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HAL Hindustan Aeronautics Limited


Prepared by

Anupriya Gupta
Electronics & Communication Engg. SRMCEM , Lucknow

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Certified that Anupriya Gupta has done a training in Instrument factory (ALH department) of HAL and has presented in this report for the award of Bachelor of Technology from Gautam Buddh Technical University(GBTU),Lucknow. The training report embodies the original work and studies carried out by the student himself and the content do not form the basis for the award of any degree to the candidate or to anybody else.

Faculty (Training incharge) Dept of Electronics & Communication Engg



Head of Electronics Wing Dept of Electronics & Communication Engg



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With deep sense of gratitude, first and foremost express my profound thanks to Mr.Rajnish Kumar Agnihotri chief Manager ALH for giving me this opportunity to do my summer training in Instrument department of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Lucknow during the summer session 2010. Being renowned company of India & abroad, it gave me the opportunity to learn the work carried out here, got a glimpse of new environment & hard work of industrial unit. Mr. A. K. Sharma Chief Engineer.of ALH I was posted under his guidance. He was very helpful during my training. I also wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to the staff of HAL without whose cooperation; this training would not have been successful.



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Training has misinterpreted by most of us as a platform for project performation. Industrial training in true sense has been included in curriculum to make the student well versed with the technical procedure of various industries, the basic criteria for management of various resources in a company or industry.

The educational institution sole aim by industrial training is to improve the technical knowledge and to have a hand on experienced to make them realistic in thinking, to understand the procedure for manufacturing keeping mind the minute detail which will benefit the customer like no learning is proper without implementation.

Doctors, Lawyers, hotel management student surely hold a upper hand. Its because right from the second year of their graduation the are made to face the world and their problems with a tender mind. In due course of time slowly but steadily they, develop a competitive attitude and have a definite plan and aim as they complete their graduation.

Unlike the pitiable engineers like us who are completely isolated from industry. Therefore their should be industry institutions made compulsory for every engineering institutes.

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Hindustan Aeronautics Limited has blossomed into a major player in the global aviation arena, and today is among the elite Navratna companies. The history of Indian aircraft industry can be traced to the foundation of Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in December 1940 in association with the erstwhile princely state of Mysore and late Shri Seth Walchand Hirachand, an industrialist of extra-ordinary vision. Govt. of India became one of its shareholders in March 1941 and took over the management in 1942. Hindustan Aircraft Limited was merged with Aeronautics India Limited and Aircraft Manufacturing Department Kanpur to form HAL on 1-october-1964. Today HAL has got 18 production divisions & 9 research & design centers spread out in 7 different locations in India. Its product track record consists of 12 types of aircraft from in house R & D and 13 types by license production. HAL has so far produced about 3352 aircraft (which include 11 type of indigenous design), 3583 engines & overhauled over 8141aircraft & 27267 engines. HAL has engaged & succeeded in number of R & D programs for both the military and civil aviation sectors. Substantial progress has been made in the current project like Dhruv Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH), Tejas-Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) &
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various military and civil upgrades. The deliveries of Dhruv were affected to Indian Army, Navy, Air force & Cost Guards in March 2002, in its first year of production which is a unique achievement. The Government of India decided to set up a factory Lucknow Division in 1969 to undertake License manufacture of accessories and instrument for Hindustan Fighter HF-24 and Hindustan jet trainers HJT-16, aircrafts. The factory building is ready by October 1973 and full fledged manufacturing of the accessories to cover Ajeet,MIG-BIS Aircrafts, aero engines and Helicopters. HAL Accessories Division Lucknow was established in 1970 with primary objective of manufacturing systems and accessories for varies aircrafts and engines. At present it is turning out over 1100 different types of accessories. The division manufactures various systems viz. Hydraulics; engine Fuel systems, Air-conditioning Pressurization, Gyro and Barometric Instruments, Electrical system items Undercarriage, Electronic items all under one roof to meet the requirements of the aircrafts, helicopters and engines being produced by HAL. HAL has played a significant role for Indias space program in the manufacturing of satellite launch vehicle like PSLV (Polar Satellite Vehicle), GSLV (Geo Stationary Launch Vehicle), IRS (Indian Remote Satellite) & INSAT (Indian National Satellite). HAL has joint ventures companies BAEHAL, Software Limited & IndoRussian Aviation Limited (IRAL),Snecma-HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd. Apart from these, other major diversification project & industrial marine gas turbine & airport services. Several co-production & joint ventures with international participation are under consideration. HALs supplies / services are mainly to Indian Defense services, Coast Guard & Border Security Force. Transport Aircraft & Helicopters have also been supplied to Airlines as well as State Government of India. The company has also achieved a foothold in export in more than 30 countries, having demonstrated its quality & price competitiveness.

