTMENT CHART 5.3


100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Production Packing

P E R C E N T G E

71.2

24 4.8
Maintenance

DEPARTMENT

INTERPRETATION: The 71.2% of respondents working in packing department, 24% of respondents working in production department, 4.8% respondents working in maintenance department.

CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR MONTHLY INCOME

TABLE 5.4 S.N 1 2 3 4 Monthly income Rs. Below 2000 2000-4000 4000-6000 Above 4member No. of respondents 2 8 65 50 Percentage 1.6 6.4 52 40

CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR MONTHLY INCOME CHART 5.4


60 P E R C E N T A G E 50 40 30 20 10 1.6 0 Below 2000 6.4 2000-4000 4000-6000 MONTHLY INCOME Above 6000 52 40

INTERPRETATION: The 52% of respondents earn monthly income between Rs.4000-6000, 40% Of respondents early on monthly income is above 6000,6.4% of respondents earn monthly income between Rs. 2000-4000,1.6% of respondents earn monthly income is below 2000.

CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR EXPERIENCE

TABLE 5.5 S.N 1 2 3 4 Experience 5-10yrs 10-20yrs 20-30yrs 30-40yrs No. of respondents 8 31 71 15 percentage 6.4 24.8 56.8 12.0

CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR EXPERIENCE CHART 5.5


P E R C E N T A G E
60 50 40 30 20 10 0

56.8

24.8 6.4
5-10yrs 10-20yrs 20-30yrs

12
30-40yrs

EXPERIENCE

INTERPRETATION: 56.8 % of respondents experience is 20-30yrs & 24.8 % of respondents experience between 10-20yrs,12% respondents experience between 30-40yrs, 6.4% of respondents experience between 5-10yrs.

CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR FAMILY MEMBER

TABLE 5.6 S.N 1 2 3 4 Family member 1 member 2member 3 member Above 4 member No. of respondents 0 5 16 104 percentage 0 4.0 12.8 83.2

CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR FAMILY MEMBER CHART 5.6


P E R C E N T A G E
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 member

83.2

4
2member

12.8
3 member Above 4 member

FAMILY MEMBER

INTERPRETATION: The 83.2% of respondents family member is above 4, 12.3% of respondents family member is 3, and 4.0% of respondents family member is 2.

CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR NEW IDEAS

TABLE 5.7 S.N 1 2 3 New ideas Always Rarely Never No. of respondents 55 35 35 Percentage 44.0 28.0 28.0

CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR NEW IDEAS CHART 5.7


50 45

P E R C E N T A G E

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Always Rarely Never

44

28

28

NEW IDEAS

INTERPRETATION: The 44% of respondents always suggest new ideas for solve employee problem,28% of respondents rarely suggest new idea for solve employee problem and 28% of respondents never suggest new idea for solve employee problem.

CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR LEAVE PER MONTH

TABLE 5.8 S.N 1 2 3 4 Leave per month 0 leave 1-5 days leave 5-10 days leave Above 10 days leave No. of respondents 36 76 5 8 Percentage 28.8 60.8 4.0 6.4

CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR LEAVE PER MONTH CHART. NO: 8.1
70 P E R C E N T A G E 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 leave 1-5 days leave 4 6.4 28.8 60.8

5-10 days Above 10 leave days leave

LEAVE PER MONTH

INTERPRETATION: The 60.8% of respondents take leave per month between 1-5 days leave, 28.8% of respondents not leave taken by month, 6.4% of respondent take leave per month is above 10 days & 4% of respondents take leave per month between 5-10 days. CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR SHIFT

TABLE 5.9 S.N 1 2 3 4 Shift Morning shift Afternoon shift Night shift Any shift No. of respondents 10 8 67 40 Percentage 8.0 6.4 53.6 32.0

CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR SHIFT CHART 5.9


60

P E R C E N T A G E

50 40 30 20 10

53.6

32

8
0 M.S

6.4
A.S N.S A.S

SHIFT

INTERPRETATION: The 53.6% of respondents take leave for night shift,32% of respondents take leave for all shift6.4% of respondents take leave for afternoon shift and 8% of respondents take leave for morning shift. CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR LEAVE WITH PRIOR PERMISSION

