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First published in India in 2007 by : Council of Handicraft Development Corporations (COHANDS) New Delhi Printed and produced by:

Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd. 10B, Vidyanagar Society Part 1, Usmanpura, Ahmedabad 380014, India T | 91-79-2754 5390 / 2754 5391 F | 91-79-2754 5392 E | mapin@mapinpub.com www.mapinpub.com Conceived, researched, edited and designed by: National Institute of Design (NID), Ahmedabad Text, photographs and graphics - 2007 National Institute of Design (NID), Ahmedabad and Development Commissioner (Handicrafts), New Delhi All rights reserved under international copyright conventions. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any other information storage and retriveal system, without prior permission in writing from the Council of Handicrafts Development Corporations (COHANDS), New Delhi Project funded by Office of the Development Comissioner Handicrafts, Ministry of Textiles, Government of India Crafts of India Series ISBN :978-81-88204-49-6 Handmade in India ISBN:978-81-88204-57-1 LC:2005929526 Editors:Aditi Ranjan, M P Ranjan Designers:Zenobia Zamindar, Girish Arora Printed at :Tien Wah Press, Singapore

Cover photo by Ramu Aravindan. An artisan finishing diyas, terracotta lamps, made for rural and urban markets for festivals, in Nawrangpur district, Orissa. Back cover photo by Deepak J Mathew. Carved and painted wooden toys of Kondapalli, depicting various craft processes, occupations and household activities. The toys resemble the 19th century Company paintings of vocations and craftspersons at work in India. Front flap photo by Sandeep Sangaru. Kashmiri craftsman refining a high value walnut wood carving in Srinagar. Back flap photo by Purvi Mehta. Detail of a dowry bag appliqued by embroidered by a Rabari woman in Kachchh, Gujarat. Page 1 : photo by Jogi Panghaal. Detail of a contemporary cotton kantha, quilted and embroidered textile made by craftsperson in West Bengal. Pgaes 2 & 3: photo by Farah Deba. Detail of the carved and painted wood work inside a prayer hall in Thiksey Monastery, Ladakh Stuatory notes on Map of India on page 006: The external boundaries and coast lines of India agree with the Record / Master Copy certified by Survey of India. Government of India, Copyright 2006 The responsibility for the correctness of internal details rests with the publisher. The territorial waters of India extend into the sea to a distance of twelve nautical miles measured from the appropriate base line. The administrative headquarters of Chandigarh, Haryana and Punjab are at Chandigarh. The interstate boudaries between Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Meghalaya shown on this map are as interpreted from the North-Eastern Areas (reorganization) Act 1971, but have yet to be verified. The state boundaries between Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh have not been verified by the Governments concerned.

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Contents
006 007 010 017 018 024-5 026 048 062 073 074 080 124 130-1 132 168 178-9 180 194 204 236 240 Map of India List of Crafts How to Use the Book Preface Introduction Zone 1 : N / - NORTH Jammu And Kashmir Himachal Pradesh Punjab Chandigarh Haryana Rajasthan Delhi Zone 2 : C / - CENTRE Uttar Pradesh Uttaranchal Zone 3 : E / - EAST Bihar Jharkhand Orissa Sikkim 540 West Bengal 545 546 551 556 558 561 562 564 567 572 514 520 526 532 492-3 494 504 266-7 268 298 336 340 362 390-1 392 402 406 408 442 458 480 Zone 4 : S / - SOUTH Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Pondichery Kerala Karnataka Zone 5 : W/- WEST Goa Dadar and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Gujarat Maharashtra Madhya Pradesh Chhattisgarh Zone 6 : NE/- NORTHEAST Assam Arunachal Pradesh Nagaland Manipur Mizoram Tripura Meghalaya Sponsors Technical Glossary Annotated Bibliography of Archival Documents Bibliography Acknowledgements Acknowledgements: Museums and Collections Credits Craft Categories Index of Places Index of Subjects

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North : N/ 1.0 JAMMU AND KASHMIR Kashmir 1.1 Papier Mache 1.2 Kaleen - knotted carpets 1.3 Kashidakari - Kashmiri emboidery 1.4 Namda - felted rugs 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 N/JK 026 N/JK 028 N/JK 029 N/JK 030 N/JK 032

N/RJ 095 5.69 Tarkashi - metal inlay in wood N/RJ 095 Ajmer 5.70 Phad painting 5.71 Miniature painting of wood 5.72 Leather work 5.73 Marble carving Bikaner 5.74 Usta kaam gesso painting 5.75 Gangaur idol making 5.76 Meghwal embroidery 5.77 5.78 5.79 5.80 5.81 N/RJ 096 N/RJ 097 N/RJ 097 N/RJ 098 N/RJ 098 N/RJ 099 N/RJ 100 N/RJ 101

5.68 Gota Work

N/JK 033 Gabba - embroidered rugs N/JK 033 Walnut wood carvings N/JK 034 N/JK Pinjrakari and Khatumband - wood work 035 Wicker work N/JK 035 Copper ware N/JK 036 Jammu Ladakh N/JK 037 N/JK 038 N/JK 039 N/JK 040 N/JK 041 N/JK 042 N/JK 043 N/JK 043 N/JK 044 N/JK 044 N/JK 045 N/JK 046 N/JK 047 N/JK 047

1.10 Thangka Painting 1.11 Ritual cloth installations 1.12 Khabdan - pile carpets 1.13 Tsug Dul and tsug gdan woolen pile rugs 1.14 Challi - woolen textiles 1.15 Hand Spinning 1.16 Paabu - stitched boots 1.17 Thigma - tie-resistingdyeing 1.18 Metal work 1.19 Wood carving 1.20 Painted wood 1.21 Basketry

5.82 5.83 5.84 5.85 5.86 5.87 5.88 5.89 5.90 5.91

2.0 HIMACHAL PRADESH N/HP 048 N/HP Chamba 050 2.22 Lost wax metal casting N/HP 050 2.23 Silver jewellery N/HP 051 2.24 Chamba rumal N/HP 052 2.25 Chamba painting N/HP 053 2.26 Embroidery on leather N/HP 053 N/HP Kangra 054 2.27 Thangka painting N/HP 055 2.28 dras-drub-ma applique N/HP 055 thangka

5.92 5.93

5.94 5.95 5.96

5.97 5.98 5.99

N/RJ 101 N/RJ Bhitti chitra - wall painting 102 Miniature painting N/RJ 102 Sandalwood carving N/RJ 103 Silver ware N/RJ 103 N/RJ Meenakari and kundan jewellery 104 N/RJ Jodhpur 105 N/RJ Mojari leather footwear 106 Wood work N/RJ 107 N/RJ Dabu - mud resist painting 108 N/RJ Bandhej - tie resist dyeing 109 N/RJ Seep ka kaam - mother of pearl work 110 Bone work N/RJ 110 Musical instruments N/RJ 111 Wrought iron work N/RJ 111 N/RJ Pattu weaving 112 N/RJ Panja dhurrie weaving 112 Maati ro kaam - terracotta and N/RJ pottery 113 N/RJ Paatra kaam - utensil work 113 N/RJ Jaisalmer 114 Camel trappings N/RJ 115 Terracotta of Pokharan N/RJ 116 Stone carving N/RJ 116 N/RJ Udaipur 114 N/RJ Pichhwai - painted temple hangings 118 N/RJ Kawad - mobile shrines 118 Terracotta of Molela N/RJ

2.29 Metal work 2.30 Wood work of Dharamsala Kullu 2.31 Basketry 2.32 Doll making 2.33 Thakkar ka kaam sheet metal work 2.34 Knitted socks 2.35 Pula chappal - grass footwear 2.36 Kullu shawls

N/HP 056 N/HP 057 N/HP 058 N/HP 059 N/HP 059 N/HP 060 N/HP 060 N/HP 061 N/HP 061

5.100 Damascening 5.101 Metal engraving 5.102 Koftgiri - weaponry 5.103 Thewa - gold leaf work 5.104 Silver jewellery 5.105 Meenakari - enamel work 5.106 Dabu printing of Akola 5.107 Leheriya - tie resist dyeing

119 N/RJ 120 N/RJ 120 N/RJ 120 N/RJ 121 N/RJ 121 N/RJ 122 N/RJ 122 N/RJ 123

6.0 3.0 PUNJAB Amritsar 3.37 Khunda - bamboo staves 3.38 Galeecha - knotted carpets N/PB 062 N/PB 064 N/PB 064 N/PB 065

DELHI Delhi

6.108 Naqquashi - engraving 6.109 Zardosi - gold embroidery 6.110 Terracotta ware 6.111 Papier-mache 6.112 Wood inlay 6.113 Carved wooden furniture 6.114 Chik making 6.115 Sandalwood carving

N/DL 124 N/DL 125 N/DL 126 N/DL 126 N/DL 127 N/DL 127 N/DL 128 N/DL 128 N/DL 129 N/DL 129

3.39 3.40 3.41 3.42

3.43 3.44

N/PB Hoshiarpur 066 Carved and turned wood N/PB 066 work N/PB Punja dhurrie 067 Wood inlay of hoshiarpur N/PB 068 Wood and lac turnery N/PB 068 N/PB Patiala 069 N/PB Phulkari and bagh embroidered textiles 070 N/PB Nala - drawstrings 072 N/PB 072

CENTRE : C/

7.0

UTTAR PRADESH

3.45 Tilla jutti - traditional footwear

7.116 3.1 CHANDIGARH N/CH 073 7.117 7.118 4.0 HARYANA Haryana 4.46 Palm leaf work 4.47 Sarkanda work 4.48 Brass ware 4.49 Jutti - leather footwear 4.50 Surahi - pottery N/HR 074 N/HR 076 N/HR 076 N/HR 077 N/HR 078 N/HR 078 N/HR 079

7.119

C/UP 132 C/UP Saharanpur 134 Wood carving C/UP 135 Tarkashi - metal inlay in wood C/UP 136 Ebony wood carving C/UP 136 C/UP Moradabad 137 Brass ware of Moradabad C/UP 138 Bareilly C/UP 139 C/UP 140 C/UP 140 C/UP 141 C/UP 142 C/UP 143 C/UP 144 C/UP 145 C/UP 145 C/UP 146 C/UP

7.120 Bamboo flutes 7.121 Cane furniture Aligarh 7.122 Pottery of Khurja and Chinhat

5.0 RAJASTHAN

5.51 5.52 5.53 5.54

N/RJ 080 N/RJ Jaipur 082 Blue pottery of Jaipur N/RJ 083 Kundan jadai - gem setting N/RJ 084 Meenakari - enamal work N/RJ 084 Lac ware N/RJ

Agra 7.123 Pacchikari - stone inlay of agra 7.124 Marble Carving 7.125 Soft stone carving 7.126 Knotted carpets 7.127 Glass work

085 N/RJ 085 5.56 Bandhej and leheriya - tie N/RJ resist dyeing 086 N/RJ 5.57 Block making 088 5.58 Block printing of bagru N/RJ and sanganer 089 5.55 Razai - quilt making 5.59 Mojari - leather footwear 5.60 Handmade paper 5.61 Felt products 5.62 Bahi - clothbound books 5.63 Sanjhi - paper stencils 5.64 Terracotta of Sawai Madhopur 5.65 Stone work 5.66 Kalputli - puppets 5.67 Wood and lac turnery N/RJ 090 N/RJ 091 N/RJ 091 N/RJ 091 N/RJ 092 N/RJ 092 N/RJ 093 N/RJ 094 N/RJ 094

7.128 Sanjhi - paper stencils

147 C/UP 147 C/UP Lucknow 148 C/UP 7.129 Chikankari - embroidery of 149 Lucknow 7.130 Kaamdani and fardi ka kaam - C/UP metal work embroidery 150 7.131 Silver work 7.132 Zardosi - gold embroidery 7.133 Varaq ka kaam - gold and silver foil work 7.134 Sheet metal work 7.135 Terracotta and pottery 7.136 Quitabat - Calligraphy 7.137 Bone Carving 7.138 Clay toys 7.139 Basketry 7.140 Tharu applique 7.141 Applique C/UP 150 C/UP 151 C/UP 151 C/UP 152 C/UP 152 C/UP 153 C/UP 153 C/UP 154 C/UP 154 C/UP 155 C/UP 155

Gorakhpur 7.142 Black pottery of Nizamabad

C/UP 156 C/UP 157

Cuttack 11.203 Chandi tarkashi - Silver filigree 11.204 Stone carving 11.205 Sikki - craft 11.206 Katki chappal - leather footwear 11.207 Brass and bell metal ware 11.208 Katho kaam - wood carving Koratpur 11.209 Kotpad sari 11.210 Dongaria scarf kapda gonda 11.211 Dhokra - lost was metal casting 11.212 Tribal ornaments 11.213 Bamboo craft 11.214 Paddy and root craft 11.215 Lac products 11.216 Terracotta and pottery Mayurbhanj

E/OR 225 E/OR 226 E/OR 226 E/OR 227 E/OR 227 E/OR 228 E/OR 228 E/OR 229 E/OR 230 E/OR 230 E/OR 231 E/OR 231 E/OR 232 E/OR 232 E/OR 233 E/OR 233 E/OR 234 E/OR 235

14.269 Crochet work Cuddapah 14.270 Stone carving 14.271 Wooden cutlery of Udayagiri 14.272 Raja-rani dolls 14.273 Palm leaf work Chitoor 14.274 Kalamkari dye painted textiles 14.275 Bronze casting 14.276 Terracotta 14.277 Wood carving

S/AP 289 S/AP 290 S/AP 291 S/AP 292 S/AP 292 S/AP 293 S/AP 294 S/AP 295 S/AP 296 S/AP 296 S/AP 297

7.143 Terracotta and pottery C/UP 157 C/UP Varanasi 156 7.144 Wood and lac turnery C/UP 159 7.145 Repousse C/UP 159 7.146 Wood carving C/UP 160 7.147 Carpets & dhurries C/UP 161 7.148 Meenakari - enamel C/UP work 162 7.149 Block printing C/UP 163 7.150 Zardosi - gold C/UP embroidery 163 C/UP Allahbad 164 7.151 Moonj basketry C/UP 165 7.152 Papier mache C/UP 166 7.153 Shazar stone jewellery C/UP 167 7.154 Date palm craft C/UP 167

15.0

TAMIL NADU Kanyakumari

15.278 Palm leaf work 15.279 Kora mat weaving 15.280 Seashell craft 15.281 Bobbin Lace 15.282 Kavassam - sheet metal cladding 15.283 Stone carving 15.284 Stucco work Cuddalore

8.0

UTTARANCHAL Almora

8.155 Aipan - ritual floor painting 8.156 Ringaal - basketry 8.157 Nettle fibre craft

C/UT 168 C/UT 170 C/UT 171 C/UT 172 C/UT 173

11.217 Dhokra - lost was metal casting

12.0

SIKKIM

12.218 Ku Buddhist figurines 12.219 Choktse tables

E/SK 236 E/SK 238 E/SK 239

S/TN 298 S/TN 300 S/TN 301 S/TN 302 S/TN 303 S/TN 303 S/TN 304 S/TN 304 S/TN 305 S/TN 306

8.158 Likhai - wood carving 8.159 Copper ware Dehradun 8.160 Rambaans - natural fibre craft 8.161 Lantana furniture 8.162 Tibetan carpets

C/UT 173 C/UT 174 C/UT 175 C/UT 176 C/UT 176 C/UT 177

15.285 Wood Carving 13.0 E/WB 240 E/WB Darjeeling 242 13.220 Wood carvings E/WB 243 13.221 Beaten silver engravings E/WB 243 13.222 Hill painting E/WB 244 WEST BENGAL 13.223 Carpet weaving E/WB 244 E/WB 245 E/WB 246 E/WB 246 E/WB 247 E/WB 248 E/WB 248 E/WB 249 E/WB 250 E/WB 251 E/WB 252 E/WB 253 E/WB 253 E/WB 254 E/WB 255 E/WB 255 E/WB 256 E/WB 256 E/WB 257 E/WB 258 E/WB 259 E/WB 259 E/WB 260 E/WB 260 E/WB 261 E/WB 261 E/WB 262 E/WB 263 E/WB 263 E/WB 264 E/WB 265 15.286 Silk garland making Auroville 15.287 Handmade paper products 15.288 Pottery 15.289 Crochet and bead work 15.290 Stone carving 15.291 Leather work Kanchipuram 15.292 Stone carving 15.293 Wood carving Chennai 15.294 Wood carving 15.295 Palm leaf work 15.296 Thanjavur glass painting 15.297 Doll making Thiruchirapalli 15.298 Bronze casting 15.299 vilakku brass lamps 15.300 Brass repousse 15.301 Bell metal ware 15.302 Thanjavur kalamkari - dye painted textiles 15.303 Pallagai padam Thanjavur painting 15.304 veena - string instrument 15.305 Nadaswaram - wind instrument 15.306 Root Carving 15.307 Pith work 15.308 Cut glass work Madurai 15.309 Terracotta and pottery 15.310 Wood carving 15.311 Applique 15.312 Sungadi - tie resist dyeing 15.313 Muthangi - pearl studded attire 15.314 Brass ware Salem 15.315 Wood carving 15.316 Soapstone utensils SOUTH : S/ 15.317 Bhawani dhurries

S/TN 307 S/TN 307 S/TN 308 S/TN 309 S/TN 310 S/TN 310 S/TN 311 S/TN 311 S/TN 312 S/TN 313 S/TN 314 S/TN 315 S/TN 316 S/TN 316 S/TN 317 S/TN 317 S/TN 318 S/TN 319 S/TN 320 S/TN 320 S/TN 321 S/TN 321 S/TN 322 S/TN 323 S/TN 323 S/TN 324 S/TN 324 S/TN 324 S/TN 325 S/TN 326 S/TN 327 S/TN 328 S/TN 328 S/TN 329 S/TN 329 S/TN 330 S/TN 331 S/TN 331 S/TN 332

EAST : E/ 13.224 Konglan stitched boots 9.0 BIHAR Madhubani 9.163 Terracotta 9.164 Madhubani painting 9.165 Sujuni painting 9.166 Sikki Craft 9.167 Papier Mache 9.168 Lac Bangles Patna 9.169 Stone Carving 9.170 Stone Carving 9.171 Khatwa - applique Bhagalpur 9.172 Tribal jewellery 9.173 Jute work E/BR 180 E/BR 182 E/BR 183 E/BR 184 E/BR 186 E/BR 187 E/BR 188 E/BR 188 E/BR 189 E/BR 190 E/BR 190 E/BR 191 E/BR 192 E/BR 193 E/BR 193 13.225 Terracotta 13.226 Cane furniture Cooch Behar 13.227 Sheetalpati reed mats 13.228 Gambheera masks Murshidabad 13.229 Shola pith craft 13.230 Metal ware Birbhum 13.231 Leather craft 13.232 Terracotta jewellery 13.233 Kantha - patched cloth embroidery 13.234 Wooden toys 13.235 Sherpai measuring bowls 13.236 Dhokra - lost was metal casting 13.237 Clay work of Krishnanagar Bankura 13.238 Terracotta of Bankura 13.239 Patachitra - scroll painting 13.240 Ganjufa cards 13.241 Conch shell carving 13.242 Coconut shell carving 13.243 Wood carving 13.244 Stone carving 13.245 Maslong - grass mats 13.246 Chhau masks 13.247 Lac coated toys 11.0 ORISSA Ganjam 11.181 Ganjappa cards 11.182 Flexible fish - brass and wood E/OR 204 E/OR 206 E/OR 207 E/OR 208 Kolkata 13.248 Beaten silver work

10.0

JHARKHAND Ranchi

10.174 Bamboo work 10.175 Dhokra - lost wax metal casting 10.176 Musical instruments 10.177 Tribal jewellery 10.178 Wall painting of Hazaribagh Dumka 10.179 Jadupatua painting 10.180 Black Terracotta

E/JH 194 E/JH 196 E/JH 197 E/JH 198 E/JH 199 E/JH 200 E/JH 201 E/JH 202 E/JH 203 E/JH 203

11.183 Brass and bell metal ware 11.184 Cowdung toys

E/OR 208 E/OR 209 11.185 Coconut shell carving E/OR 209 11.186 Betal nut carving E/OR 209 E/OR Bhubaneshwar 210 11.187 Talapatra khodai palm E/OR leaf engravings 210 11.188 Pathar kaam - stone work 11.189 Papier Mache Puri 11.190 Patachitra painting 11.191 Pipili applique 11.192 Shola pith craft 11.193 Seashell craft 11.194 Coir craft 11.195 Wood carving E/OR 211 E/OR 211 E/OR 212 E/OR 213 E/OR 214 E/OR 214 E/OR 215 E/OR 215

15.318 Woolem druggets 14.0 ANDHRA PRADESH Hyderabad 14.249 Bidri ware S/AP 268 S/AP 270 15.319 Rayon dhurrie 15.320 Bamboo flute Coimbatore 15.321 Toda embroidery

S/AP 271 14.250 Paagdu bandhu yarn tie S/AP resist dyeing 272 14.251 Banjara embroidery 14.252 Lac bangles Warangal 14.253 Dhurrie weaving 14.254 Painted scrolls of Cheriyal 14.255 Nirmal painting 14.256 Lace making 14.257 Silver filigree 14.258 Dhokra - lost was metal casting 14.259 Sheet metal work S/AP 273 S/AP 273 S/AP 274 S/AP 275 S/AP 276 S/AP 277 S/AP 278 S/AP 278

S/TN 332 S/TN 333 S/TN 333 S/TN 334 S/TN 335

16.0

PONDICHERRY (Union Territory) Pondicherry

16.322 Terracotta and pottery 16.323 Soapstone sculpture 16.324 Kora mat weaving 16.325 Seashell craft

S/PY 336 S/PY 337 S/PY 338 S/PY 338 S/PY 339 S/PY 339

11.196 11.197 11.198 11.199 11.200

11.201 11.202

E/OR 216 E/OR Dhenkanal 217 Dhokra lost wax metal E/OR casting 218 Brass and bell metal E/OR 220 ware Brass Ornaments E/OR 220 Straw craft E/OR 221 Bamboo craft E/OR 221 E/OR Sambalpur 222 Bandha yarn tie resist E/OR dyeing 223 E/OR Kumbhar kaam terracotta and potter 224

S/AP 279 S/AP 279 S/AP Vishakhapatnam 280 14.260 Wood and lac turnery of S/AP 281 Etikopakka 14.261 Veena - string S/AP instrument 281 14.262 Jute craft S/AP 282 14.263 Metal work Machilipatnam 14.264 Block printing 14.265 Telia rumal - yarn tie resist dyed textile 14.266 Knotted carpets 14.267 Leather puppets 14.268 Wooden toys of Kondapalli S/AP 282 S/AP 283 S/AP 284 S/AP 286 S/AP 287 S/AP 288 S/AP 289

17.0

KERALA Thiruvananthpuram

17.326 Bell metal utensils 17.327 Marapani - wood carving 17.328 Palmyra basketry 17.329 Ramacham root products 17.330 Horn carving Ernakulam 17.331 vallam - boat making 17.332 Aranmula kannadi - metal mirror 17.333 Stone carving 17.334 Coconut based crafts 17.335 Coir work 17.336 Bamboo crafts

S/KE 340 S/KE 342 S/KE 343 S/KE 344 S/KE 345 S/KE 345 S/KE 345 S/KE 346 S/KE 347 S/KE 348 S/KE 348 S/KE 349 S/KE 350 S/KE 350

17.337 Natural fibre crafts 17.338 Laminated wood work and inlay Thrissur 17.339 Pooram crafts 17.340 Bronze casting 17.341 Wood carving 17.342 Cane and bamboo craft 17.343 Kora mat weaving 17.344 Screw pine craft Kannur 17.345 Bronze casting

S/KE 351 S/KE 351 S/KE 352 S/KE 353 S/KE 354 S/KE 355 S/KE 355 S/KE 356 S/KE 356 S/KE 357 S/KE 358

22.401 Kachchhi embroidery 22.402 Rogan Painting 22.403 Bandhani - tie resist dyeing 22.404 Applique 22.405 Namda - felted rugs 22.406 Leather work 22.407 Wood and lac turnery 22.408 Wood carving 22.409 Ajrakh painting 22.410 Silver work 22.411 Bell making

W/GJ 412 W/GJ 413 W/GJ 414 W/GJ 416 W/GJ 417 W/GJ 417 W/GJ 418 W/GJ 418 W/GJ 419 W/GJ 420 W/GJ 420

Betul 24.468 Dhokra - lost wax metal casting Gwalior

W/MP 472 W/MP 473

24.469

24.470 24.471 24.472 24.473

W/MP 474 Stone carving W/MP 475 W/MP Mandla 476 Stone carving W/MP 477 Wood carving W/MP 477 Terracotta and pottery W/MP 478 Gond Chitrakari W/MP tribal painting 479

25.0

CHHATTISGARH

W/CT 480

17.346 Ship building 17.347 Kathakali and Theyyam headgear 17.348 Nettur petti jewellery boxes 17.349 Symmetric wood stringing

S/KE 359 S/KE 360 S/KE 361 S/KE 361

Rajkot 22.412 Bullock cart making 22.413 Wood with metal embossing 22.414 Pathar kaam / Sompura kaam - stone carving Ahmedabad 22.415 Kite making 22.416 Block making 22.417 Mata ni pachedi - ritual cloth painting 22.418 Patola weaving 22.419 Mashru weaving 22.420 Ari embroidery 22.421 Bohra caps 22.422 Wood carving 22.423 Silver ornaments Vadodara 22.424 Sankheda furniture 22.425 Pithora paintings 22.426 Silver ornaments 22.427 Agate stone work 22.428 22.429 22.430

W/GJ 421 W/GJ 422 W/GJ 422 W/GJ 423 W/GJ 424 W/GJ 425 W/GJ 425 W/GJ 426 W/GJ 427 W/GJ 427 W/GJ 428 W/GJ 428 W/GJ 429 W/GJ 430 W/GJ 431 W/GJ 432 W/GJ 433 W/GJ 434

Sarguja and Raigarh 25.474 Painted clay relief 25.475 Dhokra - lost wax metal casting 25.476 Bamboo basketry 25.477 Brass vessels 25.478 Bronze ware Bastar

18.0

KARNATAKA Bangalore

S/KA 362 S/KA 364 S/KA 365 S/KA 365

W/CH 482 W/MP 483 W/MP 484 W/MP 486 W/MP 487 W/MP 487

18.350 Metal casing 18.351 Stone carving 18.352 wood carving

S/KA 366 18.353 Wood and lac turnery S/KA of Channapatna 367 S/KA Mysore 368 18.354 Sandalwood carving S/KA 369 S/KA 18.355 Rosewood inlay 370 18.356 Soapstone carving S/KA 370 S/KA 18.357 Mysore painting 371 18.358 Ganjifa cards S/KA 371 S/KA 18.359 Metal casing 372 18.360 Sheet metal S/KA embossing 372 S/KA 18.361 Terracotta 373 S/KA 18.362 Tibetan carpets 373 S/KA Mangalore 374 18.363 Stone carving 18.364 Rosewood carving 18.365 Terracotta and pottery 18.366 Bhoota fitures S/KA 375 S/KA 375 S/KA 376

W/CH 488 25.479 Iron craft W/MP 489 25.480 Terracotta and pottery W/MP 490 25.481 Pata weaving W/MP 491

NORTHEAST : NE/

NE/AS 494 NE/AS Nalbari 496 26.482 Bamboo craft of assam NE/AS 497 26.483 Bamboo nesting NE/AS baskets 498 NE/AS 26.484 Coiled cane work 498 26.485 Brass ware NE/AS 499 ASSAM 26.486 Eri silk spinning Silchar 26.487 Sheetalpati - reed mat NE/AS 499 NE/AS 500

26.0

22.431 22.432 22.433 22.434 22.435 22.436

S/KA 377 18.367 Yakshagana costume S/KA making 377 18.368 Bronze casting S/KA 378 18.369 Areca palm leaf craft S/KA 379 18.370 Mooda - rice S/KA packaging 379 Bellary 18.371 Terracotta and pottery 18.372 Banjara embroidery 18.373 Sheet metal embossing Bijapur 18.374 Surpur painting 18.375 Bidri ware 18.376 Sheet metal work 18.377 Banjara embroidery and quilts S/KA 380 S/KA 380 S/KA 381 S/KA 381 S/KA 382 S/KA 383 S/KA 383 S/KA 384 S/KA 385

W/GJ 435 Bead work W/GJ 435 Terracotta and pottery W/GJ 436 Brass and copper ware W/GJ 437 W/GJ Surat 438 Marquetry W/GJ 439 Mask making W/GJ 439 W/GJ Patku weaving 440 W/GJ Sujuni weaving 440 W/GJ Vaaskaam - bamboo crafts 441 Devru - embossed metals W/GJ 441

NE/AS 501 26.488 Flattened bamboo mat NE/AS 501 26.489 Cane furniture NE/AS 502 26.490 Coiled cane craft NE/AS 503

27.0

ARUNACHAL PRADESH Bomdila

27.491 Bamboo and cane bridges 27.492 Flatenned bamboo containers Ziro

23.0

23.437 23.438 23.439 23.440 23.441

23.442

W/MH 442 W/MH Kolhapur 444 Kolhapuri chappal W/MH leather footwear 445 W/MH Ganjifa cards 446 Wooden toys W/MH 446 Chandi che kaam - silver W/MH ware 446 Sitar - string instrument W/MH 446 W/MH Pune 448 Terracotta and pottery W/MH MAHARASHTRA

27.493 Apa Tani bamboo products Along 27.494 Cane haversacks 27.495 Coiled cane hats Khonsa 27.496 Wood carving

NE/AR 504 NE/AR 506 NE/AR 507 NE/AR 507 NE/AR 508 NE/AR 509 NE/AR 510 NE/AR 511 NE/AR 511 NE/AR 512 NE/AR 513

28.0

NAGALAND Kohima

NE/NL 514 NE/NL 516

18.378 Wood carving Belgaum 18.379 Gold jewellery and silver ware 18.380 Navigund dhurrie 18.381 Kasuti embroidery

S/KA 385 S/KA 386 S/KA 387 S/KA 388 S/KA 389

23.443 Tambaat kaam - copper and brass ware 23.444 Uthavache kaam - metal embossing 23.445 Bidri ware 23.446 Metal dies and metal casting 23.447 Dhurrie weaving 23.448 Ambadi - sisal craft 23.449 Taal, jhaanj, ghanta brass musical instruments 23.450 Banjara embroidery Mumbai 23.451 Warli painting 23.452 Terracotta and pottery 23.453 Bamboo work 23.454 Patua kaam - jewellery stringing work 23.455 Stringing of flowers

449 W/MH 450 W/MH 450 W/MH 451 W/MH 451 W/MH 452 W/MH 452 W/MH 453 W/MH 453 W/MH 454 W/MH 455 W/MH 456 W/MH 456 W/MH 457 W/MH 457

28.497 Wood carving 28.498 Kophi - cane baskets 28.499 Loin loom weaving

NE/NL 517 NE/NL 518 NE/NL 519

29.0

MANIPUR Imphal

NE/MN 520 NE/MN 522 NE/MN 523 NE/MN 524 NE/MN 524 NE/MN 525

WEST : W/

29.500 Traditional bamboo products 29.501 Thongjao pottery 29.502 Bell metal work 29.503 Kauna phak - reed mats

19.0

GOA Goa

19.382 Kashta kari wood carving 19.383 Crochet and lace work 19.384 Menawati candle making 19.385 Otim kaam brass ware 19.386 19.387 19.388 19.389 19.390

W/GA 392 W/GA 394 W/GA 395 W/GA 396 W/GA 396

30.0

MIZORAM Aizwal

W/GA 397 Boat making W/GA 398 Terracotta W/GA 398 Coconut based crafts W/GA 399 Dhaatu kaam copper W/GA ware 400 W/GA Shimpla hast kala seashell craft 400 W/GA 401 W/GA 401

NE/MZ 526 NE/MZ 528 NE/MZ 529 NE/MZ 529 NE/MZ 530 NE/MZ 531

30.504 Bamboo basketry 30.505 Cane stool 30.506 Mizo puon weaving

24.0

MADHYA PRADESH Jhabua

24.456 Wood carving 24.457 Pithora painting 24.458 Terracotta and pottery Indore 24.459 Block printing of Bagh

19.391 Maniche kaam bamboo craft 19.392 Fibre craft

20.0

DADAR AND NAGAR HAVELI (Union Territory) 20.393 Bamboo fish traps 20.394 Bamboo baskets 20.395 Terracotta and pottery 20.396 Fishing nets

W/DNH 402 W/DNH 404 W/DNH 404 W/DNH 405 W/DNH 405

W/MP 458 W/MP 460 W/MP 461 W/MP 462 W/MP 462 W/MP 463 W/MP 464 W/MP 465 W/MP 465 W/MP 466 W/MP 467 W/MP 468 W/MP 468 W/MP 469 W/MP 470 W/MP 470 W/MP 471

30.507 Gourd craft

31.0

TRIPURA Agartala

31.508 Traditional bamboo products 31.509 Bamboo crafts 31.510 Bamboo furniture of Katlamara 31.511 Pressed clay work of Melaghar 31.512 Bamboo fences 31.513 Tripuri textiles

24.460 Bandhani - tie resist dyeing 24.461 Leather toys Ujjain 24.462 Wood carving 24.463 Papier Mache

NE/TR 532 NE/TR 534 NE/TR 535 NE/TR 536 NE/TR 537 NE/TR 537 NE/TR 538 NE/TR 539

32.0

MEGHALAYA Meghalaya

21.0

DAMAN AND DIU (Union Territory) 21.397 Crochet and lace work 21.398 Tortoise shell and ivory carving

W/DD 406 W/DD 407 W/DD 407

24.464 Bohra caps Bhopal 24.465 Zardosi - gold embroidery 24.466 Jute craft 24.467 Wood and lac turnery

32.514 Bamboo rain shields 32.515 Bamboo carrying baskets 32.516 Garo bamboo house

NE/ML 540 NE/ML 542 NE/ML 543 NE/ML 543 NE/ML 544

22.0

GUJARAT Kachchh

22.399 Clay relief work 22.400 Painted terracotta

W/GJ 408 W/GJ 410 W/GJ 411 W/GJ 411

C/UP 156 7.142 Black pottery of C/UP 157 Nizamabad 7.143 Terracotta and pottery C/UP 157 Gorakhpur C/UP 156 Wood and lac turnery C/UP 159 Repousse C/UP 159 Wood carving C/UP 160 Carpets & dhurries C/UP 161 Varanasi C/UP 162 C/UP 163 C/UP Zardosi - gold embroidery 163 C/UP Allahbad 164 C/UP Moonj basketry 165 Papier mache C/UP 166 Shazar stone jewellery C/UP 167 Date palm craft C/UP 167

Cuttack 11.203 Chandi tarkashi - Silver filigree 11.204 Stone carving 11.205 Sikki - craft 11.206 Katki chappal - leather footwear 11.207 Brass and bell metal ware 11.208 Katho kaam - wood carving Koratpur 11.209 Kotpad sari 11.210 Dongaria scarf kapda gonda 11.211 Dhokra - lost was metal casting 11.212 Tribal ornaments 11.213 Bamboo craft 11.214 Paddy and root craft 11.215 Lac products 11.216 Terracotta and pottery Mayurbhanj

E/OR 225 E/OR 226 E/OR 226 E/OR 227 E/OR 227 E/OR 228 E/OR 228 E/OR 229 E/OR 230 E/OR 230 E/OR 231 E/OR 231 E/OR 232 E/OR 232 E/OR 233 E/OR 233 E/OR 234 E/OR 235

14.269 Crochet work Cuddapah 14.270 Stone carving 14.271 Wooden cutlery of Udayagiri 14.272 Raja-rani dolls 14.273 Palm leaf work Chitoor 14.274 Kalamkari dye painted textiles 14.275 Bronze casting 14.276 Terracotta 14.277 Wood carving

S/AP 289 S/AP 290 S/AP 291 S/AP 292 S/AP 292 S/AP 293 S/AP 294 S/AP 295 S/AP 296 S/AP 296 S/AP 297

7.144 7.145 7.146 7.147

7.148 Meenakari - enamel work 7.149 Block printing 7.150

7.151 7.152 7.153 7.154

15.0

TAMIL NADU Kanyakumari

15.278 Palm leaf work 15.279 Kora mat weaving 15.280 Seashell craft 15.281 Bobbin Lace 15.282 Kavassam - sheet metal cladding 15.283 Stone carving 15.284 Stucco work Cuddalore 15.285 Wood Carving