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MISSION-To become a global player in the aerospace



The manufacturing range of this division can be grouped under three categories: 1.) Mechanical and hydro-mechanical accessories, 2.) Engine Accessories 3.) Instrument accessories. In addition, the division also manufactures the wide variety of ground support equipment like Ground Power Unit, hydraulic trolley, weapon loading trolley ,Test equipment etc. The Aerospace & equipment research & design Centre is involved in the design and development of hydraulic pumps, actuators, wheels and brakes etc.

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Organizational chart
Chairman Managing Director General Manager AGM(Fuel) DGM Chief Manager Senior Manager Manager Deputy Manager Engineer AGM(Design) DGM Chief Manager Senior Manager Manager Deputy Manager Engineer AGM(Instrument) DGM Chief Manager Senior Manager Manager Deputy Manager Engineer AGM(Mechanical) DGM Chief Manager Senior Manager Manager Deputy Manager Engineer





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SYSTEM LAYOUT Head of HAL Lucknow division is General Manager. The factory is divided into five sub Divisions: y y y y y Instrument factory Mechanical factory Fuel factory Design and Development Sukhoi-30

INSTRUMENT FACTORY This is further divided into two shops 1. Assembly shop 2. Manufacturing shop

Assembly shop is divided into: 1. SHOP 1 2. SHOP 2 3. SHOP 3 4. SHOP 4 5. ALH

Manufacturing shop is divided into: 1. 2. 3. 4. NGL Shop Smiths shop Gyro shop Press Shop

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Following systems or instruments are manufactured in Instrument factory. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Barometric instrument Gyroscopic instruments Electrical and Electronics equipments Fuel gauging systems Ground level navigation systems

All the above products are manufactured in specially designed rooms called clean rooms. Following conditions are essential for the clean rooms for production. STANDARD CLEAN ROOMS CONDITIONS TEMPERTURE: - 15 to 25 oC HUMIDITY: - 45 TO 55% DUST COUNT: - Less than 100,000 for class C shop(unmonitored) Less than 100,000 for class B shop Less than 10,000 for class A shop

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Initially production of accessories was planned for Marut and Kiran aircrafts in 1972 which later expanded to include accessories for MIG-21 series and helicopters during the late 1970,s in Lucknow Division. The current products of HAL are DO-228  Kiran MK II  HPT-32  Cheetah  Chetak  MIG-21  MIG-27  Jaguar  Engine Test beds  Radars There are some new products      ALH LCA HTT-35 Industrial/marine Gas Turbine Modern Instruments GSE

The division today has prime name in the Aviation market and various international companies are interested to join hands it for future purpose. The division has also made steady progress in the area of export.

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PRODUCT PROFILE 1950s & 1960s





MIG 21 M

HS 748




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1970s & 1980s



MIG 21 M

HS 748




1990s to Date

DO 228 *




* Current products

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Products of HAL Lucknow division

 Instruments Sensors, Gyros  Flight instruments, electrical indicators, Fuel Gauge probes, Gyros, sensors and Switches  Electrical power generation and control  AC/DC Generator, Control and protection units, inverters, Transformers Rectifier units, AC/DC Electrical system, Actuators.  Land navigation system  Microprocessor controller  Under carriage, wheels and breaks  Hydraulic system and power control  Pumps, Accumulators, Actuators Reservoirs and various types. Electro-Selectors, Bootstrap

 Environmental control system  Pneumatics and oxygen system, cold air unit, water Extractors, valves.  Ejection system  Ejection Seats, Release Units  Engine fuel control system  Booster pumps, main and Reheat Fuel systems, Nozzle Actuators.

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MANUFACTURE & OVERHAUL OF AIRCRAFT The division has manufactured more than 700 Aircraft & overhauled more than 1300 Aircraft in last 3 decades. Having state-of-the-art technology & facilities, the division is fully geared up to take the challenge future task such as manufacture of SU-30 MK 1 & Advanced Jet Trainer.

The division has established full fledge infrastructure, facilities & system for ensuring optimum level for customers satisfaction on the products & services rendered. The major area includes  Overhaul/ Repair of Rotable The Division takes up over/repair of entire range of Electrical, instrument, Mechanical & Armaments Rotables. Supply of Spares & oth  Ground support equipments and rigs  Ground power unit, hydraulics trolley and power packs, dedicated test Rigs, custom- build Fuel/ Hydraulics Test rigs.  Site Repair The Division undertakes site repair of Aircraft at IAF bases by deputing site repair teams.  Defect Investigation/Failure Analysis The aggregate which was received on premature withdrawal from the units are studied & the causes for defects /failures are investigated. Repetitive cases are taken up for in the depth study & modifications are incorporated in the unit to minimize the recurrence of such defects/failures in future.

 Product Training
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The Division has positioned Service Engineers at various IAF bases to closely liaise and to access the requirement of the customer. Based on the feed back received from Service Engineers, the division renders adequate support for fully exploiting the products.

