Drugs and Medicine Packet Part 1: Pharmaceutical Products 1.

Drugs and medicines generally are taken to improve human health. What are three different ways in which they affect the person who takes them? a. Alters the physiological state b. Alters incoming sensory sensations c. Alters mood or emotions

2. Describe and explain the term: Placebo effect When an improvement in a patient’s health occurs when a treatment that is not known to produce any effect is given.

3. Describe and explain the term: Lethal Dose as it pertains to drugs and medicines. How is this concept useful and what are some of its limitations? Lethal dose is the quantity of an agent that may be sufficient to cause death. This concept is useful in a way that drug abusers will notice that as the dose increases so do the risks of dependence and the possibility of reaching the lethal dose. The limitation of lethal dose is that kills 50% of the animal population.

4. What are four main methods by which drugs are introduced into the body? Oral Inhalation Rectal Injection

5. What are three different methods for injections? Intravenous Intramuscular Subcutaneous

6. Describe and explain the term: Contraindication

Isolate the new product from existing species or synthesized chemically.Contraindication is a condition that provides as a reason to refuse a certain medical treatment. Drug tolerance occurs as the body becomes able to absorb a drug without any effect. Determine whether a medical process is risky for the patient in comparison with possible benefits if the procedure is successful. . as well on volunteers and patients. Establish its therapeutic index and therapeutic window 5. the product will be use through other tests elaborated on clinical situations. 3. 8. 7. In other words. it is a condition which makes a particular treatment inadvisable. Describe and explain the principle of risk to benefit ratio as it pertains to drug administration. aspirin is absolutely contraindicated because of the danger that aspirin will cause Reye syndrome. Procedure: 1. 9. When it is about drugs. The user needs to consume a large quantity of drug in order to achieve the original effects of it. Test it on humans in an initial clinical trial. 7. Subject the product to laboratory and clinical pharmacological studies to demonstrate its effectiveness. half of whom are given a placebo. Outline the steps that a drug must go through from the time it is discovered before it can be approved for human consumption. Test and determine its lethal dose known as the LD50 and its effective dose known as the ED50 4. If it passes through all these trials it will be approved by the drug administration for use either as an OTC (over the counter) drug or only prescription by a doctor. the investigator has to be sure that the amount of benefit exceed the amount of risk. The danger with tolerance is that as the dose increases so do the risks of dependence and the possibility of reaching the lethal dose. For example. 2. If the drug passes the initial clinical. 6. Describe and explain the principle of tolerance as it pertains to drug administration.

Aluminium Hydroxide (Al(OH)3)) Examples: Sodium Oxide. 1. which is mainly of hydrochloric acid with a pH value of 2. What is the role of pepsinogen and hydrochloric acid in the stomach? Food is digested mainly in the stomach.Drugs and Medicine Packet Part 2: Antacids 1. Magnesium Hydroxide (Mg(OH)) Examples: Laxatives. Eggshells. Describe the digestive process that occurs in the stomach. Pearls. Vaccines. Chemical Equations: NaHCO3(s) + HCl(aq)  NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) . The food that is digested contains gastric juices. Sodium Hydrogencarbonate (NaHCO3) Examples: Baking Soda. 3. Their roles are to chemically neutralize or adsorb the acid antacids to prevent inflammation. relieving pain and discomfort. 2. 3. What are four different categories of compounds that are used as antacid? Give an example of each and write a chemical equation to show how it neutralizes excess hydrochloric acid in the stomach. What are some causes of acid indigestion? Acid indigestion causes due to the excessiveness of acid that is known as Dyspepsia. 4. 2. Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) Examples: Snails.