S/TN 298 S/TN 300 S/TN 301 S/TN 302 S/TN 303 S/TN 303 S/TN 304 S/TN 304 S/TN 305 S/TN 306 S/TN 307 S/TN 307 S/TN 308 S/TN 309 S/TN 310 S/TN 310 S/TN 311 S/TN 311 S/TN 312 S/TN 313 S/TN 314 S/TN 315 S/TN 316 S/TN 316 S/TN 317 S/TN 317

8.0

UTTARANCHAL Almora

8.155 Aipan - ritual floor painting 8.156 Ringaal - basketry 8.157 Nettle fibre craft 8.158 Likhai - wood carving 8.159 Copper ware Dehradun 8.160 Rambaans - natural fibre craft 8.161 Lantana furniture 8.162 Tibetan carpets

C/UT 168 C/UT 170 C/UT 171 C/UT 172 C/UT 173 C/UT 173 C/UT 174 C/UT 175 C/UT 176 C/UT 176 C/UT 177

11.217 Dhokra - lost was metal casting

12.0

SIKKIM

12.218 Ku Buddhist figurines 12.219 Choktse tables

E/SK 236 E/SK 238 E/SK 239

13.0

13.220 13.221 13.222 13.223

EAST : E/

E/WB 240 E/WB Darjeeling 242 Wood carvings E/WB 243 Beaten silver engravings E/WB 243 Hill painting E/WB 244 Carpet weaving E/WB 244 WEST BENGAL E/WB 245 E/WB 246 E/WB 246 E/WB 247 E/WB 248 E/WB 248 E/WB 249 E/WB 250 E/WB 251

15.286 Silk garland making Auroville 15.287 Handmade paper products 15.288 Pottery 15.289 Crochet and bead work 15.290 Stone carving 15.291 Leather work Kanchipuram 15.292 Stone carving 15.293 Wood carving Chennai 15.294 Wood carving 15.295 Palm leaf work 15.296 Thanjavur glass painting 15.297 Doll making

13.224 Konglan stitched boots 9.0 BIHAR Madhubani 9.163 Terracotta 9.164 Madhubani painting 9.165 Sujuni painting 9.166 Sikki Craft 9.167 Papier Mache 9.168 Lac Bangles E/BR 180 E/BR 182 E/BR 183 E/BR 184 E/BR 186 E/BR 187 E/BR 188 E/BR 188 13.225 Terracotta 13.226 Cane furniture Cooch Behar 13.227 Sheetalpati reed mats 13.228 Gambheera masks Murshidabad 13.229 Shola pith craft 13.230 Metal ware

Patna 9.169 Stone Carving 9.170 Stone Carving 9.171 Khatwa - applique Bhagalpur 9.172 Tribal jewellery 9.173 Jute work

E/BR 189 E/BR 190 E/BR 190 E/BR 191 E/BR 192 E/BR 193 E/BR 193

Birbhum 13.231 Leather craft 13.232 Terracotta jewellery 13.233 Kantha - patched cloth embroidery 13.234 Wooden toys 13.235 Sherpai measuring bowls 13.236 Dhokra - lost was metal casting 13.237 Clay work of Krishnanagar Bankura 13.238 Terracotta of Bankura 13.239 Patachitra - scroll painting 13.240 Ganjufa cards 13.241 Conch shell carving 13.242 Coconut shell carving 13.243 Wood carving 13.244 Stone carving 13.245 Maslong - grass mats 13.246 Chhau masks 13.247 Lac coated toys

E/WB 252 E/WB 253 E/WB 253 E/WB 254 E/WB 255 E/WB 255 E/WB 256 E/WB 256 E/WB 257 E/WB 258 E/WB 259 E/WB 259 E/WB 260 E/WB 260 E/WB 261 E/WB 261 E/WB 262 E/WB 263 E/WB 263 E/WB 264 E/WB 265

Thiruchirapalli 15.298 Bronze casting 15.299 vilakku brass lamps 15.300 Brass repousse 15.301 Bell metal ware 15.302 Thanjavur kalamkari - dye painted textiles 15.303 Pallagai padam Thanjavur painting 15.304 veena - string instrument 15.305 Nadaswaram - wind instrument 15.306 Root Carving 15.307 Pith work 15.308 Cut glass work Madurai 15.309 Terracotta and pottery 15.310 Wood carving 15.311 Applique 15.312 Sungadi - tie resist dyeing 15.313 Muthangi - pearl studded attire 15.314 Brass ware Salem 15.315 Wood carving 15.316 Soapstone utensils

S/TN 318 S/TN 319 S/TN 320 S/TN 320 S/TN 321 S/TN 321 S/TN 322 S/TN 323 S/TN 323 S/TN 324 S/TN 324 S/TN 324 S/TN 325 S/TN 326 S/TN 327 S/TN 328 S/TN 328 S/TN 329 S/TN 329 S/TN 330 S/TN 331 S/TN 331 S/TN 332 S/TN 332 S/TN 333 S/TN 333 S/TN 334 S/TN 335

10.0

JHARKHAND Ranchi

10.174 Bamboo work 10.175 Dhokra - lost wax metal casting 10.176 Musical instruments 10.177 Tribal jewellery 10.178 Wall painting of Hazaribagh Dumka 10.179 Jadupatua painting 10.180 Black Terracotta

E/JH 194 E/JH 196 E/JH 197 E/JH 198 E/JH 199 E/JH 200 E/JH 201 E/JH 202 E/JH 203 E/JH 203

11.0

11.181 11.182 11.183 11.184 11.185 11.186

11.187 11.188 11.189

11.190 11.191 11.192 11.193 11.194 11.195

E/OR 204 E/OR Ganjam 206 E/OR Ganjappa cards 207 Flexible fish - brass E/OR and wood 208 Brass and bell metal E/OR ware 208 Cowdung toys E/OR 209 Coconut shell carving E/OR 209 Betal nut carving E/OR 209 E/OR Bhubaneshwar 210 Talapatra khodai palm E/OR leaf engravings 210 E/OR Pathar kaam - stone work 211 Papier Mache E/OR 211 E/OR Puri 212 E/OR Patachitra painting 213 Pipili applique E/OR 214 Shola pith craft E/OR 214 Seashell craft E/OR 215 Coir craft E/OR 215 Wood carving E/OR 216 E/OR Dhenkanal 217 ORISSA

Kolkata 13.248 Beaten silver work

SOUTH : S/

15.317 Bhawani dhurries 15.318 Woolem druggets 15.319 Rayon dhurrie 15.320 Bamboo flute Coimbatore 15.321 Toda embroidery

14.0

S/AP 268 S/AP Hyderabad 270 14.249 Bidri ware S/AP 271 14.250 Paagdu bandhu yarn tie S/AP resist dyeing 272 14.251 Banjara embroidery S/AP 273 ANDHRA PRADESH 14.252 Lac bangles S/AP 273 S/AP Warangal 274 S/AP Dhurrie weaving 275 Painted scrolls of S/AP Cheriyal 276 Nirmal painting S/AP 277 Lace making S/AP 278 Silver filigree S/AP 278 Dhokra - lost was metal S/AP casting 279 Sheet metal work S/AP 279 S/AP Vishakhapatnam 280 Wood and lac turnery of S/AP

16.0

PONDICHERRY (Union Territory) Pondicherry

14.253 14.254 14.255 14.256 14.257 14.258 14.259

16.322 Terracotta and pottery 16.323 Soapstone sculpture 16.324 Kora mat weaving 16.325 Seashell craft

S/PY 336 S/PY 337 S/PY 338 S/PY 338 S/PY 339 S/PY 339

17.0

KERALA Thiruvananthpuram

17.326 Bell metal utensils

14.260

S/KE 340 S/KE 342 S/KE 343

11.196 Dhokra lost wax metal casting 11.197 Brass and bell metal ware 11.198 Brass Ornaments 11.199 Straw craft 11.200 Bamboo craft Sambalpur 11.201 Bandha yarn tie resist dyeing 11.202 Kumbhar kaam terracotta and potter

E/OR 218 E/OR 220 E/OR 220 E/OR 221 E/OR 221 E/OR 222 E/OR 223 E/OR 224

Etikopakka 14.261 Veena - string instrument 14.262 Jute craft 14.263 Metal work Machilipatnam 14.264 Block printing 14.265 Telia rumal - yarn tie resist dyed textile 14.266 Knotted carpets 14.267 Leather puppets 14.268 Wooden toys of Kondapalli

281 S/AP 281 S/AP 282 S/AP 282 S/AP 283 S/AP 284 S/AP 286 S/AP 287 S/AP 288 S/AP 289

17.327 Marapani - wood carving 17.328 Palmyra basketry 17.329 Ramacham root products 17.330 Horn carving Ernakulam 17.331 vallam - boat making 17.332 Aranmula kannadi - metal mirror 17.333 Stone carving 17.334 Coconut based crafts 17.335 Coir work 17.336 Bamboo crafts

S/KE 344 S/KE 345 S/KE 345 S/KE 345 S/KE 346 S/KE 347 S/KE 348 S/KE 348 S/KE 349 S/KE 350 S/KE 350

17.337 Natural fibre crafts 17.338 Laminated wood work and inlay Thrissur 17.339 Pooram crafts 17.340 Bronze casting 17.341 Wood carving 17.342 Cane and bamboo craft 17.343 Kora mat weaving 17.344 Screw pine craft Kannur 17.345 Bronze casting 17.346 Ship building 17.347 Kathakali and Theyyam headgear 17.348 Nettur petti jewellery boxes 17.349 Symmetric wood stringing

S/KE 351 S/KE 351 S/KE 352 S/KE 353 S/KE 354 S/KE 355 S/KE 355 S/KE 356 S/KE 356 S/KE 357 S/KE 358 S/KE 359 S/KE 360 S/KE 361 S/KE 361

22.401 Kachchhi embroidery 22.402 Rogan Painting 22.403 Bandhani - tie resist dyeing 22.404 Applique 22.405 Namda - felted rugs 22.406 Leather work 22.407 Wood and lac turnery 22.408 Wood carving 22.409 Ajrakh painting 22.410 Silver work 22.411 Bell making Rajkot 22.412 Bullock cart making 22.413 Wood with metal embossing 22.414 Pathar kaam / Sompura kaam - stone carving Ahmedabad 22.415 Kite making 22.416 Block making 22.417 Mata ni pachedi - ritual cloth painting 22.418 Patola weaving 22.419 Mashru weaving 22.420 Ari embroidery 22.421 Bohra caps 22.422 Wood carving 22.423 Silver ornaments Vadodara 22.424 Sankheda furniture 22.425 Pithora paintings 22.426 Silver ornaments 22.427 Agate stone work 22.428 Bead work 22.429 Terracotta and pottery 22.430 Brass and copper ware Surat 22.431 Marquetry 22.432 Mask making 22.433 Patku weaving

W/GJ 412 W/GJ 413 W/GJ 414 W/GJ 416 W/GJ 417 W/GJ 417 W/GJ 418 W/GJ 418 W/GJ 419 W/GJ 420 W/GJ 420 W/GJ 421 W/GJ 422 W/GJ 422 W/GJ 423 W/GJ 424 W/GJ 425 W/GJ 425 W/GJ 426 W/GJ 427 W/GJ 427 W/GJ 428 W/GJ 428 W/GJ 429 W/GJ 430 W/GJ 431 W/GJ 432 W/GJ 433 W/GJ 434 W/GJ 435 W/GJ 435 W/GJ 436 W/GJ 437 W/GJ 438 W/GJ 439 W/GJ 439 W/GJ 440

Betul 24.468 Dhokra - lost wax metal casting Gwalior 24.469 Stone carving

W/MP 472 W/MP 473 W/MP 474

W/MP 475 W/MP Mandla 476 24.470 Stone carving W/MP 477 24.471 Wood carving W/MP 477 24.472 Terracotta and pottery W/MP 478 24.473 Gond Chitrakari tribal painting W/MP 479

25.0

CHHATTISGARH

Sarguja and Raigarh 25.474 Painted clay relief 25.475 Dhokra - lost wax metal casting 25.476 Bamboo basketry 25.477 Brass vessels 25.478 Bronze ware

W/CT 480 W/CH 482 W/MP 483 W/MP 484 W/MP 486 W/MP 487

18.0

S/KA 362 S/KA Bangalore 364 S/KA 18.350 Metal casing 365 18.351 Stone carving S/KA 365 18.352 wood carving S/KA 366 18.353 Wood and lac turnery S/KA of Channapatna 367 S/KA Mysore 368 18.354 Sandalwood carving S/KA 369 18.355 Rosewood inlay S/KA 370 18.356 Soapstone carving S/KA 370 18.357 Mysore painting S/KA 371 18.358 Ganjifa cards S/KA 371 18.359 Metal casing S/KA 372 18.360 Sheet metal S/KA embossing 372 18.361 Terracotta S/KA 373 18.362 Tibetan carpets S/KA 373 S/KA Mangalore 374 18.363 Stone carving S/KA 375 18.364 Rosewood carving S/KA 375 18.365 Terracotta and S/KA pottery 376 18.366 Bhoota fitures S/KA 377 18.367 Yakshagana costume S/KA making 377 KARNATAKA

W/MP 487 W/CH Bastar 488 W/MP 25.479 Iron craft 489 25.480 Terracotta and pottery W/MP 490 25.481 Pata weaving W/MP 491

NORTHEAST : NE/

NE/AS 494 NE/AS Nalbari 496 26.482 Bamboo craft of assam NE/AS 497 26.483 Bamboo nesting NE/AS baskets 498 26.484 Coiled cane work NE/AS 498 26.485 Brass ware NE/AS 499 26.486 Eri silk spinning NE/AS 499 NE/AS Silchar 500 26.487 Sheetalpati - reed mat NE/AS 501 26.488 Flattened bamboo mat NE/AS 501 26.489 Cane furniture NE/AS 502 26.490 Coiled cane craft NE/AS 503 ASSAM

26.0

27.0

ARUNACHAL PRADESH Bomdila

NE/AR 504 NE/AR

18.368 Bronze casting 18.369 18.370

18.371 18.372

S/KA 378 Areca palm leaf craft S/KA 379 S/KA Mooda - rice 379 packaging S/KA Bellary 380 Terracotta and S/KA 380 pottery Banjara embroidery S/KA 381 S/KA 381 S/KA 382 S/KA 383 S/KA 383 S/KA 384 S/KA 385 S/KA 385 S/KA 386 S/KA 387 S/KA 388 S/KA 389

W/GJ 440 W/GJ 22.435 Vaaskaam - bamboo 441 crafts 22.436 Devru - embossed metals W/GJ 441

22.434 Sujuni weaving

27.491 Bamboo and cane bridges 27.492 Flatenned bamboo containers Ziro

23.0

MAHARASHTRA Kolhapur

W/MH 442 W/MH 444 W/MH 445 W/MH 446 W/MH 446

27.493 Apa Tani bamboo products Along 27.494 Cane haversacks 27.495 Coiled cane hats Khonsa 27.496 Wood carving

506 NE/AR 507 NE/AR 507 NE/AR 508 NE/AR 509 NE/AR 510 NE/AR 511 NE/AR 511 NE/AR 512 NE/AR 513

18.373 Sheet metal embossing Bijapur 18.374 Surpur painting 18.375 Bidri ware 18.376 Sheet metal work 18.377 Banjara embroidery and quilts 18.378 Wood carving Belgaum 18.379 Gold jewellery and silver ware 18.380 Navigund dhurrie 18.381 Kasuti embroidery

23.437 Kolhapuri chappal leather footwear 23.438 Ganjifa cards 23.439 Wooden toys

WEST : W/

19.0

GOA Goa

W/GA 392

19.382 19.383 19.384 19.385 19.386 19.387 19.388

W/GA 394 W/GA Kashta kari wood carving 395 Crochet and lace W/GA work 396 W/GA Menawati candle 396 making Otim kaam brass ware W/GA 397 Boat making W/GA 398 Terracotta W/GA 398 Coconut based crafts W/GA 399 W/GA 400 W/GA 400 W/GA 401 W/GA 401

23.440 Chandi che kaam - silver W/MH ware 446 23.441 Sitar - string instrument W/MH 446 W/MH Pune 448 23.442 Terracotta and pottery W/MH 449 23.443 Tambaat kaam - copper W/MH 450 and brass ware 23.444 Uthavache kaam - metal W/MH embossing 450 W/MH 23.445 Bidri ware 451 23.446 Metal dies and metal W/MH casting 451 W/MH 23.447 Dhurrie weaving 452 23.448 Ambadi - sisal craft W/MH 452 W/MH 23.449 Taal, jhaanj, ghanta brass musical 453 instruments 23.450 Banjara embroidery W/MH 453 W/MH Mumbai 454 23.451 Warli painting W/MH 455 23.452 Terracotta and pottery W/MH 456 23.453 Bamboo work W/MH 456 23.454 Patua kaam - jewellery W/MH stringing work 457 23.455 Stringing of flowers W/MH 457

28.0

NAGALAND Kohima

NE/NL 514 NE/NL 516 NE/NL 517 NE/NL 518 NE/NL 519

28.497 Wood carving 28.498 Kophi - cane baskets 28.499 Loin loom weaving

29.0

MANIPUR Imphal

NE/MN 520 NE/MN 522 NE/MN 523 NE/MN 524 NE/MN 524 NE/MN 525

29.500 Traditional bamboo products 29.501 Thongjao pottery 29.502 Bell metal work 29.503 Kauna phak - reed mats

30.0

MIZORAM Aizwal

30.504 Bamboo basketry 30.505 Cane stool 30.506 Mizo puon weaving

19.389 Dhaatu kaam copper ware 19.390 Shimpla hast kala seashell craft 19.391 Maniche kaam bamboo craft 19.392 Fibre craft

24.0

MADHYA PRADESH Jhabua

24.456 Wood carving 24.457 Pithora painting 24.458 Terracotta and pottery

20.0

DADAR AND NAGAR HAVELI (Union Territory) 20.393 Bamboo fish traps 20.394 Bamboo baskets 20.395 Terracotta and pottery 20.396 Fishing nets

W/DNH 402 W/DNH 404 W/DNH 404 W/DNH 405 W/DNH 405

Indore 24.459 Block printing of Bagh 24.460 Bandhani - tie resist dyeing 24.461 Leather toys Ujjain 24.462 Wood carving

W/MP 458 W/MP 460 W/MP 461 W/MP 462 W/MP 462 W/MP 463 W/MP 464 W/MP 465 W/MP 465 W/MP 466 W/MP

30.507 Gourd craft

NE/MZ 526 NE/MZ 528 NE/MZ 529 NE/MZ 529 NE/MZ 530 NE/MZ 531

31.0

TRIPURA Agartala

31.508 Traditional bamboo products 31.509 Bamboo crafts 31.510 Bamboo furniture of Katlamara 31.511 Pressed clay work of Melaghar 31.512 Bamboo fences 31.513 Tripuri textiles

NE/TR 532 NE/TR 534 NE/TR 535 NE/TR 536 NE/TR 537 NE/TR 537 NE/TR 538 NE/TR 539

21.0

DAMAN AND DIU (Union Territory) 21.397 Crochet and lace work 21.398 Tortoise shell and ivory carving

W/DD 406 W/DD 407 W/DD 407

24.463 Papier Mache 24.464 Bohra caps Bhopal 24.465 Zardosi - gold embroidery

467 W/MP 468 W/MP 468 W/MP 469 W/MP 470 W/MP 470 W/MP 471

32.0

MEGHALAYA Meghalaya

32.514 Bamboo rain shields 32.515 Bamboo carrying baskets 32.516 Garo bamboo house

22.0

GUJRAT Kachchh

W/GJ 408 W/GJ 410 W/GJ 411 W/GJ 411

24.466 Jute craft 24.467 Wood and lac turnery

NE/ML 540 NE/ML 542 NE/ML 543 NE/ML 543 NE/ML 544

22.399 Clay relief work 22.400 Painted terracotta

Preface

Traditional Crafts are innovations of yesterday. Crafts define not only the cultural moorings but also the search for economic sustenance. The craftsment derive their inspiration, innate wisdom and skills not from books but from nature and their surroundings. Crafts reflect the immense creativity of ordinary people and their quest for self-expression and fulfillment. Jist as human evolution, crafts also evolve over time by mixing and churning influences and events. A country`s creative history is decipherable from the metal, pottery, textiles, and scores of other crafts, which were prevalent in its different regions. India is seen by the discerning not just as a country but as one that produced a rich civilization. Despite the ruptures of history, invasions and foreign occupation, Indian crafts continued to lead the way in many respects. The innovativeness and cretive expressions in textiles, stones nd jewellery have captured the imagination of the world. The vicissitudes of history and the tides of time have not robbed the enchanting diversity, rich landscape and beauty of Indian crafts. The aesthetics of India, reflected through the crafts and its forms, shapes and its colour palette are almost like the cuisines of India reflecting the great diversity and tastes. The nultitude of hues and forms seen in the shandys and the melas of India tell the stories of hundreds of crafts that belong to a vast country with 18 major and 1600 minor languages and dialects, 6 major religions, 6 major ethnic groups, 52 major tribes, 6400 castes and sbcastes, 29 major festivals and over 1 billion people, 50 percent of them in rural areas, spread over coast lines, valleys, hils, mountains, deserts, backwaters, forests and even inhospitable terrain. It is not easy to grasp the breadth and depth of Indian craft. There are more than 23 million craftsment engaged in different craft sectors and it is estimated that there are over 360 craft clusters in India. `Living` culture and `evolving` crafts are required to preserve both culture and crafts. The laudable endeavour by the Development Commissioner (Handicrafts) to present, in a directory, authentic information and visual images of handicrafts from every nook and corner of India is a herculean endeavour. The National Institute of Design has been studying and sustaining craft related design interventions for over four decades as part of its education, outreach and services. This is perhaps the reason that the Development Commissioner (Handicrafts) decided to engage NID in preparing this magnum opus on the world of handicrafts. NID`s mandate for searching indigeous solutions and an Indian idiom in design have often led to linking yesterday`s innovations with today`s. Thus for NID, this task, tough arduous, has also been very edifying and fulfilling. The team and NID, consisting of many field researchers, editors, designers and copy writers, have all passed through moments of despair and delight. After toiling hard and struggling with resources and time over nearly three years, the dedicated team led by Mrs. Aditi Ranjan our senior faculty member has succeeded in celebrating crafts in a publication which has both the magic of hands and creative spirit of the unsung heroes of crafts. As Aldous Huxley said, "Culture is like the sum of special knowledge that accumulates in any large united family and is a common property of all its members". We can replace the word `culture` in this csae with `craft` and in the context of the book, it would be just right. Handmade in India represents the sum of the special knowledge from India`s united family and it captures vividly the intellectual property which has created wealth for generations and which will continue creating it and multiplying it in the times to come. Many of the crafts clusters have the potential of linking the product range from a geographical indication and branding perspective under the WTO regime. In the emerging arena of world competition led by the frameworks of WTO, this book will be a repository of heritage and inspiration for all those seeking wealth, from India as well as from all parts of the world. In a globalizing and increasingly digital world, which is searching for emotional and cultural connections, crafts can bring forth harmony. In the emerging knowledge economy, crafts and folklore will form the foundations for the nation`s wealth, especially in countries like India, which has a magnificent heritage and a glorious future. I am truly delighted to present this book to the readers on behalf of the National Institute of Design, to provide inspiration and sustenance to the generations ahead.

Dr. Darlie O. Koshy Executive Director, NID Ahmedabad

Introduction

Handmade in India is a tribute to the Indian craftsperson. His or her uncanny understanding of materials is combined with mastery of the tools, techniques and processes that have evolved over the centuries through social and cultural interactions. Today this craft continuum constitutes an enormous resource that can be harnessed for the future development of our society. This volume provides a geographic organization of craft distribution across the length and breadth of our country and shows how craft permeates even the remotest corner of India. In this introduction we have tried to summarize the enormity of craft variety and the significant role that it plays in the day to day lives of both rural and urban people. The panorama of Indian crafts is a patchwork quilt of many hues and shades of meaning, reflective of interactions with social, economic, cultural and religious forces. And the craft world is full of contrasts, a universe of utility products and sacred objects, articles for ritual use and ephemeral festival crafts, representing many levels of refinement - from the simplest to the most technically advanced. Likewise there are many perceptions of the term `craftsman`, ranging from a manual labourer to a worker of high artistic excellence. Craft, then, is situated in a complex milieu, a dense matrix of many strands and elements. To understand this, our study undertook many months of fieldwork and research. Throughout, or research was guided by the conviction that the context informs the structure, language and form of crafts. The aim of this three-volume publiction is to showcase the creative potential of Indian craftsperson and make available a directory of resources - skills, materials, capabilities and products. The products embody the craftsperson`s understanding that is structural, conceptual and aesthetic, just as craft is also an interrelation between function, form, material, process and meaning. The directory unveils the product not only as an end but also as a seed for new possibilities and directions, a creative potential and palette of resources. The crafts of India are at the threshold of massive change and it is a hoped that this publication will help capture the many facets of the current scenario and promote a better understanding of the milieu, issues and resources that it offers for designers and layman alike to influence economic change at the grassroots level. The range and diversity of Indian crafts is staggering. To understand this diversity one would need to look at numerous dimensions that include all the historical processes that shaped the transformations of our society over time. Social and cultural diversity has multiplied particular forms of artifacts, each shaped by a multitude of forces leading to the vast canvas of variety that can be witnessed today. Modernity tends to have universal forms that homogenize cultures across continents that are seen as an outcome of communication and globalization. On the other hand, the prolific variety was a result of each regional or sub-regional group asserting its own identity in the objects and cultural expressions. Therefore the vast array of artifacts, implements, built environments, ornaments, clothing, headgear and personal body decorations all showed the deep need for holding on to their unique identity as distinct from that of their neighbours. India is a land of extreme variety, a land of vast biodiversity and climatic zones from the sea level coastal settlements to the extreme habitats built on top of lofty snow covered mountains. Similarly regions of very heavy rainfall and abundant vegetation are contrasted with dry deserts, each with appropriately evolved housing and other built forms that find a resonance with the particular climatic zone in which it has evolved. Much can be learnt from the manner in which local connumities have invented solutions to tackle the diversity of climates. These solutions are both a creative response for survival and celebration alike - the bamboo rainshields of Assam, Tripura and Meghalaya are worn by farmers as headgear while the palm leaf sunshades of Andhra Pradesh are carried as umbrellas by shephards or used as shelters in open-air weekly markets. The jhappi, bamboo rainshield of Assam, is decorated with red appliqued forms and transformed into a votive offering that symbolizes a good harvest. These creative community responses represent the triumph of the human spirit over the forces of natures. Community response mark many craft developments, initiated when sensitive craftsment

and their clientele interact in the bazaars and at points of exchange. These interactions have a collective impact on the form of the craft offering that no single craftsman could have produced, a perfect fit with the environment and with the social mores that the community aspires to. The climate helps determine the nature of material availability, in some places in abundance and in others as an extremely scarce commodity, which in turn influences the value attributed to that material in the given context. We see examples of non precious materials treated like royalty in zones of scarcity, sometimes preserved for many generations to mature before it is put to use. On the other hand the response to abundance could be seen in the free abandon with which materials are crafted into objects of function or celebration. Stories unfold in material with the skillful wielding of tools and applications of intellect and the product is a mirror of the society that produces it. It is uncanny how we see traces and signs of culture frozen in stone or clay and metal and wood, all of which echo the roots of a particular cultural system that produces or uses the craft object. The belief systems that determine that form could be from the religious source of from some body of ancient fold wisdom. Thus, the huge terracotta Ayyanar horses stand as watchful village guardians in Tamil Nadu and are revered by the community at large. The temple, the mosque, the church and the tribal gods have all contributed to the shaping of artifacts of worship and the votive offerings that are part of the rites of passage in so many communities in India. Birth and death, marriage and adolescence are all occasions for community joy or sorrow, and these create the context for the release of creative energies and the demand for the highest degree of skill that the craftsperson can bring to the occasion.There is a variety of expressions: some are elaborated with decorative motifs and surface ornamentation and in some others a pristine sense of peace with the material and subliime proportion that evokes soft feelings even when the object is made of metal, like in the massive cast charakku, vessel, from Kerala. As a secular nation India has been liberal in the interpretation of religion and this has in turn created a multitude of expressions that resopnd to the philosophy of the particular religion that is represented and served by the crafts. The simplicity of the Jain turned wood paatra, utensils, and the elaborate and ornate meenakari, enamelled metal ware container, from the islamic north stand in stark contrast, each reflecting the ethos of the community and the purpose that it serves - one to collect alms and the other to offer gifts to a gust of honour. In the hills of Nagaland the baskets, headgear and other accessories of the wearer tell us about hisor her world view and the connunity to which they belong, and these objects are signs of their identity, carried with a pride of belongings that unfolds a universe of meaning to the initiated. Tattoos on the body and forehead markings too are signs of belonging that speak volumes about the aspirations and status of the wearer. India has been at the crossroads of civilization for over 5,000 years and in some parts of the country time has stood still while in others it has churned at an incredible pace of change while absorbing threads of other cultures and imbibing the essence of these. The various waves of interactions from the Northwest and the subtle trade interactions with the South and the East have brought in new ideas and practices, skills and applications. Within the country too block printers have migrated in search of water sources suitable for their craft, or people have fled from their settlements in the face of many pressures, manmade or natural. These internal migrations and trade transactions took skills from one location and planted them in new and alien settings, assuming subtle new hues of the chosen location, creating another variation. The bandhani textiles of Gujarat find new expression in the sungadi of faraway Madurai, to single out just one of the many threads that stand out in this long list of transformations. The arrival of the Mughals brought in the fine Iranian artistry in metal, silk and carpet weaving. The coming of the British and the Portugese in South India introduced the carved wooden traditions of the West and these are integrated in the churches and houses of the coastal settlements. In addition, the hot humid climate called for a sensible design of shaded

varandahs and the response was the unique form of settlement types found in Goa, Pondicherry, coastal Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The craft landscape is made up of numerous types of applications : from the varnacular objects of daily use that are rough - hewn from local materials to the celebrated objects of symbolic value that are used on special occasions and for religious functions. In some cases the same object may be used in different settings but in each case the value assigned to the object is substantially different. The lota, or brass container for liquids, is one such multi purpose and multivalent object that can be at home in the kitchen, the bathroom and the prayer room and in each case be held in a different spiritual or physical plane, each reflecting the state of the object in the particular context. Objects are thus imbued with value and spirit, which are respected by all users in that society. New categories have emerged that respond to trade and professional needs of the crafts men and now designers have joined hands to create new objects for new markets that provide economic value to the community of makers and satisfaction to a whole new community of users , some in distant lands. The commercial and the spiritual are both crafted with great pride and care by sensitive hands that use centuries of tradition to inform current practice.

The forms and treatment of objects of everyday use differ widely from objects of celebration or worship. While the one is almost devoid of any ornamentation, it should not be seen as less cared for or less venerated. The observation of the process of making and of its use in the household setting as well as closer examination of the object will reveal the subtle lines that have been left to stand as testimony of the process or the marks of the tool, none of which may be considered functionally necessary. The sanabul from Manipur and the terracotta pots from many parts of India delibrately bear the mark of the hands and tools as signs of process. These marks have subtle meanings : as a means of expression, as an interplay of structure with form, and material with process, and of the culture with the process of signification. The gradient of elaboration is incremental : from the plain and honest craftsmanship to many degree of elaboration of both form and surface decoration that attempts to elevate the object from mere functionality to a higher status. The range and manner of using materials reflect the enormous ingenuity of the local mind in discovering appropriate applications. Some are processed through many iterations while others are used raw, in response to an immediate need. Bamboo culm cut off with a sharp blade is an instant container to store water or cook rice, and banana leaf plates are cut, trimmed or stitched to form disposable biodegradable containers. The same bamboo may be processed through many stages of splitting and weaving to produce a dowry gift fit for a queen in Nagaland and the leaf too may be processed into a durable fibre that is crafted into bags or puches for storing valuables. Thus the materials and techniques respond to a variety of needs, some immediate and of less value while some may be of great value involving either elaborate processing or the spiritual upliftment through the production of myths ad votive meaning in response to particular contexts. The range of materials is matched by a bewildering array of fine tools, many fashioned with great care and knowledge by the craftspersons themselves, imbibed through many years of evolutionary community learning called traditional wisdom. Tools and processes are diverse to include earth, water, fire and air, elements that transform materials in many ways, each extracted from a pool of knowledge that is fast disappearing with the so called advance of modernity. Traditional wisdom needs preservation and needs to be nurtured and used to unfold new values in a contemporary setting. Each culture has much to ffer and India is full of such precious nuggets of traditional wisdom that can be applied to local users or even global exchange.Indian handicrafts are a storehouse of classical motifs and patterns that have evolved over centuries, many of which have been passed on from trading cultures over eons of interaction. The motifs and patterns once absorbed by a culture get disseminated across a variety of media, from stone to wood, to metal to cloth; from weaving to print and from painting to inlay; each technique bringing to the pattern its unique signature, an amalgam of material and tool limitation. The floral motifs and the creeper, the bel, can find as many expressions as there are materials and contexts to be served as witnessed in the huge variety in the expression of popular motifs such as the keri or aam, the stylized mango, depending

on the language that it is being expressed in. The human form too has been depicted in great variety. The upright man or woman has been represented in a host of auctions. The rough and ready whittled shapes of the Naga warrior contrast strongly with the elegant statuettes of the Chola bronzes while the wrought iron tribesman from Chhattisgarh differs from the expressive occupational toys from Kondapalli in Andhra Pradesh. Moreover, when a human form enters the sanctum of the temple it takes on a whole new sacred meaning and significance. Several crafts are a form of pure service and the craftsman plays the role of facilitator of some critical function of form giving or repair. The mochi or cobbler and the potter, the tile maker and the carpenter fall into the category of those who work to serve the community with their skills and knowledge. In the age of mass consumption, it may be a good idea to bring back some of the values of this service to ensure that our products are recycled and repaired rather than used and thrown away long before their active life is over. Craft and the use of craftsmanship could bring in new values for a sustainable future and a new attitude towards the proper use and abuse of materials in the coming years. Craft objects come in a vast array of product categories, each in tune with its purpose. The selection of wood for the keel of a boat or for the main post of a small local dwellig would show a deep understanding of material properties and the shapes that they are found in nature, the wood being appropriately bent or with that presense of a branch fork to support the beams in each case of application. The products would range from the production of miniature animals and dolls for play to animal harnesses and objects for functional use in daily life. Yet other categories are the gifts for numerous occasions such as festivals and mariages as well as religious offerings at the temple or for honouring a leader in the community or to celebrate the arrival of a child. These objects carry signs of their purpose and are specially treated for the particular occasion. Containers, baskets, tools, implements , domestic products and objects of agricultural use represent great concern for efficiency and convenience while objects of celebration have a vast repertoire of decorative processes to make the offering visible valuable. Just as there are categories of objects, we find categories of craftspersons and many levels of craftsmanship. In the Northeast where local materials are transformed on a daily basis in the service of day to day life, bamboo is fashioned into a variety of baskets and objects. Most of the population is familier with the craft process and the people exhibit a very high degree of creativity in their ability to transform materials. This is not to say that professional craftspersons do not exist in these regions. They do and they are involved in the making of many specialized products that are traded through the local bazaars. Other members of the craft economy of village and urban India include the small and large entrepreneurs. They keep the wheels of trade in continuous motion and the more ambitious ones, such as the exporters, help build bridges between distant lands and cultures. From time immemorial these itinerant traders have given and extended life to Indian handicrafts by making them available in distant lands through establishing active trade routes. Traditional and modern settings exist for showcasing the craft heritage across India. The bazaar is the closest to the maker while new forms of exhibitions and trade fairs promoted by the government and nongovernment bodies represent the new formats for contemporary action. Religious festivals and regional events or seasonal festivities encourage trade in handcrafted objects from far and near. The annual Jagannath festival in Puri, Orissa, sees a plethora of stone and wood carvings, cloth paintings and applique work for pilgrims to the temple; and the enormous cattle fair at Puskar, Rajasthan, floods the township with local crafts. This is now becoming a valuable source of heritage tourism. The craft heritage continues to evolve in modern times and the objects too are finding new and contemporary expression while the old and the traditional is still valued for the refinement that they represent. That the crafts understand and respond to the variety demanded by its clientele can be seen in the profusion of jewellery, clothing, footwear and hand held accessories that are used as part of our daily costume. The great variety and styles of surface and structural treatment

show a creative ability of the crafts man to respond to a human need for identify and differntiation. The Kolhapuri chappal, or leather footwear, is one such product that comes to mind where with just one material, a great many structural and formal variations are achieved by the use of simple and complex methods of assembly, all satisfying an appreciative but demanding user. Each region responds with its own offering of variety within a functional category as seen in the diversity of baskets from bamboo in the northeast of India and in the vsat range of palm leaf constructions from coastal Tamil Nadu and Orissa. Even today there are places in India where almost everyone is still a crafts person, able to transform material to fashion expressions of creativity. Tamil women use the art of kolam as a daily ritual of cleaning and decoration the entrance to their home while in much of rural Inda the houses are surfaced regularly with a coat of wet mud and cowdung that leaves gentle marks of the hand as it sweeps the surface. Wall paintings and decorations are an everyday art in many parts of the countryand each uses fascinating local variants to tell stories or to captures symbols of fertility and good will. THe Warli and Madhubani painting are two prominent examples of everyday art that is part of the living culture of the land. India is still creative in its villages, with the young exposed to the art of making and transforming materials and spaces by the act of creation on a daily basis. The living crafts in the rural hinterlands have been contributing enormously. Unfortunately our formal education systems lack the richness of craft experiences with the emphasis on textual and numerical education systems. It is here that crafts hold real promise for the rediscovery of the therapeutic qualities of craftsmanship that can be appreciated and adopted by the entire population. Craftsmanship brings with it an understanding of quality and refinement, and the sensitivity that is gained through this work culture will help introduce our youth to a whole philosophy of values that crafts embody. Therefore crafts in education will introduce a new dimension. We hope that this book and its companion volumes will help sensitize and shape the character of our youth, through an immersion in the act of craftsmanship. Crafts are an effective vehicle for self-development and for sustainable employment generation for much of our population living in difficult economic conditions. In the search for development strategies of our rural and urban centres through employment, the government has used crafts with great effect over the past 50 years. The stting up of the Handloom and Handicrafts Boards and the establishment of the Office of the Development Commissioner of Handicrafts has created the avenue through which the support of the government intention can reach all corners of the country in an effective manner. The support in training and in providing seed capital to help establish numerous local entrepreneurs in the crafts sector has been a full time task, which has met with great success. The thriving export climate for handcrafted goods from India is a confirmation of the success of these initiatives. Government policies over the years have helped support a vibrant local and export industry, an enormous employment base. The scope for entrepreneurship and wealth generation across 516 production clusters are graphically mapped in

are easy to access. Many local bodies and cooperatives are supported by the policy regime and a network of agencies is strengthening this through support schemes that raech those who need it most. Numerous promotional schemes and policy initiatives have been taken by the agencies of the Government of India and of the various state governments. Over the years, these have had a salutary impact on the performance of the crafts sector as a whole and in many remote and inaccessible places these have been the only form of sustained support. The national and regional programmes of recognition of excellence have identified a very large number of craftspersons and craft promotion agencies that have demostrated high levels of quality and service. The national Master Craftsman award is coveted by many craftspersons and those recognized by the award join the roster of celebrated individuals who act as a role models for the community and foster the pursuit of excellence. Recently the government has instituted the ship guru awards, which are given to master teachers who are empowered and encouraged to pass on their skills and knowledge to other young and potential candidates from their field of work. Such initiatives create new ways for the dissemination of craft knowledge accessible traditionally only to family members. Many young craftspersons are professionals and belong to traditions that had the advantage of early market orientation. In their work is visible a classical order and expression that has been cultivated and well-honed. Equally important is the spontaneous and exuberant expression of the `ameteur` crafts person who clay and pepier-mache toys are a delight. The entry into the market is a new experience that can give them cultural empowerment. Throughout our history, crafts were customized to the needs of the local and distant client. There was a close interaction between the maker, the object and the client or user. Difficult and inhospitable terrains taught the craftsperson to be resourceful, respect scarcity and the resulting economy of material and form rely on ingenuity. Local materials were celebrated. Trade routes and cultural exchanges added new layers to this understanding and sensibility. Transmission of skills from father to son and mother to daughter were apprenticeship based. As rites of passage their fulfillment was synonymous with learning `life skills`. In the changing contexts of a global market-driven economy and ideology, traditional crafts offer sustainable practices that need to be revisited and imbibed. Craft development needs a paradigm shift from promoting the karigar, traditional crafts person, to karigari, quality of craftsmanship, since whoever imbibes this quality becomes the craftsperson in perpetuity.