S.N

TABLE 5.10 Leave with prior No. of respondents permission Always Rarely Never 47 65 13

Percentage

1 2 3

37.6 52.0 10.4

CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR LEAVE WITH PRIOR PERMISSION CHART 5.10
60

P E R C E N T A G E

50 40 30 20 10

52 37.6

10.4
0 Always Rarely Never

LEAVE WITH PRIOR PERMISSION

INTERPRETATION: 52% of employees rarely take leave for prior permission,37.6% of employees always take leave for prior permission & 10.4% of employees never take leave for prior permission. ANALYSIS OF OPIONION REGARDING TO GENDER AND PROMOTION (USING CHI-SQUARE TEST) Ho: there is no significant different between gender and promotion

H1: there is significant different between gender and promotion Observed frequency TABLE 5.11.1 Promotion Highly Satisfied Ok Dissatisfied Highly satisfied dissatisfied 23 28 22 2 8 14 14 10 4 23 42 36 12 12 TABLE 5.11.2 Gender male female Total Promotion Highly Satisfied Ok Dissatisfied Highly satisfied dissatisfied 15.3 27.9 23.9 8.0 8.0 7.7 14.1 12.1 4.0 4.0 23.0 42.0 36.0 12.0 12.0 Total 83.0 42.0 125.0 Total 83 42 125

Gender Total

Male Female

Expected frequency

Chi-square table TABLE 5.11.3 O 23 28 22 2 8 0 14 14 10 4 Calculated value = 25.519 Degrees of freedom = (m-1) (n-1) = 4 Tabulated value of chi-square for 4 degrees of freedom @ 5% level of freedom 9.488 Calculated value > tabulated value Ho is rejected Inference: There is no significant different between gender and promotion E 15.3 27.9 23.9 8.0 8.0 7.7 14.1 12.1 4.0 4.0 (O-E)2 59.29 0.01 3.61 36 0 59.29 0.01 3.61 36 0 (O-E) 2/E 3.87 0.0003 0.15 4.5 0 7.7 0.0007 0.298 9 0

ANALYSIS OF OPIONION REGARDING TO JOB EXPERIENCE AND LEAVE WITH PRIOR PERMISSION (USING CHI-SQUARE TEST)

Ho: there is no significant different between job experience and leave with prior permission H1: there is significant different between job experience and leave with prior permission

Observed frequency TABLE 5.12.1 Leave with prior permission Always Rarely Never Job 5-10yrs 3 4 1 experienc 10-20yrs 15 14 2 e 20-30yrs 23 39 9 30-40yrs 6 8 1 Total 47 65 13 Total 8 31 71 15 125

Expected frequency TABLE 5.12.2 Leave with prior permission always rarely never Job 5-10yrs 3.0 4.2 .8 experience 10-20yrs 11.7 16.1 3.2 20-30yrs 26.7 36.9 7.4 30-40yrs 5.6 7.8 1.6 Total 47.0 65.0 13.0 Total 8.0 31.0 71.0 15.0 125.0

Chi-square test

TABLE 5.12.3 O 3 4 1 15 14 2 23 39 9 6 8 1 Calculated value = 2.9415 Degrees of freedom = (m-1) (n-1) = 6 Tabulated value of chi-square for 6 degrees of freedom @ 5% level of freedom 12.492 Calculated value < tabulated value Ho is accepted Inference: There is no significant different between job experience and leave with prior permission E 3.0 4.2 .8 11.7 16.1 3.2 26.7 36.9 7.4 5.6 7.8 1.6 (O-E)2 0.04 0.04 10.89 4.41 1.44 13.69 4.41 2.56 0.16 0.04 0.36 (O-E) 2/E 0.0095 0.05 0.93 0.27 0.45 0.51 0.119 0.345 0.028 0.005 0.225

ANALYSIS OF OPIONION REGARDING TO JOB EXPERIENCE AND LEAVE WITH PRIOR PERMISSION (USING CHI-SQUARE TEST)

