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INDEX 1. Synopsis 2. Introduction 3. Mitigation Strategy 4. Mitigation Measures for Mumbai 5. Need for Coordination Mechanism 6.

New Concept to improve Disaster Management. 7. Damage Control by BEST. 8. Conclusion DAMAGE CONTROL SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN MUMBAI Bibliography: 3. Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 7, No. 4, 2004 5. Name of the Person to We have met, his/her Designation and Organisation name : Mr. Naronha ATO ( Traffic Dept.) BEST, Mumbai. DAMAGE CONTROL SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN MUMBAI SYNOPSIS

Public transport faces severe problem in almost all countries of the developing world, although the situation varies from one country to another, and even from city one to another in the same country. The rapid growth of Population in Mumbai has put enormous stains on all transport systems. Burgeoning travel demands far exceed the limited supply of transport infrastructure and services. Public transport, in particular, has been completely overwhelmed. Most bus and train services are overcrowded, undependable, slow, inconvenient, uncoordinated and dangerous. Moreover, the public ownership and operation of most public transport services has greatly reduced productivity and inflated costs. Unfortunately, meagre Government financial assistance and the complete lack of any supportive policies, such as traffic priority for buses, place public transport in an almost impossible situation. During natural calamities (like Earthquake, Flood, Heavy Rains, Land Slide etc. and manmade calamities (like terrorist attack, accidents, riots, strike, derailing etc.) the situation becomes worse and we lose valuable human beings and infrastructure. DAMAGE CONTROL SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN MUMBAI INTRODUCTION Location Mumbai is the capital city of Maharashtra State. It has global importance since Mumbai is an international seaport and the Chhatrapati Shivaji International airport. Because of these, many multinational companies have set up their commercial base in Mumbai. It is also well connected

with other parts of India by Western Express Highway and Eastern Express Highway. Mumbai has strategic importance from the defence point of view, with headquarters of Western Naval Command and important offices of Army, Air force and Coast guard. Greater Mumbai Metropolitan area or Brihin Mumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) area is divided in two revenue districts viz Mumbai city District and Mumbai suburban District. Greater Mumbai of Maharashtra is entirely urban. The area of Greater Mumbai is surrounded on three sides by the seas: by the Arabian Sea to the west and the south, the Harbour Bay and the Thane Creek in the east - but in the north, the district of Thane stretches along its boundary across the northern parts of Salsette. The BMC limit extends upto Mulund, Mankhurd and Dahisar. Its height is hardly 10 to 15 meters above sea level. At some places the height is just above the sea level. Part of Mumbai City district is a reclaimed land on Arabian Sea coast. Mumbai City is one of the first four metropolitan areas in India.

DAMAGE CONTROL SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN MUMBAI PUBLIC TRANSPORT The rapid growth ofIndias urban population-as in other developing countrieshas generated an enormous need for efficient public transport services to carry high volumes of passengers through dense, congested urban areas. Since large cities are far more dependent on public transport than small cities, the need for public transport services has increased faster than overall population growth. Moreover, the lack of effective planning and land-use controls has resulted in rampant sprawled development extending rapidly in all directions, far beyond old city boundaries into the distant countryside.

That also has greatly increased the number and length of trips for most Indians, including those by public transport. DAMAGE CONTROL SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN MUMBAI The above diagram shows the percentage distribution of urban trips by means of travel for the metropolitan cities. We can see that 60% of the travel in Mumbai is done by public transport as compared to the other modes of transport. Public transport in Mumbai comprises of trains, buses etc. Buses carry more than 90 percent of public transport in Indian cities. Indeed, most Indian cities have no rail transport at all and rely instead on a combination of buses, minivans, auto rickshaws, cycle rickshaws, and taxis. Even in most of the largest cities, rail transport carries less than a third of public transport passengers. The only exception is Mumbai, which has Indias most extensive suburban rail network, carrying more than 5 million passengers a day58 percent of total public transport passengers in the region (vs. 42% by bus) and 80 percent of total passenger km (vs. 20% by bus) (Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport 2003; Indian Railways 2002). DAMAGE CONTROL SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN MUMBAI REASON FOR DAMAGES Floods