ADITI RANJAN & M P RANJAN EDITORS AHMEDABAD

CRAFTS JAMMU AND KASHMIR Papier-mache Kaleen knotted carpets Kashidakari Kashmiri embroidery Namda felted rugs Gabba embroidered rugs Kani shawls Woolen textiles Walnut wood carving Pinjrakari latticed wood work Wicker work Reed mats Copper ware Glazed pottery Basohli painting Dogri embroidery Metal casing Sheet metal work Chikri wood work Embroidered footwear Block printing Thangka paintings 1 Connected by seven bridges, the old quarter of Srinagar city sprawls along the banks of River Ritual cloth Jhelum. installations 2 A man wearing a pheran, the loose overcoat, commonly worn by Kashmiri men and women alike. 3 A mihrab, the arched doorway, of a house in Jammu. 4 The papier mache panelled entrance to Srinagar`s Shah Hamadan Mosque. Khabdan pile carpets Tsug-dul woolen pile blankets Challi handwoven textiles Handspinning Thigma - tie resist dyeing Paabu stitched boots Metal work Jewellery Wood carving Painted wood Chipkiang baskets Musical instruments Mask making Physical Features Mountain ranges: TransHimalayas,

Karakoram, Ladakh, Zanskar, Pir Panjal, Shivalik Major rivers : Jhelum, Chanab, Gilgit, Tawi, Indus, Shyok, Zanskar Major lakes : Wular, Dal, Tso Moriri, Pangong Tso Biodiversity Flora : Walnut, Poplar, Chinar, Deodar, Willow reed

THE STATE of Jammu and Kashmir consists of three geographical zones - Jammu, a land encompassing plains, mountains and foothills; Kashmir, a mosaic of forests, orchards, rice fields, lakes and waterways; and the high altitude desert of Ladakh, its harsh austerity punctuated by green riversides and cloudless blue skies. Eah of these regions possesses a distinct culture that is reflective of its climatic conditions as well as its particular history. Jammu, once the kingdom of the Dogra rulers, is a largely Hindu region renowned for its numerous shrines and courtly miniature paintings. Kashmir`s motley artistic and literary traditions are the legacy of political domination by rulers of various religious predilections - the Mauryans, Kushanas, Karakotas, Tibetans, Persians, Mughals, Sikhs and finally, the Dogra rulers of Jammu - and interaction with the trading communities who passed through it. Kashmir has been a historical centre for the scholarship and teaching of Buddhism, Vedic culture, Sanskrit, Shaivism,

Islam, Sufism and Sikhism. It has also been the focus of varied art patronage and consequently it has amalgamated Turkish, Persian and Mughal influences to create its own art idiom. Due to its scarcity of resources and the presence of nomadic communities, Ladakh has evolved craft practices that are informed both by the formative influences of Central Asian, Chinese and Tibetan cultures as well as by the climatic conditions in which it is situated. Simultaneously, Ladakh also contains another cultural matrix fostered by its predominantly Buddhist population and the patronage by its ancient monasteries. The art forms that belong to this realm are thus closely related to the spatial and ritualistic requirements of the religion.
Inset : Found in Buddhist temples and homes, the mandala, sacred circle, symbolizes the spiritual embodiment of the Buddha and diagrammatically represents the calling in and realization of the spiritual force within the contemplator.

Landmark Dal Lake Vaishno Devi Shalimar Garden Shah Hamadan Mosque Leh Palace Hemis Monastery Alchi Monastery Hot Springs Panamik Mubarak Mandi Palace Dogra Art Museum Attire Pheran loose over garment Goncha overcoat Gtutung sleeveless coat Bokh sheepskin wrap Skerekh belt

10 The 8 m high statue of Maitreya Buddha Gonad or the future Buddha, carved into the hillside hat at Karchay Kharvill, is one of the four similar Perakh 6 A fresco at the Hemis Monastery depicting a guardian sculptures in the Kargil region. female deity. The panelled wood work above the fresco is ceremonial painted to simulate the pleated ritual cloth installations headgear used in the monasteries. For 7 A painted wooden mask, worn by monks during monks : monastic ceremonial dances. Shamtam lower 8 A Drok-pa woman wearing the typical headdress garment adorned with flowers. This small agricultural community of Ladakh is believed to be of Indo-Aryan origin and practices a form of Buddhism that is akin to Bon-chos, the animistic pre-Buddhist religion of Ladakh. Zangos shawl Cuisine Girdas wheat bread Wazwan mutton dishes Yakhni meat dish Dostabah meat balls Tsampa barley flour Chang fermented barkey drink Khamiri roti - yeast bread Gurgur chai - salt tea Kahwa tea Languages Kashmiri

5 THE STATE of Jammu and Kashmir consists of three geographical zones - Jammu, a land encompassing plains, mountains and foothills; Kashmir, a mosaic of forests, orchards, rice fields, lakes and waterways; and the high altitude desert of Ladakh,

9 Votive offerings inscribed with prayers, locally known as mani, jewel stones.

Dogri Kishtwari Gujari Punjabi Ladakhi Urdu Festivals Shushur Sankrant Losar Ladakhi New Year Hemis Festival Ladakj Festival, Leh and Kargil Lohri Bahi Mela Mansar Food and Craft Mela

Popular trees on the outskirts of Srinagar

An ari embroider at work ; the reed mat, hookah and kangri, (a wicker container for smouldering coals) near him, are ubiquitious elements of the local material culture.

RESOURCES Craft Carpet Weaving Namda Gabba Kashidakari : Ari Kashidakari : Sozni Copper repousse work Khatumband and Pinjrakari Walnut wood carving Wicker work Papier-Mache Raw Materials Silk, Wool Sources Karnataka, Kashmir

Wool fibres, Cotton Srinagar fibres Woolen Blankets Pashmina and raffal shawls Srinagar Srinagar, Leh

Gold or silver zari Surat tilla, Silk thread Copper sheets Wood - deodar, pine Wood - dun or akhrot Willow Paper pulp Srinagar Kashmir Valley Kashmir Valley Kashmir Valley Kashmir Valley

1. A namda craftsman beating wool fibres with a wicker punja. 2. A naqqash at a papier mache workshop in Srinagar, painting a moulded form 3. A craftman at one of the several wood carving workshops in Fateh Kadal, Srinagar.

Nestled amid the high mountains of Shivalik and Pir Panjal ranges lies the verdant valley of Kashmir. In the 3rd century BC, the Mauryan emporer Ashoka sent Buddhist missionaries to the region and it is they who established Srinagar (literally `The happy city of beauty and knowledge`), the current capital of the state. The Karakota dynasty consolidated their power in the region during the 7th century, thus bringing Kashmir under Hindu dominion. Kashmir`s location on the Silk Route of Central Asia ensured a steady stream of artistic and cultural interaction with various trading communities - Persian, Chinese and Mediterranean - who passed through it. This influx of stylistic influences is apparent in the syncretism of Kashmiri art ; it derives from sources as varied as the serenity of the Gandhara sculptures and the stylization of the Persian court. The Persian influence was further highlighted during the rule of Zain-ul-Abadin, a local prince who was forced into exile in Persia by Timur in 1398. The prince returned to his homeland in 1423 accompanied by various skilled craftsmen who introduced and developed the crafts we associate today with Kashmir. The foreign craft traditions fused together with the indigenous craft practices and forged an artistic vocabulary reflective of the environment they were produced in. For example, the chinar (oriental plane), sarav (cypress), dachh (vine), sosan (iris), pamposh (lotus), sumbul (hyacinth), yambarzal (narcissus) and the dainposh (pomegranate) motifs recur throughout the range of crafts, thus lending a uniquely Kashmiri character to the products they adorn. Under the Mughal emperor Jehangir, the crafts of Kashmir, especially that of carpet weaving, received generous patronage. The Mughal influence may also be seen in the gardens of Srinagar, their summer capital, and in the carpets which reflect the geometrical layout of these `Gandens of Paradise` that are based on the Persian Chahar Bagh design.

Srinagar is connected by road, rail and air with the states of Punjab, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh and Maharashtra.

The craft known by French term papiermache (literally paper pulp), is locally known as kar-e-kalamkari, pen case work, after its traditional Iranian name. Papier-mache was practiced as a form of decocation executed on the wooden panels of walls and wooden furniture and was eventually adapted to paper moulds as well. Trays, small boxes and book covers were made for royal patrons and members of their courts. The two major processes involved in the craft are sakthsazi (mould making) and naqquashi (painting). The naqqash renders the surface in intricate floral patterns or highly stylized scenes of hunts and battles. In the case of floral motifs, the painting may be executed entire in gold or silver. The local term for gold or silver work is son tehreer. The motifs are derived from the profusion of local flora; some of the frequently used images are the bumtchuthposh (apple blossoms), dainposh (pomegranate), kongposh (saffron flowers) and yambarzal (narcissus).

Product Clusters Badgam district Anantnag district Kupwara district Baramula district Delina Wagoora Pulwama District : Gangoo, Suttusoo Srinagar district : Srinagar city: Arwat Sufa Kadal Lal Chowk Doni Pora Shamaswari Syed Pora Products Boxes, Toys Jewellery box Lamps, Pen cases Wall decoration

Inset : A papier-mache container painted Powder containers in a multi hued floral pattern Mirror cases 1. The papier-mach ornamented ceiling of the Madina Sahab Mosque. 2. Detail of an intricately painted floral pattern. 3. A papier-mache box, the detail revealing its highly ornamental surface. 4. Painted papier-mache furniture. 5. A folding screen, and a detail; the composition revealing the similarity to the medallion with chothai pattern seen in the kaleen, carpet. 6. Detail showing the gold painted surface known as son tehreer. Christmas decorations Flower vases, Kettles Trays and plates Samovar - fluted kettle Tools File, Rasp, Hacksaw Sandpaper Burnishing stone Paintbrushes

KALEEN - KNOTTED CARPETS


Production Clusters Baramula district Anantnag district Badgam district Kupwara district Pulwama district Doda district Udhampur district Kathua district Poonch district Srinagar district : Srinagar city : Sehyar, Umar Colony, Nowab Bazaar, Anchar, Nava Kadal, Rainawari, Fateh Kadal, Dal Areas Products Silk carpets Woolen carpets Tools Kaleen vaan vertical loom Khur - sickle shaped blade Panja - beater Dukari - scissors A carpet with a central medallion surrounded by a matan, field, in turn enclosed by several borders. A variation of he medallion carpet with quarter medallions known as chothai at the corners. The Kaleen are intricately hand knotted silk or woolen carpets woven on a vertical loom through a process of wrapping a supplementary weft around successive warps, creating a heavy durable fabric with a soft pile surface of short lengths of fine wool or silk. Although the craft`s origin may be traced to the rule of the emporer Zain-ul-Abadin and is derived from the Persian carpet tradition, it has acquired a distinctly local character through the incorporation of motifs inspired by the indigenous flora and fauna and the use of dyed yarns to create a unique colouristic range. The carpets also reflect the Mughal patronage they received. The paterns depicting fantastic animal forms and the pictorial carpets with elaborate hunting scenes are from the period of Akbar`s rule while the carpets with patterns of scrolling vines and highly naturalistic plant and animal forms are the bequest of Jehangir`s patronage. Even at that early stage, some specifically Indian motifs were added to the craftsmen`s vocabulary; among them the gaja-simha image or the half lion - elephant, the elephant combat, grape clusters and segmented blossoms. Over time, a greater degree of stylization set in, as complicated lattice systems were introduced as matrices for floral motifs and the millefleur pattern with its profusion of tiny blossoms was created. Other patterns which were inspired by the Persian Chahar Bagh, Garden of Paradise, layout and the medallion form were fashioned and these latter types have now come to be identified as the quintessentially Kashmiri patterns. Carpet weaving skills (including that of reading the talim - the pattern chart that plots the number of knots to be woven in the same colour) were transmitted through the ustaad - shagird, master apprentice system. As the apprenticeship traditionally began at the age of six, this practice is now largely discontinued due to the ban on child labour. Inset : Detail of the sixteen-pointed star form of the medallion. A medallion carpet with chothai and elliptical forms known as chand in the central field.

1 A carpet with the Persian Qum pattern, which is inspired by the concept of the Garden of Paradise. In Kashmir, carpet designs are identified by the names of carpet weaving centres in Iran such as Qum, Hamadan, Tabriz and Kashan.

2 A Hamadan style variation of the Garden carpet with Kashmiri trees instead of Persian flora. 3 The mihrab, arch motif indicates that this floral carpet is either a prayer rug or that it is a derivative of the quanat, the screens of Mughal emperors` tents. Stylized variation of Kashmiri trees and flowers that find expression in kaleen, as well as in other crafts of Kashmir.

KASHIDAKARI - KASHMIRI EMBROIDERY


Production Clusters Ari Work Districts : Srinagar Kathua Rajouri Poonch Udhampur Sozni Districts : Srinagar Baramula Anantnag Badgam Pulwama Kupwara Kathua Rajouri Poonch Crewel Work Districts : Srinagar Anantnag Badgam Pulwama Kupwara Udhampur Poonch Rajouri Tilla Work Srinagar District Rezkar Srinagar District Tools Ari - hooked needle Products Ari Work Stoles Shawls Pheran Kurta Capes Crewel Work Upholstery Drapery Wall hangings Floor coverings Rezkar Shawls Garments Table covers Bedspreads Household linen Capes Sozni Shawls Garmets Tilla and dori work Pheran Sari Shawls ARI AND CREWEL WORK Ari Embroidery is widely practiced throughout India with different stylistic variations that serve to distinguish the workmanship of one region from that of another. Irrespective of whether it be the ari work of the cobblers of Kachchh in Gujarat or the textile embroiderers of Tamil Nadu, the thread is passed through the ari, hooked needle, and is always held under the fabric to be embroidered and the hok is used to pull a series of loops, each emerging from within the previous, to the surface of the fabric. There are two versions of this technique; the first is used to embroider on thin fabrics such as silk and fine cotton cloth, used as stoles and shawls or made into pheran, which is a loose over-garment, kurta and capes. Crewel work, although similar, uses a thicker ari and is normally done on unbleached fabric; its stitches are bolder and it is used for embellishing yardages used as upholstery and drapery. In both cases, the patterns are usually linear abstractions of the local flora, with the outlines worked first and the embroiderers are usually men from the Sunni Muslim community. SOZNI Sozni is a form of extremely fine and delicate needlework done primarily on shawls - mainly pashmina and high quality raffal. Designs are created as close as possible against the ground, and individual threads of the warp are taken up in the stitching and reinforced with smaller stitches. The stitch employed is not unlike stem stitch, and only the outline of the design is embroidered. Only a single strand is used and consequently, in skillfully executed sozni, the motif appears on both sides of the shawl. Each side displays a different colorway in an embroidered imitation of the woven kani shawls. Detail of a woolen shawl embroidered using the rezkar technique. Detail of tilla work.

TILLA AND DORI WORK These embroidery techniques are executed with gold or silver zari (tilla) or silk (dori) thread, and are used to embellish pherans, saris and shawls. The decorative wire remains only on the surface while and additional thin cotton thread of yellow or white is stitched on top of it, thereby securing it by couching. Of the needlework in silver and metallic thread there are two variations - moraskar (knot stitch), zalakadosi (chain stitch executed in silver or metallic thread) - which are used on the borders of shawls and choga, royal gown, to create a raised or braided effect. The most commonly used motifs are the pamposh (lotus), chinar, badam (almond) . dacch gurn (grape leaf) and duin (the flower of the chinar tree). REZKAR This is a form of needle embroidery similar in technique to sozni; the difference lies in its longer stitches and in that these are not reinforced with additional stitches. Three or four strands of staple yarn are employed and the fabric used for this ranges from raffal to cotton cloth. Rezkar is done on products such as shawls, garments, table covers, and household linen.

The chinar leaf. A craftsman demonstrating the use of the ari on a furnishing fabric.

Detail of a pashmina shawl embroidered in sozni, so as to simulate the woven jamawar patterns.

NAMDA - FELTED RUGS


Namda are felted rugs that are made by enmeshing wool fibres with water, soap and pressure and then embroidering the resultant fabric. These are extensively used in Kashmiri households as an effective and inexpensive floor covering and mattress. In Srinagar, cotton is also mixed with woolen fibres to create a fabric that is usually white in colour and may be easily embroidered with an ari in floral patterns or in compositions containing stylized animal figures. A worker assisted by three persons can produce two namda a day. Namda are being produced in large numbers in the valley for sale in international and national urban markets, and thus significantly contributing to the kashida embroidery industry. Inset : The chinar, a motif that features in many local crafts, seen here embroidered on a namda. Production Clusters Kupwara district : Kupwara Srinagar district : Srinagar city : Zahid Pora Umar Colony Sehyar, Nowab Bazaar Chhargari Mohalla Jamalatta Kanimazar Dhakabab Sahib Mehar Gunj Akalmir Sukali Pora Gojwara Rang Masjid Doom Pora Khanwari Mal Pora Wanta Pora Dekhdarbar Kokerbagh Channa Dora Products Floor coverings Tools Carding device Wagoo - reed mat Punja - flattening device Chhath - curved stick Ari - hooked needle

Stylized animal figures on a namda.

An ari embroidered cotemporary namda.

Detail of floral pattern on a namda.

GABBA - EMBROIDERED RUGS

A detail of an embroidered gabba, is composition and surface reminiscent of Gabba are recycled old woolen blankets or lois that are washed, that of papier mache milled and dyed in various colours. These pieces are then objects. stitched together and backed with waste cotton cloth. The gabba is then either appliqued or embroidered with crewel work. In the 1. Detail of an ari appliqued type, pieces of dyed blankets are joined together and worked bird and interspersed with vividly coloured embroidery in geometric and its colourful floral patterns. Although the common layout is a central plumage. medallion placed in a rectangular field which has borders, gabba 2. Detail of a are made in a variety of shapes and sizes. It is used extensively gabba, its in Kashmiri households as an effective and inexpensive floor surface entirely covering and is also used as a mattress in colder areas of the covered in state. Today, a chainstitch rug resembling the gabba has become crewel work. more prevalent and cushion covers and furnishing fabric have also been added to the product range. Carpet weavers from Production Clusters Srinagar were invited to Punjab to prepare shamianas Anantnag district : Anantnag town Srinagar District Products Floor coverings

WALNUT WOOD CARVING


Production Clusters Srinagar district : Fateh Kadal Channa Mohalla Urdu Bazaar Rajouri district Badgam district : Shanker Pora Kupwara district : Trehgam Tanghdar Jammu district : Kanachak Kathua district : Mirth Bernali Products Ladles Pharav - sandals Yander - spinning wheel Boxes Salad & nut bowls Photo frames Trays Lamps Coffee tables Mirror frames Furniture Tools Hammer Chisels, Gouges Wooden mallet Emery paper Saw Walnut wood carving is an ornamental craft process that is virtually unique to Kashmir due to the concentration of walnut trees (Junglas regia), locally known as dun or akhrot, in this region. The naqqash, master carver, first etches the basic pattern on to the wood and then removes the unwanted areas with the help of chisels and a wooden mallet so that the design emerges from the lustrous walnut wood as an embossed surface. There are several varieties of carving technique that are utilized - deep carving that is two inches or so deep and is usually used for dragon and flower motifs; shallow carving, half inches deep and done all over flat surfaces; open or lattice work, usually depicting the chinar motif; and the semi-carving technique which renders a thin panel along the rim of the surface which is ornamented by a central motif alone. The advantage of this technique is that it allows the grain of the wood to be displayed to maximum advantage while exhibiting the carver`s skill. The craft was initially restricted to the creation of elaborate palaces and houses. Written records tell of Zain-ul-Abadin`s great razdani, palace, and its elaborate wood carvings. To this date, several fine examples of intricately carved buildings, shrines and mausoleums survive in Kashmir - the shrines of Noor-ud-dinWali at Charar-e-Sharif, the Naqshaband mosque and the shrine of Nund Rishi are just a few of them. Contemporary products, however include ladles, boxes, bowls, trays, sandals and spinning wheels. Hand run lathes have been utilized to speed the production process.

Inset : A serving dish in the form of a chinar leaf.

1 A panel ornamented with a repetitive floral motif. 1 Detail of the lid of a chest, patterned with the various floral motifs typical of Kashmir. 2 Detail of floral pattern carved on a wooden panel. 3 Detail of an elaborately carved jungle scene. 4 A rendering of the dachh gurn, grape vine motif. 5 Dishes for several dry fruits, their forms inspired by the Kashmiri flora. 6,7,8 A box lid on which is juxtaposed foliage carved in both high and bas relief. 9 by a central motif alone. The advantage of this technique is that it allows the grain of the wood to be displayed to maximum advantage while exhibiting the carver`s skill. The craft was initially restricted to the creation of elaborate palaces and houses. Written records tell of Zain-ul-Abadin`s great razdani, palace, and its elaborate wood carvings. To this date, several fine examples of intricately carved buildings, shrines and mausoleums survive in Kashmir - the shrines of Noor-uddin-Wali at Charar-e-Sharif, the Naqshaband mosque and the shrine of Nund Rishi are just a few of them. Contemporary products, however include ladles, boxes, bowls, trays, sandals and spinning wheels. Hand run lathes have been utilized to speed the production process.

PINJRAKARI AND KHATUMBAND - WOOD WORK


Pinjrakari is an intricate form of lattice or trellis work done in light wood that is used on windows, doors, ventilators, railings or ornamental partitions and screens. In its original form, glues and nails were not used in this technique; the precision of the joinery alone held it together. The pinjra frames are pasted with handmade paper, thus effectively cutting out chilly winds and yet allowing a sufficient amount of light to pass through. Khatumband uses thin geometric sheets of deodar wood which are cut and fitted into a doublegrooved batten. Expansive ceilings are contructed by repeating the same pattern, the whole structure fitting together without the use of a single nail. The khatumband technique was widely used in the contruction of Kashmir`s doongas (floating houses) and the shikaras (boats for door-to-door selling and transport). The other products made with this technique include boxes, bowls, screens, panels, bedsteads, cupboards, and cabinets.

1. Pinjrakari or lattice work used in the railings of a museum in Srinagar. 2. Detail of a pinjrakari screen. Pinjrakari is locally known as zalipinjrakari or achhi dar. 3. Various kinds of wood work form the architectural elements of a house boat. Khatumband displays skills of excellent joinery and precise patterned ceiling panels.

Khatumband: Shikara, Doonga Production Clusters Anantnag district Badgam district Baramula district Srinagar district: Srinagar city: Chattabal Kupwara town: Shah Mohalla Rajouri district: Rajouri town: Thana Mandi Products Pinjrakari: Windows, Doors, Ventilators, Railings, Ornamental partitions, Screens Screens, Panels, Boxes, Bowls Bedsheets, Cupboards Cabinets Product Clusters Anantnag district: Anantnag town: Doru Dyalgam Qoimoh Badgam district: Charar-e-Sharif Srinagar district Srinagar city: Hazratbal Mosque Harvan Shalabug Sowra Products Baskets Boxes Lampshades Curtain rings Trays

are used on ritual occasions observed by the Kashmiri pundit community, especially during the Shushur Sankrant. Shushur means frost and on this day the new bride of each family is gifted an Straw, grass and twigs are used ornamental kangri containing some money. There is also a practice to make domestic products and among Hindu families to give their priests a kangri to pay homage to containers for storing and transporting agricultural produce. their ancestors. One of the main products is the kangri, the wicker basket used to A wicker tray. carry clay pots containing smouldering coals, usually slipped under the pheral worn by men and women. The willow is boiled till the outer skin comes off and the inner layer is exposed. It is then cleaned and cut into strips of about five mm width. Then it is woven into a basket. The willow may be dyed blue, red or green and various geometric patterns are created by multi-directional weaves in the upper half of the kangri. These are further embellished with shiny coloured foil, mirrors and metal pieces. Shaksaz is the local term for the basket-maker. The kangri of Shaksaz Mohalla in Charar-e-Sharif

WICKER WORK

Inet : A kangri is indispensible during the long winters.

COPPER WARE
Production Clusters Baramula district Srinagar district : Srinagar city: Nowab Bazaar Zena Kadal Fateh Kadal Rainawari Jama Masjid Bohri Kadal S. R. Ganj Nalamar Products Bowls Cups Dishes Jugs Ewers Cauldrons Saucepans Cutlery Lamps Lanterns Candelabra Candle stands Tools Dakur - hammers Yandravaw - anvil Mekh - stakes Punches, Chisels Tracers The traditional coper ware of Kashmir is created by three processes of shaping, decoration (naqqashi), and tinning (kalai). The surface is usually highly ornamented with a profusion of stylized floral and leaf forms, religious symbols (such as the mihrab or prayer arch), geometric and calligraphic patterns, as well as elaborate hunting scenes. The patterns are formed on the metal sheet using a combination of techniques including repousse, piercing and chasing. The raised patterns may be further highlighted by oxidizing the depressed surface. The indigenous product range consists of luxurious household items such as surahi (wine jugs), rosewater sprinklers, incense burners, hookah bases, samovars (kettles), decorative plaques and large trays with stands which perform the role of mobile tables. A number of products are utilized in Islamic rituals - ewers and basins are used for ablutions and henna holders are used at pre-wedding ceremonies. Copper vessels also form a crucial component of the Kashmiri bride`s trousseau.

A samovar, tea kettle in sheet metal with a handle and spout made by casting

The surface of this copper object displays a remarkable similarity to rezkar embroidery.

A decorative plate, its trellis-like pattern created by piercing.

Situated on the banks of River Tawi and framed against the picturesque backdrop of the majesic Trikuta Ranges lies Jammu, the `winter capital` of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The region is believed to have acquired its name from its 9th century founder, Raja Jambu Lochan. The present city of Jammu, however, was established under the Dogra rulers who gained control over the region in 1730 A.D. and made Jammu their capital. Under their patronage, their city became an important centre of art and culture spawning the famous Pahari miniature painting style and its lyrical depictions of the Gita Govinda, the Ramayana, the Rasamanjari, the Ragamala, the Bhagwata Purana and the tale of Nala-Damayanti. The Sikhs took over from the Rajputs, following which, in 1832, Gulab Singh merged Jammu with Kashmir to form the present state. Its history has created an ethnic melange: apart from the Dogras who are of Aryan lineage and occupy the plains, Jammu is also inhabited by nomadic mountain-dwelling tribes such as the Gujjars, Bakerwals and Gaddis, as well as the communities of Punjabi descent such as the Khatris and Mahajans, and the Muslim Rajput sects known as the Chibalis and the Sudans. Jammu, known as the City of Temples, is home to a large number of temples and shrines of Vaishno Devi. The impact of the presence of these religious sites on the folklore and art forms of the region is clearly visible in Jammu`s mustical traditions, raas dances, paintings of mystics and devotional folklore.

RESOURCES Craft Tsug-dul and tsuggdan Challi Hand-spinning Paabu Basketry Khabdan Wood carving Metal ware Ritual cloth installations Thangka paintings Painted wood Thigma Raw Materials Sheep wool, Yak Wool, Goat Hair, Acrylic yarn Yak Hair, Goat Hair Pashmina wool, Sheep wool Leather, Wool, Cloth, Felt Sources Changtang Valley Crafts of LADAKH

Changtang Valley Upshi Leh, Choglamasar, Nubra

Thangka paintings Ritual cloth installations

Situated within the folds of the Karakram mountain ranges lies the arid, extremely cold Trans-Himalayan desert of Ladakh. Enclosed within this stark landscape are the three valleys of Leh, Zanskar and Nubra that are formed by the rivers Indus and Zanskar.

Willow, Chipkiang Chushot, Wanla grass Mill spun woolen yarn Wood (malchang and salchang) Brass and copper sheets, Copper Silk, Brocades, Cotton fabric Cloth, Pigment colours Wood (malchang) Woolen fabric, Dyes Ludhiana, Punjab Wanla Srinagar, Jammu, Delhi Benaras, Srinagar Leh Chushot, Choglamasar Leh

The climate and seasonal cycles determine much of the activities of the population; summers are monopolised by agricultural work and shearing, autumn for harvesting and preparing for the long winters in which Ladakhis are confined indoors and practice their crafts. From Tsug-dul - woolen the 17h century upto 1949 Ladakh was the hub of a bustling caravan pile blankets trade between Punjab and Central Asia, and between Kashmir and Tibet. During the summers, pack animals laden with Varanasi Tsug-gdan woolen pile rugs brocades, Chinese silk, pearls, spices, Indian tea, wool, salt, indigo, opium, carpets and gold traversed through the Nubra valley, and in Challi handwoven textiles winters they crossed the upper valley of the Shyok River. The objects of trade, the trading communities and their cultures have all left an Hand-spinning indelible impact on the local crafts and culture. Furthermore, Thigma - tie-resist- successive waves of immigration, especially that of the Tibetans in the 6th and 7th centuries and of people of Islamic origin during the dyeing 14th century have created a multi-faith social matrix. Here, Tibetan Paabu - stitched Buddhism amalgamated elements of the indigenous animistic religion boots to form an esoteric form of Mahayana Buddhism with five sects, each of which is based on the teachings of different monks or saints. Metal work Khabdan - pile carpets Wood carving Painted wood Access The road connecting Leh to Manali and Srinagar remains open from Chipkiang baskets April to October which buses operate from June to October. Only buses ply to the villages. Taxis are the only means of transport inside the town of Leh. Flights to Jammu and Delhi are available from Leh. Subclusters of LADAKH Leh district: Leh Choglamasar Chushot Kharnaling Thiksey Sabu Chilling Bheema Wanla Upshi

Inset : A detail of the perak, and elaborate turquoise studded headdress of Ladakhi women. Evocative of lizards scales, fins and serpent hoods, the perak symbolizes the local belief that women are from the underworld of Lhu, which is inhabited by snakes, lizards and fish, underground divinities credited with the powers of fertility.
1. 2. 3. An artisan affixing embossed strips of metal on the surface of a prayer wheel. A sculptor and thangka painter, working in his studio Painting of the duk, the dragon motif, near Leh

A chorten at Thiksey. A thangka fresco on the wall of a monastery in Thiksey, Ladakh.

THANGKA PAINTING
Thangka are painted scrolls depicting Buddhist deities and their cosmic realities. Although they are installed in domestic spaces as a talisman against all evils, thangka are intended as navigational aids for the spirit, guiding the viewer in his quest for spiritual realization. It is in their capacity to render the invisible visible through iconographic representation that serve as installations in monasteriesand prayer halls or as displays during religious festivals at monasteries. Due to the potency that the paintings are believed to possess, the painter is required to undergo rigorous spiritual and artistic training and in many cases is a monastic initiate. The proportions and iconographic details of the deities follow canonical prescriptions and the artistic genius of the individual is considered subordinate to the religious responsibility of the painter. Thangka are not signed by the artist but are given to a lama who blesses them with sacred syllables. The finished painting is then taken to only the male tailors of the community who mount the work on a frame of heavy gyasser, silk brocade panels. They back the painting with plain cloth and secure the scroll at the top and the bottom to wooden rods, with brass or silver knots at each end. 1. A craftsman stitching a thangka at the Handicraft Centre at Leh. 2. Detail of a thangka painting a the Handicraft Centre. 3. A thangka depicting the golden Prajnaparamita or Yum Chenmo who embodies Supreme Wisdom. She is identified by the book placed on the lotus near her head. 4. A Green Tara thangka which shows 21 different manifestations of the goddess Tara. Depicted at the top of the thangka is Buddha Amitaha who denotes Boundless Light. Production Clusters Leh district: Leh town: Central Institute of Buddhist Studies Handicraft Centre Choglamasar town: Tibetan Refugee Centre Products Paintings Tools Wooden frame Paintbrushes Stone Scissors Brass or Silver knobs

RITUAL CLOTH INSTALLATIONS


Production Clusters Ladakh Alchi Leh Hemis Products Dhukh - canopy Kaphen - pillar hanging Shambhu - pleated door hanging Lungsta - prayer flag Chubar - cylindrical hanging Prayer flags, known locally as tarchok, form a ubiquitous part of the Ladakhi landscape. Usually square of rectangular pieces of cloth, they are believed to spread the praers that are printed on them as they flutter in the wind. They are also said to attract good luck and ward off diseases, the evil eye, demons and evil spirits. They are also displays of one`s great gratitude at a fulfilled wish or an unexpected beneficial occurance. The flags are invariably one of the five basic colours - white, red, green, yellow and blue - and are representative of the five elements (earth, air, water, fire and ether), the five senses (sight, smell, touch, taste, hearing), and the five wisdoms (the wisdom of the universal law, the wisdom of the mirror, the wisdom of equality, the wisdom of distinction and discernment, and the wisdom of accomplishing works). The three most prominent hangings seen in the interiors of the monasteries are the chubar, galtszan and phen. The phen is made of a solid shape from which four or more narrow ribbon-like panels of silk are suspended. The galtszen is a cylindrical hanging ornamented by valences and alternating plain panels. The chuber, also a cylindrical hanging, is made of narrow overlapping vertical panels, usually of brocade.