Ho: there is no significant different between Motivation and promotion H1: there is significant different between Motivation and promotion Observed frequency: TABLE 5.13.1 Promotion Highly Satisfied Ok satisfied Motivation Always Rarely Never Total Expected frequency: TABLE 5.13.2 Promotion Total Highly Satisfied Ok Dissatisfied Highly satisfied dissatisfied Motivation Always 6.6 12.1 10.4 3.5 3.5 36.0 Rarely 10.9 19.8 17.0 5.7 5.7 59.0 Never 5.5 10.1 8.6 2.9 2.9 30.0 Total 23.0 42.0 36.0 12.0 12.0 125.0 12 9 2 23 11 23 8 42 9 20 7 36 Total Dissatisfi Highly ed dissatisfie d 2 2 3 4 7 6 12 12

36 59 30 125

Chi-square test TABLE 5.13.3

O 12 11 9 2 2 9 23 20 3 4 2 8 7 7 6

E 6.6 12.1 10.4 3.5 3.5 10.9 19.8 17.0 5.7 5.7 5.5 10.0 8.6 2.9 2.9

(O-E) 2 29.16 1.21 1.96 2.25 2.25 3.61 10.24 9 7.29 2.89 12.25 4.41 2.56 16.81 9.61

(O-E) 2/E 4.418 0.1 0.188 0.64 0.64 0.33 0.52 0.52 1.28 0.05 2.22 0.441 0.29 5.79 3.31

Calculated value = 21.187 Degrees of freedom = (m-1) (n-1) = 6 Tabulated value of chi-square for 6 degrees of freedom @ 5% level of freedom 15.507 Calculated value > tabulated value Ho is rejected Inference: There is significant different between job experience and leave with prior permission

ANALYSIS OF OPIONION REGARDING TO JOB EXPERIENCE AND LEAVE WITH PRIOR PERMISSION (USING CHI-SQUARE TEST)

Ho: there is no significant different between Motivation and reward H1: there is significant different between Motivation and reward Observed Frequency: TABLE 5.14.1 Reward Always Rarely Motivation Always 20 12 Rarely 12 37 Never 4 21 Total 36 70 Expected frequency:
TABLE 5.14.2 Reward Always Rarely 10.4 20.2 17.0 33.0 8.6 16.8 36.0 70.0 Total Never 5.5 9.0 4.6 19.0 36.0 59.0 30.0 125.0

Total Never 4 10 5 19 36 59 30 125

Motivation Total

Always Rarely Never

Chi-square test: TABLE 5.14.3

O 20 12 4 12 37 10 4 21 5 Calculated value = 18.18

E 10.4 20.2 5.5 17.0 33.0 9.0 8.6 16.8 4.6

(O-E) 2 92.16 67.24 2.25 25 16 1 21.16 17.64 0.16

(O-E) 2/E 8.86 3.32 0.40 1.47 0.48 0.11 2.46 1.05 0.03

Degrees of freedom = (m-1) (n-1) = 4 Tabulated value of chi-square for 4 degrees of freedom @ 5% level of freedom 9.488 Calculated value > tabulated value Ho is rejected Inference: There is significant different between job experience and leave with prior permission

TO FIND THE RANK FOR ABSENTEEISM (USINGWEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD)

TABLE 5.15 Unsuitable working condition X1 WX2 0 0 4 20 28 112 82 246 8 16 3 3 397 3.176 4 Absent of adequate welfare facilities X2 WX2 0 0 0 0 10 40 4 12 102 204 9 27 283 2.264 5 Family function/personal problem X6 WX6 45 270 38 190 35 140 7 21 0 0 0 0 621 4.968 2

Rank Weight X W 1 6 2 5 3 4 4 3 5 2 6 1 Total CW Rank

Heavy workload X3 WX3 22 132 42 210 34 136 20 60 2 4 5 5 547 4.376 3

Employer relation X4 WX4 0 0 0 0 2 8 4 12 11 22 108 108 150 1.2 6

health problem X5 WX5 58 348 41 205 16 64 8 24 2 4 0 0 645 5.16 1

INTERPRETATION: The most of the employees are absent of the organization is health problem, family function & heavy workload, some of the employees are absent of the organization is unsuitable working condition, absent of adequate welfare facilities, employer relation.