Tums is a common antacid product sold over the counter in grocery stores and pharmacies. B. 6. activity level or coordination) 5.01 moles CaCO3 105mg (0. Calculate the number of moles of hydrochloric acid that each tablet would neutralize.500 g CaCO3 x (mol / 100. Mg(24. Explain the role of (a) alginates and (b) antifoaming agents that are often added to antacids. Tums contains 500 mg (0. Antifoaming Agents: Prevents flatulence. 500mg (0.105 g)= (Mg(OH)) A. weaken bones and alter the physiological state (including consciousness. What are side effects that can result for each of the four categories of antacids that you listed in question 3 above? The side effects that can result for each of the four categories of antacids are dyspepsia. which is caused when the acid from the stomach rises up the esophagus. Ca(40.Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l) Al(OH)3(s) + 3HCl(aq)  AlCl3(aq) + 3H2O(l) 4.01 g/mol) . A.02 g/mol B.500 g) = (CaCO3) A.500 g) of Calcium Carbonate as its active ingredient.02 g) = 50.3 g/mol) + OH(16 g/mol + 1.1 g/mol) + CO3(12. Gaviscon contains 105 mg Magnesium hydroxide and 160 mg of aluminum hydroxide.01 g/mol +3(16) g/mol) = 100. This prevents heartburn. Alginates: A neutralizing preservative surface over the walls of the stomach and esophagus. 0.

Prostaglandin: A strong substance produced in response to trauma that affects blood pressure and physicological state and muscle activity c. 0. Distinguish between the ways mild analgesics and strong analgesics react in the body to relieve pain.31 g/mol B.= 41. Pain receptor: Perception of pain caused to potentially damaging stimuli by sending nerve signals to the spinal cord and brain. Encephalin: Is an endorphin that has opiate qualities that takes place in the brain and spinal cord.160 g)= (Al(OH)3)) A. 2. e. Prodrug: Is a drug that is maintained in an inactive from. Define of explain each of the following terms as they relate to analgesics a. 0. f. Leukotriene : Fatty molecules that causes asthma and bronchitis.34 moles Mg(OH) 160mg (0.48 moles Al(OH)3 Drugs and Medicine Packet Part 3: Analgesics 1. . Al(26.160 g Al(OH)3 x (mol / 78. b. Endorphin: A neurochemical ocurring in the brain and having analgesis properties.31 g) = 4. d.982 g/mol) +(OH)3(3(16) g/mol + 3(1.01 g/mol B.105 g Mg(OH) x (mol / 41. Mild analgesics relieve pain by intercepting the pain stimulus at the part of the injury and Strong analgesics relieve pain by interacting temporarily with receptor parts in the brain so that pain signals within the brain and spinal cord are blocked.01 g) = 12.01) g/mol) = 78.

Distinguish between an analgesic and an antipyretic Analgesics relieve pain and an antipyretic prevents or alleviates fever. Describe and explain four uses for aspirin 2-hydroxybenzoic (Salicylic acid) Painkillers Antipyretic (Fever Depressant) Paracetamol (Pain Stimulus) 5. 6. People that are allergic to aspirin can lead to bronchial asthma. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using acetaminophen rather than Aspirin? The advantages of using acetaminophen is that it can be consume by any person including children and its side effects are harmful than those of aspirin.3. 9. and heroin is the diester formed from the condensation of morphine with ethanoic anhydride. List four disadvantages of using aspirin Undesirable side effect of irritating and damaging the mouth. Compare and describe the structures of morphine. 4. What are the primary medical uses of opiates? . and heroin. The disadvantages are that it can cause kidney damage and blood disorders causing even death. codeine. They are all esters and all have the same structure. Causes bleeding in the lining of the stomach. What are the characteristics of an opiate? Are the most important naturally occurring strong analgesics are morphine and codeine found in the opium poppy. 8. Morphine has the same basic structure. 7. Brain disorder with the symptoms of vomiting. In codeine one of the hydroxyl groups has been substituted for an ether group.