1. At this bridge across a river at Leh, prayer flags have been tied to thank the gods for ensuring the devotees` safe passage. 2. Prayer flags imprinted with icons of money, prosperity and good luck at Kharnaling, Ladakh. 3. At the entrance to the prayer hall at the Hemis monastery; a shambhu, a pleated panel used over the doors and windws of monasteries, placed above the door. 4. The lungsta or wind horse, the prayer flag that symbolizes will power and luck. 5. A canopy usually hung over the cardinal deity. 6. A pleated canopy covers the coral and turquoise-studded prayer wheel at the Thiksey Monastery. 7. A door curtain at the Shankar Monastery in Leh. Door panels are usually made of plain cloth appliqued with inexpensive red, blue or green gabric in geometric forms. 8. A phen displayed against a wooden ole in a prayer hall at Hemis. 9. A contemporary chubar. Traditionally, the panels were constructed as pockets for containing sandalwood thus allowing the fragrance to waft through the halls with the movement of the chubar.

KHABDAN - PILE CARPETS


Khabdan are pile carpets of 48 knots per square inch that are made on a large vertical loom using the technique of looing woollen yarn around an iron rod. The loops are cut with a sharp knife and the rod is removed to achieve the pile surface. Although of Tibetan origin, the khabdan of Ladakh incorporated stylistic influences into its design vocabulary from China and Mongolia with whom the region has shared a long trade and political history, at least from the 10th century. onwards. Some of the motifs that may be accorded to these influences are the duk (dragon), rgya-nag lcags-ri (inspired by the Great Wall of China), snow lion and the yungdrung (interlocking swastika border). Khabdan are widely used as carpets in the living rooms and prayer rooms of Ladakhi households and in monasteries. The khabdan made for the lama feature religious motifs such as the swastika at the centre and are usually made in orange and red. Production Clusters Leh town: Handicraft Centre Choglamasar town: Tibetan Refugee Centre Products

TSUG-DUL AND TSUG-GDAN - WOOLLEN PILE RUGS


Production Clusters Changtang Valley Kharnaling (near Leh) Products Tsug-dul - pile blanket Tsug-gdan - pile rug Tools Thak - loom Tak - wooden beater Meyn - thread heald Neynyuk - heald rod Urlu - shed stick Puri - pirn Shill - lease rod Czsikpa - two wooden pieces to hold cloth Chetakh - back strap 1. Detail showing the pile surface of a tsug-dul. 2. The reverse of a tsug-dul, the weaving technique and sewn joints of the narrow widths clearly visible. 3. A tsug-dul made from white sheep wool and dyed acrylic, Kharnaling. 4. A tsug-gdan in natural colour wool and yak hair, with a mentokh motif in the centre. 5. Wrapping the weft of a tsugdul on a metal rod from between the raised warp ends. The shed stick is called tak and also works as a beater. 6. A tsug-gdan with medallions and an interlocking border. 7. A weaver`s house in Kharnaling, the tsug-dul forming the primary seating. Tsug-Dul and Tsug-Gdan and woollen pile rugs made of narrow woven strips that are sewn together. The strips are individually woven on sked-thags, back strap looms using a technique called loop pile structure; the pile is then cut to give it a shaggy edge. The tsug-dul, usually made of six strips, is used as a blanket while the tsug-gdan that is made of three strips is spread along the walls of the rooms and kitchens of Ladakhi houses and is also used as additional floor coverings during ceremonies and feasts. Both types of rugs are made of natural wool - chiefly sheep wool but also yak wool and goat hair - accented with coloured acryllic (as in the tsug-dul) or motifs (as in the tsug-gdan). The colours selected greatly resemble those seen in the painted wood work and ritual installations seen at the monasteries. The tsug-dul is composed of a border around a field. At the centre may be flower like medallions called mentokh. Some fields have a chequered pattern called cholo. The borders of interlocking forms are said to have been derived from the rgya-nag lcags-ri, the Great Wall of China. Inset : Detail of a tsug-gdan

CHALLI - WOOLLEN TEXTILES


Challi is a coarse woollen cloth wooven in strips by men on a fixed heddle ground loom. Khullu, (yak hair) and raal (goat hair) are used and it is their respective natural colouration (deep brown, white, light brown) that creates the striped pattern in the warp charecteristic of the challi. The fabric is always woven in one material that is used as the weft while the other is selectively used in the warp to create the pattern. Strips having the same repeat pattern are joined to make saddlebags, nugal or changdur (grain carriers), phatsa (storage bags), taltan (rugs) and blankets that are placed as a secondary layer over the tsug-dul in winters. By varying the number of strips attached, the striped patterns are altered by every weaver to create a specific combination that would act as his `brand`, thus ensuring that the owner of the saddlebag could be identified by the particular variation of stripes on it. This practice originates from earlier times when journeys for trade were made on pack animals and bags could be easily mixed up during stoppages. There are three kinds of saddlebags; small bags for sheep and goats, and larger bags to be loaded on horses and yaks. Inset : A saddlebag used for carrying grain on horseback. Production Clusters Ladakh Leh district: Changtang Valley Products Blankets, Rugs Storage bags Saddle bags Tools Ground loom Shuttle, Spindle Needle, Scissors

1. Detail of challi made of yak hair. The weave used is known as the dog-teeth design. 2. The reverse of a challi, the strip woven sections stitched together. 3. A large storage bag woven by women who use fine sheep wool and dyed yarns in their weaving.

HAND-SPINNING

Hand-Spinning is practiced extensively in every Ladakhi household by both the men and the woven. The women use the phang - a spindle usually made of willow that is supported by a bowl made from apricot kernel - to spin soft yarn such as pashmina and sheep wool. The drop spindle used by the men is known as haa and is used for spinning coarser goat hair called raal. The type of spindle used by men allows them to spin while they walk; the phang, on the other hand, requires a surface to rest on and consequently while Inset : A detail showing the the men may be seen spinning while going about phang being supported their daily chores, spinning for the women appears to against apricot bowl. be more of a congregational activity performed amidst much chatter. The extremely soft pashmina 1. The haa, a spindle wool is obtained from the inner coat of the Changra used by men to spin goats found predominantly in the Changtang region coarse goat hair. and is a highly valued commodity sold to the 2. An old woman at Kashmiri shawl includes the extablishment of a Khamaling spinning Changra goat-rearing farm at Upshi near Leh; a wool with the phang. department supporting pashmina weaving by women at the Ladakh Environmental Health Organisation at Chushot and the setting up of a facilities for dehairing, spinning and weaving at the Handicrafts Centre at Leh.

Product Clusters Leh district: Changtang Valley Leh town Products Pile rugs Garments Footwear Yarn Shawls Blankets Saddlebag Slings Rugs Tents Tools Phang - spindle used by women Haa - spindle used by men Hand cards Tal - special comb 1. A braided sling made of yak hair and sheep wool, an object made by most Ladakhi men.

PAABU - STITCHED BOOTS


Product Clusters Leh district: Nubra Valley Choglamasar Changtang Valley Products Paabu Kir-paabu Thigma-paabu Boots worn by monks during ritual dances Tools Needle Paabu are the colourful knee length boots commonly worn in Ladakh. Made from wool, cloth and felt using a combination of techniquest - stitching, coiling, appilque and braiding - these sturdy boots are constructed in three parts; the sole, the shoe uppers and the knee cover. Felted woollen cloth with appliqued patterns in different colours is attached to the rim of the shoe to give it its height. The paabu are extremely warm and are especially suitable for Ladakh`s high altitude climate and low temperatures as they protect the wearer against frostbite. The nomads of the Changtang Valley make paabu that incorporate strips of leather and nambu, handwoven woollen cloth, in their construction. These boots are flat-toed and are decorated with embroidery at the joineries. The kir-paabu made in the Nubra region are another variation; they use handspun goat hair and sheep wool and are usually round-toed and worn by the women. Another type which is pointed at the toe is worn by the women and is known as thigma-paabu after the thigma (tie-resist-dyed wool) fabric used in its construction.

Detail of braiding on the top edge of the shoe upper.

A slip-on paabu, its design incorporating a strip of tieresist dyed fabric. These square toed paabu constructed of wool or cotton yarns and decorated with brocade pieces are worn by the monks during sacred dances. Paabu from Changtang made of leather and woven strips joined together with embroidery.

THIGMA - TIERESIST-DYEING
Production Clusters Sabu Nubra Valley Products Skerekh - belt Nambus - panels for garments Narrow belt Tools Thread Cord 1. Detail of a garment composed of tiedyed woollen strips. 2. A woollen belt or skerekh, tiedyed in synthetic dyes. 3. Detail of tie dyed thitoo, do and tassels. Thigma, the local term for resist-dyeing on woollen cloth, is a A thigma-paabu ornamented with tie-resist-dyed cloth. derivative of the word thitoo, dot. Practiced larged in the Nubra Valley, this technique involves pinching parts of the cloth and tightly binding them with thread. The cloth is then dyed in natural colours made of apple bark and onion peels (for light browns), soot (for light grey), a root known as chutza (for yellow) and a root called chzot (for pink). The cloth is washed and rinsed in water. When the ties are finally removed, they reveal a pattern created by the folds of the cloth. Usually only narrow strips of woollen fabric are tie-resist-dyed. Strips two inches wide are used in the thigma-paabu (boots with a tie-resistdyed panel); the skerekh, belt requires strips that are three inches wide while nambu panels (used in costumes) are still wider.

METAL WORK
Copper and brass are used extensively in Ladakh to make a variety of objects such as prayer-wheels, religious artifacts, musical instruments, teapots, chang pots, lamps, whisk handles, spoons, bowls and butter lamps used in Buddhist rituals. The objects are formed by beating metal into the desired shape and engraving decorative patterns onto the surface or creating patterns through repusse work. The objects may be further embellished with silver. The motifs commonly created include two dragons facing each other, floral patterns similar to those seen on Ladakhi caps and brocaded cloth, the interlocking pattern known as the rgya-nag lcags-ri that is used in carpet borders and on the edges of socks; and the yumdumlagyut which is present in prayer room decorations. Due to the growing sales of utensils and objects from Delhi the demand for these handcrafted products in Ladakh, has plummeted, thus threatening the craft with rapid extinction. Product Clusters Leh district: Chilling Products Prayer wheels Butter lamps Utensils Containers Musical Instruments Tea pots Chang pots Lamps Handles of whisks Spoons Bowls Agricultural implements Locks Tools Tongs Hammers Pliers Scissors Fine chisels Needles

1. A brass doorknob with intertwined dragons from the Hemis Monastery. The handle is made of braided strips of coloured cloth. 2. The traditional latch seen in most monasteries on all doors. 3. Prayer wheels; hollow drums made of metal sheets on which sacred mantras are made in repousse. 4. Detail of a dragon motif created in repousse work.

5. A tubular scroll container, its entire surface worked in repousse. 6. Large metal vessels commonly used in traditional Ladakhi households, seen here stacked on a kitchen shelf. 7. An artisan holding out a semifinished chang pot. 8. Various tools used in metal work.

WOOD CARVING
Production Clusters Leh district: Wanla Choglamasar Products Choktse - folding tables Fehpur - wooden pot Gurgur - tea mixing pot Larger tables Cupboards Ritual bowls Cup with lids Printing blocks Tools Zagham - tool box Kopsack - sandpaper Jandar - sharpening tool Chisels Saw Measuring tape Gouges Elaborately carved wooden features as An unfinished panel, at a workshop in Wanla, demonstrating the stages of doors, lintels, windows, beams, furniture carving. The tools laid out above the panel have been designed by the craftsmen. and plaques in homes and monasteries are an essential element of the Ladakhi built environment. The distinctive feature of the wood work is the prominence accorded to the forms carved in relief. Pear, walnut, teak and malchang woods are used as they facilitate easy carving and well finished surfaces. Most households can afford only a few

1. plaques or furniture pieces; the primary patrons of the craft of the monasteries which commission large architectural members. Most of the carved forms have religious symbolism. Commonly used motifs include the dragon, the mythical Garuda, the snow lion, the eight auspicious symbols of the Buddha, lotus, clouds, mountain and the interlocking swastika border. 2. Finely carved traditional wooden beams and joints. 3. One of the mythical evil spirits on a carved plaque. 4. The snow lion carved in a low relief on a wood panel intended for a monastery. 5. The entrance to the prayer hall of the Thiksey Monastery.

PAINTED WOOD
In the dry, desolate and monochromatic landscape of Ladakh, the colourful clothes, dwelling and possessions of the inhabitants are perhaps the only visual relief. The painted wood work contributes significantly to the escape from a severe environment. painted blue, but the outline of the cloud will be a tint closer to the white while the inner most part of the cloud is a shade nearer to the black. The methods of painting different items vary. For example, wooden tables are painted in layers thus allowing a number of colour tones to be simultaneously visible. Inset : The endless knot, one of the eight auspicious symbols painted on a cupboard. 1. An elaborately painted screen at the monastery at Thiksey. 2. The painted walls and lintels of the courtyard at the Lamayuru monastery. Production Clusters Leh Products Choktse - folding tables Window frames Furniture panels Architectural panels Giant drums Prayer wheels Tools Paintbrushes

A variety of objects such as ritual artifacts, musical instruments, furniture as well as structural elements of the local houses and monasteries are embellished with this. Only eight or so colours are used and these are mixed together in a variety of permutations and combinations to create a rich palette that contains 48 colours. There is a specific code which governs the selection of colours for a particular context. For instance, clouds are always

BASKETRY
Chipkiang is a local grass that grows all over Ladakh, especially in areas along the River Indus where the soil is especially fertile. Chipkiang is crafted into backpack like baskets and matting for use in homes by villagers during breaks from their daily chores and the hectic farming season. The baskets are made into two basic sizes; the smaller one is used for carrying vegetables while the larger one known as tsepo is used for carrying heavier and larger loads. The basket has two components: the basic skeleton of the basket formed by two sturdy branches of salchang, willow, bent at right angles, and the body of the basket that is made from grass stalks, and is woven in the weft twining technique. The grass is softened by soaking it in water for two weeks. A set of stems of equal thickness are then selected. Two of these pairs are placed at right angles and a pair of grass stalks is twined around the veritcal stalks of the circular form as well as the willow branches. The rim of the basket is finished by braiding the loose ends of the grass at the open end of the basket. The basket is allowed to dry in the sun for about a month as the grass remains wet. Product Clusters Ladakh: Kargil Bod Kharbu Lamayuru Saspol Nimmo Chushot Products Tsepo - backpack baskets The tsepo with its characteristic square rim and curved base.

Districts - 12 Craftspersons - 0.58 Lakhs Languages Jangram Kinnauri Pahari Shumcho Mandiali Kulavi Kehluri Hinduri Chambeali Sirmauri Miahasvi Pangwali Kanashi Bauria Festivals Kullu Dussehra Lavi Fair (Rampur) Shivratri (Mandi) Manimahesh Yatra (Bharmour) Minjar (Chamba) Renuka Fair (Nahan) Gaddi Fair Landmarks Norbulingka Institute Museum of Kangra Art Kunal Pathri Kangra Fort Jwalamukhi Temple Akhand Chandi Palace Rang Mahal Lakshmi Narayan Temple Chamunda Temple Bhuri Singh Museum Viceregal Lodge Christ Church

The town of Chamba, situated on the banks of River Ravi.

CRAFTS HIMACHAL PRADESH Lost wax metal casting Silver jewellery Chamba paintings Ebroidery on leather Chamba rumal embroidery Thangka painting Thangka applique Metal work Wood work of Dharamsala Basketry Doll making Sheet metal craft Kullu shawls Pula chappal footwear Knitted socks Horsehair bangles Pottery

The state`s terrain rises from the foothills of the Shivaliks bordering the plains of Punjab and extends westward to the alpine zone of the Zanskar Range adjoining Ladakh and Tibet. Amit these mountains vistas is the historic town oc Chamba, the lush meadows of the Kullu Valley, the undulating expanses of tea gardens and apple orchards of the Kangra Valley and the green pastures of Kinnaur in the east.

Unlike the verdant landscapes of these valleys, the districts of Lahaul and Spiti are barren lands of rocky crags dependent upon glacial melts for their water supply. The Pahari, hill state, is inhabited primarily by an agrarian community where many derive their income from sheep, goats and cattle and 90% of the population lives in small slate roofed tw-storey houses perched over terraced fields and mountain slopes in self contained villages and small towns. The ethos of this hilly region, intrisically defined by its geographic and climatic conditions, is perhaps

best encapsulated in its name - Himachal, literally the `Snow Mountain`. While most of the local people are Hindus, the state is also inhabited by a sizeable number of Buddhists (especially in Dharamsala, Lahaul and Spiti) and various pastoral communities like the Gaddis who rear sheep and goat, the Gujjars who rear buffalo, and Kinnauris - all of whom live in various parts of Himachal Pradesh and have distinct cultural identities. This eclectic social structure is reflective of the province`s close ties with cultures outside its domain - with that of Ladakh and Tibet on one hand and the plains on the other. Furthermore, many areas of Himachal Pradesh were used as `hill station` or summer retreats by the British during the colonial period; numerous colonial buildings are still extant. The Viceregal Lodge at Shimla is an English Renaissance style building constructed in 1888 as the summer residence for the viceroys of India and the Gothic style Christ Church is renown for the fresco around its chancel window which was painted by Lockwood Kipling, Rudyard Kipling`s father. Inset : A rock shrine at the Norbulingka Institute in Dharamsala.

1. A detail of the carved wooden ceiling of the Chamunda Devi Temple, dedicated to the wrathful form of the goddess Durga. 2. The shikara, cruved stone tower above th inner sanctum, is given a peculiar local accent at the Lakshmi Narayan Temple Complex through the use of wooden umbrella-like chhatri that function as snowshields.

Opposite page, below Much of the local economy centres around sheep the cold climate necessitates the use of woolen garmets, and the cottage industries of spinning and weaving have been harnessed by a rapidly expanding woollen handloom industry, which also caters to urban and export markets.

Attire Topa - peaked hat Chola - woollen knee length coat Cholu - woollen gown Dora - sheep wool be Pattu - woollen wrap Kullu shawl Angarakha - double breasted woollen coat Joji - cap with tail Thepang - woollen coat Cuisine Nasasta - sweetmeat Indra - preparation of urad dal, split black lentils Poldu - lentil cutlets Cha - salted tea

3 A Kullu woman wearing the traditional handwoven woollen known as pattu. 4 Three Kullu women make their way to one of Himachal Pradesh`s numerous religious fairs. 5 A bride from Kinnaur laden with profusion of the customery silver ornaments. 6 Cobs of corn, the staple crop of Himachal Pradesh, seen drying on the rooftops of houses in Kullu. 7 The houses in the Kullu region are usually slate roofed structures built of clay bricks or stone and embellished with carved wood elements. Most buildings are two-storey; the ground floor is used for the cattle or for storing logs of wood and the upper floor is used as the living area.

Crafts of CHAMBA Lost wax casting Silver jewellery Chamba painting Embroidery on leather Chamba rumal Subclusters of CHAMBA Chamba district: Chamba Barmour

RESOURCES Craft Lost was metal casting Silver jewellery Chamba painting Embroidery on leather Chamba rumal Raw Materials Silver, Brass Silver Handmade paper, Pigment colours Leather, Felt, Zari, Thread Mulmul, Fine khaddar, Silk threads Sources Chamba Chamba Sanganer, Rajasthan Jalandhar, Punjab, Maharashtra, Kolkata Chamba, Bharmour

Situated on a mountain ledge overlooking the River Ravi, the town of Chamba was established in the 10th century when Raja Sahil Varman relocated his capital from the neighbouring Bharmour region, now the homeland of semi-nomadic shepherding Gaddis. The city is believed to have been named after the king`s favourite daughter, Champavati, who legend says, sacrificed herself to provide water to the parched city. To this day. women and children sing her praises in the town temples on the occasion of the annual Sui festival. The ornament carving of the Laxhmi Narayan Temple Complex, the Chamunda temple and the Madho Rai Temple provide ample testament of the consistent art patronage provided by Raja Sahil Varman and his successors. The hill state was rulded by a single dynasty in continuous series of accessions and consequently, it enjoyed a remarkably stable political environment in which the arts could be actively cultivated by the rulers. In the mid 18th century, a number of artists fleeing religious persecution were given refuge in the Pahari states; notable among the courts in which these artists found avid patrons was that of Raja Umed Singh of Chamba. ACCESS Chamba is connected with Pathankot (80 km), which is connected with Jammu, Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai. It may be accessed by road via Shimla, Delhi, Manali, Dharamsala and Jammu. Gaggal airport, ten km from Kangra town, on the Pathankot Manali highway operates flights to Delhi, Shimla and Chandigarh. 3 A local craftsman sculpts a beeswax model preparation for the later bronze casting through the lost wax process. 4 A silversmith creates ring-like forms while minting the flame by blowing through a hollow metal tube with carved edges.

1 An intricately carved stone idol depicted in the tribhanga mudra posture at the Shiv Shakti Mata Temple. Tribhanga, thrice-bent, Krishna`s post in which he is bent 3 times - at the waist, neck and head, with one leg crossed over the other, while playing the flute. 2 A brass idol of a deity from Chamba, her ornamental regalia, crown and umbrella made in sheet metal.

LOST WAX METAL CASTING


Product Clusters Chamba Products Mohra - votive masks Idols Figurines Bells Tools Soldering iron Sandpaper Buffing machines The tradition of lost wax bronze casting is believed to have been brought to Chamba by immigrant Kashmiri artisans who found patronage at the courts of the Pahari Kings; the antique metal statues enshrined at a number of temples in the region (among them the Lakshmi Narayan Temple, teh temple of Bansi Gopal and the Hari Rai Temple in Chamba) suggest that these craftsmen specialized in making idols. Over time, the Kashmiri idiom, which these craftsmen were trained in, was infused with some local stylistic elements and a number of metal works.

SILVER JEWELLERY
PAHARI WOMEN ARE ususally bedecked with an assortment of heavy silver ornaments made of shee metal and wire manipulations. The choice of the adornment and the attire together indicae the wearer`s occupation,martial status and community of origin. In adddition to displaying a specific sociocultural positiond, jewellery is also an economic investment for rural women. The head,ears and forehead are the primary focus of jeweller; thus leading to the creation of a plethora of regional variations. The chiri tikka, sirka chamkuli, daman or daoni tilak and chak are flat pieces of silver (either enamelled or embedded with pearls)that are worn suspended on the crown,secured with chains that hang along the hairline on both sides. The nose ornaments nath or balu and the septum ornaments bulak or kundu that are worn exclusively by married women are usually highly intricate. Neck ornaments range from the torque- like sira or hansli to the small pendants or the toke. There also exist many distinct bead necklaces-kamrakhi mala, dodmala, jau mala, dar mala where numerous chains made of beads of various shapes and forms are linked together by silver plaques. Of these, the chandan haar or chandrasani haar, constructed of five or seven rows of facetted gold beads, is perhaps the most popular. 1. The chandrahaar, an elaborate necklace of several large and small die-stamped pendants linked together by odd-numbered chains. The central pendant is enamelled in blue and green, the colours favoured in the kangra valley, augmented with numerous goli,silver open beads or peepal patta,leaf form. 2. A champakali necklace with magnolia-budlike pieces: the forms of Pahari jewellery are usually derived from natural forms such as seeds, flowers and leaves,peacock, snakes,peepal leaves and the cresent moon. 3. Tassels are used extensively as an ornamental element in the jutti and beshtar that are worn in the hair. 4. Silver amulets are considered to have the power to ward off evil spirits and are worn by men, women and children; shown here is the centrepiece of an amulet with hanging silver tassels called surghundi or sumbala. 5. Laung, a gold nose-ring, fitted with a coloured stone and ornamented with encrusted metal from the Lower Himalayas where, unlike the villages of the interiors in which silver ornaments are more common, there is a marked preference for gold. 6. Two klenti, the tools used to measure the diameter of rings.

Tools Sansi - tweezer Katira - pliers Jamoor - cutter Klenti - ring die Hathoda - hammer Blow pipe

Production Clusters Chamba district: Maila village Sultanpur Chamba town Chaugan Bazaar Mandi town: Moti Bazaar Kangra town Kullu Kinnaur Shimla district: Rohru town: Sunarion ka gaon Products Necklaces: Dodmala - beaded necklace Champakali Chandanhaar Sabi-lockets inset with a painted miniature icon Chandrahaar - necklace of silver coins with an enamelled pendant Gal pattu - Choker Jaumala - silver beaded necklace Earrings: Karanphool Jhumku Nose-rings: Laung-large stud Balu-large nose ring Bulak-circular nosering Bangles: Kangnu-bangles with elephant-head knob endings Silver bracelets Bajuband-arm bands Paijeb - anklets Kamarbandh-waist bands

cummerbund; the torna(backgroun) is embellished in the Pahari style as are the goddesses with long tapering eyes draped in sari,the chou(pleats) of which are executed with great care. The metal used is usually an alloy of brass with 65%copper and 35% zinc. Silver is also included in the casting in a proportion of 10gm of silver to 1 gm of copper; it is also occasionally used to inlay a figurine`s eyes. 1 A modhra made in the Pahari style. 2 A brass mohra, mask of a deity, made in the Kashmiri style.

CHAMBA RUMAL
Althought PRACTICED THROUGHOUT the region that comprises erstwhile princely hill states, the craft has come to be associated specifically with Chamba owing to the patronage afforded it by rulers of the area as well as to the quality of the local craftmanship. Traditionally,the Chamba rumals were silk embroidered square pieces of handspun and handwoven unbleached mulmul,fine cloth that were used to cover dishes of food,gifts to significant persons and offerings to a deity, or exchanged between the families of the bribe and the groom as a token of gooddwill. The embroidery was done in a double satin stitch technique known as dorukha, which ensured an exact replication of image on the reverse of the fabrics.Although practiced by women from all strata of Pahari society,the embroidery style developed by the women of the upper classes and the royalty has now come to be exclusively related to the craft.Both the folk and the court styles usually rendered the popular themes of the Raaslila, Raasmandal (depiction of dance in relation to krishna and devotees), Ashtanayika ( a depiction of various types of heroines in their distinctive moods and environments),hunts and chaupad,dice game; the styles and colour schemes, however, were vastly different. The folk style made generous In the depiction of the Raaslila, Krishna multiplies himself in order to dance with four use of brilliant colours including pink, lemon yellow,purple and of his devotees, the gopis, while Vishnu witnesses the scene from his seat on a lotus. green while the court form evolved a more sophisticated colour palette that consisted of pale shades of ochre,dark green and blue. The court style reflects the popular pastimes of Pahari men and women from royal and noble families through the addition of details such as the smoking of the hookah, women shown talking to parrots, playing with a ball or dice or listening to music. It also derived its compositions, border motifs and floral ornamentation from the wall paintings of the Rang Mahal of chamba and the Pahari miniature tradition. Often, trained mininature painters from the courts were called in to draw the compositions onto the fabric and to provide colour schemes. It is due to this close relationship with the painting tradition that the Chamba rumals have beeb called `paintings in embroidery`.In recent years, artisans have been encouraged to reproduce earlier masterpieces in order to sustain the craft. Simultaneously,efforts have also been made to diversify the craft products to include a wider range of items such as caps,hand fans, blouses and bedspreads. 1. The deity Lakshmi Narayan sits in the central quadrangle of a game of chaupad as three male figures sit in the four corners of the composition with sets of dice laid out before them. The dense stitching is believed to be based on the bagh embroideries of Punjab. 2. Godhuli, literally the`hour of cowdust`,depicts Krishna and his cowherd friends bringing the cows back at dusk.

Radha and Krishna are seated in the upper floor of the pavilion; the musicians, ladiesin-waiting and strolling peacocks in the garden reflect what was the lifestyle of the court. Production Clusters Chamba district; Chamba town Products Rumal-square cloth Pankhi - handfans Blouses Bedspreads Wall hangings Dice boards Cushion covers Caps Tools Dyed untwisted silk thread Needle Marking Chalk

CHAMBA PAINTING
A PARTICULAR STYLE OF miniature painting was initiated in the 17th to the 19th centuries in the Himalayan hill states and eventually this regional idiom came to be known as the Pahari kalam,i.e. the paintings from the Pahari or hilly regions. Although it originated as a folk art form in Basohli, the tasvir, paintings,were gradually refined, as the style spread to other neighbouring regions and begab to receive court patronage. This development was given a discernible impetus when many artists affiliated to the Mughal court gradually migrated to the kingdoms of Nurpur, Chamba, Basohli,Guler,Kangra,Mandi, Kullu and Bilaspur seeking sympathetic patronage after the fall of Delhi in 1739 to the Persian ruler Nadir Shah and the collapse of the Imperial Power. Chatrere, the painters, used mineral or stone colours and painted on absorbent handmade paper;on completion , the paintings were burnished by rubbing the back of the painting with an agate stone. While the Basohli style was characterized by a flat use of bold, intense colour and the detailing of the crowns and jewels with cut beetle wings, the later styles (most notably Guler,Chamba and kangra) may be distinguished by their elegant rhythmic figures, idealized female form and subtle handling of colouring. The main themes that found pictorial representation in the Pahari kalam were epics like Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagvata Purana, episodes from the lives of Radha and Krishna inspired by Jayadeva Gita Govinda and the tale of NalaDamayantid.Althought all of these paintings have religious and spiritual undertones, the compositions also represented the mundane, everyday activities and emotions of the protagonists of these narratives, often using elements of the Pahari landscape as metaphors. For instance, a bereft Krishna pining for Radha would be depicted seated under a weeping willow, the stoop of its branches corresponding with his bowed head, as a dove circles the dark skies looking for its mate. Often, the narratives are contextualized within the environment of the hills; the fortifications and city structure of the Pahari kingdoms and the local landscape and flora - especially huge leafy trees, pointed cypresses, gently flowing rivers and dark lighting pierced clouds-form the backdrop for many an episode. Production Clusters Chamba district: Chamba town Products Paintings Tools Conch shells Brushes Burnishing stones 1. An episode from the Gita Govinda depicting Krishna and Radha`s tryst in the forest;the lush idyllic landscape of the region acting as a backdrop for the romantic scence. 2. A depiction fo Goddess Saraswati. 3. An incomplete rendering of the episode of Krishna Govardhana; the faces and ornaments are painted last.

EMBROIDDERY ON LEATHER
ACCORDING TO A local myth, leather shoes were introduced dto the grass-shoe-wearing Chamba Valley by a Kangra princess who married into the royal family of Chamba and brought along a cobbler family as part of her dowry. Even to this day, families of cobblers make this now famous chappal, slippers of embroidered leather. The Chappal is constructed with sheep or goat leather or calfskin, by the male members of this A detail of tilla and resham embroidered felt (panna). An upper embroidered with an ari, hooked needle. community while the women embroider elaborate felt uppers that are mounted on the leather chappal. A form of chain stitch embroidery done with a hooked needle, known as the Chamba kadhai, is utilizedd to create stylized lantana flowers and leaves; these are usually embroidered in resham,silk threads,while russitilla, synthetic zari threads, are utilized to further accentuate the resham embroided forms. The colour palette generally consists of shades of pink, deep green, red, sky blue and yellow, executed on a background of black or maroon. Production Clusters Chamba district: Chamba Town Products Chappal - slippers Belts Tools Various hammer Scissors, Pliers Jumoor-to remove mails Screwdriver Gulsome-punch Sil-stone

Crafts of Kangra Thangka painting Thangka applique Carpet weaving Lost wax metal casting Sheet metal work Silver jewellery Wood carving Wood Work of Dharamsala Subclusters of Kangra Kangra district: Kangra Dharamsala Palampur

RESOURCES Craft Raw Materials Thangka Painting Silk Fabric Paints Silk Fabric, Threads, Thangka Applique Horsehair Woollen yarn, Cotton Tibetan carpet yarn Sheet metal work Copper Sheets Metal Casting Brass Wood work of Wood-khair, chilpine Dharamsala and other soft woods

Sources Delhi Delhi Ludhiana Kangra Kangra Pathankot, Punjab

1. Lush tea gardens at Palampur. 2. A thangka painter is Dharamsala; the adjustable frame allows the painter to bring the canvas close to paint details. 3. A carpet weaver in Mcleod Gunj, Dharamsala. 4. A Tibetan sacred symbol printed on a door hanging. 5. A master idol maker at his workbench in Dharamsala.

SITUATED AT THE confluence of the Banganga and Manjhi streams with the magnificent Dhauladhar Range as its backdrop is Kangra- a valley of lush green terraced fields,majestic deodar trees, tea gardens, pine forests, apple orchards and anicent Hindu temples. The town of Kangra, earlier known as Nagarkot,was once the capital of this valley region. In 1620, Kangra and its fort were captured of the Mughal Emperor Jehangir who built a secondary fort and named it Nurpur after his wife Noorjahan. Wven after it became a Mughal province, Kangra continued to enjoy its previous feudal splendour and during the 18th century, the unstinted patronage of the ruler Raja Sansar Chand Katoch which led to a flourishing miniature painting tradition. In addition to the extremely idealized femal form and the lyrical lines of the drawing, the Kangra paintings are also characterized by their romantic themes, most notably that of the Gita Govinda and its depictions of the romance of Radha and Krishna.These paintings, set in the idyllic Kangra landscape, are said to have been specially commissioned by the king in order to express his devotion for th eGaddi maiden he had fallen in love with. The once formidable Kangra Fort is now a picturesque ruin but within the fort`s compound are two well known temples, dedicated to the local goddesses, Ambika Devi and Lakshmi Narayan. Southwest of Kangra lies the jwalamukhi Temple, an important pilgrimage site, and towards the east are the tea gardens of Palampur and the fortress of Sujanpur-Tira, once the favoured residence of Raja Sansar Chand and the venue of some exquisite wall paintings that are still extant. Dharamsala, a hill station established by the British in the mid-19th century is today the district headquarters and home of the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan Government -in-Exile. Its monasteries, craft centres and performing arts school ensure the continuation of Tibet`s distinctive culture and region. ACCESS Gaggal airport is 13 km from kangra and 50 km from Palampur. The nearest broad gauge railhead is Pathankot (90km) and a narrow gauge railway line running between Pathankot and jogindernagar is linkded by roads. Dharamsala is well connected via road to the nearest rail head, Pathankot (Punjab).

THANGKA PAINTING
THANGKA ARE PAINTINGS on cloth that depict the sku rten, the bodily forms of enlightened beings, or the diagrammatic mandala, the `sacred circle`, symbolizing the spiritual embodiment of the Buddha and the stages of spiritual realization. The figurative paintings either place the deities within a narrative by depicting episodes from their lives (for instance, portraying the twelve great deeds of the Sakyamuni Buddha or events from the past lives of the Buddha as discribed in the Jataka tales) or by portraying aspects of Buddha`s nature as a sentient being. For example, the deity Awalokiteshwara is the embodiment of wisdom and compassion. In the latter type, the selection of a particular deity for portrayal is usually linked with the effects desired by the person commissioning the thangka. Thus, thangka of goddess Tara are in demand for her ability to remove obstacles and grant protection while thangka of Amitayus are commissioned by those hoping he will bestow them with long life. Hung in monasteries,shops and homes ,thangka may be commsioned to bring well-being and health, toward off the evil eye, to ensure a happy rebirth or for use as a meditational aid;their widespreas preasence makes them a significant element of the Buddhist visual culture. The paintings are usually executed on coarse cotton cloth using mineral colours;silk is reserved for the painting of important subjects. The painters receive training at the monasteries and are expected to follow strict dictums regarding the rendering and proportion of the forms, the geometry of the composition and the colour schemes. Inset A detail of a purnakalash , the port symbolizing fertility and prosperity. Production Clusters Kangra district: Dharamsala Kinnaur district Lahaul and Spiti district Products Thanaka paintings Tools Rkyang shingwooden frame Brushes Bamboo splints

A thangka depicting the goddess known as `White Tara` who is believed to remove obstacles and grant protection to the devotees.