TO FIND THE RANK FOR THE FACTORS

(USINGWEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD)

TABLE 5.16 Job security 28 140 61 244 24 72 7 14 5 5 475 3.8 2 Working hour 32 160 47 188 34 102 10 20 2 2 472 3.776 4 Satisfy with management solve employee problem 21 105 77 308 17 51 8 16 2 2 482 3.856 1

Rank Weight Promotion 1 5 23 115 2 4 42 168 3 3 36 108 4 2 12 24 5 1 12 12 Total 427 CW 3.416 Rank 3 INTREPERATION:

The employees are satisfied with management solve employee problem & satisfy with job security, the employees are not satisfied with promotion & working hour

ANALYSIS OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUPERVISOR & COWORKER (USING CORRELATION)

S.N 1 2 3 4 Total Let; X = supervisor Y = coworker X = 125\4 = 31.25 Y = 125/4 = 31.25

X 48 65 11 1 125

TABLE 5.17 X^2 Y^2 XY 82 2304 6724 2496 35 4225 1225 2275 6 121 36 66 2 1 4 2 125 6651 7989 4839

Cov(X,Y) = 1/n XY X Y = 1/4 (4839) (31.25) (31.25) = 1/4 (4839) 976.56 = 1209.75 976.56 = 233.19 S.D X = 40.39 S.D Y = 44.33 R = Con(X,Y)/ S.D X*S.D Y = 233.19/40.39*44.33 = 0.130 INTERPRETATION: The supervisor and coworker relationship is less positively correlated, so the relationship between supervisor and coworker is normal.

ANALYSIS FOR THE FACTORS (USING MEAN & STANDARD DEVIATION)

TABLE 5.18 Canteen Transport Medical Standard S.N Job Salary facilities facilities facilities Mean deviation Highly satisfied 22 3 1 26 37 2.34 0.834 Satisfied 45 24 12 15 58 3.18 0.865 Ok 51 49 24 19 10 3.61 0.717 Dissatisfied 7 45 86 56 15 3.06 1.303 Highly Dissatisfied 0 4 2 9 5 2.14 1.098 Co-efficient of variance = standard deviation/mean Job: Co-efficient of variance = .834/2.34*100 = 35.64 Salary: Co-efficient of variance = .865/3.18*100 = 29.20 Canteen facilities: Co-efficient of variance = .717/3.61*100 = 19.86 Transport facilities: Co-efficient of variance = 1.303/3.06*100 = 42.58 Medical facilities: Co-efficient of variance = 1.098/2.14*100 = 51.308 INTREPRETATION: The employees are same opinion recording to canteen facilities, so these facilities are not satisfied with most of employees are satisfied with salary, job, and medical facilities. Transport facilities are dissatisfied with most of employees. CHAPTER - VI FINDINGS OF THE STUDY & SUGGESTION AND

RECOMENDATION FINDINGS OF THE STUDY The male respondents of the study is more, the most of the respondents are working in packing department , the age of the employees is 35-45, the monthly income of the employee is Rs.4000-6000,the family member of the respondents is above 4members. The employees are suggest new ideas for solve employee problem, the most of the employees take leave per month is 1-5 days and usually take leave for prior permission. 53.6% of respondents take leave for night shift. From the chi-square test it is found that there is no significant different recording job experience and leave with prior permission. There is significant different recording gender and promotion, motivation and promotion, motivation and reward. The most of the employees or absent of the organization is health problem, family function & heavy workload, some of the employees are absent of the organization is unsuitable working condition, absent of adequate welfare facilities, employer relation. The employees are satisfied with management solve employee problem & satisfy with job security, the employees are not satisfied with promotion & working hour. The relationship between supervisor and coworker is less positively correlated, so the relationships normal not excellent. The employees are same opinion recording to canteen facilities, so these facilities are not satisfied with most of employees, the employees are satisfied with salary, job, and medical facilities. Transport facilities are dissatisfied with most of employees. SUGGESTION AND RECOMENDATION

SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATION: The absenteeism of employee in International Bakery Products Limited is more due to health problems. The company conduct regular medical checkup to the employees and personnel counseling. The absenteeism is high due to night shift, so the organization decreases the workload in night shift. The supervisor and coworker relationship is normal in the organization, so the supervisor friendly move to the coworker. To company must provide transport facilities and canteen facilities to create a favorable job environment for the employee.

