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Class XII Code 56/1 Chemistry (Theory) Time allowed: 3 hours Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions: 1. All questions are compulsory. 2. Question nos. 1 to 8 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each. 3. Question nos. 9 to 18 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each. 4. Question nos. 19 to 27 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each. 5. Question nos. 28 to 30 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each. 6. Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed. Q.1 How do metallic and ionic substances differ in conducting electricity? (1 mark) Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 mark) Q.5 Give the IUPAC name of the following compound:
| OH

What is the coagulation process? What is meant by the term pyrometallurgy?

(1 mark) (1 mark)

Why is red phosphorus is less reactive that white phosphorus? (1

(1 mark)

Q.6 Q.7

Write the structural formula of 1 phenylpentan 1 one.

(1 mark)

Arrange the following compounds in an increasing order of basic strengths in their aqueous solutions: NH3, CH3NH2, (CH3)2NH, (CH3)3N (1 marks)

Q.8 Q.9

What does 6, 6 indicate in the name nylon 6,6? What type of cell is a lead storage battery? Write the anode and the cathode reactions and the overall cell reaction occurring in the use of a lead storage battery? (2 marks)

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Or The half cell reactions of an electrochemical cell are given below:

MnO4 ( aq) + 8H + ( aq) + 5e Mn2 + ( aq) + 4H2O (

) ,E = +1.51 V

Sn2 + ( aq) Sn4 + ( aq) + 2e ,E = +0.15 V Construct the redox equation from the two half cell reactions and predict if this reaction favours formation if reactants or product shown in the equation. Q.10 Define the following: i. Elementary step in a reaction ii. Rate of a reaction Q.11 Describe the underlying principle of each of the following metal refining methods: i. Electrolytic refining of metals ii. Vapour phase refining of metals Q.12 Complete the following chemical reaction equations: i. XeF2 + H2O ii. PH3 + HgCl2 Q.13 Complete the following chemical reaction equations:
i. MnO4 ( aq) + C2O2 ( aq) + H+ ( aq) 4

(2 marks) (2 marks)

(2 marks)

(2 marks)

(2 marks)

ii. Cr2O2 ( aq) + Fe2 + ( aq) + H+ ( aq) 7 Q.14 Which one in the following pairs undergoes SN1 substitution reaction faster and why? i.

(2 marks)



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Q.15 Complete the following reaction equations: i.


(2 marks)

+ HI

ii. CH3CH2CH = CH2 + HBr

Q.16 Name the four bases present in DNA. Which one of these is not present in RNA? (2 marks)

Q.17 Name two fat soluble vitamins, their sources and the diseases caused due to their deficiency in diet. Q.18 Differentiate between molecular structures and (2 marks) behaviours of

thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. Give one example of each type.


(2 marks)

Q.19 A first order reaction has a rate constant of 0.0051 min . If we begin with 0.10 M concentration of the reactant, what concentration of the reactant will be left after 3 hours? (3 marks)

Q.20 Silver crystallises with face- centred cubic unit cells. Each side of the unit cell has a length of 409 pm. What is the radius of an atom of silver? (Assume that each face atom is touching the four corner atoms.) (3 marks)

Q.21 A copper- silver cell is set up. The copper ion concentration in it is 0.10 M. The concentration of silver ion is not known. The cell potential measured 0.422 V. Determine the concentration of silver ion in the cell. Given:
Ag+ / Ag

(3 marks)
= +0.80 V, Eo
Cu2 + / Cu

= +0.34 V (3 marks)

Q.22 What happens in the following activities and why?

i. An electrolyte is added to a hydrated ferric oxide sol in water. ii. A beam of light is passed through a colloidal solution. iii. An electric current is passed through a colloidal solution.

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Q.23 Giving a suitable example for each, explain the following: i. Crystal field splitting ii. Linkage isomerism iii. Ambidentate ligand Or

(3 marks)

Compare the following complexes with respect to structural shapes of units, magnetic behaviour and hybrid orbitals involved in units? Co (NH3 ) 6

Cr (NH3 ) 6


Ni ( CO )4 (3 marks) (3 marks)

(At. Nos.: Co =27, Cr=24, Ni = 28) Q.24 Explain the following observations:

i. The boiling point of ethanol is higher than that of methoxymethane. ii. Phenol is more acidic than ethanol. iii. o and p nitrophenols are more acidic than phenol. Q.25 How would you account for the following: (3 marks)

i. Many of the transition elements and their compounds can act as good catalysts. ii. The metallic radii of the third (5d) series of transition elements are virtually the same as those of the corresponding members of the second series. iii. There is a greater range of oxidation states among the actinoids than among the lanthanoids. Q.26 Complete the following reaction equations:
4 i. R C NH2 H O 2 O || LiAlH