DRASD-DRUB-MA-APPLIQUE THANGKA
Production Clusters Kangra District: Dharamsala Products Thangka Cushion covers Bed Covers Curtains Tents Carbon paper Carbon paper Tracing paper Addhesive, Scissors Needles, Pins

A VARIATION OF the painted thangka, dras-drub-ma, the applique thangka is a scroll-like installation on which Budddhist imagery is constructed by stitching coloured pieces of fabric onto a base cloth . Various sections of the image are produced separately, then dovetailed and fastened onto a backgroundd material to form the whole figure. The Fabric pieces may be placed side by side or overlapped to lend the representation a greater degree of dimension. Tshen-drub-ma, embroiedery, is also often used to embellish or detail the image and in some cases the thangka may even be complete worked with stitches. The direction of sewing, the ply of the silk thread, the tension or lack of a stitch, and the capacity of the embroidery to form patterns are all used to create visual interest and variety. Both , the fabric preparation and the thread work, are done exclusively by men and the artists undergo a periodd of apprenticeship under a master before they are allowed to practice independently. 1 Individdual parts such as 2 A detail of flowers,leaves,flames or hands are an applique outlined with a piping that is couched thangk down onto the shaped parts. The piping is representing a made by winding silk yarn around a horse Buddhist hair or cord. This traditional thus outlined deity. are appliqued with the same silk thread 3 Pieces of that is used for the piping is made by hair brocade are or cord.This traditional process is time stitched consuming, as every piping is made together to according to the proposal thangka.The create alarge parts thus outlined are appliqued with the same silk thread that is used for the piping.

METAL WORK
AT THE NORBULINGKA Institute, set up in Dharamsala for the preservation of Tibet`s cultural traditions, a centre has been established to provide training in the art of both sheet metal and metal casting; it is the combined use of these techniques that distinguishes Tibetan metal work. The training received by the craftsmen includes the development and refinement of drawing skills and a knowledge of the proportion system and measurements laid down in canonical texts. The skills of the craftsmen are usually directed towards making statues and relief panels tha t serve the ritual and spiritual requirements of the monastery. A punch is used to create the rlief of the desired image in repousse on bronze sheets while the chasing technique is utilized to form the details. The punches used to sculpt the metal sheets are custom made by beating hot metal iron rods into any desired shape. The embossed sheets are cleaned and polished and are usually used as ornamental bases around the statue`s framework. Occasionally, the sheets are formed into containers or ritual implements. Statues and ritual artefacts are mostly made in bronze through the lost wax process.

Production Clusters Kangra district: Dharamsala Products Idols Relief panels Ritual objects Bells Utensils Tools Chisels Files Punches Hammer

A range of statues are made to cater to a variety of requirementslarge statues are made for the monasteries while smaller statues are made for sale to individuals. The large statues are made as individual cast parts that are eventually joined by soldering or brazing. The statue is fininshed through the mercury gilding process, usually executed under the supervision of a master craftsman. The occasional addition of inlaid precious stones to the bronze statue is motivated by the belief that the statue`s spiritual presence is increased by the value of the material used.

1a,1b The representation of the deities are expected to follow the sacredd proportions prescribed in the cononical text known as the Tengyur. 2 During the consecration ceremony, the master craftsman ritually brings the image to life by painting the eyes and lips. 3 Details of the Deity`s ornamentation such as the necklace and armlets are engraved in sheet metal and soldered onto the cast statue.

4 A craftsman drawing the outline of an image. 5 The individual parts of a figurine cast separately in the lost wax process. 6 After the form has been created through repousse, the details of the form are engraved or chased on the frontal side of the metal sheet.

WOOD WORK OF DHARAMSALA


Production Clusters Kangra district: Dharamsala Products Architectural elements Cupborads Statues Altars Picture frames Boxes Musical Instruments Tools Bah-Bamboo fret saw Wooden mallet Jamdar - sharpening stone Chisels Gouges Metal pointer Calipers Template Files Sandpaper

REFERENCES TO THE Tibetan art of wood carving date back to the construction of the Tsulhakhang Temple at Lhasa in the 7th century AD. The site is recorded to have contained elaborately carved narrations of the story of the Boddhisattvas as well as intricately detailed wooden tea bowls, carved windows, shrines and thrones. The wood that are usually used are the khari, chilpine and other softwoods; the selection of the wood to be used is based on its plasticity, ease in carving and durability.

A traditional bamboo fret saw known as the bah is used to remove wood along the drawn pattern to facilitate the second stage of the carving process which is the creation of an intricate fretwork. The Carving tools are made by the local blacksmith or by the students themselves. The finer details are later carves out using fine chisels and the object is then finished through painting, lacquering or varnishing. The paint work is sometimes undertaken by the artists from the thangka studios thus granting the carved work the distinct colour scheme and style of the thangka painters.

1. The carved and painted entrance to the Norbulingka Institute. 2. Carved wooden stands used to hold wind instruments at a monastery. 3. Craftsman carving the leg of a table. 4. Carved fretwork panel depicting a deity seated on a flower amidst a flowing trellis 5. Another intricately carved fretwork panel containing the symbol known as the dharmachakra or the sacred wheel.

Craft Sheet Brass, Silver metal work Pashmina wool, Byangi wool, Kullu Imboo wool, Desi wool, Shawl Merino wool Pula Pula grass, Dyed yarns Chappal HandDesi wool knitting HandDyed wool knitting

RESOURCES Raw Materials

Sources Punjab Ladakh, Kinnaur, Kullu, Kullu, Ludhiana Kullu Kullu Ludhiana

Crafts Kullu Basketry Doll making Sheet metal work Kullu shawl weaving Hand-knitting Pula chappal Subclusters of KULLU Kullu district: Kullu Manali Banjar Bhuntar Shimla District:

THE KULLU VALLEY situated in central Himachal Pradesh and watered by the River Beas, has long been a site of human inhabitation. Ancient Sanskrit texts refer to the valley by the title `Kulanthapith` or the end of the habitable world- an apt description when one considers that beyond the lush fields and apple orchards of Kullu lie the barren lands of rocky massifs and hanging glaciers that comprise the distict of Lahual and Spiti, the two lands separated by the Pir Panjal Range. Kullu is locally known as the `Valley of the Gods`=its alpine landscape is the gathering place for 360 deities from different temples in the Pahari region, whi congregate here during the nine days of the annual dDussehra festivities. The processions at the festival are led by the richly adorned images of Ram and Sita from the local Raghunath temple. ACCESS 10 km from kullu is the airport at Bhuntar from where taxis and buses are readily available. By road, Kullu is at a distance of 240 km from Shimla. 1. A loom in a village house; a common sight in the kullu region where weaving is a widespread cottage industry. 2. A Village blacksmith embossing brass sheets to create mohras. 3. Carpet weaver in kullu town. 4. Pula Grass is spun into rope,used to weave the pula chappal.

BASKETRY
Production Clusters Kangra District: Palampur Kullu district Chamba district Products Kullu district: Dhalara-large bamboo container Supu-winnowing instrument Changer - large circular bamboo tray Chabdi - storagde basket Chamba district: Kilta-basket Pinjara-cage Chhatroru-umbrella Binnas-cushion Chattai-mat Winnowing Fan, Tray Palampur: Kamothu-small basket krida-big basket Soop - winnowing basket Kandi - tiny basket Mandri - grass mat Tools Chaku-knives of various sizes Dhrah-splicing tool

THORUGHOUT THE STATE of Himachal Pradesh, one may see women carrying elaborately woven basket laden with apples or tea leaves on their backs. Baskets of various sizes are also used to store grains as well as cloth. These baskets are made of bamboo; locally grown grasses such as the nargal (a thin grass), toong (a thick grass found in the higher reaches of the monuntains that is used for reinforcement), chupod (a soft grass),phhagad (a hard grass);banana fibres or palm leaves, and are usually purely functional. The techniques utilized in the d construction of the basket vary according to the type of basket to be woven but are usually combinations of coiling,interlacing and plaiting. Although coloured decorative elements are occasionally added to the woven basket, the patterns achieved through weaving are essentially structural in nature. The baskets are made by professional weavers as well as by the women of Pahari households during the winter months and they are sold at the local fairs and weekly markets, the market at the kullu Dussehra Festival and during the marriage season.

1. Two varieties of grass used in the local basketry, the thick toong and the thin nargal. 2. Load-bearing baskets from KUllu made from local wood-stemmed grasses, toong and nargal. 3. A bamboo storage basket 4. The kamothu, a small basket that is made in Kullu.

A large chaku, knife.

DOLL MAKING
The Kothgarh doll is dressed in rejta, a long flowing skirt gathered at the waist, a blouse with a cut sleeves jacket and a sash of folded cloth at the waist. LIke the `Kullu doll` she wears dhatu on the head and carries a keelta adn beru,lam. The Kullu dolls attire comprises of a pattu, mid-calf length chequered dress, worn like a short sari over a pair of pyjamas. She wears a head-scarf called dhatu and carries a cane basket called keelta as a reference to the tea plantations of the district. The Pangi or wedding dolls are known as the gaddan, groom, and gaddi, bride. The bride may be recognized by the flowing veil and joiji, the small cap, perched jauntily on her head. Production Clusters Shimla town Products Kinnaur and Kullu dolls Kangra dolls Kothgarh dolls Pangi dolls Spiti & Rohru dolls

The most famous of the dolls is the one representing the traditional attire of the inhabitants of the Lahaul and Spiti district. She is dressed in a red mid-calf length full sleeved jacket made of expensive Indian velvet, decorated with thin white lace on the edges.

A DOLL CENTRE at Shimla is renowned for its production of a variety of traditionally attired dolls depicting different Pahari communities. First, a metal wire skeleton is

prepared;this is then stuffed with locally procured grass to create the doll`s body. Care is taken to ensure that the grass used is somewhat damp so that when it dries,it will retain the shape of the armature. The grass body is then clothed in miniature garments of blended fabric, and a papier-mache face and wooden base are affixed onto the doll

THATTAR KA KAAM- SHEET METAL WORK


Production Clusters Kullu district: Banjar tehsil Kullu town: Sarwari Bazaar Chamba town: Charpat Mohalla Hatnala Mohalla Kashmiri Mohalla Kangra District: Palampur Geea village Baijanath Tehsil Kangra town: Mandir Gali Kinnaur district: Pooh tehsil Spillow village Karaum Village Sonam Village Products Karnal - wind instrument Narsingha - S-shaped Trumpet Chattri - umbrella for the gods Dhol - barrel-shaped drum Nagara - kettle drum Chadi -ritual object Mohra - mask Tools Dhum hathaudahammer Chisels Files Punches Chimtas-tong THE SHEET METAL work practised in Kullu caters largely to the ceremonial requirements of the region`s temples. The chief products are mohras, the sheet metal masks depicting the various divinities worshipped locally;chattries,the umbrellas used to shield the deities when they are taken out of the temple premises in festive processions. In addition to thids prolific temple patronage, the craft also receives an impetus during the nine days of the Dussehra festival when a temporary market is set up and smaller sheet metal objects such as the brass and the silver utensils used in domestic rituals and a number of musical instruments are purchased by the devotees. This assorted range of objects is created from metal sheets on which the form is first transferred and then die-pressed or only beaten. Once the desired shape is achieved, the object is heated in a coal-fired kildn to soften it and grant it lustre. The figurative details are carved on and the artefact is polished with lemon leaves.

A chhatri for the processinal palanquins on which the gods are borne during the Dussehra

An image of a deity with two mohras, surmounted by a chhatri and bedecked with jewellery and its festive paraphernalia.

An embossed plaque depicting a local myth. KNITTED SOCKS LONG HAND- KNITTED socks made with natural sheep wool contrasted with patterns in bright acrylic yarns or black and white are made by women in villages throughout the districts of kullu and Lahaul and Spiti. Hand-knitting is a technique of fabric construction in which interlinked loops are made from a continuous yarn. Although only two needles are usually utilized for knitting, these tubular socks are knitted with four needles. The prevalence of these socks in this region is largely due to the high altitude climate, the availablity of local wool adn the low budgets required for the purchase of the basic tools and materials knitting needles and wool. The coloured stripes and geometric patterns used to enhance the natural shade of the wool resemble the border decorations of the Kullu shawl and caps.

A mohra of a local deity.

Products Socks Tools Knitting Needles

Production Clusters 1. A detail of the patterning of a knitted Kullu district sock. 2. Hand-knitted socks in natural sheep Lahaul and Spiti

wool with bold patterns in acrylic

district

PULA CHAPPAL - GRASS FOOTWEAR


LEATHER SHOES MADE OF cowhide were considered inappropriate for treading on the soil of Himachal Pradesh, regarded as the land of the gods and consequently the sacred grass of shale (cannabis or bhang) were used to make the traditional footwear of the Paharis, the pula chappal. These lightweight shoes and slippers are worn during religious ceremonies, within temple precints and to walk on snow. Dried trips of cannabis grass or buckwheat stem are converted into rope-like form and then strengthened by a process of twisting and stretching it. Five loops in increasing or decreasing size a relation to the toes are made from the prepared rope. Each rope is then tightened around the junction point of a T-shaped tool that is rotated at great speed while holding the base of its Khaitadu, stem. The body of the chappal is made by inter-twining very fine threads of grass spun on a takli, spindle. In some instances, a decorative shoe upper is created with a blanket stitch and contrasting colours of wool. A simple system of hand measures is used to make different sizes. Today, although the craft is chiefly practiced in Chad (a village near Banjar), the market for the pula chappal has spread to Rajasthan, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. Production Clusters Kullu district: Banjar Chad Village Products Chappal-footwear Tools Takli-drop spindle Khaitadu-a T-shaped spindle

Inset A craftsperson finishing a chappal. 1. A slip-on variation of the traditional pula chappal, the sole is constructed using the weft twining technique. 2. A pair of Chappal with coloured yarns stitched onto a pula grass sole

KULLU SHAWLS
THE HIGH ALTITUDE climate of Himachal Pradesh, woo from locallu reared sheep and goat, the ease of procuring high quality pashmina wool from Tibet have made weaving and spinning important domestic industries, which have now region, the textiles woven for a local consumption use pashmina and three types of indigenous wool-byangi (from the Kinnaur the lamb) and deshkar ( a coarse wool made at kullu). Merino wool is used for making commercially produced shawls and is imported from the plains, mainly from Ludhiana in Punjab.The chief products are the famous kullu shawls-the twill-woven body in the grey,off-white,fawn or brown shades of natural wool and the tapestry woven borders in multicoloured geometrical forms. These shawls are used as draped garments; those worn 1 A Kullu woman dressed in a pattu, the traditional wrapped lower garment worn in the region. 2 A detail of a Kullu Shawls` border, the swastika and other geometric forms wovens in the weftfaced tapesty. by the women are called pattu and those used by the men are called chandru. Although now associated exclusively with Kullu, the technique of combing a twill-weave base with a border of tapestry woven vegetable dyed wool originated in Kinnaur. With the migration of the Bhushahra community of Kinnaur to the Kullu valley, this technique of shawl weaving and the Tibetan inspired geometric motifs of the Kinnauri Shawls` borders were brought to kullu.The Kinnaur style has largely replaced the chequered shawls that were previously made in Kullu while the pattus worn daily still have a chequered body of black and white and a single border;those worn on festive occasions have plain bodies embellished with woven motifs that run along their length and three borders. Today, the vegetable dyed yarns have been replaced with chemically dyed acrylic yarns in bright shades of red, yellow, orange, pink, blue and green. Production Clusters Kullu district: Manali Bhuntar Nagrota Baghwan Aut Kotsanor Kullu town: Bashing Village Dobhi Village Mohal Village Mandi: Panarsa Nagwain Bilaspur District: Panthera Chamba Town: Dogra Bazaar Kinnaur Kangra Shimla Products Pattu-wrap Dhoru-blanket Shawls Mufflers Loi-blanket Caps Tools Frame treadle loom Shuttle Charkha-spinning wheel Needle

Biodiversity Flora: Sheesham Mulberry Eucalyptus Sarkanda Cotton Fauna: Camel Buffaloes Cows Physical Features Major Mountains: Kandi or Shivalik Foothills Satluj- Ghaggar plains Semi-arid south -west Major rivers: Ravi Beas Satluj Ghaggar Districts - 17 Craftspersons - 0.61 Lakhs The Green Revolution transformed the dusty arid plains of Punjab into a `bread basket`,producing more than half the country`s requirement of wheat, rice and millet. are crafted into ropes, baskets, winnows, children`s rattles and fans. Textile related skills are prerequisites for women; a girl marries and enters her new home fully equipped with bedding, clothes, utensils and furniture, much of it embroidered crocheted, knitted, sewn and woven by her. They also serve as means of integrating the community-the women of the village form gatherings known as trinjan where they spin, embroider and knit as they exchange news, sing and share their skills with others. The exceptions to this utile material culture are the phulkari and bagh embroidered textiles and cotton dhurries, which are associated with rites of passage, of birth, marriage and death. Woven silks, carpets, Chamba rumala, shawl weavier crafts, metal weaponry,gold thread embroidery and jewellery depict the cultural richness of the Sikh courts, especially during Maharaja Ranjit Singh`s reign in the 19th century. Inset A woman using a butter churner. Milk products are indispensable in the Punjabi diet. Detail of the tombs at Nakodar:Purnakalash motif The tombs at Nakodar near Jalandhar display a Punjabi-Mughal style characterized by the use of stylized geometric patterns and coloured tiles set against a brick surface. This tomb is particularly notable because of its use of the Purnakalash motif,flowering pot-an ancient symbol of fertility and prosperity frequently seen at temples and stupas throughout India.

Crafts - Punjab Phulkari and bagh embroidered textiles Panja Dhurrie Nala making Tilla juttiembroidered footwear Sarkanda work Galeecha-knotted carpets wood carving Wood inlay of Hoshiarpur Wood & lacturnery Embroidered woollen shawls Brass & Zardozi Badges Mukaish work Dyeing Khunda-Bamboo staves Cut glass work Basketry Rope making Pottery Sports goods Landmarks Qila Mubarak Aam Khas Bagh & Rauza Sahib Jagatjit Palace Kapurthala Mosque Golden Temple Jallianwala Bagh Sanjha Chulha Sanghol Sarai Nurmahal Nakodar Tombs Bhathinda Fort Bhakra Nangal Dam

The land of five rivers, Punjab, was a arid plain, covered with thorny trees and wild grasses,transformed into fields of wheat, paddy and millet by enterprise and a network of canals laid by the British and the Green Revolution of the 1960s. A scorching loo, hot breeze,blows in the summers and tredr, frost, covers the ground in winters. Traditionally Punjab consisted of three culturally and physically distinct zones-the hardworking but impoverished Malwa region, the comparatively rich and urban Majha region and the Doaba region, inhabited largely by the occupational class, the carpenters, tanners, weavers and metal workers. The crafts of the region are more utilitarian than ornamental. Every crafts of the region are more utilitarian than ornamental. Every village has a cobbler, weavers,carpenter and a dyer to cater to its needs; in homes,locally available materials such as wheat stalks, sarkanda, mulberry branches, palm leaf and grasses

The Golden Temple Teh spiritual centre of the Sikhs, the Harmandar Sahib, popularly known as the Golden Temple, was built by Guru Ram Das i 1601 on a site donated by the Mughal emperor Akbard. The Architectural style of the monument, a superb synthesis of islamic and hindu styles, echoes the syncretic tradition of the Sikh faith.

Phulkari pakhi, hand fan with a laccoated wooden handle.

1 Truck drivers pause for launch at a roadside dhaba, stop- over restaurant. 2 Festivities at the Hola Mohalla include spectacular displays of fencing and tent pegging, as the people show off their legendary martial and equestrian skills. 3 A Gujjar family; nomadic cattle herders, they are followers of Islam and are easily identifiable by their distinct clothing and jewellery.

Punjab is the largest producer of wheat, which is planted in November and harvested in May. Festivals Baisakhi Diwali Guru Parab Hola Mohalla Lohri Maghi Mela Teej Attire Patiala Salwaarbaggy gathered pants Paranda - hair Tassels Phulkari- wraps Tillajuttiembroidered footwear tahmat-wrap around 4 Women making roti a the langar at Harmandar Sahib;every Sikh is expected to volunteer at the Pag - turban communal kitchen and all visitors, regardless of Loi- Handwoven shawl their caste and creed, may partake the hot food prepared there. Kara-iron bangles 5 An array of parandas, tasselled braids, Kirpan - swords displayed at a stall at Parandiyanwala Bazaar Languages near Harmandar Sahib,Amritsar. Punjabi Hindustani Scripts: Gurumukhi Cuisine Lassi- Buttermilk Sarson da saagmustard leaf dish Moolie di roti- radish stuffed bread Makki di roti - corn bread Missi di roti-gram bread Ma di daal - lentil preparation Pinni, Dodhasweetmeat Kanji-cooler Rawa di kheer-sweet shalgam-gobhi acharturnip & cauliflower pickle

Crafts of Amritsar Khunda-bamboo staves Galeecha-knotted carpets Subclusters of AMRITSAR Amritsar District: Amritsar Gurdaspur District: Batala Tarn Tarn

Craft Galeecha-knotted carpets

RESOURCES Raw Material Sources Wool White cotton yarn New Zealand Raja Sansi Mandi, Amritsar

The city of Amritsar is named after the Amrit Sarovar or `Pool of Nectar`, the sacred pool surrounding the Harmandar Sahib. The boundaries of this metacluster approximate those of the alluvial plain traditionally known as Majha. Majha is the regin between rivers Beas and Satluj and includes cities of Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Faridkot and Ferozepur. Strategically located on the Silk Route, Amritsar traded Silks, shawls andd copper ware from Kashmir in return for raw silk, gold,d carpets and horses from Afganistan and Central Asia;the region`s wealth is reflected in its carved havelis, expensive bagh textiles,delicately embroided shawls, zardozi, ivory carving and inlays lac decorated bedposts and elegant palm leaf fans. Shawl and carpet weaving were actively promoted by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the last ruler of Punjab, who set up Karkhanas, workshops, in Amritsar under the supervision of Kashmiri weavers. The old city consists of a number of katras (zones) and mandis (markets) where a variety of businesses are still conducted;for instance, the silversmiths live in the Sarafan Bazaar while repousse worked metal objects, engraved brass doors, kalash (vessel) and chattar (umbrella) for the temples are sold in Kesarian Bazaar, Batala, an important subcluster was founded around 1465 AD by a person from the Bhatti Rajput community from Kapurthala on a piece of land granted by the then Governor of Lahore. A Centre of learning during Mughal rule,the town is known for its fine cotton cloth and sansi, a combination of silk and cotton. Due to the migration of large numbers of ironsmiths from Sialkot in Pakistan to this region, the town has achieved much fame for its cast swords. ACCESS Amritsar is connected by daily flights, rail and road with the rest of the country. Batala is situated on the Amritsar-Pathankot Highway.

A farmer`s wife spinning cotton on a charkha, spinning wheel. The homespun yarn will eventually be woven into niwar (strips),khes (bed cover) and dhurrie (floor covering).

The small scale glass cutting industry operating in Amritsar was started by two German experts in the early 70s.

An artisan. The embroidered shawls of this region are delicately worked along the borders and selvedge simulating the shawls of Kashmir.

KHUNDA - BAMBOO STAVES


Production Clusters Batala town Products Khunda-staves Folk Dance Accessories KHUNDA OR IRON-TIPPED bamboo staves are carried by Punjabi farmers, the nomadic cattle herding Gujjars, and the Nihang warriors alike and are used both as a weapon of self defence and as a walking stick. In addition, the khunda are also used as accessories by Bhangra dancers. The Staves are made from whole bamboo poles that are cut to size in such a manner that the curved root of the bamboo is kept intact. The pole is then tinted a reddish brown colour and ornamented with poker work, brass strips and brass nails, kokas.The bottom portion is sharpened to a tip and wrapped in iron sheet. At Loha Mandi, Batala, a craftsman ornaments the khunda with brass strips that are nailed iwth koka,brass nail. An elderly Sikh carrying a khunda.

GALEECHA - KNOTTED CARPETS


IN THE EARLY 19th Century, when Maharaja Ranjit Singh brought Kashmir under his rule, many Kashmiri carpet and shawl weavers migrated to Amritsar, an upcoming industrial town. This concentrated of skilled craftsmen combined with the availability of fine quality wool from the neighbouring hill states ensuredd the creation of exceptionally fine handknotted woollen carpets. In this technique, woollen yarn is knotted (using the Persian knot) around the individual threads of the cotton warp. Of the patterns produced in the villages near Amritsar, the Bokhara and mouri- geometrical patterns is black and cream woven on a deep red, ivory or green ground-are the main. The weavers use a colour coded naksha, pattern drawn on a graph, while weaving new designs, depending on their memory to replicate a design already woven. Today there are no naksha makers left in Amritsar; the companies commissioning the carpets provide their own graphs. Following the large scale display of Indian handicrafts at the Great Exhibition of 1851 held in LOndon, English carpet companies were set up in Amritsar, producing an economic boom that lasted until the end of the colonial rule. Today, the craft is in decline with limited production catering to exporters based in Delhi and to the Punjab Crafts Emporium; the business is handled by middlemen and the weavers`earnings are meagre. Attempts have beeb made to expand the local craftmen`s vocabulary;carpet targeted for export to the Middle East feature the mihrab (prayer arch) motif while others attempt to draw from the local phulkari (embroidered textiles)forms. Inset Detail of a geometrical pattern on a carpet A detail of the traditional hatchli design, originally from Turkmenistan, but referred to as Bokhara carpet. The principal motif is the intersection of two channels in the centre,which divides the field into four parts, with a row of three arches at the top. Production Clusters Amritsar district: Konke Village Tapiyala village Chugawan village Lopoke village Raja Sansi Kot Khalsa Products Pile Carpets Tools Khaddi-vertical loom Kangi- beater Churi- knife kainchi-scissor Naksha- design graph

Detail of gul,octagon motif originating in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. A Craftsman weaving a galeecha at a workshop in Amritsar.

THE DOABA REGION is located in the delta of the Beas and Satluj rivers and fronted by the wooded kandi area of Shivalik`s foothills. This region includes cities of Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur and Nawa Shahr. It has long had a concentration of artisan communities-especially wood workers, shoe makers and tanners. Plastic inlay in wood, lac turnery and wooden musical instruments have continued to be important local crafts, largely due to the solar wood seasoning plant that has been established in Hoshiarpur town. Jalandhar the capital of Punjab until Chandigarh was built in 1953, has one of the oldest army cantonments in India. The town of Kartarpur has a number of cottage industries-carpet weaving, woven textiles, ban rope making, some excellent carpentry and shoe making. Due to the latter, the town has a large number of tanning units and an important hide mandi as well. Nakodar, an important sarai, camping place, during the rule of the Mughals and ndow fan for the manufacture of dhurries, possesses a Khadi Mandal (developmental organization) that weaves dhurries and throws. ACCESS Jalandhar is 146 km from Chandigarh on the DelhiAmritsar highway and Hoshiarpur town is accessible from Chandigarh (89 km) via Ropar. Both places are connected by train as well. Subclusters of HOSHIARPUR Hoshiarpur district: Hoshiarpur Jalandhar district: Nakodar Crafts of Hoshiarpur Carved and turned wood work Wood indlay of Hoshiarpur Wood and lac turnery Panja dhurrie RESOURCES Raw Materials Wood-sheesham, Deodar Wood-sheesham, mango, tun, kaal; Wood Inlay Acrylic, Camel bone, Shell Wood-Sheesham, Wood And lac turnery mango,tun,kaal; Lac sticks Panja dhurrie Dyed cotton yarn Craft Carved and turned wood work

Sources Local markets

Hoshiarpur

Hoshiarpur Hoshiarpur

At Mehtapur in Jalandhar, weavers sit on a plank placed across the horizontal adda loom as they weave a panja dhurrie.

CARVED AND TURNED WOOD WORK


Production cluster Hoshiarpur district: Hoshiarpur Jalandhar district: Jalandhar Batala district: Batala Quadian Amritsar district: Amritsar Products Hoshiarpur Chairs, Peg Tables Jalandhar Singhardaanicontainers Peedi - low stools Batala Kahdavan-wooden slippers Butter churners Velan-rolling pins Wooden handles for tava-gridles Chairs, Tables Beds Screens SEASONED SHEESHAM AND deodar wood, procured from the local mandi, market, are carved into a wide range of utilitarian objects, including furniture and kitchen implements. The motifs used are leaves and flowers, usually roses and sunflowers;birds and animals forms are made only on demand. Flora and fauna alike are depicted in a stylized manner that is believed to be derived from the Mughal idiom.this provenance is explained by the craft`s original form as heavily carved doors and pinjara (framed lattice worked window), of the Amritsari haveli (mansion) and kothi (house). The large number of Sikh carpenters in Amritsar has been considerably added to by many karigars, artisans, from the Saharanpur area of Uttar Pradesh who have migrated to Punjab and now make up as much as 40% of the work force. and pinjara (framed lattice worked window), of the Amritsari haveli (mansion) and kothi (house). The large number of Sikh carpenters in Amritsar has been considerably added to by many karigars, artisans, from the Saharanpur area of Uttar Pradesh who have migrated to Punjab and now make up as much as 40% of the work force.

Tools Chorsi-chisel Sutna-file Pathri-tool sharpener Saws Clippers Planers

A young man carves a window panel for a gurudwara in Quadian, Batala, using the previously transferred stencil of the desired pattern as a guideline.

PANJA DHURRIES
PANJA DHURRIES ARE intricately connected with the Punjabi concept of dowry that includes items of bedding. When the bride arrives at her in-law`s house she brings with her an impressive collectin of eleven auspicious beddings, all embroidedred and woven by her. In the case of rich families, home-grown yarn would be given to the village weavers, the julaha, who dyed and woven it into dhurrie and khes (coverlets) for them. The bedding consists of a dhurrie, a tallai (thin padded mattress), an embroidered chatai (mat), embroidered quilt covers and hand-worked khes. As indicators of the bride`s family`status and her skill, the dhurrie laid under the padded mattress are intricately worked with exuberant spreads of plump purple brinjal in an orange field, a bed of massive red flowers, wished for possessions- a car, jewellery,a chubby baby-or on an auspicious note, the mother goddess,Sanjhi Devi.Bridal dhurries continue to be woven,especially in the cotton-growing Malwa region and villages around Jalandhar. Dhurries were also woven for the gurudwara; usually by a group of women. The dhurries are made on simple horizontal looms in a weft-faced plain weave which gives it a sturdy,flat appearance. The multiple forms and colours of the patterns are created through the use of independent wefts,beaten into place with a panja, metal beater. Although the craft was practiced in most rural areas of Punjab, it became a domestic industry on a commercial scale after immigrant weavers from Sailkot,Pakistan, arrived at Nakodar, Noormahal and the villages around.In Nakodar two types of cotton dhurries are woven-bed dhurries are woven on a pit loom in multicoloured stripes, and the floor dhurries, woven mostly in two contrasting colours on an adda, floor loom. The motifs used in both, however, derive from the folk vocabulary of birds, beasts, plants and the embroidered phulkari textiles. Inset A detail of the mor or peacock motif. 1,2 Inset A detail of the mor or peacock motif. 3 Dhurrie patterns tend to be either geometrical or figurative. While the latter may employ a number of colours, the geometrical patterns are usually executed in two contrasting colours. 4 A Dhurrie patterns with small stylized motifs of cauliflower and brinjal 5 The patterns of this traditional dhurrie is based on the popular motif of the parrot or tota. 6 The Bridal dhurries draw on a large repertoire of indidgenous motifs that are based on the local flora and fauna. Production Clusters Jalandhar District: Nakodar Mehtpur Aulka Bathan mehma Ungi Chak Bendal Noor Mahal Sidma Hoshiarpur district: Hoshiarpur Ropar District: Losari Jhandia Khurd Anandpur Sahib Bhathinda District Moga District Batal District Ludhiana District Amritsar District: Tarn Taran Products Bed Dhurrie Floor Dhurrie Tools Adda-floor loom Pit loom Kainchi-scissors Hatthi/panjabeater/comb Churri-knife Sua-needle Sizing brush

WOODEN INLAY OF HOSHIARPUR


Production clusters Hoshiarpur district: Hoshiarpur city: Dabbi Bazaar Bassi Ghulam Hussain Boothgarh Adamwal Thatlan Mian Di Chhowni Brijwala Pru Heeran Ram Colony Camp Piplanwala Singriwala Maduli Brahmana Dhalowal Jalandhar district: Maderan Adampur Amritsar district: Amritsar Products Hoshiarpur Chairs, Peg Tables, Sideboards, Screens, Doors Jewellery Boxes Tool Handles Stationary Amritsar Chessboard Tables Tools Chorsi-chisel Sutna-file Pathri-tool sharpener Saw,clippers,planer, Drill THE DISTRICT OF Hoshiarpur produces dark sheesham furniture with painstakingly detailed dense foliage patterns that are both engravedd and inlaid with acrylic, camel bone and shell. The motifs are either of Persian origin or adaptions of the exquiste wood carving in the havelis, mansions, of Hoshiarpur. The foliage patterns, usually cypress tress, that appear in most of the inlay work are now being supplemented with figures and landscapes, the details of which are etched and coloured with natural ink. When the craft came up in this region, the wood workers inlaid their wares with ivory remnaunts bought from the ivory carvers of Amritsar still has a small cluster Acrylic having replaced ivory as the medium of inlay work, the craftsmen have taken to creating large products such as this folding screen. of bone carves and inlay craftsmen who are known for their chessboard patterned tabletops. Acrylic has become the primary material used in the inlay after the worldwide ban on ivory was introduced in 1989.

Detail of an inlaid table

A craftsman gouging out the areas of the wooden surface that are to be inlaid with acrylic.

A peg table ornamented with Chess pattern.

Detail of a jewellery box, its surface ornamented through the technique of metal inlay on wood.

WOOD AND LAC TURNERY


Production Clusters Hoshiarpur Jalandhar Products Hoshiarpur: Chairs Jalandhar: Singhardaanicontainers Peedi- low stools> Tools Lathe, Chisels Among the wood working community oF Hoshiarpur are the kharadi,lathe turners,who make turned wooden furniture, ornamented with motifs etched on a lac coating. Furniture elements are turned on power lathes and the rotating pieces are coatedd with multiple layers of lac, usually applied in three layers-white,black and red,in that order. Yellow is occasionally added as well;purple,the once characteristic colour of lac-coated ware from Hoshiarpur, is seldom used now. After the lac is applied, a sharp metal stylus is used to etch motifs,thus revealing the underlying colours.Comtemporary designs appear in white on a reddishbrown base,apparently imitating the plastic inlay work practiced in Hoshiarpur. The layered laccoating done in jalandhar uses different colours from those of Hoshiarpur and the surface is engraved using needles so that the design shows up in a variety of colours. Inset A detail of an etching displaying the white coat which revealed when the upper brown one is scratched off. A lac-coated and

etched chair in an unusual yellow colour.

Detail of a bagh, an embroidered wrap that accompanied women in a daily life and at ceremonial occasions. Phulkari and Bagh of Punjab are significant as women`s art done for their own use. TO THE SOUTH OF the River Satluj lies Malwa, the vast arid region which comprised three important principalites - Patiala, Faridkot and Malerkotla- of which Patiala rose to be the most influential.Beforedddddd the Sirhind Canal was built this land consisted of vadst stretches of tibbas, sand hills , with isolated cultivated sections that were rain fed. The Chief crop is cotton; consequently Fazilka, Malout and Bhathinda are big cotton mandis, markets.With the increased prosperity of Patiala,whole bazaars sprang up where craftsmen mase and sold jewellery, zardozi (gold embroidery)fancy drawstrings,gold-embroidered footwear,dyed turbans and dupattas (stoles).Goods from surrounding areas were brought to the mandi town of Malout for sale. Poets,miniature painters and classical musicians settled in the city, developing in the process in Patiala gharana,school,of Hindustani music. The art of miniature paintingds too received patronage,producing an impressive number of illustrated manuscripts of classical texts. Mslerkotla, the only Muslim-Pathan principality in Punjab,posseses expert zardozi embroiderers and metal workers ACCESS A craftsperson demonstrates the process of making a nala, drawstring. Patiala is linked by road and air to chandigarh. All the other clusters in the region are well connected by road and rail to both Chandigarh and Patiala.