Product flow chart

The instrument factory is divided into Assembly shop  Manufacturing shop Assembly shop is divided into:  SHOP 1  SHOP 2  SHOP 3  SHOP 4  ALH Manufacturing shop is divided into:     NGL Shop Smiths shop Gyro shop Press Shop

Following systems or instruments are manufactured in Instrument factory.      Barometric instrument Gyroscopic instruments Electrical and Electronics equipments Fuel gauging systems Ground level navigation systems

Process of product preparation follows certain steps. When the customer places the order and it approved by the authorities the planning of steps for preparations are to be layer by authorities now assembly of the material is done and stored in stored. Now these are collected as required and experts prepare unit. Now the important step comes of testing. Testing is done under
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specified conditions and assurance is done in all respect then certificate is raised of being tested. Now the last step comes of proper packing and storing. These are supplied to costumer under followed terms and conditions. Product flow chart Request of costumer Planning of steps

Assembly of material

Manufacturing of units

Testing of unit under for conditions

Collecting and proper packing of unit

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Advanced Light Helicopter is a multi-role, multi-mission helicopter designed & developed by HAL. The design of this 5.5 ton class, twin-engine helicopter incorporates several state of the art technologies. Extensive use of composites high cruise speed, long range & endurance, excellent high altitude performance & capability to operate in hot & humid environment are the key to design features. ALH has been designed for both civil & military application in large variety of roles overland & sea. Performance: Maximum cruise speed at maximum load: - 250 km/hr. Maximum rate of climb: - 10 m/sec. Range with 20 min reserve: - 650 km. Endurance: - 4 hrs. Hover in ground effect: - 1500 m. Hover out of ground effect: - 1000m. Leading Particulars: Overall length: - 15.87 m. Overall height: - 4.91 m. Width: - 3.91 m. Empty weight: - 2500 kg. Fuel capacity: - 1100 kg. Maximum takeoff weight: - 5500 kg. Maximum under slung weight: - 1500 kg. Maximum height: - 2500 HT. ROLES: Military Role (Unarmed):  Hellebore attack.  Reconnaissance  Logistic support  Casualty evacuation  Air observation post
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Military Role (Armed):  Anti tank  Close air support  Anti submarine warfare  Anti surface vessel warfare Civil Role:  Commuter/ VIP  Search & rescue  Disaster relief  Air ambulance  Offshore operation Salient Features:  Ergonomically designed cockpit  Extensive use if composites, reduced radars signature  Large cabin volume  Ballistic damage tolerant  Greater system redundancy  Provisions for weapons hard points  Twin engine with fully authority digital electronic control  Adequate safety margin for single engine operation  Four axis automatically flying control system  Crash worthy crew seats, under floor and fuel tank  Hinge less main rotor & bearing less tail rotor  Excellent handling qualities at low as well as high speeds  Low maintenance cost & high fuel efficiency  Skid version & retractable wheel version available

 Auxiliary Tank Probe: The probes (AT) are a part of fuel system of ALH. It is installed from the top of the tank. The AT probes is for gauging fuel content. The units consist of following main sub-assemblies: y Tube assembly consisting of gauging & level sensing. y Card assembly gauging it consist of gauging circuit.
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y Electronic assembly it consist of receptacle & interconnection wires connected to card and tube assembly. Electrical Characteristics: I/P Characteristics: Electrical supply for gauging 5V dc (nominal) Current consumption for gauge 2.5 mA with 5 mA o/p load.  Supply Tank Probe: Probe is a part of a fuel system of ALH. It is installed from the bottom of the tank. The s-probe is gauging the fuel content. It is also has built in low level warning sensors which is electrically isolated from fuel content sensing circuit  Reference Sensor Probe: The probe is a part of the fuel system of ALH. It is installed from the bottom of the tank. The RS Probe transmits the reference frequency which is normally stable but varies slightly to assist the computer to compensate the changes excepted in other fuel gauging probe. O/P due to the change in temperature or variation in grade of fuel, this probe is always immersed in fuel. The unit consists of following sub assemblies 1) NET FLANGE HEAD ASSEMBLY: - It consist of reference frequency, sensing circuit, receptacle, interconnection wires, connecter to card & hold cup assembly. HOLD CUP ASSEMBLY: - It consists of sensing probes.


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The indicating G METER provides visual indication of acceleration experienced along the vertical axis of ALH. The dial presentation comprises three co centric pointer moving over a linearly divided scale. The front pointer indicates the instantaneous acceleration & the middle and read pointers indicate the maximum positive & negative accelerations respectively. This unit provided with a resting knob to reset the pointers to align with the main pointer. The unit has a locking facility to lock the mass of unit when installed, to prevent the unit from damage candling & transit. Weight: - 425 gm (max). NVG (Night Vision Gauge).

Temperature switch is used in ALH to close on electrical circuit. When the temperature in the area surrounding its sensor reaches a predetermined value. The unit senses the oil temperature of the transmission system. It works on vapour pressure action & consists of bulb containing Ethyl Alcohol due to sufficient changes on temperature. The organic liquid vaporizes & builds up pressure within a closed chamber. The high vapour pressure compresses a below assembly, which is turn operates a snap action micro switch. The unit is normally open type switch.  Gear box oil temperature senses.  Ensure temperature is within 115 4 C (max), 110 4 C (min).  Warning switch cockpit.