(3 marks)

ii. C6H5N2Cl + H3PO2 + H2O

iii. C6H5NH2 + Br2 ( aq) Q.27 Describe the following substances with one suitable example of each type: (3 marks)

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i. Non ionic detergents ii. Food preservatives iii. Disinfectants Q.28 a. Define the following terms: i. Mole fraction ii. Vant Hoff factor b. 100 mg of a protein is dissolved in enough water to make 10.0 mL of a solution. If this solution has an osmotic pressure of 13.3 mmHg at 25 C, what is the molar mass of protein? (R=0.0821 L atm mol-1 K-1 and 760 mmHg = 1 atm) Or a. What is meant by: i. Colligative properties ii. Molality of a solution b. What concentration of nitrogen should be present in a glass of water at room temperature? Assume a temperature of 25C, a total pressure of 1 atmosphere and mole fraction of nitrogen in air of 0.78. [KH for nitrogen = 8.42 x 10-7 M/mm Hg] Q.29 a. Draw the structures of the following: i. H2S2O8 ii. HClO4 b. How would you account for the following: i. NH3 is a stronger base than PH3. ii. Sulphur has a greater tendency for catenation than oxygen. iii. F2 is a stronger oxidising agent than Cl2. (5 marks) (5 marks) (5 marks)

a. Draw the structures of the following: i. H2S2O7 ii. HClO3 b. Explain the following observations:

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i. In the structure of HNO3, the NO bond (121 pm) is shorter than the NOH bond (140 pm). ii. All the PCl bonds in PCl5 are not equivalent. iii. ICl is more reactive than I2. (5 marks)

Q.30 a. Write chemical equations of illustrate the following name bearing reactions: i. Cannizzaros reaction ii. Hell- Volhard Zelinsky reaction b. Give chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds: i. Propanal and Propanone ii. Acetophenone and Benzophenone iii. Phenol and Benzoic acid Or a. How will you bring about the following conversions? i. Ethanol to 3 hydroxybutanal ii. Benzaldehyde to Benzophenone b. An organic compound A has the molecular formula C8H16O2. It gets hydrolysed with dilute sulphuric acid and gives a carboxylic acid B and an alcohol C. Oxidation of C with chromic acid also produced B. C on dehydration reaction gives but-1ene. Write equations for the (5 marks)

reactions involved.

(5 marks)

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Class XII Code 56/1 Chemistry (Theory) 1. Metallic substances are conductors in solid state as well as in molten state Ionic substances are insulators in solid state but conductors in molten state and in aqueous solution. (1) 2. The process of settling down of colloidal particles as insoluble precipitate by addition of some suitable electrolytes is known as coagulation process. (1) 3. Pyrometallurgy is the branch of metallurgy which consists of the thermal treatment of minerals and metallurgical ores and their concentrates to bring about physical and chemical transformations in the materials to enable recovery of valuable metals. (1) 4. Red phosphorus is polymeric which consists of chains of P4 tetrahedra linked together whereas white phosphorus consists of a single tetrahedron. (1mark) 5. Hex-1-en-3-ol 6. (1)

(1) 7. In aqueous solutions, the increasing order of basic strengths is: NH3 < (CH3)3N < CH3NH2 <(CH3)2NH (1) 8. It indicates the number of carbon atoms present in both the monomers of nylon 6,6 which are hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid. (1)

9. Lead storage battery is a secondary cell. Anode: Pb(s) + SO4 2- (aq) PbSO4 (s) + 2e-

(1/2) (1/2)

Cathode: PbO2(s) + SO4 2- (aq) + 4H+(aq) + 2e- PbSO4 (s) + 2H2O (l) (1/2) Overall cell reaction: Pb (s) + PbO2 (s) + 2H2SO4 (aq) 2PbSO4 (s) + 2H2O (l) Or MnO4-(aq) + 8H+ (aq) + 5e- Mn2+ (aq) + 4H2O(l) Sn4+ (aq) + 2e- Sn2+ (aq) Cathode: Reduction reaction: MnO 4 (aq) + 8 H+ (aq) + 5 e Mn2 + (aq) + 4 H2O (l) Anode: Oxidation reaction: Sn2+ (aq) Sn4+ (aq) + 2eRedox equation: 2 MnO4-(aq) + 16 H+(aq) + 5 Sn2+(aq) 2 Mn2+(aq) + 8 H2O(l) + 5 Sn4+(aq) (1) Cell potential = Eoreduction - Eooxidation (1/2) = 1.51 - (-0.15) = 1.66 V (1/2) Eo= +1.51V Eo = -0.15V (1/2)