A Jutti shop in Muktsar, Bhathinda, one of the key sites where this form of embroidered footwear is produced. Subclusters of PATIALA Patiala district: Patiala Sangrur district: Sangrur Malerkotla Crafts of PATIALA Phulkari and bagh Nala-drawstrings Tilla juttiembroidered footwear Craft Phulkari and Bagh Nala Tilla Jutti RESOURCES Raw Materials Handspun cotton fabric, Silk,Rayon threads Silk, Rayon, Cotton threads Buffalo Hide, Cowhide , zari Sources Ambala , Hyderabad Patiala Jalandhar, Kanpur, Chennai

PHULKARI AND BAGH - EMBROIDERED TEXTILES


Production clusters Amritsar district Jalandhar district Ferozepur district Bhathinda district Moga district Patiala district: Patiala town Tipari village Products Chaddar-wrap Dupattas-veil Garments Cushion covers Bed covers Types of Phulkari: Sainchi Phulkari Darshan dwar Sheeshedar SuberPhulkari Tilpatra Phulkari Satranga Phulkari Nila Phulkari Types of bagh: Bawan bagh Vari da bagh Surajmukhi Chand bagh Sheesha bagh Ghunghat bagh Chope THROUGHOUT the Punjab, in the Hindu,Muslim and Sikh communities alike,women embroider odhni (veils) or chaddar (wraps) ornamented with phulkar, literally `flower work` and bagh, garden, a varition where the embroidery completely covers the support material. The fabric used us usually khaddar, a heavy cotton that is locally woven in narrow widths of 45 to 60 cm joined either before or after the embroidery to form the desired size. The suppport fabric is most often an auspicious dark red, or more rarely, an indigo blue or a white reserved for elderly women, on which the embroidery is executed in untwisted floss silk called pat,sourced from Kashmir, Afganistan and Bengal and dyed yellow,orange,burgundy,bright pink, purple, blue and green in Amritsar and Jammu. Darning stitch is used to embroider from the reverse side of the fabric, with the longer float on the face, thus allowing large surfaces to be densely embroidered with economy. Aside from their everyday use as veils, the phulkari is integrated into the lives of the women. and is an indispensable element in ceremonies, especially those concerning birth,death and marriage. When a girl child is born, the women of the family organize a great feast, marking the beginning of the task of the child`s grandmother in creating the future bride`s trousseau. The most significant items of the trousseau are the chope,a reversible phulkari worked double running stitch and wrapped around the bride after the ritual bath two days before the wedding, and the suber phulkari, composed of five eight-petalled lotuses, worn by the bride when she walks around the sacred fire during the wedding ceremony. A phulkari is also worn 11 days after the birth of a son,when the mother goes out for the first time after delivery, and when visiting a temple during religious festivals to request prosperity and happiness for loved ones. Like wise during funerals , it is customary to set the body on a phulkari or cover it ; a woman, however, will not receive this privilege unless she is a widow. Inset A Detail of a motif from a chope. Tools Metal needle Scissors Wooden blocks A detail of the front of a bagh textile showing A chand bagh, from a private collection. It derives the meticulously counted thread embroidery. its name from the dominant motif of large diamonds done with horizontal and vertical darning stitches over counted threads of the base cloth. The subtle change in the directions of the stitch,its gloss and the colour are suggestive of highly stylized chands, moons. Unfinished corners or discordant colours signify a nazar buti meant to protect the wearer from the evil eye.

Reverse of a bagh textile. This is embroidered on the reverse side using the darning stitch.

The darshan dwar, a red cloth embroidered with architectural motifs representing doors arranged on either side of a central band decorated with human figures,animals ,flowers and plants, is often offered to the temple so that the devotee`s wishes may be granted.The number of doors depictedd may vary;nine doors signify the nine orifices of the body while the tenth is `left open`to allow the spirit to enter.

Sainchi phulkari done in Haryana and Punjab is characterized by its use of figurative motifs representing the themes of marriage and rites of passage. Shown here, is an old phulkari from a private collection. The chope,invariably embroideredd in yellow pat,untwisted flow silk,on red khaddar, handspun and handwoven cloth is an integral element in the pre-marriage rituals performed at the bride`s home.

NALA -DRAWSTRINGS
Production Clusters Patiala district: Patiala town; Quilla chowk Products Nalas-drawstrings Tools Adda-frame Kanna -sticks NALA ARE DRAWSTRINGs which hold the salwaar, pajama (pantds) and ghaghra (skirt) at the waist. They are elastic across their width and the net-like surface is patterned with motifs. Before the advent of machine made nala,every woman twined, plaited and knitted her own and these skills were passed on from mother to daughter. In Patiala, craftswomen from neighbouring villages make and sell handmade nala to shopkeepers in the Quilla chowk are of the city, These nala are made using the sprang technique where a net-like structure is formed by twisting and twining the wrap elements. Twists made at the top automatically form at the bottom till the rows meet. The ends are knotted into a round or square harad (black myrobalam), a knot resembling a fruit by the name, and plaited into naliyan or fine braids. Patiala, a wealthy city,specializded in nala made of resham, silk, with highly decoratived tassels that hung loose from under the kameez, upper garment, which were much sought after all over Punjab. Inset Detail of the framework on which nala are made.

Decorative nala for sale. The tasseled A Detail of the net-like surface of the nala, achieved through the use of the sprang technique. ends hang out from under the kameez, the upper garment.

TILLA JUTTI - TRADITIONAL FOOTWEAR


Production clusters Patiala district: Patiala Sangrur district; Malerkotla Ferozepur district: Ferozepur town: Khai Road, Ralia Hata, Mochi Bazaar Ghantaghar chowk, Indra Market Abohar town: Thakur Abadi, Ramdevnagar, Gali Bazaar Park, IdgahBasti & Dayal Nagar Muktsar district: Muktsar town: Hall Raod,Malot Raod, Goniana Road Malot town: Guru Ravi Das Nagar Bhathinda district: Bhathinda town: Sirki Bazaar, Court road, Ram Bagh Road Faridkot district: Faridkot Kotakpura THE ETHNIC FOOTWEAR of Punjab, the jutti, are handstitched with tilla (silver and golden wire), embroidered uppers and insoles. No nails are used in the construction of these jutti and no distinction is made between the left and right foot. The density of embroidery varies from region to region within Malwa, where most productin clusters are located. In Fazilka, a cluster where the craftsmen have migrated from Bhawalpur and Deepalpur in Pakistan, the jutti are embroidered in chequered patterns. Similarly, the jutti of Muktsar are characterized by the multicoloured tilla jutti from Abohar are extremely light,and perhaps due to the influs of craftsmen from Bareilly in Uttar Products Embroidered jutti Salem Shahiembroidered insole Khussa-upturned toe Tools Ramba,Khurpascraper Shore-scalpel Summa-iron pestle Farmad-last Thappa-die Sua-needle Pradesh, no longer embroidered but embossed, cut worked, appliqued and beaded. The Muslim embroiderers of Malerkotla are renowned for their fine,dense embroidery of Shakarpar (rhombus), sunahare (golden), laharia (waves) and jali (trellis) motifs that cover the insole as well as the upper. The khussa jutti has an upturned toe resembling a proudly curling moustache. This is characteristic of the Patiala jutti, Jutti making is a family occupation;the women embroider the shoe uppers with the ari while the men construct the shoe using cowhide for the uppers and buffalo hide for the sole.

A men`s khussa jutti embroidered in gold tilla A women`s khussa jutti embroidered in silver tilla.

Ari-cobbler`s awl Kundi-iron container

A view of Chandigarh, the city planned by Le Corbusier. Crafts - Chandigarh Mitti da kaam-pottery Phulkari Physical Features Shivalik Foothills Sukhna Lake Landmarks Nek Chand`s Rock Garden Pinjore Gardens Sanghol Museum & Art Gallery Rose Garden Languages Punjabi Hindi Scripts: Gurumukhi Festivals Guruparab Diwali & Dussehra Holi

The backyard of a potter`s workshop at the village of Kishangarh.

Details of a cotton panja dhurrie, flat rug with a pattern that shows the influenc of Bagh embroidery.

CHANDIGARH is a union territory Subclusters of RESOURCES and is also the capital of the state of CHANDIGARH Craft Raw Materials Sources Punjab and Haryana. It Chandigarh Pahadh - local mud is situated at the base of the shivalik Mitti da kaam Clay hills Kishangarh mountain range.Although named after the goddess Chandika whose Inset A scaled down model of a cast iron manhole Nek Chand`s Rock Garden, where shrine is an ancient pilgrimage site, cover at Chandigarh;the image on the lid represents discarded ohjects have been recycled the city was one of independent the city`s plan and the River Ghaggar. to create ingenious sculptures. India`s first experiments in modern urban planning. The French architect Le Corbusier led a team of American, French and Indian architects and planners to design the city in the 1950s.The city is divided into self-sufficient sectors, each of which have a school and a market and contain green belts. To the north is the beautiful Sukhna Lake which is now the venue for international water sport tournaments. Within the city there is a colony of Kumhars, potters, and a few units producing wrough iron and cane furniture near the industrial area. Being a new city devoid of a traditon of crafts, many of the craftsmen are from the well-to-do urban community;thus the craftsmen are from the well-to-do urban community;thus the craftsmen are largely studio potters and stained glass artisans.The villages surrounding this modern city-kishangarh,Saketri,Hallo Majra and Dadu dMajra-still have a community of potters, Khes and dhurrie weavers as well as dyers who produce veils and turbans.

At Hissar, three members of the nomadic sheep herding Gujjar community pose with their flock. Attire Ghaghra-20mt skirt Dhunkaniyaembroidered veil Kalakandembroidered black veil Odhni-veil Cuisine Bajra khichri-porridge Raabri-fermented whey Dalia-wheat porridge Bura-clarified butter Green Melon Chutney

A Jat woman attired in a kameez(shirt) worn over a daman(skirt), made of 20mt of cloth and an odhni (veil).

Sarkanda or moonj grass which is used in making a range of products. 1. A Haryanvi patriarch, wearing white garments and stiffly starched white turban that indicate his seniority. 2. A woman dressed in the ghaghra (a pleated skirt) worn with a kurti (halfsleeves top) and an odhni(veil). Her attire identifies her as member of the Ahir community. 3. The Kikar tree,also known as the babul,blooms in the semi-arid countryside of Haryana and Punjab. Its tannin rich bark is used by local tanners to dye hide and the twigs of the tree are used for datum,cleaning teeth.

HARYANA HAS AN ancient history.Recent excavations in the region testify to the existence of a pre-Harappan civilization.The region is mentioned in the epic Mahabharata.Kurukshetra, the mythical site of the battle between the Pandavas and the Kauravas,is an important pilgrim town with numerous temples. Panipat , today is a busy township lying on the Grand Trunk Road is also a remnant of an earlier era;situated on the route from Central Asia to Delhi, this site witnessed several decisive battles that shaped the destiny of India-one which lead to the founding of the Mughal empire in 1526. Although Haryana lies in a section of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, it also consistds of dusty plains beside the Thar Desert which hace for the most part been transformed by irrigation and the Green Revolution in the mid-1960s.Thanks to such intervention,Haryana has a robust rural economy that is based largely on agriculture, cattle rearing and dairy, and wool industries.The social fabric consists essentially of the farming community of Jats and Ahirs, Rajputs, Brahmins and the nomadic cattle and sheep herding Gujjars.The potters are the largest artisan community in the state, making not only pots for everyday use and votive toys sold during seasonal festivals but also firing small sized lakhauri bricks used in the constructin of temples,wells and haveli, mansions.The bricks were called lakhauri because they were made in lakhs.The haveli now derelict ruins scattered throughout the south west region of the state,were commissioned by the wealthy

Zamindars or landowners and the mahajans (traders)who operated on the caravan routes passing from Delhi to cities in Rajasthan. The domestic crafts are largely linked to the practice of dowry,ingrained in this agrarian society;girls are generally adept at embroidery,spinning,basketry and the essential skill of plastering a slurry of dried cowdung and straw on the earthern floors of homes and courtyards. Inset Top view of a terracotta surahi made by potters in Jhajjar, known for making water pots that sweeten wate and keep it cool. 4 A haveli built in the Rajput architectual style at Gujjarwaas;havelies generally belonged to the wealthy Zamindars and Mahajans, traders who operated on the caravan route from Delhi to Rajasthan. 5 The Painted Raaslila on the ceiling of this crumbling chhatri from Farukhnagar is similarly embellished to those of the many havelis in southwest Haryana that are believed to have been painted by artists from Shekhawati in Rajasthan. 6 Most village homes in Haryana are constructed of a consistently replenished plaster made of mud, straw and dey dung, reputed for repelling termites. 7 Two sarkanda mooda makers smoking a hookah during a break from work, a sight common among men in rural Haryana. 8 A Closed mud kiln at Rewari.

Laguages Haryanvi Multani Bangru Ahirwati Mewati Festivals Teej Lavni Diwali Baisakhi Kuan Pujan Makar Sankranti Surajkund Mela Qalandar Shah`s Urs Masani Fair Ghugga Naumi Landmarks Kurukshetra Panipat Sohna hot Spring Qalandar Shah`s Shrine Ibrahim Lodi`s Tomb Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary Pinjore Gardens Bhadra Kali Temple Birbal Ka Chatta Physical features Indo-Gangetic plain Sub-Himalayan terrain Major Rivers: Ghaggar Yamuna Biodiversity Flora: Sarkanda, Date Palm, Babul/Kikar Fauna: Buffalo,Camel,Sheep

Subclusters of HARYANA Faridabad district: Faridabad Palwal Gurgaon district: Gurgaon Farukhnagar Hissar District: Hissar, Hansi Jhajjar district: Jhajjar Mahendragarh district: Dongra Aheer Gujjarwaas Khatripur, Narnaul Mahendragarh Panipat district: Panipat Rewari district: Beval, Bolni Garhi-Bolni Odhi, Mayan Chandpur Jagadhari,Jind Khori,Kund Moondreya-Kheraj Rampura,Qutubpur Rohtak district Sonepat district Sirsa district Bikaner

PANIPAT IS A bustling commercial cluster of weavers and handloom industries that produce furnishing fabrics. The city`s mandi,market, for shoddy yarn is said to be the largest in the world;also sold there are patterned cotton dhurries woven in Ambala and other nearby villages.Jhajjar,a large cluster of potters, is one of the few places in India where surahi,slim-necked water pots,are still made.`Jhajjar`literally means water vessel,as water from the surrounding area drains into it, a phenomenon which accounts for the good quality of clay available here.Hissar,founded by Ferozeshah Tuglaq in 1354 AD is the site of a prolific jutti,footwear making,tradition that cater to the requirements of the local farming community.Rewari,another major subcluster is a large craft centre where zari,gold thread embroidered jutti as well as cast and engraved kitchen utensils are made.Gurgaon and Faridabad ,burgeoning satellite townships of Delhi have, in spite of their rapid industrialization, retain the local crafts of sarkanda and date palm leaf work,producing blinds,furniture and baskets that are sold in the capital.Haryana is also renowned for its annual Surajkund Crafts Mela, where craftsmen from other regions of the country are hosted by the state. ACCESS Rewari is a railway junction and so is jhajjar, which is situated at a distance of 65 km from Delhi by road. Palwal is 50 km away from Delhi on the Mathura highway. Gurgaon and Faridabad are almost on the outskirts of Delhi, and are easily accessible by road. 1 At Hissar, a shoe maker stitches a jutti using untwisted cotton thread. 2A metalsmith grasps a brass pot with his feet as he beats it with a polished hammerhead to reinforce the sheet metal and give the vessel its characteristic texture. 3 Coiling palm leaves to from the koop or storage container.

Craft Palm leaf work

RESOURCES Raw Materials Sources Palm leaf,Pula Fariadabad district

Sarkanda, Sarkanda Mahendragarh Tulia,MOonj,Jevardi,Wheat work district stalks Jhajjar, Alwar, Black clay, Sunaihri clay, Pottery Rajasthan, Aravali Banni Clay ranges Rewari,Jhajjar,Delhi, Jutti Leather Kanpur,Chennai Zari, Cotton thread Rampur Brass Brass sheet Rewari Ware

PALM LEAF WORK

PALM LEAF WORK Production clusters Faridabad district: Faridabaddd, Palwal Panipat district Sonepat district Products Chakore-shallow cirular tray Sundhada-narrow necked basket with lid Boiya-roti/bread basket with lid Koop-cylindrical basket with lid Khara-basket Bijna-hand fan chattai-mat

The craft of making palm leaf basket was introduced to Haryana by women of the Multani-speaking Audh community who had migrated from Pakistan during and taken up this craft as a means of supplementing their meagre earnings.Traditionally the raw materials were the locally grown date palm;phoos ,a wild grass;and pula,thin leaves of the sarkanda plant-these were made into coiled baskedts intended for domestic use by the womenfolk of the household.The products include a range of round bottomed,cylindrical and shallow baskets with and without lids.

Some of the cylindrical baskets are nearly three feet high and have lids.The leaves are also plaited into strips and formed into bags and mats. The dry palm leaves,some of which aredyed so as to achieve a coloured pattern,are wound around a bunch of phoos or pula and sewn in place by threading the leaf through the lower coil;a big blunt needle is utilized to push the leaf through. Inset A semiconstructed lid of a koop. A koop or khara coiled from palm leaves and phoos, grass.

Friut tray

Boiya for storing rotis,flat bread.

Carry bags Tools Gandoi-needle

Production Clusters Gurgaon district: Gurgaon Farukhnagar Rewari district: Mayan Kund Chandpur Khori Garhi-Bolni Moondreya-Kheraj Beval Mahendragarh district: Dongra Aheer Gujjarwaas Khatripur Faridabad district: Faridabad Products SARKANDA CRAFT Mooda-stool pula bound by jeverdi and the seat is woven from jeverdi COME WINTER, THE main stalk of the Chairs, Two -seaters made either from moonj or pula. Mooda vary in size and sarkanda plant dries up and the grass is Changeri-bread harvested and ingeniously transformed into a have innovatively been given a backrest so that they may be basket used as chairs and sofas.The local women make further use variety of products. The thicker parts are Boiya-big bread used to make stools known as mooda while of this material by coiling baskets and making traditional products like the shallow basket called the changeri, and the basket the outer skin is used as thatch.The tuli,top large boiya,bread basket, that may or may not have a lid but Sindhora-pear-shaped half, is made into baskets and the leafy nonetheless keep hot rotis dry and fresh dur to its moisture basket covering,moonj,is beaten into fibre an twisted into jeverdi, rope, which is used to absorbing walls.These baskets are often bound with Kharola-fodder gota,coloured threads,date palm and patera leaves. A variatin basketd web local furniture such as charpoi of the changeri is the sundhada;it is bound with naulai or (cot),peeda and mooda(stools). wheat stalk.The indhi, used as a supportive base for carrying Indhi-pot support The mooda is a low circular stool made by aligning sarkanda in a Ghera-big Indhi water pots on the head are also made;these form part of the criss-cross constructin that is tied along the spine.The edges are bride`s dowry and are accordingly decorated with colourful Bijna-hand fans secured with fabric,woollen yarn,and synethic rope and stung with bead Sarkhi-roofing and shell tassels.Chhaj,winnows,are constructed from tuli.As Chatai-mat this craft involves the use of the intestines and cartilages of Chhaj-winnow dead animals as a binder,its practice is limited to men and Chik-blind women of the Balmik community. Javerdi-rope Inset The mooda is built by two concentric cylindrical layers Chheeka-net from of reeds, each twisted in opposite directions, to form shallow which pots are hung hyperbolic paraboloids that are locked together by binding Jhadoo-broom ropes at many levels along the cylinder.The structure thus Koochi-whitewash formed is extremely stable and strong.The open edges are brush cut and bound by rope and fibre trimmings. Sapling guard 1 Having filled water from the well, Tools this Haryanvi Muiya-knife woman returns Daranti-sickle home with her heavy terracotta pot balanced on an indhi,the circular ring made of sarkanda. 2 Colourful nylon embellished moodas at the annual Surajkund Mela.

A sarkanda chair.

A sarkanda `sofa`- a two-seater mooda with a backrest and arms.

A basket constructed using moonj and sarkanda.

Moonj bound with sarkanda is coiled in the changeri pattern to form this mat.

BRASS WARE
Production Clusters Yamunanagar district: Jagadhari Jind district: Jind Rewari district: Rewari town: Thathera Mohalla Products Tokni-water pot Degchi - cooking vessel Nand-cylindricald container Parat-circular tray Lota-water pot Balti-bucket Diya-lamp Toys Tools Hammer,Mallets Cutter,compass Pakadd-plier Gas welder Shears,Swage TRADITIONAL KITCHEN UTENSILS made by die-pressing and manually cold forging sheet brass,are part of every bride`s dowry.In this area where water must be fetched over long distances,pots used to collect and store water are an invaluable commodity.In Rewari,circular bradss ingots are sandcast by specialized craftsmen at a second workshop manually shear them into rounds and die-press the sheets into hemisphers.At a third workshop the hemispheres are manually worked with huge mallets over swages till the desired shape is achieved.The joints and the neck are gas welded and the mouth is beaded.The products are vigorously hand polished with mud and tamarind and sandpapered.Finally,the walls are manually beaten with polished hammerheads to reinforce the sheet metal.The perfectly aligned symmetry of the created shiny indentations is testament to the craftsmen`s long practice at hammering them freehandrapidly and with a single precise blow each.

A Tokni, wate container. A plate made of beaten brass,its surface ornamented with carefully placed dot-like indents.

JUTTI-LEATHER FOOTWEAR
Production Clusters Rewari district: Jatia Mohalla Rampura village Odhi Village Bolni Qutubpur Jhajjar district: Jhajjar Hissar district: Hissar Products Zari jutti Mundi-round-toed desi jutti Chuni-pointed-toed desi jutti Tools Mogri-beater Palta-stretchinng tool Rampatrimming,cutting tool HISSAR AND REWARI ARE the two most important clusters where ethnic footwear is made in Haryana. At Rewari industrial zari,gold thread embroidered upper are made;of these,the black leather jutti embroidered with golden wire were worn only by the wealthy and influential while thin soled jutti with an elongated curled toe are reserved for use on speacial occasions.The cobblers of Hissar make robust and highly durable unadorned slip-ons, known locally as the desi jutti, for farmers.The one-pieced uppers of thick hide are reinforced at the heel with applique and the sole is made from several layers of buffalo hide that are stitched with thick cotton thread.The munde(round toed) or ghuni(pointed toed) are worn by men and women. Tila jutti

Inset Detail of an embroidered tilla jutti. 1 Punched leather stencil for the embroidery on the jutti upper. 2 A desi jutti, plain foot wear worn by farmers.

SURAHI-POTTERY
THE KUMBHARS,OR potters,of jhajjar specialize in slim-necked pitchers,surahi,which are made from a combinatin of thrown and moulded parts.Entire families participate in the craft process,beginning with the preparation of the clay by the women and the children. Users claim that water stored in these surahis acquired a unique taste,probably due to the quality of the clay available in this low lying area.The surahi is essentially an islamic form; this factor, combined with jhajjar`s position within the subah,province,of Delhi during Mughal times,suggests that the craft might have come into existence through local craftsmen who were catering to specifications of the Muslim community.The earliest surahi however,were unembellished and fully thrown;the craft as it exists today is an indigenous adaption.Pot,diya,golak and kulhar are also formed through throwing,the water pots serve to keep the water cool and are also used as vessels for Hindu rituals in kuan pujan,as well as during birth and death ceremonies. Production Clusters Jhajjar district: Chawani Mohalla Jhajjar town: Bahadurgarh Faridabad district: Faridabad Products Surahi-pitcher Matka-wate pot Rakab-shallow bowl Kadhawani-pot for boiling milk Jamawani-Pot for setting curds Grains storage pots Flower pots Golak-coin bank Diya-lamp Figures Sanjhi figures Tools Potters` wheel Thappa - dies Pindi-knob-shaped tool Khuria-scraper

The wheel-thrown surahi necks are made by the men.To create the containers,clay is rolled and stretched over an upturned port and then pressed into hemispherical terracotta dies engraved with patterns.After these hemispherical segments are somewhat dryd,they are joined together with wet clay and left to dry in the shade.The clay shrinks,leaving the surface of the dies and the spouts,necks and handles are attached by the women.The surahis are dipped in a slip made of banni and sunaihri, the red and yellow clays,and dried before they are fired in mud kilns. Inset A bowl with a lid, the patterns on its surface are die-pressed. Various dies-pressed patterns.

1 A die-pressed hemisphere such as this,is joined with another similar one to form the belly of the surahi form. 2 Coin Bank 3a, 3b New surahi forms being developed by the potters. 4 A larger variation of the original surahi form,these sport a gargoyleheaded spout and a handle to facilitate pouring.

5 The traditional surahi,small and characterized by its long neck, which is heldd in grip while water is being poured. 6 A potter throws a closed form,perhaps intended to be used as a coin bank. 7 Stacked kulhads,clay tumblers.

Districts - 32 The quiet village of Pushkar is transformed into a noisy arena of donkey, camel and horse races from Craftspersons - 3.16 October to November when it hosts Pushkar Mela,the largest camel fair in the world. Lakhs

Physical Features Aravali Range Thar Desert Gulf of Kachchh Southeastern plateau Major Rivers: Chambal,Banganga, Ghambiri,Luni,Mahi, Sabarmati,Ghaggar Biodiversity Wetlands Flora: Ratanjot(dye), Ber (lac host), Pipal (lac host), Khair,Raheda(wood) Fauna: Tiger, Elephant,Camel, Peacock,Blackbuck

CRAFTS OF RAJASTHAN Blue pottery of Jaipur Kundan jadai-gem setting Meenakari-enamel work Lac ware Razai-quilt making Bandhej-tie-resistdyeing Block making Block printing of Bagru and Sanganer Mojari-leather footwear Hand made paper Bahi-clothbound book Felt products Sanjhi-pencil stencils Terracotta of Sawai Madhopur Katpulti-puppets Wood and lac turnery Gota work Tarkashi-metal inlay in wood Phad painting Miniature painting on wood Leather work Stone carving Stone relief and latticework Gesso painting Gangaur idol making Meghwal embroidery Bhitti chitra-wall painting Miniature painting Sandalwood carving Silver ware Wood work Dabu-mud resist printing Bone work Seep ka kaammother-of-pearl work Musical instruments Wrought iron work Panja dhurrie weaving Pattu weaving Terracotta and pottery Paatra kaam-utensil making Camel trappings Pcihhwai-painted temple hangings Kavad-mobile shrines Terracotta of Molela Damascening Metal Engraving Koftgiri-weaponry

The ornate facade of the enthralling Hawa Mahal or the Detail of relief and pierced stone carved jaali, Palace of Winds has become an icon for Jaipur,called screen,at the Mehrangarh Fort,Jodhpur. the Pink City because of its reddish pink buildings.

The annual Teej festival held at Jaipur celebrates the monsoons with processions of caparisoned elephants and bejewelled dancers.

UNTIL INDIA`S INDEPENDENCE in 1947,Rajasthan,literally `the land of kinds`, was what its name indicatedd-a region made up of more than twenty princely states, a bastion of royal affluence and feudal pageantry.Many stories abound regarding the bravery of the Rajput warriors who ruled this area;most of these dwell on the internecine wars between the many royal houses and their opposition to the invading forces of Islamic armies from the north. Under the rule of the Mughal emperor Akbar a truce was established between the Rajputs and their nonRajput neighbours,thus ushering in an era of Political stability which occasioned lavish and consistent court patronage to the arts and architecture.Most of Rajasthan`s once impregnable forts and opulent palaces have been opened to visitors;

tourism has breathed new life into these historic sites and quaint lifestyles they supported.Eighty percent of the region`s population still lives in rural areas,engaged in agriculture and livestock herding;the rhythm of their lives punctuated by the frequent religious festivals and cattle fairs.Due to its position on the ancient migratory trail followed by nomadic and postoral communities from Afganistan,Pakistan and Central Asia,western Rajasthan shares a cultural legacy and craft vocabulary with the Sindh( Pakistan) region of the Thar Desert and the Rann of Kachchh. Inset A painted depicted of an elephant, the rayol mount,in full regalia,a palanquin perched on its back.

Languages Marwari Dhundhari Mewari Hadauti Festivals Pushkar Fair Desert Festival Elephant Festival Gangaur Teej Nagaur Cattle Fair Baneshwar Fair Mewar Festival Urs Ajmer Sharif Cuisine Dal-bati-churmaroasted wheat balls and spicy lentil Ghevar-fried wheat cake Bhujia-fired lentils Roasted sangri-desert beans Attire Pagdi,Saafa-turbans Odhna-wrap Odhni-veil Kanchli-kurti-two piece bodice tunic Ghaghra,Lehengagathered skirts Tilak-Muslin women`s overgarment

7 The painted frescoes of a haveli at Shek-hawati juxtapose the imagery of traditional Rajput paintings with that of a world dominated by the British and industrialization.Thus gods,goddesses and martial heroes are accompained by top hatted gentlemen,brass bands,soldiers,angels,trains,motorcars,aeroplanes andd gramophones, creating a novel languages of kitsch. 8 Young camel herders wearing turbans. 9 A woman from the Gujjar Sheep herding community in Jodhpur.

Landmarks Hawa Mahal Jaipur City Palace Badi Chaupar Tripolia Bazaar Galta Amber fort Deeg Keoladeo Ghana National Park Shekhawati Haveli Dorgan Shari Anup Mahal Anup Mahal Mehragarh Fort Mehragarh Fort Umaid Bhawan Palace Badal Vilas Nathmalji`s haveli Jaisalmer fort Bhattiani Rani Temple Kumbhalgarh fort Udaipur Lake Palace Nathdwara Vijay Stambha,Chittorgarh Sunehri Kothi,Tonk Ranthambore National Park

JAIPUR
JAIPUR,THE CAPITAL OF Rajasthan, lies on the eastern fringes of the Thar Desert, a semi-arid land cut southwest to northeast by the Aravallis.At the end of the 11th century,the Kachhawaha clan established their kingdom at Amber.They were one of several powerful Rajput kingdoms,such as the Chauhans of Ajmer and Ranthambore,and the Rathore clan of Marwar region.The early Rajput states engaged in bitter internecine clan wars,but with the rise of the Delhi Sultanate,their energies were directed at safeguarding their territories aganist the marauding Muslim troops.When imperial powerd at Delhi passed to the Mughal emperor Akbar,military and matrimonial alliances were forged between the centralized power at Delhi and the Rajput kingdoms,ushering in an era of cultural and social synthesis that had a great impact on the art and architecture of the region.In the 18th century,the capital of the kachhawahas was shifted to Jaipur,the `City of Victory` located to the south of Amber.Constructed under the supervision of the then ruler Sawai Jai Singh II and Vidhyadhar Chakravarty, a Bengali scholar and engineer,thed city is one of north India`s finest examples of urban planning.Surrounded by a crenulated wall pierced by seven gates,the city`s plan is based on a grid of nine rectangular sectors, believed to represent the nine cosmic divisions of the universe.The grids are linked through a pragmatic system of main streets, intersected by pedestrain lanes leading to workshops and occupational colonies.Also figuring prominetly in the plan are the spacious market squares operated by traders and artisans who migratedd to jaipur due to the tax benefits and other economic incentives provided by Sawai Jai Singh.The Jaipur of today is a melange of the modern and the living memories of the city`s feudal past. ACCESS Jaipur is 262 km from Delhi and is well connected by road, rail and air.Alwar is 150 km from Jaipur, Bagru,35 km and Sanganer,12 km.

Subclusters of JAIPUR Jaipur district: Jaipur, Kaladera, Bagru, Manpur, Sanganer Dausa district: Sikandra, Manpur, Dausa Jhunjhunu district: Shekhawati, Mandawa, Jhunjhunu, Udaipurwati, Lachhmangar Sikar District; Sikar, Ramgarh Sawai Madhopur district: Ranthambore Alwar district:Alwar Tonk district; Tonk,Malpura Kota district:Kota

Craft Meenakari Razai Block making

RESOURCES Raw Materials Meena-enamel Cotton

Sources Australia and Germany Gulabpura and Ganganagar Rajasthan

WoodFarrukhabad sheesham,roheda,bhujan

Crafts of Jaipur Blue pottery of Jaipur Meenakari-enamel work Razai-quilt making Block making Mojari-leather footwear Bahi-clothbound books Sanjhi-paper stencils Stone work Wood and Lac turnery Tarkashi-metal inlay in wood

1 At udaipurwati,jhunjhunu, a craftsman creating the striated lac bangles that simulate the tie-resist-dye leheriya textiles. 2 Sheet metal is manually cut into thin strips that are then inlaid in wood to create the famous tarkashi of Rajasthan. 3 A block maker demonstrating the carving process at his workshop in Jaipur. 4 Amber Fort complex.The palace rooms are richly decorated with mirror work,coloured glass,carved marble,murals,mosaics and stained glass windows.

BLUE POTTERY OF JAIPUR


THE LOW TEMPERATURE glazed pottery of Jaipur is accorded the name`blue pottery` due to its predominantly blue pattens.Wheel turning and moulding techniques are used in commbinationd-the necks and bases are wheel-turned,the body is shaped in a plaster of Paris mould and the separate elements are joined . The surfaces is then engobed, a process involving the application of a clean white coat on the sanded and driedd object so as to make the surface smooth,white and blot free.The patterns, largely florals rendered in the Persian style`are painted on in metal oxided pigments(mineral pigments) and the whole object is given a glass glaze.During the firing,the pigments develop the characteristic brilliant shades of turquoise blue,pale green,yellow and red -brown and the milky glaze turns transparent.Since the presence of water can caused the object to collapse during firing,blue pottery is dried at various stages during its production .The pottry is finished with a transparent glass glaze.Generally, women perform the task of grinding the pigments while men undertake the throwing and moulding of the pottery forms,the painting and the firing.According to local legend,Maharaja Sawai RamII was watching his kite-master complete with other challengers whend the thread of the imperial kite was cut by that of two brothers, Churamani and Kaluram,who were potters and had coated their kite string with the blue green glass-like dust of their pottery.The maharaja was impressed and gave them posts in the School of Arts and settled them in the Goonga Mehra Ki Gali in the Gangori Bazaar;it was thus that blue pottery came to Jaipur. Production Clusters Jaipur district Traditonal: Surahis-narrow necked pitchers Cylindrical jars Contemporary: Ashtray,Flowerpots Lamp Stamds Beads,Ear studs Buttons,Doorknobs Mirror frames Plates,tiles Soap cases Jugs,Mugs Coffee cups Paperweights Incense Burners Tools Thapki-beating tool Patti-metal strip Chaak-potter`s wheel Silbatta-traditional grinding stone Bhatti-kiln Sandpaper,sieves Moulds, brushes

Inset Coaster.Contemporary products like coasters and mugs are being made with improved glazes and reliable structural qualities.

A Blue glazed vase of Persian origin;the influence of this style on the indigenous blue pottery is obvious.