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The pressure switch is for use in ALH to close an electric circuit of the system when the pressure falls below a predetermined value. Leading Particulars: Name: - pressure switch. Electric supply: - 28V dc. Current consumption: - 500 mA (max). Operating range: - 0 to 25 bar. Functions: Pressure switch senses the oil pressure of the auxiliary gear box of the transmission system. Operation: The unit uses the below assembly as a pressure sensing element. The upper end of the bellows assembly is being fixed leak proof to pipe union with the help of sealing washer & sealing nut. When an external pressure is applied to bellow assembly through the pipe union, bellow assembly compresses & its free end moves toward up & it operates as a micro switch. The micro switch opens an electric circuit when the pressure of the system rises above predetermined value.

Outside Air Temperature Gauge is a panel mounted instrument & indicates the outside temperature. The sensor portion of the instrument protrudes outside the cockpit & senses the outside air temperature. Leading Particulars: Name: - Outside Air Temperature Gauge. Weight: - 150 gm (max). Size: - 56 * 155 mm.
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Accuracy: - 1.5 C. Operating Temperature Range: - - 45 C to + 75 C. Storage Temperature: - - 65 C to + 75 C. Response Time: - 3 min. Supply: - 5V dc. Current: - 150 mA (max). Storage Life: - 10 years. Operation: The unit is bimetal type temperature indicator. The heart is a bi metallic sensor wound in a helical form. One end of the metallic sensor is clamped rigidly & the other end is connected to a steel rod, on the other end of the rod, a pointer is connected which move over a linear dial to indicate the temperature senses by the metallic sensor. Thus assembly is housed in a tube and cup type case.

RMI is a panel mounted (from front) air-borne instruments which provides the pilot following function    Heading of aircraft. Relative bearing of radio station. Deviation from a set course. Additional heading error proportional to sine of the angle between heading & course set pointer.

Physical Specification: Name: - Radio magnetic indicator. Size: - 83 * 83 * 202025 mm. Weight: - 1200 gm (max). Location: - Cockpit instrument panel. Power Supply: - a) 5V 0.5 dc. b) 26V 10 % V, 400 Hz, single phase a.c.

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ASI is designed to provide continuous indication of the speed of an A/C. The instrument is basically a differential air pressure gauge consisting of a twin capsule assembly connected via suitable linkage & gearing to pointer which moves over a circular diameter calibrated in km/hr. when installed the interior at the capsule is connected by a capillary tube to A/C pilot pressure line while the exterior of the capsule is open to static pressure via the A/C static system. The pointer indicator on a dial which is calibrated 30-400 km/hr. When the pilot & static pressure applied to the capsule are equal, the pointer remains in null position. When differential pressure is applied, the capsule will expand or contract accordingly. The resultant movement of the free side of the capsule assembly is transmitted by the linkage to rotate the rocking shaft & then causes the sector gear temperature range operation: 45C to +71C. Storage: - -54C to + 85C.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. AC master box DC master box Filter Transformer Unit Alternator Control and Protection Unit Auxiliary Tank Probe Radio Magnetic Indicator

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INTRODUCTION Excluding the two alternators and protection unit and static inverter, primary AC distribution system consists of following boxes: 1. 2. 3. 4. AC Master Box 1 AC Master Box 2 115 V AC Emergency Bus Relay 26 V AC Emergency Bus Relay AC Master Box 1 consist of three phase main bus 1(115 V), 1-J emergency bus 1 & 2 (115 V), 1-J main bus 1 (26 V). During normal operation (both alternator running), complete system 1 is powered from alternator 1. In case of fault on alternator 1, all the buses of system 1 are connected to alternator 2, with alternator 1 in failed condition, in the event of short circuits. On a main bus 1, it goes disconnected from alternator 2. In case of both alternator fails to supply power to AC main buses, emergency buses of system 1 are powered from static inverter. With AC ground power in & selected in the cockpit, external power control card validates incoming ground power and automatically energizes the external power contactor to supply ground power to all buses of system 1 & system 2 through main bus 1 of system 1. The external power control card inside AC master box 1 controls the energization of external power contactor to allow correct quality of external AC power, as to be transmitted to the electrical system. AC master box 2 is similar in construction and function to AC MBX 1. This box dose not includes external power contactor & control cards. However it has non-essential bus along with its contactor, this bus is powered from the main bus 2 only when the alternators are running. All the power O/P of different buses is protected with thermal circuit breakers, which are provided in both master boxes.