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION

The study on employee absenteeism and employee morale tells that most of the employee an absent due to health problem, personal problem & heavy workload. The absence of certain facilities such as transportation facilities, canteen facilities demotivate the employee. The general moral of the employee is normal. This study helps the management to know the general attitude of the employee towards the organization

CHAPTER VIII

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY & SCOPE FOR FURTHER STUDY

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY Lack of time for project. Some of the respondents are not tell accurate reason for absenteeism. Some employees of the organization are not respect for questionnaires

SCOPE FOR FURTHER STUDY

An indepth study could be conducted to analyze the factors affecting employee morale

This study could be used as a reference while adopting measures to curb absenteeism.

This study could be used as a reference to formulate various methods to boost the employee morale.

ANNEXUER - I BIBLOGRAPHY

BOOKS 1. Dwivedi R.S., Human relations and organizational behavior, 5th edition, publisher by Beri fore Macmillan India ltd., New Delhi. 2. Biswajeet pattanayak, Human resources management, second edition, published by prentice Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi. 3. Lewis R. Gomez-Mejia, David B. Balkin, Robert L. Cardy, Managing human resources,Third edition, published by rajiv Beri fore Macmillan India ltd., New Delhi. 4. C.R. kothari, Research methodology,Revised second edition, New age international publishers, New Delhi. 5. R.S.N.Pillai, V.Bagavathi, Statistics, Revised edition, S. chand & company ltd., New Delhi.

Web sitewww. Absenteeism.com www. Moral .com www. Nccic.org www. Ncsi.com www. Childcareaction.com

ANNEXUER - II QUESTIONNAIRES

1. Name. 2. Gender. a. male 3. Age. a. below25 4. Department. a. production 5. Monthly income. a. below 2000 6. Job experience. a. 5-10yrs a.1member b. 10-20yrs b. 2member c. 20-30yrs c. 3member d. 30-40yrs d. above 4member 7. Number of family dependent. b. 2000-4000 c. 4000-6000 d. above6000 b. packing c. maintenance b. 25-35 c. 35-45 d. 45-55 b. female

8. Does your company motivate you? a. always b. rarely c. never

9. Are you satisfy with promotional measure provided by organization? a. highly satisfied e. highly dissatisfied 10. What do you feel about job security? a. highly satisfied e. highly dissatisfied 11. Does the company reward you when a target is achieved? b. satisfied c. ok d. dissatisfied b. satisfied c. ok d. dissatisfied

a. always

b. rarely

c. never

12. Are you satisfy with working hour in your organization? a. highly satisfied e. highly dissatisfied 13. Are you satisfy with management response towards solving employee problem? a. highly satisfied e. highly dissatisfied b. satisfied c. ok d. dissatisfied b. satisfied c. ok d. dissatisfied

14. Are you encouraged to suggest new ideas? a. always b. rarely c. never 15. Rate the following factors FACTORS H.S Job Salary Canteen facilities Transport facilities Medical facilities S OK D.S H.DS

16. How many days do you usually take leave per month? a. 0 leave b.1-5 days leave c. 5-10 days leave d. above 10 days leave 17. Which shift you usually avail more leave? a. morning shift b. afternoon shift c. night shift 18. Rank the following reason for your absent from there work S.N REASON 1. Unsuitable working conditions 2. Absent of adequate welfare facilities 3. Heavy workload 4. Employer relation 5. Health problem 6. Family function/personal problem 19. Do you take leave with prior permission? a. sometimes b. rarely c. never RANK

20. How do you feel about your relationship with your supervisor? a. excellent b. good c. normal d. bad 21. How do you feel about your relationship with your coworker? a. excellent b. good c. normal d. bad 22. Any suggestions a. b.