Floods in Mumbai casue a lot of damage. Many times the railway lines cease to function and the buses are often forced to suspend services. There are ten rail sections in Central Railway, which get submerged during heavy rains as given below: Masjid Rly station to Sandhurst Rd Sewri-Wadala Matunga Sion Kurla Station Mankhurd Station Vidyavihar-Ghatkopar Kanjurmarg-Vikhroli Nahur cabin area Mulund station In the Western Railway, there are 12 rail sections as given below which get submerged during heavy rains: Between Dadar and Matunga Rly-Stations Near Dadar Sewage Puri Fication Centre Near Elphinstone Rd Rly Station DAMAGE CONTROL SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN MUMBAI Between Elphinstone Rd and Lower Parel, Rly-Station DAMAGE CONTROL SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN MUMBAI NEW CONCEPT TO IMPROVE DISASTER MGMT.

Some new concepts to be adopted by Public Transport Authorities as a preventive measures for Damage Control system. Covert testing. To ensure that security was being maintained, authorities regularly conducted covert tests, such as leaving a bag containing a suspicious object on a train or in a station. Involvement of the public. Public involvement was critical to the security strategy, despite the limitations and risks of false alarms, especially immediately following terrorist attacks. Signage and repeated public announcements kept the public alert to the terrorist threat and the need to keep personal packages under direct control, remain vigilant for left parcels, and immediately report suspicious activity or articles to staff. Police remained confident that any left parcels would be discovered in minutes. Dissemination of "good" or "best practices." Authorities made a continuing effort to identify good security measures or "best practices" and disseminate them through instructional material and advice offered. Fencing. Fencing was improved around stations and, where possible, along rail lines. Analysis showed that when saboteurs placed bombs on rail lines, they followed the existing paths used by trespassers. They also chose locations that had good access from nearby roads to minimize their own risk. Lighting. Lighting was improved inside the stations to deter crime of all types, facilitate surveillance, and reassure passengers. Bombs often were located in poorly lit areas.

DAMAGE CONTROL SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN MUMBAI Closed-Circuit Television. CCTV was used to monitor activity, detect suspicious action, recognize individuals, and identify suspects beyond reasonable doubt. All station cameras were directly accessible to the police and could be called up on demand. In locating cameras, transport operators were advised to identify areas where passengers were most vulnerable; situate cameras so that they could not easily be avoided, damaged, or obscured; and use cameras for extending coverage to the immediate surrounding area. Although CCTV proved enormously effective in reducing crime and contributing to the deterrence of terrorism, authorities found that CCTV by itself was not enough. A combination of CCTV coverage plus police patrols and prompt police response made the greatest contribution to security. Passenger communications systems. Passenger communications systems included public address systems; help points, telephones, and emergency alarms. Passengers were instructed as to what constituted an emergency and were encouraged to use the help points and alarms when appropriate. CCTV cameras covered the help points and alarms so that staff could see who was calling and why. Staff communicated through mobile telephones and two-way radios. Bomb threat paging. One unique use of technology in the United Kingdom was bomb threat paging. Customers with pagers who subscribed to the service were alerted through pagers and provided with directions on evacuation or areas to avoid.

Extra staff. Extra rail staff members were deployed to assist in surveillance, help passengers, and contribute to deterrence. DAMAGE CONTROL SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN MUMBAI DAMAGE CONTROL BY BEST Our group had visited the BEST office to ask them for the steps they take for damage control. A Que. Who is responsible for damage control in BEST? BEST has a disaster management cell affiliated to the disaster management cell in the BMC. A chief traffic manager is appointed who is the senior in- charge of damage control. BEST has a disaster management plan in case of terrorist activities, floods etc. Que. What are the measures taken for damage incase of floods, anti social activities etc? BEST has a plan already in incase of floods. The major flood points have been identified. Accordingly a strategy has been formed whereby different officers are posted who are responsible for a chalked out area. These officers work under the instructions of the chief traffic manager.they help in the diversion of buses in case of floods. They are asked to stay in constant contact with the traffic control dept who can help them in diverting. Many a times spur of the moment decisions are required. BEST buses have been the target for several terrorist attacks. To help control damage BEST has taken some measures. BEST staff is trained how to deal with a possible scenario of a bomb blast or riots. The entire

operation area of BEST has been divided in to 5 zones. There are vigilance guards appointed in each zone. Regular checks are carried out at all bus depots and in buses.