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AC master Box used in ALH distributes AC electrical power to different three phase loads as per requirement. It is used in conjunction with two alternators, two ACPU and static inverters. LEADING PARAMETERS Name AC Master Box 1 Weight 5.5 kg max. Dimension Length= 266s5.0 mm Width = 240s5.0 mm Height = 120s5.0 mm

Input DC power supply

28 V dc (nominal) 22 V dc to 29 V dc (normal) 20 V dc to 31 V dc (abnormal) 115 V ac (nominal) 108 V ac to 118 V ac (normal) 100 V ac to 125 V ac (abnormal)

Input AC power supply

Power consumption 5 KVA

FUNCTION  Under normal operation ACMBX 1 distribute ac power. But in the case when alternator 1 fails then ac power is distributed to different loads through ACMBX 2 from alternator 2.

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 During normal operation (both alternator running) complete system is powered from alternator 1 and ACMBX 1 distribute ac power to different electrical system of ALH.  External power control card (EPC) inside AC Master Box controls the energization of external power contactor to allow correct quantity of external AC power to be transmitted to electrical system.

AC Master Box 2 (AC MBX 2) used in Advanced Light Helicopter Distribute ac electric power to different three phase loads as per requirement when alternator 1 is failed. It is used in conjunction with two alternators, two ACPUs and static inverter.

LEADING PARAMETERS Name AC Master Box 2 Weight 5.0 kg max. Dimensions Length=266s5.0 mm Width =240s5.0 mm Height =120s5.0 mm Input DC power supply 28 V dc (nominal) 22 V dc to 29 V dc (normal) 20 V dc to 31.5 V dc (abnormal) Input AC power supply 115 V ac (nominal) 108 V ac to 118 V ac (normal) 100 V ac to 125 V ac (abnormal) Power consumption 5 KVA FUNCTION Under normal operation ACMBX 1 distribute ac power. In the case when alternator 1 failed then ac power is distributed to different loads through ACMBX 2 from alternator 2. No external power card is used AC MBX 2 as used in AC MBX.
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TESTS 1. Over voltage protection test (in normal & environmental condition) 2. Under voltage protection test (in normal & environmental condition) 3. Over/Under frequency 4. Vibration test 5. Functional test.

DC Master Box is a part of dc power generation and distribution system for re-engine Cheetah Helicopter. It is designed for use with an independent starter/generator mounted on the engine accessories gearbox, and is interfaced with GCPU, battery, and external power source and control panel of DC power generator to the loads through its main bus. In the event of failure of starter/generator, the dc master box will activated the battery contactor, through which the on-board single battery (Ni-Cd 40 Ah) will get connected to the main bus & supply power to the emergency loads. DC External Power Receptacles (EPR) is provided at the port side of the Helicopter with EPC in DC master box to supply the dc power from Ground Power Unit (GPU). FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION DC Master Box distributes the complete dc power generation. It contains the main bus through which dc power is directed to the overhead panel through circuit breakers for dc power distribution. During normal operation, the total dc power from starter/generator is brought to the main bus through Normally Open (N.O.) contactor, which is controlled by GCPU.

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In case of failure of starter/generator, the dc power will be available from a single on-board internal battery through a normally closed battery contactor. Provision has been made for receiving the dc external power during ground operation through an external power receptacle. The external dc power supply is transferred to main bus through N.O. contactor, which is switched on by External Power Card (EPC). The EPC switches the external power contactor ON only if the applied voltage is with in specified limit & of correct polarity and therefore protects the dc system from over-voltage conditions. As long as external power is connected to the Helicopter (External Power Contactor is closed), battery should remain disconnected. FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS 1. Input sources for DC Master Box: Starter/generator along with GCPU: 6 KW Battery (Ni-Cd): 40 Ah External power source on ground: 6 KW 2. Types of O/P Buses: Main Bus 200 A at 28 V DC through 100 A circuit breaker: 1 no. 50 A circuit breaker: 2 no. 3 A circuit breaker: 2 no. 3. Capacity: Capacity of unit (Main Bus): 200 A at 28 V DC Overloading: 150% (300 A) for 2 min & 200% (400 A) for 5 sec 4. Protection Function  External Power control: External Power Control (EPC) card housed inside the DC Master Box provides the following functions when external power is selected to the Helicopter. a) Over voltage protection: At 30.5s1 V with a fixed time delay of 0.4s0.1 sec.

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b) Reverse polarity protection: External Power fails to connect itself to the system if the polarity of the external power is reversed.

FAILURE MODES There may be multiple failure modes for each functioning. Design has been found to meet the basic criterion for external system: a) Single fault at a time should not affect the normal flight. This has been designed as MINOR failure. This may also be called as CONTROLLED FAULT, which may be corrected by appropriate design safety device or special automatic/manual procedure. Hence, one fault at a time should only lead to MINOR failure. Double fault occurring simultaneously should not lead to an emergency situation and may be counteracted by emergency action. Hence, two faults simultaneously should only lead to MAJOR failure. Triple faults occurring simultaneously may lead to an emergency situation. This may also require PILOTS immediate action for emergency condition. This type of fault has been called as CRITICAL failure.