10. (i) An elementary step in a reaction is a chemical reaction in which one or more of the reactants react directly to form products in a single reaction step. (1) (ii) Rate of a reaction is defined as the rate of decrease in concentration of any on of the reactants or the rate of increase in concentration of any one of the products. (1) 11. (i) In this method ,the impure metal acts as anode which undergoes oxidation and pure metal acts as cathode which undergoes reduction. The metal ions deposit on the cathode as metal. (1) (ii) Vapour phase refining is based on the principle that metal is converted to its volatile compound and collected which decomposes to give pure metal. (1)

12. (i) 2XeF2 + 2H2O 2Xe + 4HF + O2 (ii) 2PH3 + 3HgCl2 Hg3P2 + 6HCl (1) (1)

13. (i) 2MnO4-(aq) + 5C2O42- (aq) + 16H+(aq) 2Mn2+ (aq) + 8H2O + 10CO2 (1) (ii) Cr2O72- (aq) + 6Fe2+(aq) + 14H+(aq) 2Cr3+ + 6Fe3+(aq) + 7H2O (1)



will undergo

SN 1

reaction faster than

because is a tertiary alkyl halide and is a secondary alkyl halide. Tertiary carbocation is more stable than secondary carbocation. (1 )


will undergo

SN 1

reaction faster than


is a

secondary alkyl halide and is a primary alkyl halide. Secondary carbocation is more stable than primary carbocation.


15. (i)


(ii) CH3CH2CH=CH2 + HBr CH3CH2CH-CH3 Br (1) 16. Four bases in DNA are Adenine, Guanine, Thymine and Cytosine. (1) Thymine is not present in RNA. (1) 17. Vitamin A and D are fat soluble vitamins. Sources Carrots, butter Disease Xerophthalmia (1) Rickets (1)

Exposure to sunlight, fish

18. Thermoplastic polymers Molecular Structure Linear or slightly branched long chain molecules Can undergo softening on heating and hardening on cooling Thermosetting polymers Cross linked or heavily branched molecules (1) Do not soften on heating (1)


19. k = 0.0051 min-1 [A0] = 0.10 M t = 3 hours = 3 60 min k = 2.303 log [A0] t [A] 0.0051 = 2.303 log 0.1 3 60 [A] log [A] = -1.39 [A] = 4.074 10-2 M





a = 409 pm, r = ?


Ecell = 0.422 V
+ Ag /Ag

Since E

> E


2+ /Cu

So, Ag+ / Ag is cathode and Cu2+/Cu is the anode.

E cell = E Reduction E Oxidation = 0.80 0.34 = 0.46V


(1 / 2)

Cell r e action : 2Ag + Cu Cu2 + + 2Ag Ecell Ecell Cu2 + Ag 0.059 = E cell log 2 + n Ag Cu 0.059 [0.1] log = 0.46 2 [Ag+ ]2

(1 / 2)

0.422 = 0.46 0.029{log[0.1] log Ag+ } log[.1] 2 log Ag+ = 1.310 (log10 1 ) 2 log[Ag+ ] = 1.310 1 2 log[Ag+ ] = 1.310 2 log Ag+ = 2.310 log Ag+ = 1.155 Ag+ = Antilog( 1.155) Ag+ = 0.0699 M (1) (1)

22. (i) If an electrolyte is added to a hydrated ferric oxide sol, the colloidal particles get precipitated due to neutralization of charges. (1) (ii) Scattering of light takes place and the the path of the beam is illuminated. (1) (iii) The colloidal particles move towards oppositely charged electrodes, get discharged and precipitated. (1) 23. (i) The splitting of the degenerate d orbitals into eg and t2g orbitals due to the presence of ligands in a definite geometry is called crystal field splitting.It is denoted by o. (1) (ii) Linkage isomerism arises in coordination compounds containing ambidentate ligands in which two different atoms of the same ligand can form coordinate bond with metal ion. Example: Co(NH3 )5 NO2 Cl2 and Co(NH3 )5 ONO Cl2 (1)

(iii) Ligands which can bind the central metal atom through two different atoms are called ambidentate ligands. Example: SCN ,NCS (1)

OR [Co(NH3)6]3+

Co3 + (Ground state): 3d6 4s0 4p0


Structural shape Octahedral

Hybrid Orbitals- d2sp3 Magnetic behaviour- Diamagnetic (1)

[Cr(NH3 )6 ]3 + Cr 3 + (Ground state): 3d3 4s0 4p0

[Cr(NH3 )6 ]3 + :

Structural shape Octahedral Hybrid Orbitals- d2sp3 Magnetic behaviour- Paramagnetic (1)

Ni - 3d8 4s2

Ni(CO)4 :