KUNDAN JADAI-GEM SETTING


Production Clusters Jaipur city: Jaudiyon Ka Rasta Jauhari Bazaar Sothanliwalon ka Rasta Products Kundana and meenakari: Ear ornaments: karnaphool jhumkastone set and enamelled floral ear studs with hanging domes Morka karnaphool-a karnaphool variation embellished with peacock forms Bali-earrings Kanjumka-studs with hanging domes Necklaces: Navratan-a necklace combining nine jewels Guluband-chiker Hansli-torque Head Oranaments: Bor/Borla-a three dimensional ornament worn at the central hair parting by married woman Mang-worn at the central hair parting Chand, Rakhdi Mor pati, Dauni Chotla Armlets Bangdi,gokru Chudi, Kada, Gajra Tiva Patiyan Bajuband-flexible gold armlets with kundan set stone;it has twenty or more vertical interlocking units each with a top and bottom loop linked by a cord Hand ornaments: Hathphool-a wristler attached to a decorated motif for the back of the hand and culminating a finger rings Madaliya-heavy gold bangle worn just above the elbow Anklets: Jadat ka jorenamelled anklets Turban ornaments: Sarpech-turban brooch Additional products made in meenakari: Dhaal-shields Talwar-swords Sword hilts Surahi-narrow necked pitchers Wine tumblers,Goblets Animal Figurines THE HOSTILE DESERT environment,coupled with continuous warfare,created strong incentives for investing in goldd adn jewels-mobiles hoards of wealth that were often the mainstay of many a displaced dynasty.On coming to power,the warrior aristocracy of the Rajputs established themselves as descendants not only of the martial Kshatriya caste but also of the epic heroes,tracing their lineage to the sun,the moon and fire;they also made lavish use of jewellery-jewelled fly whisks and gems encrusted weapons as symbolic affirmations of the sancity of their caste. Kundan is a Mughal technique wherein hyper purified gold leaf foil,inverted longitudinally in the space between the chapdi,pavillion wall and the stone,created a flush closed setting for precious and semi-precious stones such as diamonds,rubies,emeralds,sapphires and tourmantines.Since pure gold is completelyd selfweldable while cold,simply by compressions,no soldering is required to create the solidd wedge of goldd that permanently holds the stone in place.A silver or gold coloured fold is placeed below the stone to enable reflection of light through the stone,thus increasing the intensity and brilliance of the stone`s colour.The regional popularity of kundan of light through the stone,thus increasing the intensity and brilliance of the stone`s colour.The regional popularity of kundan owes greatly to the local rulers`need for ostentation in the face of the local scarcity of gold as well as to the adaptablity of the technique to previously enamelled or stone-set objects which might have come to victorious ruler as bounty.

Tools Scissors Damma-file Salai-finishing tool

Kundan necklace with uncut diamonds rubies and emeralds in gold setting and the reverse is enamelled with meenakari.

MEENAKARI-ENAMEL WORK
MEENAKARI,THE FUSION of coloured materials such as cobalt oxide for blue and copper oxide for green onto the metal`s surface to suggest precious stone inlay work,was brought to Jaipur on Raja man Singh`s (r.1590-1614)behest.The design is prepared and given to the sonar,goldsmith,who forms the article.It then passes on to the chhatera who engraves the salai,pattern,onto the gold object using steel styli;the surface of the depressed patterns are serrated to secure the enamel and to increase the play of light and shade in the finished product.Only then does the meenakar,enameller,apply colours, beginning with those most capable of resisting fire-white is normally applied first,the object is cleaned in a strong tamarind solution and polished.Meenakari is often studded with gems on one side while the reverse was lavishly enamelled,the lustre of the enamelled reverse increasing over time due to contact with the wearer`body and clothes .In items that are to be thus ornamented,the meena is done first and the piece then passes from the meenakar to the jadiya,the artisan who undertakes the kundan work and finally to the patua who strings the separate pieces of the necklace or armlet together and adds motis,pearls;beads and tassels. Tools Salai-etching tool Kharati-mugdalmortar and pestle Bhatti-kiln Patra-metal palette Kalam/Taqvatool used to apply enamel Chimtaforceps small scribbling brush

LAC WARE
LAC, A RESINOUS substance produced by the female lac insect found in abundance in the forests of Rajasthan,is formed into a variety of jewellery items,chief among them the chudi or bangle.Although all lac jewellery is regarded as propitious and is worn especially on auspicious occasions,lac bangles are also worn to signify that the wearer is marriedd.The bangles are available in a stunning array of colours and are also frequently studdedd(naqqashi worked)with glass pieces,bright stones,and beads.The traditional bangles are plain and ornamented with leheriya,wave-like patterns of diagonal lines. motifs such as a the patta(straight lines)or phooldar (floral) are etched onto the surface of multiple layers of many hued lac coats,thus revealing the colour embedded in the initial layers. Production Clusters Jaipur city Jhunjhunu district: Udaipurwati Products Bangles Earrings Pendants Necklaces Tools Wooden mallet Die for shaping Punches Tongs Knives

1 A detail of a studded,beaded and etched lac ornament,simulating the much more expensive kundan work. 2 The demand for leheriya patterned lac bangles increases in the monsoon due to the local custom of wearing leheriya,tie-resistdyed fabrics during that season. 3 An etched lac pendant with a beaded chain. 4 A pair of earrrings fashioned from lac. 5 Naqqashi worked bangles;the customer may select the preprepared bangle and the desired pattern at the store itself and the female naqqashi artist sets the stones accordingly.

RAZAI-QUILT MAKING
THE FAME OF THE thin Jaipuri razai is based largely on the superior quality of thedesi rooi,cotton,used.Traditionally,the exceptional warmth and softness of the cotton was enhances through the application of herbal substances that also had the d added benefit of perfuming the quiltsd for long periods of time.The fabrics used include voile,cotton,mulmul,paper silk,satin,silk, and velvet;these may be plain,block printed,screen printed or patchworkedd.Block printed fabrics,by far the most popularly used fabrics,are creatively combined in such a way that each side of the quilt possesses a distinct character. The bharai,filling,is essentially a male dominated craft process and involves the separation of cotton fibres,its uniform distribution over the base sheet of the quilt and the repeated beating of this cotton layer with a broom-like tool.The tagai(quilting) is done by craftswomen;while the traditional quilting is quite thick and uses motifs such as the shakarpari(diamond),the paan ki patti(spade) and thaalid(a circular motif derived from the metal plates from which food is eaten),the comtemporary designs use central squares,checkerboard patterns,waves,sunflower patterns,spirals, and stripes. Production Clusters Jaipur district: Jaipur city: Topkhana ka Rasta Chandpole Bazaar Products Razai-quilts Gadda-quilted cushions Quilted bedspreads Tools Rulers Cardboard cutouts for floral motifs Baans ka pharda/chappar ki falli-stick used for spreading the separated cotton fibres. Chhaapa-broom-like tool used for beating Needles

The placement of a diagonal buti at the corner of the rectangular razai effectively resolves the corner areas of the composition while the bel,or creeper,demarcates the border with large floral buta.The quilting uses the shakarpari or diamondd formation in combination with ovals.

BANDHEJ AND LEHERIYA-TIE-RESIST-DYEING


Production Clusters Bandhej; Jaipur Sikar Alwar Ajmer Sawai Madhopur Leheriya: Jaipur Jodhpur Products Odhna-wrap Chunari-veil Dupatta-stole Saafa,Pagddi-turban cloths Sari Yardage Tools Thread,Dye vats Point metal ring Stencil,Block TIE-RESIST-DYEING is common to Rajasthan,Gujarat,Madhya Pradesh and Madurai; in Bandhej,the Rajasthani variation, a configuration of dots is achieved by tying small knots on a pretracedd or stamped design in order to protect these areas when the fabric is dyed.The dyeing process is executed in stages, working from the lightest colour to successively darker hues;the intricacy of the design is governed by the base fabric-usually mulmul,muslin,voile,medium and heavier cottons.The choice of material in turn is dependent on the intended usage of the fabric-thin cottons were used for the saafa,pagdid and dupatta;mulmul for the odhni and slightly thicker cottons for skirts.The Rajasthani bandhej may be differentiated from its Gujarati counterpart by its employment of large dots called dabbiddd and concentric rings in different colours as well as through its use of various colour combinations to denote specific social positions, be it in terms of community(Rajput,Bishnoi,Jat etc),marital status or occupational (pastoral, mercantile or warrior).For instance,women for the Bishnoi community wear veils that have red grounds patterned with black circular forms,and black dip-dyed edges and yellow veils with red dots are worn by young mothers to denote that the newborn child is male. Leheriya,a tie-resist technique used to create colourful diagonal or zigzag stripes across the fabric that has been rolled,tied and dyed,is unique to Rajasthan.The pattern imitates the leher,wave,a symbol of rain and bountiful harvest-themes that have great relevance in the arid landscape of the region.Mothra is an extension of the leheriya where two sets of diagonal lines cross each other creating small rectangular spaces resembling moth,pulses,which are located between the checks.The dyes used are kuchha,fugitive,so that unwanted colour is discharged or removed in order to achieve a pure colour and lines with a graphic quality.Worn as turbans or veils leheriya textiles are usually of very fine cotton or silk, fabricsd that facilitate such usage as well as allow the dye to penetrate to the innermost portions of the coiled or rolled fabric.Leheriya and mothra are worn primarily during the festivals of Gangaur and Teej,which mark the coming of the Spring and advent of the monsoon respectively.

a,b.c Leheriya and mothra turban cloths from a private collection in Jaipur.

A rare and old leheriya turban cloth with gold or khadi worked motifs.khadi work requires the adhesive to be printed on cloth,which is subsequently dusted with gold powder.

The dense and intricate patterning of this antique odhni, veil, on the right, suggests that it was made for the business community and by craftsmen in Shekhawati.

The term pilo or piliya refers to the colour yellow and its association with spring, blossoms and joyful happiness; when a child is born in a family, the young mother`s parents visit, bringing with them a set of clothes which include a yellow odhni ornamented with the lotus motif, the symbol of fertility.

Detail of an unopened mothra fabric,the precise tie-resist-dyed area Bandhej from the SawaiMadhopur region is characterized by its employment of is clearly visible. the stitched-resist cowrie,shell motif.

BLOCK MAKING
Production Clusters Jaipur city Products Wooden blocks Wooden block with wire Rekh-outline/lead block Dattaforeground/filling block Gadhdbackground/blotc block Tools Compass,Hammer Drawing tool Impression Tool Drilling tool Chisels,Files Sandpaper,Saw THE TRADITIONAL OF making hand-printed textiles,widely practices in both Rajasthan and Gujarat is characterized by the use of imprints of geometric as well as stylized floral and animal forms.Both areas therefore have craft clusters that specialize in making blocks for block printing.These follow a specific grammar which consists of the online or lead block,known as the rekh,the datta or the foreground filler block.and the gadh,the baclground or blotch block.The specialty of the blocks from Jaipur is the depth and intricacy of the carving,which allows for a cleaner surface and clearer printing.Also peculiar to Jaipuri blocks is the numnber of air passages, or pavansar,drilled through the blocks to ensure circulation of air in the block during the printing thus preventing the fabric from lifting when the block is raised. The reverse side of a block,the handle and the holes drilled to ensure the passage of air through the block. Due to its innate strenght,blocks made of sheesham may last through 200 metres of printing and are therefore generally used for the outline or rekh blocks.Due to high cost of teak wood it is gradually being replaced by cheaper woods such as roheda and bhujan. The carved rekh or outline block includes the minute details of the pattern including the veings of the leaves and the individual petals.

The datta or filler block with the form of the entire flower raised in high relief.

The datta or filler block with only the leaf patterns in relief.

The gadh,or background block with the base forms that are to be printed in solid colour blocks.

A hand drill is used to carve out the positive areas of the block in high relief.

The border of a block printed Sanganeri textile;the formsd utilizedd derive from the traditional vocabulary.

BLOCK PRINTING OF BAGRU AND SANGANER


ALTHOUGH BOTH ARE practiced in the vicinity of Jaipur and share a common vocabulary of bel(creepers),buta and buti (floral motifs of varying sizes) and jaal(floral net),the block printing traditional of Sanganer and Bagru have distinct visual identities and social contexts.Selected for its abundance of soft water and clay suitable for the process of sunbleaching fabrics,Sanganer was developed into a major printing centre under the patronage of the Jaipur royal family. Sanganer`s graceful curvilinear floral motifs and colour palette of reds and blacks printed against sun-bleached white,cream or grey-blue backgrounds are defined as much by its employment of the direct printing technique as the Mughal influencedd aesthetic prevalent at the court. Characterized by the sheen given to the finished cloth by the waters of the Sanjara River and a robust colour palette of indigo,black and red , green,pink and orange derived from natural sources;and the mud resist,dyed and mordant prints of Bagru catered to the folk,trading,agricultural and artisan communities that constituted the local population.Each of these communities had a specific sartorial code;the combination of colours and motifs used on a printed skirt,veil or garment could identify the wearer`s community and occupation as well as the season. Inset Floral buti,motif Production clusters Bagru Sanganer Products Dupatta-stoles Odhna-wraps Angocha-towels Saafa,pagdi-turbans Sari Block printed yardage Razai covers Bedcovers Cushion Covers Tablecloth Tools Chhaapa-wooden blocks Tari-colour tray Parat-colour pad Thapi-scraper Thathi-bamboo lattice

Stylized floral buti

Stylized floral buti

Stylized floral forms used as buti.Bagru.

A Buta ,larger floral form.Bagru.

Dabu,mud resist printd in asmani style of colouring

The jaal, used here as a floral net covering the entire surface of the fabric.Sanganer.

Various buti used in the prints of Sanganer.

A singular buta derived from the poppy flower;the border is created through a bel,or vine.

MOJARI -LEATHER FOOTWEAR


Production clusters Jaipur district Jhunjhunu district: Mandawa Products Mojari with: Stitched detailing Embroidery Tassels Braided leather uppers Zari embroidery Sequins Slingbacks Open-toed mojari Mules Tools Ari-awl Rampa-skiving tool Khurpi-scraping tool Hammer THE MOJARI,OR the traditional leather footwear of Rajasthan may be identified by their soft upper of cow,goat or buffalo leather;thick buffalo leather;thick buffalo leather sole and heel are constructed of layers of leather that are glued together and then stitched with cotton thread.The thermal properties of the locally sourced vegetable tanned leather acts in combination with the thick sole to insulate the wearer from the extremes of the desert climate,an extremely useful charactteristic in footwear worn mostly by farmers who walk across the rough terrain of the region,the sand dunes and thorny,muddy pathways.Since Rajasthani women usually donot work the fields but cater to household chores,the footwear made for their use is thinner soled and usually embellished with red tassels.Generally,the men perform the leather work,including the ornamental punching and studding , while the women undertake the embroiderey,which is done either directly on leather or on textile (natural or synethic) in woollen,cotton or silk the threads are selected depending on the material of the upper surface.Recently.the craft has begun to cater to the urban and export market;consequently,the previously unidirectional mojari is now being made with a left-right distinction although still using the three-piece last integral to indigenous footwear construction technology.

Mojari embroidered in bright colours are usually worn by women from Meghwal community. The traditional plain mojari,still made for the farming communities of Rajasthan.

Mojari produced using local technology where the upper is stitched to the sole with cotton thread;the back is left open but the front of the upper extends to the back to a substantial extent.

The demand of sequined footwear in the European market is reflected in the plethora of sequin embellished mojari flooding the shops of Jaipur. The open-toed mojari,another recent development.

HAND MADE PAPER


THE KAGZI,A Community that traditionally specialized in the making of paper,are said to have accompanied the Mughal emperor Babur to India in the 16th century and eventually settled in Sanganer on the invitation of the then ruler of Jaipur,Maharaja Jai Singh.The Local handmade paper is made from recycled cloth and waste paper,and usually incorporates natural materials such as grass,flowers and petals as decorative elements.It is acid free, does not contribute to the escalating deforestation and does not consume as much energy and water as machine made paper,thus making it the most ecofriendly option.It is also more durable than machine produced paper and does not tear easily or facilitate erasure and forgery. 1. Handmade paper embedded with petals. 2. Patterns printed on handmade paper in relief using thick past. 3. A book bound with block printed paper. 4. Packaging. Production Clusters Jaipur district: Sanganer Products Handmade paper Tools Tray-like-sieve Scissors Vats

FELT PRODUCTS
FELT,A FABRIC made by matting and compressing wool using water and soap,is used in Rajasthan,Kachchh and Kashmir to create rugs known as namda that are plain , embroidered or appliqued.Felt may also be moulded and formed into products such as felted spherical buttons,rope belts,bags,and shoes.At present,both handmade and machine made varieties of felt Felted slippers are prepared by moulding the wool fibres on to a cast;stitching is not required in the construction. are produced at Jaipur,Tonk and Malpura with cream,brown and black wool sourced from Shekhawati,Beawar and Jodhpur,as well as finer quality of wool from Sikar and Kashmiri wool A moulded felt bag.Innovations such as moulded bags and slippers have been introduced by international designers. Production Clusters JAipur city: Baans ki Puliya Products Namda Buttons,Rope Belts Bags,Shoes Tools Peental-used to open fibres Pheda-used to spread fibres Chaapa-pressing tool Winnowing machine

BAHI-CLOTHBOUNDED BOOKS
BAHI ARE HANDBOUND acconting books,the white and yellow pages of which are horizontally creased at specific intervals to create columns.Although these creases were once manually executed they are now machine pressed in bulk;similarly the previously handquilted cover is now machine stitched in bold white thread.The cover is invariably in traditional red colour,believed to be auspicious due to its association with lakshmi,the goddess of wealth;this association is restated in the second leafd of the bahi where a hymn,the words shubh labh,`good luck`,and an image of the goddess are printed.The cover is bordered with green,yellow and blue striped niwar, or nylon tape,in order to prevent the edges from fraying through frequent usage. Sectional stitchedd leather bound book;the length of black string around its middle is looped to prevent the book from falling open. In Udaipur, the craftsmen have adapted to the tasted of urban consumers tourists and the export market and they have developed a wide range of handbound books-the covers may be made of leather,zari fabric,silk and printed cotton while the paper used may be handmade paper with flowers,threads,rice paper or machine produced paper. Clothbound accounting books of various sizes displayed at a shop in Jaipur. Production Clusters Jaipur City: Chauda Rasta Udaipur city Products Bahi-books Tools Cardboard Fabrics Cotton twine Large eyed needle Sewing machine

A bahi khata,sectional stitched book with a machine quilted cover,from Ahmedabad, in Gujarat.

SANJHI-PAPER STENCILS
Production Clusters Alwar Products Paper Stencils Tools Scissors Knife SANJHI-THE STENCILS of paper for ritualistic and ceremonial rangolis,floor decorations,originated in Mathura, where it is practiced in temples and homes in rituals dedicated to Lord Krishna. While the temple craft is practiced exclusively by male priests and their male apprentices,the popular version of Sanjhi is undertaken chiefly by unmarried girls all over northern Indian due to the belief that the goddess Sanjhi,if propitiated with offerings of food and water and duly worshipped, will aid them in obtaining a suitable husband.Intricate patterns,drawn on various types of paper, are cut out to form a stencil.The use of flowers for the rangoli has been surperceded by the use of powdered colours;contemporary sanjhi include floating rang made by gentdly sifting colour onto the surface of water.The themes are largely religious but increasingly,secular designs comprising motifs such as the silhouette of a palace ,jaali and bel-buli are being adopted.

1. A paper stencil of a pavillion. 2. A sanjhi depicting Lord Krishna dancing on the snake kalia. 3. An intricately executed stencil of a jaali.

TERRACOTTA OF SAWAI MADHOPUR


Production Clusters Sawai Madhopur district Sawai Madhopur Products Decorative figurines of animals Decorative plaques Votive plaques idols Toys Pots Tools Chak-potter`s wheel Bhal-finishing tool Tools for engraving decorative patterns THE SMALL COMMUNITY OF kumbhars,traditional potters,at Sawai Madhopur create a wide range of decorative figurines,paperweights and plaques of animals and deities in addition to the usual array of pots.The mitti, clay,taken from the banks of the nearby Banas River is cleaned thoroughly so as to remove all unwanted elements such as straw and stones.The clay is then stored and used as and when required. An Approximated quantity of prepared mud is placed on the wheel and turned until the desired shape is achieved.The form is cut using a length of ordinary thread,manually shaped and polished until smooth.The object is dried in the sun for two hours,in the shade for another two and finally fired. 1. A decorative clay plaque. 2. A clay tortoise,its shell ornamented with embossed patterns. 3. Sculpted figurines of a horse and a crocodile.

STONE WORK
STONE RELIEF AND LATTICE WORK STONE CARVING HAS a long history in Rajasthan,a land rich in a variety of granities,marbles,quartzite,slates and other metamorphic rocks.Most of the local palaces sport intricate jaali worked sandstones and marble screens and windows,especially in the zenana,women`s quarter,which were used in order to enable women in purdah to view the events of the court without being seen.The screens also offered protection from the elements while allowing unhindered passage of fresh air to the interiors.Of the many designs still prevalent today the most widely used are the badroom, khammi badroom,phooldchava, jhaniya,phool chowkri,bel badroom and gol tejdar;most of these appear to have assimilated stylistic elements of the Mughal court.

A phoolchava lattice panel,sikandra. Details of a sculpted pillar at the city Palace,Jaipur.

Production Clusters Jaipur district: Jaipur Alwar district: Alwar Dausa district: A carved relief frieze, A Carved garden lamp at the Raj Sikandra Sikandra. Vilas Palace, Jaipur. Manpur Dausa Products Murti-idols of gods and goddesses Dola pavti-stand on which the idols are placed Portrait busts Name Plates Chhatri for Temples Figurines of Animals and birds Statues Lattice work panels Tiles Partitions Brenches Pedestals Mihrab-arched doorways Temple gate Tools IDOL MAKING. IDOLS OF VARIOUS hindu and Jain deities are carved out of Hataudi-hammer marble sourced from Makrana,Bhainslana and jhiri, a village in Bhopra-chisel used Alwar district.Due to the demand for cheaper idols,most of the for rough blocking idols created now are painted with bright oil colours,thus Chapti-tool used for allowing for the use of poorer quality stone,cruder smoothening the workmanship,faster execution and lower prices.Another widely stone prevalen practice is the colouring of cheap stones with a Chheni-chisels mixture of coconut or mustard oil and lampback to simulat black marble.Occasionally,idols of Shankar,Durga,Ganesh,the Nargi,ChaurasiShiv parivar (family),Ram durbar (court), and tableaux of Ram, chisels Sita and Lakshman as well as those of Jain saints are Sua,Taku-fine chisels commissioned for temples.In these instances the very same Patti-stone used for craftsmen responsible for the creation of the cheap painted idols polishing employ their traditional training and skills to carve highly Guniya / Katkonadetailed,ornate sculptures. right angle Prakaar-divider An array of painted Drill idols stands ready for sale in a Files workshop in Jaipur. Emery

A marble idol of Ganesha.

KATPUTLI - PUPPETS
Production Clusters Jaipur district: Jaipur city; Hawa Mahal Bazaar Katpulti colony Nagaur district: Vadaj village Products Sapera-snake charmer Jaadoogar-magician Raja-Rani- king and queen Shivaji Nawab Soldiers Gujjar Women Local Rulers: Amar Singh Rathore Maharaha Jai Singh Maharana Pratap Mansingh Tools Thread, Needle Axe,Scissor File, Paintbrush THE CRAFT OF making puppets,or katputli, was practiced by the Putlis Bhats, a community of performing artists who travelled from village to village with their portable theatres entertaining gatherings with depictions of the exploits of local heroes in exchange for remuneration in cash,livestock or a portion of the patron`s harvest.As this form of entertainment gained popularity with the royal courts,the Putli Bhat community settled in different kingdoms developing puppets in the image of the ruler,the queen and members of court such as the court dancer,acrobats,snake charmers,magicians and ministers;and a narrative repertoire based on tales of the king`s bravery,kindness and numerous conquests. 1. The snake charmer,depicted with his tools of trade. 2. A craftsman manipulates the magician puppet,so that its head detached itself from its body. THE CRAFT OF making puppets,or katputli, was practiced by the Putlis Bhats, a community of performing artists who travelled from village to village with their portable theatres entertaining gatherings with depictions of the exploits of local heroes in exchange for remuneration in cash,livestock or a portion of the patron`s harvest.As this form of entertainment gained popularity with the royal courts,the Putli Bhat community settled in different kingdoms developing puppets in the image of the ruler,the queen and members of court such as the court dancer,acrobats,snake charmers,magicians and ministers;and a narrative repertoire based on tales of the king`s bravery,kindness and numerous conquests.

3 A musician puppet 4 The puppet representing a Rajput has a shield and sword, symbols of the martial aristrocrary of Rajasthan. 5 The raja-rani puppets,the highest selling katputli in the craftsman`s repertoire.

WOOD AND LAC TURNERY


Production Clusters Kota Products Wooden toys Dandiya sticks Belan - rolling pin Tools Kharad - lathe Chisels Mathana - beating tool 1. Turned and lac coated wooden sticks are used during the annual dandiya dance. 2. A craftsman creating grooves at the end of a dandiya;these are used to THE TURNED WOOD products of Kota,although once a major craft activity in the region is now practiced by only two elderly craftsmen.Locally available safeda wood is machine cut into the required shape and turned on a hand-operated lathe.Sticks of coloured lac are pressed against the revolving wooden object to create single or multiple bands of colour;more complex designs and colour schemes may also be affected by manipulating the lac turnery.The object is then polished with oil on a kevda leaf to give it a smooth and shiny finish.

GOTA WORK
Production Clusters Jaipur district: Nyle village Khandela village Jaipur city: Jauhari Bazaar Products Seekhiya gota-simple tape Lappa gota-twillTRADITIONALLY Gota ribbons were woven with a wrap of flatened gold woven tape and silver wire and a weft of silk/cotton thread and used as functional and Siru Gotat-striated decorative trims for a variety of garments and textiles used by the tape royalty,members of the court,temple idols and priests, as well as for altar cloths at shrines and prayer offerings.With the subsequent substitution of Thappa gota-heat set pure gold and silver with gilt or lurex and the mass production of gota on tape electrically powered swivel looms at Surat and Ajmer,gota came to be used Gokhru-handby all communities and castes of Rajasthan.consideredd to be shagan,a crimpled tape symbol of good omen and good will, gota may be used as kinari,edging, or Tools cut and manipulated into motifs that are sewn onto garments and turbans Loom worn during weddings and festivals such as Id,Diwali,Dussehra,Sharad Needle,Thread, Purnima,Holi,Teej and Gangaur.In the Technique of gota tukdi,gota is cut Details of a blouse sleeve on which zari into shapes such as the gamla Scissors embroidery,gota patti and appliqued beetle (flower pot),kairi(mango) and champak flower, and appliqued onto a base wings have been used;the pure gold gota and fabric embellished with embroidery techniques such as zardozid and ari.Gota Ari-hook Wooden frame the use of beetle wings suggest that this patti involves the folding of tapes into basic rhomboid units,referred to as blouse was owned by members of the royalty. patti or leaves and combining them to create elaborate motifs and patterns that are sewn onto turbans,garments,baskets,thalposh or platter covers, and 1 Details of an antique kurti,the sleeveless hookah. garment worn over the choli;gokhru,or handcrimped tape, has been sewn onto the fabric in Inset An antique choli,blouse,embellished entirely in gota work;three types scalloped patterns.As the crimping may be of gota-the seekhiya,lappa and gokhru-of pure gold, are used in combination. done only on real metal tapes,this gota is not made anymore. 2 Detail of the siru gota,used here to embellish the edge of a lehenga or skirt. 4 Women at a market in Mandawa;their odhni is made of bandhej textiles ornamented with bankadi trims and appliqued gota rosettes. 5 Sal gota edged tapes embellished with gota tukdi work are manufactured at Surat and sold by the metre at the Jaipur market.

TARKASHI-METAL INLAY IN WOOD


TARKASHI,A TECHNIQUE of inlaying fine flattened wire of brass,copper or silver in wood,is practiced by the jangid community who migrated from MAinpuri in Uttar Pradesh to Jaipur about 45 years ago.Dark coloured and seasoned sheesham wood is used as its high oil content allows the inlaid metal to be held securely.The patterns,usually geometric forms or florals of Mughal inspiration,are drawn on the wood and then engraved with a half round chisel and hammer to a depth of 1 mm.thin strips are cut from sheet metal,heated over a flame, The lid of a sheesham wood box,its surface heavily inlaid with slim strips of brass sheet. cooled to remove the temper in this strip and straightened;the resultant metal wire is beaten into the previously created grooves with a hammer.Small coiled dot-like forms called bhiriyan,an element unique to tarkashi,are beaten directly into wood.After the surface is evened with a sander,or silli,fine sheesham sawdust mixed with diluted adhesive is applied over the entire surface until all the gaps are filled.The object is then planed,sanded with a water based emery paper and machine buffed to give it a smooth polish Production Clusters JAipur Products Jewellery box,Bangles Circular boxes Circular boxes Trays,Plates Mirrors,Photo Frames Animal Figures Tools Kainchi-metal cutting scissors Silli-stone for sanding wood Chisels, Files Prakaar-compass Chimti-forceps Randha-planer Bharmi kamani-hand drill

Details of a tarkashi ornamented table with both the characterstics curvilinear wave pattern and the small coiled dot-like forms called bhiriyan.

CRAFTS OF AJMER Phad painting Miniature paintings on wood Leather work Marble carving Subclusters of Ajmer Ajmer district: Gangrar Pushkar Kishangarh Tilonia,Beawar Bhilwar district: Bhilwar

Craft Marble carving of Kishangarh

RESOURCES Raw Materials Marble

Sources Makrana

Inset Corner detail of an embroidered cushion cover from Tilonia.

3 Ajmer Sharif,the mausoleun of the Sufi saint Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti,is inundated with pilgrims during the Urs or death anniversary of the saint,when spirited Sufi singers sing the saint`s praises in front of his tomb. 1 A mural on the wall of a local 4 A craftsman and member of the Jawaja leather Association house;the painting resembles in Beawar,rolling wet leather to soften it. the phad or painted narrative scrolls. 2 Fountains carved out of marble on display at a marble mandi enroute to Kishangarh.

LOCATED AT THE foot of the Ajmeru Hill is the city of Ajmer that was founded by Raja Ajay Pal Chauhan in the 7th century.After the defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan,Ajmer fell to the Mughals.Remnants of the period of their Mughal sovereignty over the region include a fort built by the emperor Akbar,elegant marble pavilions that were built by Shah Jahan set in a pleasure garden on the banks of the Anasagar lake, and the two marble mosques built by Akbar and Shah Jahan in the 16th adnd 17th centuries at the famous dargarh,shrine complex,of the sufi saint Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti.Akbar ,perhaps chishti`s most famous devotee,is believed to have walked barefoot all the way from Agra to Ajmer,a distance of 363 km, as thanksgiving after the birth of his heir,Salim,the future emperor also known as Jehangir.Kishangarh,a neighbouring principality that spawned as influential miniature painting tradition,is situated near Makrana,India`s main marble mandi,market.

ACCESS Ajmer is 135km from Jaipur and well connected with all the major towns of Rajasthan.

PHAD PAINTING
PABUJI AND DEV NARAYAN,medieval Rajput heroes from western Rajasthan,are widely worshipped througout the state as folk deities;the principal form of worship entails night-long narrations of their deeds by the Bhopas,wandering priest-bards of Rajasthan.These performances are held in front of the phad, painted narrative scrolls that function as portable temples of the deity and ads pictorial aids.The narratin is accompained by ravanhatta,a violin -like instrument.The phad is composed in square panels,each illustrating a particular incident of the epic;assistants standing behind the Bhopa infold the scroll as the story proceeds and the showman points to the relevant depiction as he sings and mimes.The phad is painted on thick canvas that is about 30 feet long and five feet wide and is prepared by members of the joshi clan.The colour palette consists of bright orange,red ,yellow,black,blue,green and brown,derived from stones and minerals.The colours are prepared by the women artisans while the preparation of the canvas through applications of starch and kheriya gond(indigenous glue)and ghotana (burnishing)is done by men.The painters, invariably male,begin with aregana or chakna,drawing a rough layout of the sequences with a brush laden with diluted yellow colour.The centre of the composition is occupied by the hero who is always shown facing right;depictions of incidents are arranged around him not according to a linear narrative progession but as per their specific spatial context within the tale.Ornate borders ,creepers,tree,rivers and buildings are used as scene dividers and the entire composition is enclosed within a thick border that is always painted an auspicious red. 1. A contemporay phad ddepicting the tale of Krishna`s birth and his childhood in Vrindavan. 2. A detail from a phad. Production clusters Bhilwara Shahpura Products Painted scrolls based on: Pabuji,Mataji Dev Narayan Hanuman Chalisa Prithviraj Chauhan Jhansi ki Rani Tools Brushes Aqiq-agate stone

MINIATURE PAINTING ON WOOD


KISHANGARH,THE COURT OF Raja Kishen,was like most contempory Rajput principalities,the locus of a distinct regional idiom of miniature painting.The Kishangarh School was characterizedd by its sensuality,lyricism,refined draughtsmanship and highly stylized figures with slender bodies,elongated faces,arched eyebrows and lotus-like eyes. PRoduction Clusters The colour palette consisted of ganguli Kishangarh (yellow) ,singhrep Products (red),sindhoor Miniatures on paper (orange),harabata and cloth (green) and neelbat (blue).The Painted furniture: predominat themes Tables were religious Sofas parables or legendsChairs most popularly that Jhula-swings of Radha and Krishna,tales from Vases local folkdlorde and Tools scenes from the Brushes court.Local artisans began extending their painting skills to wooden furniture about a decade back.The style use was no longer that of Kishangarh but a

1. A folding chair.On its backrest are painted three Rajput warriors riding in stately progression. 2. A folding chair with a painting of an emperor riding an elephant. 3. A Wooden box,it upper surface embellished with a depiction of Ganesha,the elephant god.

hybrid of the various miniature traditions of RAjasthan.

LEATHER WORK
Production Clusters Ajmer Beawar Tilonia Products Bags,Belts,Boxes Purse,Folders Pouches,Pouffes Waistcoats, Jackets Cushions Jutti - footwear Tools kataar - stitching needle Baas ki Chail-bamboo stick Satikar - for cleaning leather Raapa - scraper Scissor , Awl TRADITIONALLY,the Raigar community-leather workers of this region-used to make and repair jutti, footwear,harnesses and charas,bags for pulling water out of wells.With industrialization,the advent of newer materials and mass production,the craftsmen were forced to initiate a new product range catering to a hitherto untapped urban market.The hides,usually of cows,goats and buffaloes,are bought at the leather mandi at the Beawar bypass and soaked in fresh water.It is later soaked in a solution of brine and the sap of a small green plant called aakh so as to facilitate the scraping off of excess skin (chilai) and the hair with broad and blunt edged knives respectively. The hide are tanned in pits or bags using the tannin of the bark of the babul tree.Before it is used,leather is cleansed and stretchedd;only then is it cut according to cardboard patterns and stitched with thick cotton yarn or thin leather strips.A variety of braiding and knotting techniques as well as brass rivets are used as functional and decorative jointing techniques; the leather may also be coloured,glazed ,punched,embrossed or branded. A new product developed in Jawaka from cow and buffalo leather. This tote bag with a highly restrained sense of decoration uses the texture of leather thongs over a burnished leather surface.This product represents a new design direction that provides continuity to a traditional craft. Moulded and fabricated leather trays with the typical Jawaja stitch were created as product diversification to extend traditional skills to new applications.Methods of staining leather have been used. Leather slip-ons made by the Tilonia craftsman are part of the diversification efforts to extend the traditional skills of artisans.

Diversified products such as the embroidered leather bag seen hered are made by the craftspersons in Tilonia.

MARBLE CARVING
Production Clusters Kishangarh Products Mandir-shrines Stands,Pedestals Pots,Vases Tables Figurines of animals Murti-idols Ashtrays Chakla and belanplatform and rolling pin Lamp Tools Hammer Chisels KISHANGARH IS CLOSE to Makrana which is renowned for its translucent white marble;hard,durable and finely grained,it is exceptionally suitable for fine detailing and intricate carving.The pearly clarity,lustre and fine texture of the marble is utilizedd to maximum effect at the famed Taj Mahal,the mausoleum built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan for his decreased wife.At present,India`s largest marble mandi is situated along the highway near Makrana;one of the workshops even boasts a feature in the Guinness Book of Records for having quarried a record 5,05,366 tonnes of marble blocks during the year 1998.The products ,largely turned on a power lathe,are produced in the city but sold here. Exquistely carved marble work at the Jain Dilwara temples in Mount Abu.