PRECAUTIONS FOR EMI/EMC CONTROL The following precautions have been taken during design and development stage of DC Master Box to control EMI/EMC  All the grounding/reference lines used in the unit are connected to a common negative point used inside the unit and then being brought out through connector pins of 16 AWG.  The chassis of the unit is kept isolated from the grounding points to avoid the return currents to flow through the Helicopter structure.  The bonding points are provided on the unit at the mounting points.

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 All contactors are used with coil having surge suppressors. Transient suppressors and free wheeling diodes are also used in PCB circuit design.  The length of the leads/wires is kept as short as possible and multistrand wires are used to reduce eddy current effects.

INTRODUCTION: Alternator Control & Protection Unit regulates the alternator O/P voltage within specified limit under various rated load & speed conditions. The unit is having built in protections against over/under voltage, over/under frequency, over load & feeder fault conditions. Under these faulty conditions, the unit disconnects the alternator from AC electrical system by de energizing the contractor & field.

The unit will be interfaced with the alternator having characteristics: Type: - 3 phase star connection. O/P Power: - 5 kVA. Voltage: - 115/200 V, 400 Hz. Overloading: - 150 % for 5 min, 200 % for 5 sec. Nominal Speed: - 1200 RPM. Maximum Speed for Regulation: - 12600 RPM. Minimum Speed for Regulation: - 11400 RPM. Over Speed: - 15000 RPM. Frequency at 12000 RPM: - 400 Hz.

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INTRODUCTION The Filter Transformer Unit (FTU - 01) is for Jaguar aircraft which gives single phase 26 V, 400 Hz low distortion O/P, synchronized with phase AB of the three phase 200 VCC O/P, 400 Hz aircraft power source. The unit is being operated from three phase 200 VCC, 400 Hz aircraft power source. There are two no. of FTUs in one A/C. in case of failure of one unit (FTU), the entire A/C load will be automatically transferred to another healthy unit (FTU). Functional Description: The FTU is enclosed in an aluminum box & having natural cooling. The heat sink fins made on two side walls are capable to provide the sufficient heat conduction generated from four power transistors. The basic electronics of this unit utilizes the conventional sine wave oscillator & push pull power amplification principle. The unit provides single phase 26 V RMS, 400 Hz O/P synchronized with phase AB of AC power. The unit is capable of 130 % of FLUFF. The unit is having built in protection against O/P over voltage, O/P under voltage. The unit also provides a single under above faulty condition. The total circuit is spited into 3 main functional parts:  Power supply.  O/P voltage control & its phase synchronization.  Protection. Power Supply: Three phase power 200 VLL, 400 Hz available from A/C is being fed to step down I/P transformer. The three phase bridge rectifier rectifies the O/P of the I/P transformers. The rectifier O/P is filtered through capacitor & a dc voltage of amplitude of approx. 26 V is available. This dc voltage is used to bias the circuit within the unit & also to provide the O/P power. A new reference i.e. 0 V is generated within the unit & w.r.t.0 V. The + VCC & VCC are generated to provide the biasing to the circuit.
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O/P Voltage & Phase Synchronization: A three phase oscillator consisting of ICs & associated resistors & capacitors produce 3 phase sine wave, 120 degrees apart to each other. The sine wave available is in phase with the sine wave signal received at control card. The phase AB of A/C ac supply is fed to I/P of synchronization T/F. The O/P of T/F is step down & is fed to the control card, so the sine wave available is always in phase with AB of A/C ac power. The sine wave O/P is followed by pre amplifier is followed by the driver transistor mounted on chassis. The T/F drives the class B push pull amplifier. The O/P available at the O/P T/F is filtered through a filter consisting L & C. After filtration a low distortion 26 V RMS, 400 Hz O/P is available at the connector. The O/P T/F has voltage feedback winding. A sine wave proportional to main O/P is being rectified & filtered through capacitor in the control card. As unit O/P voltage decreases, the amplitude of the square wave increases, hence the amplitude of the sine wave increases, hence the amplitude of the sine wave increases, which in turn increases the O/P voltage & vice versa, so a regulated voltage within permissible range is available at the O/P of the unit.

The O/P sine wave & I/P phase AB available at the secondary of the phase synchronizing T/F are converted into square wave & fed to PLL. The O/P of the PLL is a pulse whose width varies with phase difference b/w two square waves. The O/P of PLL is followed by LPF. A smooth DC is at the O/P of LPF whose amplitude is directly proportional to the width of the pulse. The DC voltage available at the O/P of the LPF is compared with a fixed reference voltage by the comparator. The comparator O/P is low as
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long as the phase error b/w O/P of the unit & I/P phase AB is less than the specified value. When the phase error exceeds the specified limit, the comparator of the O/P becomes high. The high signal is fed to the latching cum time delay circuit & O/P becomes high after a specified time delay & thus unit O/P falls to zero & the aircraft load gets transferred to the second FTU.