Structural shape- tetrahedral Hybrid orbitals- sp3 Magnetic behaviour- Diamagnetic (1)

24.(i) Hydrogen bonding in ethanol causes the boiling point of ethanol to be higher. (1) (ii) Phenol on releasing a proton forms phenoxide ion which is resonance stabilised .So, phenol is more acidic than ethanol. (1) (iii) NO2 group has -I effect or electron withdrawing inductive effect. (1) 25 (i) Ability to show variable oxidation state and to form complexes. (ii) Due to Lanthanoid contraction. (iii) 5f, 6d and 7s orbitals are of comparable energies. 26 (i) (1) (1) (1)






27. (i) Non ionic detergents do not contain any ion in their constitution. (1/2) Example: Non- ionic detergent is formed when stearic acid reacts with polyethyleneglycol.

(1/2) (ii) Food preservatives are substances which present spoilage of food due to microbial growth. (1/2) For example: sodium benzoate (1/2) (iii) Disinfectants are chemicals which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms .They cannot be applied on a living tissue. (1/2) For example: 1% solution of phenol (1/2) 28. (a) (i)Mole fraction of a component is the ratio of number of moles of the component to the total number of moles of all the components. (1) (ii) Vant Hoff factor is the ratio of normal molar mass to the abnormal molar mass. (1) Vant Hoff factor is the ratio of observed value of colligative property to calculated value of colligative property assuming no association or dissociation. (b) Mass of protein = 100mg = 0.1 g V= 10 mL = 0.01L


( 1 mark for calculations)

V = nR T V= w RT M

13.3 0.1 x 0.01 = x 0.0821 x 298 760 M M = 13980 g

Molar mass of protein=13980 g mol-1 (1) Or (a) (i) All the properties which depend on the number of solute particles irrespective of their nature relative to the total number of particles present in the solution are known as colligative properties. (1) (ii) Molality of solution is the number of moles of solute present in 1 kilogram of solvent. (1) (b)
pN2 = xN2 x Ptotal = 0.78 x 760 mmHg = 592.8 mmHg KH = 8.42 x107 M / mmHg xN2 = ? xN2 = KH x pN2 [Since KH is given in M / mmHg therefore this formula is being used] (1 / 2) xN2 = 8.42 x10 M / mmHg x 592.8 mmHg xN2 = 4991.376 x 107 M = 4.99 x 104 M nH2O = 1000 = 55.5mol 18 Since nN2 << nH2O xN2 nN2 nH2O (1) (1 / 2) (1)

nN2 = 4.99 x104 x 55.5 = 276.9 x 104 M

29.(a) (i) H2S2O8





(b) (i) N is smaller in size and more electronegative than P. So lone pair of electrons is concentrated more on nitrogen. (1) (ii) Oxygen has a small size as compared to sulphur. So, the lone pairs on oxygen repel each other. Thus, the O-O bond is weak whereas in case of sulphur, the lone pair do not repel to the same extent. As a result, S-S bond is stronger than O-O bond. So, S has a greater tendency for catenation than oxygen. (1) (iii) The net energy release for

1 X2 (g) + e X (aq) is more negative 2

for fluorine as compared to chlorine i.e. sum of dissociation energy, electron gain enthalpy and hydration energy is more negative for fluorine. So, it a stronger oxidising agent than chlorine. (1) Or (a) (i) H2S2O7


(ii) HClO3

(1) (b) (i) Because of partial double bond character of (N-O) bond. (1)

(ii) P in PCl5 is sp3d hybridized. The axial bonds due to more repulsion are longer than equatorial bonds. (1) (iii) ICl is an interhalogen compound having electronegativity difference. The I-Cl bond is more reactive than I2 . (1) 30. (a) (i) Cannizaros reaction: Aldehydes which do not have an -hydrogen atom undergoes self oxidation and reduction on treatment with concentrated alkali.

(1) (ii) Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction: Carboxylic acids having an hydrogen are halogenated at the -position on treatment with chlorine or bromine in the presence of small amount of red phosphorus to give - halocarboxylic acids.

(1) (b) (i) Propanal and propanone Fehlings test

CH3CH3CHO + 2Cu2 + + 5OH CH3CH2COO + Cu2O + 3H2O Re d ppt

Propanone being a ketone will not give this test. (1) (ii) Acetophenone and benzophenone Iodoform test

Benzophenone does not give this test.


(iii) Phenol and Benzoic acid Sodium bicarbonate test: Add NaHCO3 solution to each of them. Phenol will not react. Benzoic acid will give brisk effervescence due to CO2.

(1) OR (a) (i)

(1) (ii)




(1) (1)


B But 1 ene

dehydration CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 OH CH3 CH2 CH = CH2 H2O