DAMAGE CONTROL SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN MUMBAI There have been certain modifications in the buses to make them more secure. For example in case of double decked buses it was seen that the bombs were usually placed in the nitch below the stairway, which has now been closed. Another modification is that the last seat is now enclosed. There have been several instructions placed in the buses. Certain precautionary measures are taken at the bus depots. None of the buses are left unmanned. Regular checks are carried out when the buses come in and before they leave. BEST has also involved the public in its disaster mgmt plan. Several slides were displayed in theatres in order to increase the public awareness and to involve them in the control process. The steps taken by BEST as per the plan for damage control are as follows. 1. The BRC line officer gets the message 2. Message is then relayed to the traffic manager 3. Traffic manager relays message to control room 4. Control room passes the message on to the officers in the area. 5. The GM and the other seniors are informed 6. Police control room, fire brigade and disaster mgmt cell of the BMC

are informed 7. The operation of buses managed by the police and traffic police 8. Extra buses managed with co ordination 9. Control room co-ordinates with the railway: central, harbor and western 10.Control room calls for Bandobast. 11. Public relation officer communicates to the public 12. Announcement is made to passengers at the bus stop.


Damage control is an effort to minimize or curtail damage or loss.It can also be defined as Measures taken before, during, or after hostile action or natural or manmade disasters, to reduce the probability of damage and minimize its effects.It is a way of dealing withpr oblems which kicks into force after the fact - i.e when a certain problem cannot beavoided. The phrase is used in many different fields, includingdr ugs ("we can't stop it, but we can try to help people who have fallen prey to drugs"),natur al disasters ("we can't stop the tornado, but we can evacuate people"), accidents ("I couldn't stop from crashing my car, but theair bag and seat belt prevented me from death") and in public relations ("The British prince didn't really mean that you'll go all slitty-eyed if you stay in Japan for too long" - ref Prince Philip). Damage control is often seen as a last-resort exercise, and isn't as much a solution to a problem as a (partial) solution to the symptoms of a problem. Damage control (also sometimes known as fallout management,damage reduction, or damage management) is only as good as its preparations: Good emergency procedures and plans are paramount to a successful damage control exercise. To go back to our car accident example: If your car doesn't

have an air-bag, trying to fit one as you realise you are going to crash is not going to do any good. Due todamage control in the form ofspin by spin doctors in the field of public relations, "damage control" has - perhaps unfairly - received negative connotations.

DAMAGE CONTROL SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN MUMBAI CONCLUSION There has been a rapid increase in the use of public transport in the country especially in cities like Mumbai.Several problems crowd the public transports. Other than problems such as natural calamities and anti social activites problems such as over-crowding in buses and trains etc are also causes damage. Almost 60% of the people use public transport to commute and hence it is important that proper measure be taken to ensure safety. We have seen some of the measure that have been taken by the authorities to control damage. However many a times they are not sufficient. As seen very recently on the 26 / 7 no set plans of any authorities worked. Buses were left stranded on roads; many buses were flooded with water

while the passengers were inside. Similarly with trains services were finally terminated but not before some damage had been done. Buses have also been thetarget for many terrorist attacks. A recent example is that of the Ghatkopar bomb blast which rocked the city. Hence it is not just enough to have set plans for damage control. It is necessary to continuosly upgrade them. Damage control is an effort to minimize or curtail damage or loss. And this can only be done when the system works as an intergrated whole.

DAMAGE CONTROL SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN MUMBAI INDEX 1. Synopsis 2. Introduction Location Public transport Damage control 3. Reasons for damage 4. Mitigation Strategy 5. Mitigation Measures for Mumbai

6. Need for Coordination Mechanism 7. New Concept to improve Damage Management. 8. Damage Control by BEST. 9. Conclusion. 10.Bibliography.