The d.c. voltage proportional to the O/P a.c. voltage is fed to the comparator which compares this d.c. voltage to find a reference voltage. If the O/P voltage becomes lower than the O/P under voltage threshold level, then the O/P of the comparator becomes high, which in turn makes O/P of the latching cum time delay circuit to high, after fixed time delay, & the unit tripped off & the aircraft load is transferred to another FTU.

The a.c. voltage induced across the feedback winding of the O/P transformer is rectified by bridge rectifier & filtered to obtain the d.c. voltage is fed to the comparator which compares the fixed reference voltage. If the O/P voltage exceeds the threshold limit of O/P over voltage, the O/P of the comparators becomes high, which in turn males the O/P of the latching cum time delay circuit to high, after fixed time delay the unit is tripped off & the aircraft load is transferred to the another FTU.

The a.c. voltage is proportional to the O/P current is achieved by the current transformer. The voltage is rectified & filtered to obtain the d.c. voltage proportional to the O/P current. The d.c. voltage is compared by a comparator with a fixed reference voltage. If the O/P becomes higher than the specified limit, the O/P of the comparator becomes high, which in turns makes the O/P of the latching cum delay circuit to high after a fixed time
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delay & the unit is tripped off & the aircraft load is transferred to another FTU.

Flight data reorder system is fitted in aircraft for recording of flight parameters on aero photo film and preserving it in normal as well as in crash condition. This box is dark orange in color to give bright contrast for easy search during any mishappening. Though it is called Black Box, as data are being recorded on film and cannot be seen easily by everyone. It mainly consist of1- Information storage system 2- Matching mechanism 3- Cassette 4- Transducers for various parameters.

Purpose &working
Flight data recorder system records automatically 6 continuously changing parameters (altitude, engine speed, aircraft speed, vertical acceleration, and horizontal acceleration and turn angle of stabilizer) imposed on 3 continuously variable parameters, and timer line to indicate the time on black and white aero photo film and preserve it in normal and crash condition for study and analysis of flight conditions. Inner structure consists of a light beam source and plane mirrors. There are six sets of galvanometer is a plane mirror. These galvanometers are placed in magnetic field. When the signals are send to galvanometers the coils moves due to magnetic effect, making the mirror move in different directions. Now, when light beam passes the beam, it is reflected by plane mirror and when this falls on galvanometers mirrors, and get light gets reflected in six parts and falls on film forming different wave shapes.

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Aircraft SU-30MKI is a multipurpose twin seated supersonic fighter designed to destroy air target in free space and against the earth background both by day and at night under visual and adverse weather conditions and to engage ground and surface targets within tactical and operational depths under heavy noise conditions as well. To destroy aerial targets, a provision is made for employment of all angle medium-range missiles (active, semi-active radar and infrared guided missiles) and short-range missiles (infra-red guided missiles) capable of high target hit probability. To destroy ground targets, use is made of unguided bombs, guided bombs and missiles. The aircraft is also equipped with a rapid-fire gun mount with caliber of 30mm. The aircraft is also intended for training, acquisition (perfection) of skills in flying techniques, air navigation and combat employment including participation in group combat actions.




Main Features  Fuselage: The fuselage of SU-30MKI aircraft is an integrated aerofoil body that provides 40% of aircrafts total lift. The fuselage is built up of three sections; Nose sections, tall section and wing center section.  Fuselage Nose Section: It is an all-metal semi monologue construction. It includes nose cone, two cabins, nose LG well and equipment compartment. For planes or canards and attached to the last frame of this section.  Wing Center Section: It is the main load carrying structure of the aircraft. It provides attachment points for landing gears, outer wings, fuselage nose section, and fuselage tail section and air intakes.  Fuselage Tall Section : It comprises of air ducts, air Intakes and two engine compartments interconnected by an intermediate

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compartment. Horizontal stabilizers and vertical fins are attached to the rear part of fuselage tail section  Outer Wings: Outer wings are an integrated part of the fuselage, trapezoidal in shape and swept back by 420. The flaperons are attached at the trailing edge, which operate as ailerons and flaps. The leading edge flaps are located all along outer wingspan to improve the aerodynamic characteristics.  Air intakes: The engine air intakes are under slung and provided with ramp panels the air intakes are closed by protective screen to prevent the ingress of foreign objects.  Landing Gear: The aircraft has tricycle type landing gear operated by first hydraulic system. Only the main wheels are provided with brakes, and the brakes are operated by hydraulic pressure. The nose landing gear is provided with wheel steering system.  Flight Controls: The aircraft longitudinal control is achieved by synchronous deflection of stabilizers, lateral control by differential deflection of stabilizers and flaperons and directional control by rudders. Fly by wire system operates all the control surfaces. Fore plane or canard is introduced for providing larger stability and  Maneuverability at higher angle of attack and subsonic speeds. Wing leading flaps also act as lift augmenting device at greater angle of attack. The fly by wire system operates canards and leading edge flaps automatically. All control surfaces are operated by both the hydraulic systems.  Hydraulic system: The hydraulic system comprises of two independent systems i.e.: First or Left hydraulic system and Second or Right hydraulic system. y (a) y (b) y (c) y (d) y (e) Hydraulic oil used: AMG-10/OM-15 Hydraulic tank capacity: 15.8 liters (each system) Left hydraulic system capacity: 40 liters Right hydraulic system capacity:40 liters System operating pressure: 280+15 kgf/cm2