Especially your mental functioning turns dark. Strong analgesic: Strong analgesics relieve pain by interacting temporarily with receptor parts in the brain so that pain signals within the brain and spinal cord are blocked. Aspirin is a common mild analgesic I. Since they are drugs that alleviate your pain. Mild analgesic: Mild analgesics relieve pain by intercepting the pain stimulus at the part of the injury II. 12. Short Term: Drug abuser will suffer of heavy extremities such as being in a drowsy state. B. people will take it until they achieve the same effect. Explain the concepts of tolerance and dependence with respect to the use of narcotics a. However.The primary medical use of opiates is to relief the pain of cancer from ill patient in hospitals. 11. Discuss the typical short term and long term effects of the use of narcotics a. b. b. 1. Outline one advantage and one disadvantage of using aspirin . State and explain how each type of analgesic prevents pain I. Long Term: Drug abuser will suffer of pneumonia which may result from poor health conditions. What are the primary psychological effects of opiates? The primary psychological effect of opiates is that tolerance develops. 10. Dependence: Occurs when the drug becomes a central activity for a person. Tolerance: The narcotics like heroin and morphine are to relieve severe pain. serious problems can arise if an overdose is taken. Analgesics can be classified as mild or strong A. and drug abusers may die of an overdose or by consuming drugs that are illegal.

The disadvantages are that it can cause kidney damage and blood disorders causing even death.Advantage: Prevents heart attacks.II Suggest another practice that may lead to these results The use of penicillins in animal feedstock will prevent the growth and multiplication of bacteria in their bodies.I. III. A. Disadvantage: Undesirable side effect of irritating and damaging the mouth. B. State one synergistic effect of using aspirin and ethanol together The effect is that increases the risk of stomach bleeding and will damage the central nervous system. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) is often used as a substitute for aspirin. Drugs and Medicine Packet Part 3: Depressants . B. Discuss the possible effects of over prescribing penicillins in humans There will be no effect because humans do not have cell walls like bacteria. Penicillins prevent the growth of bacteria by impeding the chemicals that bacteria need to form normal cell walls. Explain the specific effects of modifying the side chain in penicillin Changing the side chain will result in penicillins that are more resistant to the penicillin enzyme. Broad Spectrum Antibiotic: Antibiotic that fights against different types of diseases that cause bacteria. State one major disadvantage of using acetaminophen. II. D. Compare broad spectrum and narrow spectrum antibiotics A. State how penicillins prevent the growth of bacteria and explain why scientists continue to develop new penicillin. 2. D. C. Narrow Spectrum Antibiotic: Antibiotic that fights only against specific groups of bacteria.

In the breath: Intoximeters are the tools that are used to measure the amount of alcohol in the breath. Blood: Breathalyzer is the tool that is used to determine the amount of alcohol in the body. and at an extremely high dose. C. Some physiological effects are cancer. With the following depressants. 4. at a high dose. 3. b. describe their structure and how they are used a. Describe the synergistic effect of ethanol with other drugs (be specific as to with which drug) The synergistic effect of ethanol when is taken with aspirin can be fatal because it increases the risk of stomach bleeding. Diazepam (Valium): Amide group. In the case of low dose. Describe and explain the techniques used for detection of ethanol A. 6. Fluoxetien hydrochloride (Prozac): Contains an asymmetric carbon atom. Nitrazepam (Mogadon): Amide group. cost to society and short. Urine: Urine samples are sent to a laboratory for analysis using gas liquid chromatography. the only difference in the structure is the substitution of the chloro-group. What are some social and physiological effects of the use and abuse of ethanol? (include family. because the alcohol helps to move aspirin through the protective mucus lining the stomach wall. the only difference in the structure is the substitution of the nitro-group. Blood is analyzed with gas liquid chromatography and absorption of infrared radiation in the intoximeter. . but in high dose they can cause a loss of consciousness. c. B. Describe the effects of a depressant at a low dose.and long-term health effects) Some social effects are that people that drink alcohol ended up losing their jobs and start committing criminal offences. relieve anxiety.1. heart disease and nutrition deficiencies. coma and even death. 2. Why are depressants often described as antidepressants? Because they cure mental depression. 5.