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 Fuel System: The ac carries fuel in five metallic fuel tanks, which can be refueled in air also. On ground the ac can be refueled in two modes i.e. basic and full: in case of emergency the fuel can be dumped in air. The capacity of fuel tanks is as follows.  Tank No. 1: 3260 kg  Tank No. 2: 4160 kg  Tank No. 3: 1060 kg  Tank No. 4: 350 kg  Tank No. 5: 650 kg  Total : 9480 kg  Pneumatic System: There are three independent pneumatic systems. All the system bottles are charged with nitrogen to a pressure of 200-15 kgf/cm2 a) Canopy Pneumatic Control System: It ensures opening, closing and sealing operation of canopy, jettisoning of canopy in case of emergency and pressurization of alcohol tank used for canopy anti-icing. The bottle capacity is 8 liters. b) Emergency Extension of Landing Gears: It extends the landing gears in case the first hydraulic system fails. The bottle capacity is 9 liters. c) Emergency Extension of Refueling probe: It extends the air-to-air refueling probe in case the second hydraulic system fails. The bottle capacity is 3 liters.

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Marketing is the relation between costumer and organization. When the costumer contacts the organization then it is seen that the request is of our capability or not. If not then regret order is send. Else request is judged under various points of cost, terms and conditions, time duration etc. and the decided conditions are send to the customer now if the customer agree then order is placed for further process. Firstly HAL had only defense sector as the only customer, but now it has decided to expand it capabilities to earn more and more profit. Marketing mainly includes two units of marketing. They are Civil and Export. It mainly deals with the defense requirements, but besides this there are many other costumers in India and outside India.


Civil (ISRO, Sahara Airlines, kingfisher kingfisher, JET airways, etc.)

export (Oman, UA, England, Romania, Zimbabwe, Srilanka, etc.)

y CIVIL- In civil unit it mainly deals with the costumers of India only. They are different airlines and research organizations, army, navy, coast guard, air force, etc. They may contact for repairing of parts and for requirements of parts. y EXPORT- In this unit there are mainly customers of foreign they are airways of England, Oman, UA, etc. There are very strict rules for the trade between these organizations. These foreign organization look to HAL as a faithful organization. When customer contacts HAL then there are predefined steps to be followed by the organization.
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These can be described in chart as

Approved proposal


Techno/commerci al proposal

Preparation (export evolution, pricing committee, etc.)

Vetting (finance) Approval (competent authority)


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Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) has cruised past the Rs.7,500-crore mark for the first time with a sales turnover of Rs.7,783.61 crores ($1.82 billion) during the Financial Year 2006-07, The Value of Production has also gone up by 55.54% to Rs. 9,201.88 crores, while the Profit of the Company (Profit Before Tax) soared to Rs.1,743.60 crores, which is an increase of 54.88% over the previous year's performance.

The highlights are given below:

Rupees in Crores Particulars Sales VOP Profit tax before 2005-06 5342 5916 1126 771 1694 2006-07 7783 9202 1744 1149 2081 Growth over Previous Year 45.69% 55.54% 54.88% 49.03% 22.85%

Profit after tax Gross Block

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It is matter of great prestige to be a part of well& highly organized Navaratna organization, HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS LIMITED. After being a part of such organization one has the chance to learn a lot about a successful organization. Besides this it also imparts the opportunities to strengthen the particulars professional skills. Atmosphere of organization teaches one the characters of Focusing, Planning, Decision making, Co-ordination etc. These golden experiences help the student to sharpen his/her professional as well personal skills. After being the training student of HAL a particular department is assigned to study. This department helps in all possible ways to guide the functions, working process, units prepared of the organization. One can learn a lot if he takes the proper interest.

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The joy of flying has fascinated the human race for centuries. Defense avionics major &Navratana PSU Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is in the business of building a whole range of aircraft helicopters and jet trainers. Besides, the company manufactures aircraft components, overhauls fighter planes and trains future pilots .its success in the design and development of light combat aircraft Tejas and advanced light helicopter Dhruv has won admiration. HAL is the backbone of Indias air defense and continues to occupy the strategic importance reflecting a new pace of growth. Today the faster growing sector is the aviation sector & is likely to be a boon for the entire job market. It deals with the manufacture, design & development of aircrafts. The project is based on the instruments that are used in the manufacture of the various aircrafts. A deep knowledge of these instruments is crucial in the perfect design & manufacture of the aircrafts. The project will benefit those who have interest in the instrument & will provide the reader with the deeper knowledge of the topic.

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 Magazines of HAL

 Manuals of departments:


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