1.Paper 3 Questions on Depressants 1. 3. Depressants such as tranquilizers and sedatives are capable of affecting the central nervous system. Discuss the harmful effects of regularly taking large amounts of ethanol by referring to four specific problems. Suggest why it is advisable not to drink alcohol when taking other drugs. The most widely-used depressant is ethanol. Coma List two depressants whose structures are shown in Table 21 of the Data Booklet. D. Intoximeters are the tools that are used to measure the amount of alcohol in the breath. Also heart attack and chest pain occurs. One method for detecting alcohol in breath involves blowing through a tube containing crystals of acidified potassium dichromate (VI). Because the risk of bleeding in the stomach and intestines is very high. C. B. in each case. on the body of taking I. II. Fluoxetine (Prozac) Nitrazepam (Mogadon) . They get reduced by the ethanol to chromium (III) ions. Cr3+. Explain what happens to both the dichromate (VI) ion and the alcohol in this reaction. A. Explain how an intoximeter works. 2. Because they cure mental depression. Loss of consciousness. 4. Increases the risk of stomach bleeding. Explain why depressants are sometimes described as antidepressants. State two effects. A low dose of a tranquilizer: Feel of comfort and relieve anxiety. A high dose of a sedative: Coma and death. Damages the central nervous system. A modern method for accurately determining the amount of alcohol in breath uses an intoximeter. The alcohol turns the crystals from orange to green. 2.

Many drugs are taken orally.Inhalation . Undesired effects of a drug or medicine. This is dangerous because consuming in large amounts cause damages in the body and death. Drugs and Medicine Packet Part 4: Stimulants 1. A.Injection 5. Calculate the difference in relative formula mass between morphine and codeine. Heart rate speeds up. List the physiological effects of stimulants. 14 B. Define and explain the term: Sympathomimetic Drug? Simulates the effect of simulation on the sympathetic nervous system.One problem with many drugs is that users develop tolerance. State what is meant by the term side effect. 6. 3. Explain what is meant by developing tolerance towards codeine and state why this is dangerous? Consuming large amounts of the product to achieve its original effect. . Morphine is a naturally occurring analgesic that can be converted into codeine. 2. Explain what is meant by the term tolerance and state why it could increase the risk to the user. E. The danger with tolerance is that as the dose increases so do the risks of dependence and the possibility of reaching the lethal dose. For what purposes were amphetamines originally developed? Amphetamines were originally developed to treat narcolepsy for the . A.Rectal . B. Drug tolerance occurs as the body becomes able to absorb a drug without any effect. State three other ways in which drugs may be taken by a patient. Increasing sweat production.

amphetamine and methamphetamine derived from the phenylethylamine structure. What is an alkaloid? Give three examples.airmen in World War II to combat fatigue. and methamphetamine. Also they were used as antidepressants and slimming pills. Describe and explain the short term and long term effects of amphetamine use. Amphetamine is a primary amine whereas methamphetamine is a secondary amine. 6. Some examples of alkaloid are caffeine.) 7. No appetite Fatigue Long Terms: Increase risk of heart disease Weight loss Constipation 5. 4. What are the structural differences between caffeine and theobromine? The only difference between caffeine and theobromine is that the NH group of theobromine is an N-CH3 group. nicotine and cocaine. Short Terms: Increase in heart rate and blood pressure. The structures of adrenaline. Increase risk of peptic ulcers. Compare the chemical structures of adrenaline. . amphetamine. Short Terms: Increase in heart rate and blood pressure. 8. Alkaloid is a group of chemical compounds of plant that contains heterocyclic rings and a tertiary amine group. Reduces urine output Long Terms: Increase risk of heart disease. Nicotine is found in tobacco smoke Describe the short term and the long term affects of continued tobacco use.

9. Compare the structure of caffeine and nicotine. What are the similarities and differences? The structures are similar and both contain a tertiary amine group. unlike nicotine.- Lung diseases. The difference is that caffeine. . also contains amide groups.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.