BIKANER
FOUNDED IN 1486,Bikaner was one of three great Desert kingdoms of Rajasthan and ,like Jodhpur and Jaisalmer,propered because of its strategic locatin on the overland caravan trade route to Central Asia and China.In the greater part of the territory the plain is undulating or interspersed with shifting sand hills,the slopes of which are lightly furrowed from the action of the wind.Some of these sand dunes are moving while others are fairly stable due to the trees and shrubs growing on them.The grey-brown desert soil combined with the dry climate and extremes of temperature are not conducive to agriculture;consequently the local foliage primarily consists of brushwood called jorbir,and tress such as khijri,ber,sheesham,papal and roheda-the khirji and ber bear edible fruit while the wood and twigs of the others cater to the local requirements for domestic construction,agricultural implements and fuel.Situated to the west of Bikaner,the district of Churu was part of the former princely state.It is land of Sand dunes with almost negligible vegetal cover;although uncommon,sheesham and roheda wood provide timber and are used for furniture carving. ACCESS Bikaner is connected by rail and road to Jaipur,Jodhpur,Ahmedabad and Delhi. RESOURCES Raw Materials Sources Cotton Surat Silk Bangalore Amritsar Jaipur

Craft Bandhej

Meenakari and Colour-kaans kundan jewellery Stones Crafts of BIKANER Usta kaam-gesso painting Meghwal embroidery Bhitti Chitra-wall painting Miniature painting Sandalwood carving Silverware Meenakari and Kundan Jewellery Subclusters of Bikaner Bikaner district: Bikaner Churu district Churu

1 The painted facade of a haveli at Bikaner, 2 Due to the scarcity of wood in this region,most homes are fashioned out of mud.Extensively decorated shelf-like extensions and alcoves of mud,known locally as beel,are used t o stack vvessels, boxes,store embroidery threads and sundry items.

3 Jat women sitting together while embroidering products that have helped extend their skills for income generation.

A box intricately worked in usta kaam.

USTA KAAM-GESSO PAINTING


Production Clusters Bikaner City Uston ka Mohalla Products Surahi-water container Kuppi - perfume container Jewellery boxes Photo frames Mirror frames Paintings Lampshades Tools Brushes THE CRAFT DERIVES its name from its makers, the Usta, a community of craftsmen who migrated from Multan in Pakistan to the Mughal court at Delhi and later, on being invited by Raja Rai Singh, to Bikaner. Usta kaam,the application of the glue-like gesso paint, requires a clean and smooth surface as a base;hence the technique was usedd to ornament the walls,pillars and ceilings of Bikaner`s junagadh Fort and Anup Mahal with resplendent golden motifs of delicate floral and animal forms,often set against detailing in radiant colours.During the colonial period,Usta Kaam began to be executed on camel leather-saddles and bags that were commonly used for transporting water,The craft process begins with the making of a clay mould on which a piece of previously cleaned and softened camel hide is stretched.The joints in the mould and the ends of the stretched leather are joined using a paste of methi,fenugreek,seeds and animal fat and the pieces is dried in the sun for a minimum of 48 hours before the mould is removed.

A highly ornate photoframes. Then begins the Akbar, or design making process,wherein the pattern is embossed onto the surface using a paste of powddered bricks mixed with jaggery and fenugreek seed powder.The coloured areas are first painted in,followed by gold detailing and thin black outlines that serve to define the motifs and background.Finally,the ground colour,usually red and green,is applied and the entire surface is coated with a traditionally prepared varnish called chandras.The most popular gesso compositions at Bikaner is the Taarabandi, traditional design simultating a star studded sky;and naqqashi, a pattern of minute flowers and motifs drawn in a space the size of a thumbnail. Inset Detail of the high relief gold gesso work done on a vase.

An unpainted camel hide vase.

Vases,gesso painted in the high relief characteristics of Usta kaam. An unpainted camel hide vase.

A painted vase,the florals executed in gold frame,the image of an amorous couple painted in the style of the Rajasthani Miniatures.

GANGAUR IDOL MAKING


TRADITIONALLY,during the festival of Gangaur,observed on the second day after Holi,around March every year,women kneaded the ashes from the Holika fire with mud to create idols of the goddess Gangaur,who is associated with new crops and is worshipped for her ability to confer conjugal bliss and good husbands.Today these have been substituted with wooden and clay idols made by the Suthar community and painted by the artists of the Matheran and Usta communities.Although originally a festival of the upper caste Thakurs,Rajputs,Baniyas and Brahmins,other castes have begun to celebrate Gangaur too.Since the traditional idols were made to resemble the worshipper,the local artisans have developed a repertoire of idols of various sizes and varying dress. Thus ,the doll made of the Baniya (business community) wears a small head ornament known as the rakhadi,a short blouse that reveals the stomach, a fine odhni or veil,and a lehenga or wide skirt.On the other hand,the idol made for Rajput women is dressed in a kurti and kanchali, a two - piece blouse that covers the stomach.All Gangaur idols,however,have big eyes,sharp noses,slim waists,thin fingers and a youthful appearence. Production Clusters Bikaner: Bhujia market Products Gangaur Isar Tools Chisels Carving Tools

1 A semi-finished idol of Gangaur in a sitting position.The skirt cloth is wrapped later. 2 Isar,the consort of the goddess Gangaur, Dressed differently in simulation of thed different castes of Rajasthan. 3 A variation of Isar.The idol is still to be attired. 4 The goddess Gangaur,dresseddd in bridal finery with a large lehenga,rakhadi and gota-edged odhni.

MEGHWAL EMBROIDERY
DUE TO ITS location on the migratory routes from Central Asia,Africa,Afganistan and Pakistan to India,The Thar Desert has been subject to a variety of cultural influences that have shaped its crafts-notably embroidery,bandhej,(tiedye),block printing and pottery. Despite the later division of the Thar region through the creation of political boundaries,the crafts of the Thar continue to share a common vocabulary and sensibility,a phenomenon perhaps best exemplifiedd by the embroidery and applique of the Meghwal,an artisan community who proctice weaving,leather tanning and wood work.The Meghwal migrated from Pakistan to Kachchh and Rajasthan;a Significant number have settled in the villages of the Bajju region of Bikaner district.Embroidery forms a key component of their visual culture as it is executed on products that are worn or given during marriage and on dowry objects.Consequently, the embroidery make use of mirrors and is characterized by its refined craftsmanship,dense coverage, rich colours,and elaborated motifs and finished edges.Meghwal embroidery may be broadlyd classified as pako,or solid and permanent, and kacho,or temporary. Inset Wall painting:the peacock motif used in suf embroidery. Detail of a bokani,headscarf embroidered for the groom.The peacoak is regarded as a noble bird and is symbolic of a bridegroom.Executed in suf embroidery consisting of triangular units done in surface darning stitch.Stitched from the reverse side over counted threads of the base cloth,with floss silk that rests on the face side,covering the entire surface of the unit and the Production Clusters Bikaner district: Kolayat tehsil Bajju village Tools Needle Thread Scissors Products Traditional; Malir-shoulder cloth for the groom Bokani-groom`s ceremonial scarf,worn over a sofa Rumal-ceremonial square cloth Kadbandhan-groom`s waistband Kanchali-blouse worn by married women khalechi-bag gifted to the groom Nolee-money belt Batua-small purse Thailo-bag for dowry items Comtemporary: Garments,Bags Purses,Pouchers Cushion covers Bed Covers

Women of the Meghwal community wearing a kanchali,blouse,that has been embroidered by them. The pako tradition utilizes geometrical forms,densely covered embroidery of chain stitch variations and herringbone stitch,and block printed outlines for the embroidery.Kacho embroidery is distinguished by its use of counted thread work techniques such as suf,kharek,kambhiri and mucca.Suf has triangular forms executed in darning stitch;aggregates of triangles are used to create a variety of motifs such as the peacocks,tree of life,temple and hill.Kharek,a technique named after the date fruit,uses satin stitch filled in areas outlined by double running stitch.kambhiri has double running stitch,which is linear and grows in geometric progession.Mucca, a technique borrowed from Muslim embroidery,refers to the use of gold and silver thread which is couched on the fabric. Fabric embroidered for making a kanchali,blouse.The Sleeves are to be attached on either side.A Typical and predominant motif of suf work,the gul flower is made up of 4 bitta units;a bitta is made of 2 triangular units of suf.

back serves as an anchor.

BHITTI CHITRA-WALL PAINTING


Production clusters Bikaner old city: Matheran Gali Bhujia Bazaar Tools Brushes Products Wall painting TRADITIONALLY,the Matheran or Mahatma commmunity were renowned for their mineral painted elaborate depictions of religious themes on painstakingly prepared walls of houses and temples.In some of the temples thus ornamented,images of the patrons and their families were also included as were the names of the painters.The paintings of the matherans also utilize the embossing techniques of the Usta;thus gold and silver is occasionally used to enhance a painting.In order temples such as the Madan Mohan Mandir,the 200-year-old paintings. 2 Frescoed walls at the Madan Mohan Mandir depict the many patrons of the temple;the composition of the first simulates the manner in which members of court and the royalty are depicted in Rajasthani miniatures while that of the second displays a tangible western influence in the use of perspective devices and portrait-like rendering of the patrons` faces. reveal the aesthetic sensibilities of this community and the religious context of their work in spite of layers that were later retouched.Today the Matherans reside in Jodhpur,Mewar and Godvard(in Pali district) and are known for their skills painting Gangaur idols.

1 An intricately painted ceiling;the bands of floral border painted on the series of arches separate the various segments of the composition.At the far end is a doorway over which are positioned Krishna and Radha flanked by two chieftains.

MINIATURE PAINTING
Production Clusters Bikaner: Swamiyon ka Mohalla Products Miniature paintings Tools Paintbrushes of : Squirrel hair Pigeon feather Aqiq or agate stone burnisher THE ART OF miniature painting gained popularity in Bikaner in the 15th Century;a phenomenon ascertained by the influence of Jainism that time.The miniature artists,usually of the Usta and Matheran communities,used to paint both specially treated paper and the surfaces of walls.Today the artists still practicing,paint exclusively on paper and are known for their fine brush-strokes and subtle shading. A woman worshipping the Shivlinga,which is a carved black stone symbolic of Lord Shiva. The practice of using natural pigments makes the preparation procedure considerably elaborate and time consuming;while older paintings reveal the use of pure colours,in current practice the colours are usually mixed in order to tone down their brilliance.Contemporary miniatures are usually based on themes of Sufis,saints,ascetics,the daily events of life in the village and that of the romance of Lord Krishna and Radha.

1 A portrait of a Sufi saint. 2 A musician dressed in the traditional angarkha,the landscape depicted in the elaborate frame is rendered in a combination of the Mughal style and the indigenous miniature tradition.

SANDAL WOOD CARVING


CRAFTSMEN FROM THE Jangid community craft sandalwood into profusely patterned and highly decorative artifacts that are usually targeted at the export market.The objects fashioned range from one inch long supari,betel nut case,to a three feet tall doll; all however are characterized by the manner in which the entired width of the wood is carved so as to create a series of progressively detailed layers. 1. A shrine; its four compartments house images of various deitiesShiva and Parvati at Mount Kailash; Lord Ganesh accompained by his vehicle,the rat;Hanuman paying his respects to Rama and Sita; Lord Krishna playing the flute with Radha,shown standing under a tree to suggest that they are in Vrindavan. 2. A miniature temple in sandalwood; For instance, once a wooden flower is opened,the petals reveal small boxes, which is turn reveal minutely carved scences.The craft process begins with the cutting of the sandalwoos block into the desired size and the maandana or sketching of the form onto it in pen or pencil.Fine motifs may be first sketched on paper and then traced onto the wood.The craftsmen then chisel away the extra-neous matter to reveal the finished form. Hanuman is shown kneeling before Ram and Sita, who are seated on a throne placed beneath a parasol. 1. Detail of a carved fan displaying the door of a hinged compartment within. 2. A decorative item resembling a pocket watch;the two halves of the dial open to reveal more minutely carved details. Production Clusters Churu Products Supari-betel nut case Swords Decorative flowers and creepers Clock-like structures Miniature Shrines Figurines,Boxes Wooden toys Tools Files, knives Ari-saw Hammer, Chisels

SILVER WARE
THE JANGID HAVE extended their wood carving skills to silver work,adapting their ability to model three-dimensional products to the translation of silver into large products.The majority of these items cater to religious and ritual requirements;the primary items produced are therefore temple idols,shrines,ritual lamps andd the lota or water containers used in ritual ablutions.While most of these objects are made solely when there is demand,silver coins and small boxes are made in preparation of sale during the festival of Diwali. The silver is procured from the local market in the form of slabs known as siti.Depending on the product to be made,the silver may be converted into sheets or melted and recast into a particular form.In Pali district,the jewellers of the Soni community craft silver ornaments for the Rabari, a pastoral community of Gujarat residing in Rajasthan. Production Clusters Churu district: Churu Pali district: Pali Rani village Products Idols Miniature models of temples Thrones for deities Lamps Boxes Diya stand Lota-water container Cups Bowls Rabari jewellery: Hansil-torque Anklets Earrings Waistbands Tools Dies,Hammer,Pliers Embossing tools Buffing machine Moulds,Files

MEENAKARI AND KUNDAN JEWELLERY


Production Clusters Bikaner old city: Sunaron ki Guwar Tools Bhatti-furnace Bulli-used for making serration Mortar and pestle-for grinding the colours Takala-needle-like tool used for applying colours Brush Agate stone-for smoothening Sawan-used for kundan work Salai-etching tool Brass die Products Bor-head ornament Hansli-torque Haar-large necklace kangan-bracelet Chudi-bangle Bajuband-armlet Hathphool-hand ornament Earrings Nose-ring

INTRICATE MEENAKARI executed on a base of gold and kundan-the laying of diamonds over layers of gold foil set within gold or silver framework-has long been practiced at Bikaner and Jaipur.The two techniques are usually used in tandem,the kundan worked surface in front and the meena on the reverse;the brilliance of the diamonds being effectively complemented by the multihued enamel of the meena.The motifs most often seen in the thus rendered jewellery of the region are phool-patti,or flower and foliage,peacocks ,parrots and elephants.The intensive labour,skill and time,as well as the costs of the raw material-highly purified goldensured that the items were produced for the consumption of a vary select elite class.Today there exist two types of meena-the desi meena that melts at an extremely high temperature archieved only with a furnace and is exceptionally delicate and hence fired only twice,and the vilayati meena,or enamel sourced from Europe,

which has a much lower melting point that can be achieved with a heater and has greater flexibility in terms of the number of firings it can take.The latter is substantially cheaper than the desi version,thus allowing meena worked jewellery to be worn by a wider section of society. 1. The laktavali buti ofBikaner, a pair of long earrings with a kundan worked front(right) and a meena worked reverse(left). 2. Suraliya kanodi,a earring with chain that is secured behind the ear. 3. Bor,the traditional forehead ornament is embellished with a combination of kundan and meena and strung with pearls.

A pendant ornamented with desi meenakari.

JODHPUR
IN 1459 THE Rathore ruler of the kingdom of Marwar,Rao Jodha singh,founded Jodhpur at the edge of the Thar Desert.Due to its strategic location on the overland trade route,the city soon became a flourishing trade centre with a prosperous mercantile community,known as the Marwari.Maharaja Jaswant SinghII(r.1878-95)introduced innovative irrigatin schemes that supplemented the water supplied by Jodhpur`s sole river,the Luni,thus bringing water and more affluence to this parched land.The Mehrangarh Fort,perched on a sheer rocky hill in the middle of the city,looms over the city`s opulent palaces,richly carved temples,baori,step wells,mosques,colourful bazaars and deserts sands.The district of Nagaur,to the northeast of jodhpur,derives its name from its historic title of Auzaar Nagari,`the town of tools`,called so because it has served as a significant supplier of tools to other parts of the country.The little desert town conducts a cattle fair that rivals the Pushkar Mela;for a few days this arid region is transformed into a dazzling kaleidoscope of animals,crafts, and people,including Nagaur`s famous puppeteers. 1 A cobbler trims a thin pattern cut mojari insole. 2 A craftswoman sits by a frame on which fabric has been stretched in preparation for the execution of zari,gold thread embroidery. 3 The pattu weavers have extended their skills to the stringing of macha,cots;intricate geometric patterns such as the leher,zigzag stripes or the bawadi,rhombus,are achieved through the use of two contrasting colours of cotton rope. ACCESS Jodhpur is well connected by air and rail.It has an airport from where flights to Delhi (604km),Mumbai,Udaipur,Jaisalmer and Jaipur (338km) are available.

Subclusters of Jodhpur Jodhpur district: Phalodi,Pipad, Jodhpur,Salawas Nagaur district: Nagaur, Makrana Pali district: Pali Crafts of JODHPUR Mojari-leather footwear Wood work Dabu -mud resist printing Bandhej - tieresist-dyeing Seep ka Kaammother-of -pearl work Bone work Musical Instruments Wrought iron work Panja dhurrie weaving Pattu weaving Matti ro kaam terracotta and pottery Paatra kam utensil making

Craft Mojari

Wood work Dabu

RESOURCES Raw Materials Leather Cotton , Resham thread Wood-roheda, mango,safeda Thick cloth Thin Cloth Dyes

Sources Jodhpur,chennai, Patan Nagaur Salawas,Jodhpur Jaipur,Chennai, Ahmedabad Jodhpur

As seen from the Mehrangarh Fort,a conglomeration of the blue-washed houses characteristic of Jodhpur.

A Devasi woman wearing a distinctive panchiya choker and beaded necklace kalotra village,Pali district.

MOJAR-LEATHER FOOTWEAR
Production Clusters Jodhpur district: Jodhpur City: Jingar Mohalla Sivanchi Gate Girdikort Bazaar Jaisalmer district: Baiya,Myajlar, Ridawa village Bikanere district Products Mojari-footwear Pouches Lagaam-reins Sword sheaths Ghode ki jeen-riding saddle Charas- used for drawing water from the well Metada-a leather belt/cord used to hold the buttermilk churner Daman-tool used by metalsmiths to blow air Tools Cutting base Stone working base Deer horn to shape shoe Ari-awl Kateni-awl for fine embroidery Skiving tool Meenagadi-wooden mallet Meenagadi-wooden mallet Raapi-knife Wooden lasts Punches Dies for embossing THE MOCHI OR cobblers,of this region craft leather into light and intricately embroidered footwear,locally known a mozari or pagrakshi.They are cut using traditional patterns that make no distinction between the left and right foot,shaped using the three-piece wooden last and stitched with thick cotton thread as are all the indigenous footwear of the state.The pagrakshi may be easily distinguished by the exceptionally intricate and densely embroidered uppers.The suede used for the upper is reinforced with a lining of bakram (stiff lining) or thin goat leather on the reverse in order to create a firm base for the fine chain stitch embroidery,executed with an awl made of sharpened syringe needles.No set design is followed for the embroidered flowers and creepers;the women create each from imagination,constantly checking to ensure that the design of the second follows the first.Due to the use of suede uppers,thin goat leather lining and buffalo leather soles,the mojari are lightd.The soles too are highly decorative;the inside usually bears a small motif,coordinated with the motifs of the upper.The leather of the inside of the sole may also be patterned through the cutting out of motifs;in such instances,a layer of coloured leather is introduced under the top sole layer to allow the cut motifs to be seen distintly.The lower side of the sole is also often decorated with a stitched or cut out motif. 1. A mojari from Jodhpur,the insole is patterned with cutout motifs that are offset by the use of a secondary coloured layer. 2. A mojari from Jodhpur with an embroidered insole. 3. A mojari with an entirely embroidered upper,a decorative inner sole and a cutout-pattersn turned up toe,Jodhpur.

Embroidered leather pouches,Barmer.

Mojari from Jaisalmer,the front is ornamented with tassels,punches and embroidery while the reverse is delineated through the use of bold stitches in thick cotton yarn.

Leather seat of a stool embroidered with a stylized camel motif,Jaisalmer.

Front: Densely embroidered mojari,Bikaner.

Reverse: Patterned cut-out soles of mojari,Jodhpur

A new design,for the export market,Jodhpur.

Carved and painted figurines representing musicians playing the various traditional instruments of Rajasthan.

WOOD WORK
WOOD WOK WAS never a significant craft of Jodhpur;the recent emergence of a large and potentially profitable export market has however caused a number of Suthar,or members of the carpenter caste,to immigrate from nearby villages of the city,thus establishing a large craft cluster.Most of the Suthar are either from Barmer,the region of Rajasthan well known for its intricate wood carving,or belong to the Meghwal community who carve stands for flour grinders,cots,camel and bullock carts and cradles for use by the village community;these objects are often decorated with carved details and small engraved metal elements. Their respective skills have been adapted to the requirements of the burgeoning urban and export markets and the city of Jodhpur now generates a range of carved,painted ,metal worked and antiquefinished wood products.Though most of the metal ornamentation on wood utilized brass,white metal and copper have also begun to be employed.Sheets of metal are bought,embossed with the aid of dies,then cut into required shapes and sizes and affixed onto the wooden objects so that it covers the wood partially or entirely,If the wood is not entirely covered over,it is painted and distressed or given an antique finish. Production Clusters Jodhpur city: Shilpgram near pal village Products Flour grinders Cots,Carts,Cradles Chests of drawners Figurines Tools Dies,Saws Hammers,Chisels Sandpaper,Files

A Carved shelf with miniature jaali worked arches flankedd by standing female figures.

A three feet tall carved and painted chest of drawers.

Carved and painted figuries of Goddess Gangaur and her consort Isar.The Gangaur festival is celebrated by women and the goddess is worshipped for conjugal bliss.The Gangaur idol is depicted differently depending on the region and community of the devotee.

DABU-MUD RESIST PRINTING


Production Clusters Jodhpur district: Pipad Salawas Pali district: Pali Products Jaajam-large bedsheets Odhni-veils Ghaghra-skirts Gadde ka kholmattress covers Tools Bhaant-blocks Paatia-printing table Wooden tray for colour Mesh or gauze Dye vats THE CHHIPPA COMMUNITY of traditional printers of this region use the mud resist printing technique with vegetable dyes to create densely patterned and richly coloured textiles that cater to the functional and sartorial requirements of many local communities such as the Patel,Meghwal,Sindhi,Muslims,Maali,Raika Rabari,Jat and Bishnois. the entire yardage is treated with harda,the mordant,and then dried again.The resist printing is executed by applying a wood block dipped in the dabu paste on the thus treated cloth,The fabric is then dyed;depending on the design the fabric either undergoes a second round of resist printing or washing which removes the mud paste.The final dyeing stage imparts colour to the previously resisted areas.

Although all the motifs are derived from vegetable and floral forms,each bears a unique association with a specific community,thus serving as a means of identifying the wearer.The dabu process begins with the collection and storage of mud from the local pond;prior to its usage the mud is wet and sieved until it becomes a fine paste.It is then mixed with lime,gum,either fenugreek or alum,and jaggery.The fabric to be printed is washed thoroughly to remove all starch and then dried;

Inset and right Wooden blocks used for mud resist printing,Pali. Fabric printed for the skirts worn by women of several local communities in Salawas.

The craftsmen at Pali print yardages using the traditional vocabulary of motifs,borders or stripes and trellis.

BANDHEJ-TIE-RESIST-DYEING
BANDHEJ,THE PRACTICE of creating patterned textiles by tying small knots on pretraced or stamped fabric in order to protect those areas from being coloured while dyeing,is widely practiced throughout Rajasthan.In Jodhpur,the craft has long been practiced by the Chadwa community;the women undertake the tying work while the men execute the dyeing.The Chadwa are believed to have migrated from Multan in Pakistan to Delhi and then to Jodhpur and later to the other princely states of Jaipur,Bikaner,Pali , Nagaur and Udaipur. The textiles they created were essentially for royal consumption;kesar,saffron,was used exclusively for those textiles associated with the royalty.Most colours and forms are associated with specific occasions or seasons;thus black is worn during Diwali and the phagania(phagun means Spring)is worn during Holi.Red and Yellow are considered especially auspicious and consequently,the red and magenta ladu chunari and the kangasiya peela are worn during marriage ceremonies while the pilo,yellow,is worn by young mothers.The colours were often intensified with alum,and certain fragrant leaves,locally available in Jaisalmer,were used to dye the saafa of the royal family.In addition to the royal textiles,cotton bandhej textiles were also used as unstitched garments such as sari,odhni,chunari and saafa by the rural communities;those worn by the Meghwal and Koli communities embellished with embellished with embroidery,couching and mirror work. The alizarin and indigo dyed chandrawali odhni is worn by Sindhi Muslims and the Hindu Kumbhar or potter communities.Bandhej is done on cotton poplin of medium weight,Barmer. A rare depiction of figurative designs in bandhej done on fine cotton cloth,which was made for the court in Kota. Contemporary bandhej executed on chiffon, Jodhpur. Production Clusters Jodhpur city: Sindhiyon ka Mohalla Jaisalmer city: Akhipool Barmer city Bikaner city: Chadwon ka Mohalla Products Saafa-turban cloth Odhna-wrap Dupatta / chunari stole Lehanga / Ghaghara skirt kurta-tunic Sari Tools Bhaant-blocks Nukalia-metal extension for finger Thick rope - for marking centre of cloth Threads Dye vats

SEEP KA KAAM -MOTHER-OF-PEARL WORK


Production Clusters Jodhpur city Products Boxes of various sizeds Lamp stands Candle Stands Ashtrays Chessboard Flowerpots Photo Frames Tools Grinder Metal Cutter Shell cutter Wood saw with gentle depressions in which the shell may be inset.The entire object is subjected to ghisai to ensure that the shell and the brass are level throughout;the object is then polished with emery and waxed to give it a glossy finish.Alternatively,it may also be given an antique finish by applying a paste of mehendi,henna,over its surface,the paste is washed off after a couple of hours to reveal shells that are varying tinted,having absorbed the dye in different proportions.The ornamentation may also imitate the Usta kaam of Bikaner by using embossed patterns created with a mixture o fuller`s earth and glue;the floral motifs thus made are enamel painted,outlined in black and highlighted with gold paint;finally,a protective layer of varnish is applied. Inset A brass lid with an indented floral motif;the cut pieces of shell held in the craftsman`s palm are to be inlaid in the recessed forms as shown.

THE DARK OUTER side of the shell is removed through ghisai,grindinga process which also smoothens the shell and reduces its thickness so that it may be cut to the required size with a metal cutter.The pieces of shell are then neatly glued onto previously carved wooden objects.The areas bereft of shell ornamentation are covered with thin brass strips and a round plate is affixed to the base.Shell may also be inlaid into brass objects which are designed so that they are patterned

A candle stand.

An ashtray.

A bottle opener.

BONE WORK
Production Clusters Jodhpur city Products Boxes of varying sizes and shapes Small Chests Table lamps Flowerpots Ashtrays Toys Animal Figurines Chess set Tools Sanding Machine Cutting Machine Files Emery Paper WITH THE BAN on ivory in 1989,the craftsmen were forced to adapt their skills to a new materialbone.The camel bones are processed in workshops at Sambhal,Uttar Pradesh.The bones are heated in furnaces so that the extra fibres and extension get burnt out;they are then chemically bleached and cut into smooth narrow strips which may be further cut to the desired size by the craftsmen. Although the rest of the process is similar to that of seep ka kaam,bonde is more profitable as there is litte wastage of material and time during the cleaning stage;bone is also together and less liable to chip than mother-of-pearl, thus saving the labour spent in repairing chipped areas on shell surfaces.The henna based antique finish and the imitation Usta ornamentation that are used in shell work are also used for bone objects.The growing popularity of this work is evident in the large increase of artisans in Jodhpur city. Inset Detail of a painted box

1 A carved and painted container. 2 A carved,embossed and painted container. 3 An Embossed and painted lamp base.

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
Large drums stacked for sale;although produced throughout the year,the musical instruments are mainly sold during the marriage season,the fair of Ramdeora at Runicha in August,and during the Navratri festival. MUSIC PLAYS A significant role in the secular and religious life of rural Rajasthan;folk songs are sung during festive occasions and celebrations of rites of passage such as marriage,child birth and naming ceremonies as well as in saawan,monsson,when young girls and newly wed girls gather at night to sing songs.In addition,jaagarans,or night-long sessions of devotional singing,are held in reverence of the many local deities.Many of the villagers conduct satsang sessions on the night of each poornima or full moon; Leather strips are linked to encase a small drum. Production Cluster Jodhpur city: Thaliyon ka baas Products Dholak-barrel-shaped side drum Tabla-pair of drum (dayan is the right hand wooden drum and bayan is the left hand metal drum) Damru-drum Nagara-kettle drums of the old naubat,traditional ensemble,of nine instruments played with sticks. Pakhavaj-long bodies barrel-shapedd wooden drum with skin covered ends Chung-tambourine without jingles Tools Raapi-scraper Sua-needle Chaini-awl Scissors

at these gatherings an elder or a religious personage speaks of the Gita,the Ramayana or of a local saint and after the discourse,bhajan,devotional songs,are sung by all.Local craftsmen craft a wide range of musical instruments using leather in combination with wood and metal;each of the large metal dhol are used specifically during marriages while the chung,a large sized dafli,tambourine,is associated with the festival of Holi.

The damru,a small percussion instrument.

WROUGHT IRON WORK


As the beauty of the product is dependent on the grace of the curvature given to the rods,this stage of the process is executed by skilled artisans alone;the metal rods are heated with a blower until malleable and then bent into the desired shape.Each decoratived element is then individually hammered until they are precisely alike and the components of the product are assembled through welding.The excess metal is ground and then finished with paint and given an antique finish or coated with zinc powder making it look like white metal. Production clusters Jodhpur district: Jodhpur city PAl Village Products Beds Chairs Tables Garden furniture Lamp Stands Candle Stands Photo frames Pen stands Trays Baskets Plate stands Table accessories Tools Blower Hammer Grinding machine Welding torch

Craftsmen at work. WROUGHT IRON WORK is a recent phenomenon in this region;most of the production caters to the export market and is executed by artisans from nearby villages and those who come from Orissa and Bihar.Depending on the design and nature of the production,the aid of power press machines. A Candle stand. A mutli-hooked mobile.

A chair.

A lantern.

PATTU WEAVING
Production Clusters Jodhpur district: Phalodi tehsil Jaisalmer district: Pokharan Products Bardi-chequered wrap Pattu kashida-wrap with brocading Pidha-low wooden seats Macha-strung wooden cot Gandha-floor spread Tang-camel belt Bed covers Cushion covers Table runners Dupatta-stole Kurta-tunic Salwaar-loose pantlike garment Bags Tools Bunai ki khaddi-pit treadle loom Naal-shuttle Yarn winder Charka-spinning wheel Hatta-beater kangi-reedd THE MEGHWAL COMMUNITY weave local wool into narrow strips,or patti,that are then stitched together to form wide shawls known as pattu that are worn by members of all communities in the region.There is however a sartorial code with regard to the type of pattu wornthe chequered pattu are worn by women while the highly decorative pattu are used by young men and the plain pattu by older men.The base cloth of the pattu is in either plain or twill-weaves and the motifs are created through the use of the extra weft is usually of a colour in contrast to the base cloth and is inserted after every two picks,thus producing an impression of finely embroidered fabric.The pattu constitute an important element in local ritualsamong the Meghwal,the pattu weaving community,pattu form a part of the gifts given to the prospective groom`s family when fixing a marial alliance;they are also gifted to all the immediate relatives to the groom during the marriage ceremony.In addition,close bonds between two men are cementedd through the granting of the title `brother` and the exchange of pattu.

Inset Detail of the cotton table mat on the right. 1 A table mat developed in cotton using the traditional pattu,blanket design.A whole new range of products such as table linen,cushion covers and bedspreads has been developed by diversifying the traditional pattu,in collaboration with designers and non 2 Detail of extra weft patterning and government weft predominanting stripes in a organizations. cotton pattu.Design intervention helped the weavers change from wool to cotton weaving.

PANJA DHURRIE WEAVING


Production Clusters Jodhpur district: Salawas Products Gandha-large floor covering Aatariya-animal cover for winters Jhul-cart enclosure Bora-cloth for large sacks Tools Horizontal floor loom Panja-metal comb Churri-knife Suaa-needle Kainchi-scissor Temple to maintain width Natural coloured wool dhurrie;woven in goat hair warp,and weft of camel hair and sheep wool. THE WEAVERS OF the village of Salawas belong to the Prajapati caste.Although their main source of income was agriculture,they also practiced pottery and the weaving of jatpatti rugs.These plain weft faced dhurried woven with coarse goat or camel hair derive their name from jhat,literally meaning haste,with which they could be executed.The jatpatti were initially used as coverings for domestic animals during winters,as saddle bags,as filters for oil mills and for making tents.The traditionally used animal hair was replaced with cotton fibre in 1977 and these dhurries began to be sold to a small segment of the domestic market.The craftsmen began experimenting with stripes,geometrical and stylized natural forms such as the kangasi(comb),teer (arrow head),tota(parrot),chidia(sparrow) and chaukadi (rhombus).Variously coloured yarns are laboriously individually inserted to create these forms,thus also ensuring that the dhurries is reversible.As these dhurries acquired recognition they came to be known as panja dhurries due to the use of the panja,a comb -like beating tool.

MAATI RO KAAM-TERRACOTTA AND POTTERY


IN ADDITION TO an array of items of daily use-water pots,tray for kneading chapati dough and bowls for setting curd-characterized by their blackened finish,the potters of Mundwa tehsil also create clay toys and idols of the goddess Gangaur and her escort Isar in a range of sizes.The potters employ a combination of techniques in the creation of the toys and figurines-some parts are thrown on the wheel others are formed either by hand or by using moulds.The different components created are then skillfully assembled to make the final product;the local clay although suitable for such work is fortified with natural gum.In the case of the Gangaur idols for instance;the face is made in a mould,the bodyd(2 feet to 4 feet in lenght) is turned, and the hands are hand-moulded.The head,torso and hands are joined,fired and painted with the traditionally used vegetable dyes or the recently introduced chemical dyes. A craftsman creating a large batch of lamps in preparation for sale during a festival. Dhola and Maru,the star-crossed lovers of Rajasthani folklore who eloped on their camel are a favoured theme seen represented in the terracotta as well as miniature painting tradition of the region. Two of the king`s men riding on an elephant. Product Clusters Nagaur district: Nagaur town Mundwa tehsil: Bu village Chenar village Products Idols: Ganesh,Ramdeo Toys: Peacoacks, Elephants Horses,Rats, Rabbits, Camels,Lions Ganesh,Ramdeo Toys: Peacoacks, Elephants Horses,Rats, Rabbits, Camels,Lions Other Animal figurines Tools Chak-potter`s wheel Moulds Carving Tools

A representation of an English lord complete with a coat and hat.

Four feet tall idols of the Goddess Gangaur and her escort Isar,Bu village,Nagaur.

PAATRA KAAM -UTENSIL MAKING


PREVIOUSLY ROHEDA,SAFEDA and mango wood was handd-sculpted to form paatra,the lightweight bowls,carried by the monks of the Shwetambar jain and Vaishnav sect.Each distinct group within these two sects required a specificd range of products-five products were created for the use of the Terapanthi sadhus,monks;while a set of thirteen products were made for sadhavis,Jain nuns.Although the introduction of lathes and hand drills has made it far easier to achieve the light weight required of these vessels for use by wandering monks,the demand for paatra has considerably declinedd.Thus in the town of Pipad and dDPali,the main centres where this craft was extensily practiceddd,there are but a few Muslim craftsmen who continue to employ their traditional skills.Although these craftsmen make paatra for sale in Jain centres such as Ahmedabad and Palitana,both located in gujarat, Items of domestic use like the chakla-belan,rolling pin and platform for making wheat bread. they have also taken to producing a variety of boxes and bowls as per commissions received from merchantds in Jodhpur. Production Clusters Pali district: Pali Jetaran Bagari Jodhpur district: Pipad Products Large wooden plates Utensils for JAin and Vaishnav monks Bowls Boxes of many shapes Chalka-belan-rolling platform and pin Deewar ki khuntiwooden pegsd for walks Auzaar ka dandahandles for tools Tools Lathe,Hand drill Chisels,Files

The traditional utensils used by monks of the Shwetambar Jain community.

These small containers are commissioned by merchants in Jodhpur,and are usuallyd ornamented through painted embossing,metal work or antique finish.

Washed and dyed fabric being sun-dried prior to block printing, Barmer. Subclusters of Jaisalmer Jaisalmer district: Jaisalmer, Pokharan Barmer district: Barmer Crafts of Jaisalmer Camel trapping Terracotta of Pokharan Stone Carving RESOURCES Craft Raw Materials Sources Goat hari,Cotton Camel Trappings Jaisalmer cord A REMOTE OUTPOST in the Thar Desert, Jaisalmer was founded in the 12th century by Maharaja Jaisal of the Bhatti Rajput clan.Due to its location on the busy overland routes linking India with Egypt,Arabia,Persia and Africa.Jaisalmer was an exceptional wealthy principality who affluent trades and rules vied with each other to beautify their austere desert environs with resplendent palaces and havelis,mansions.Constructed with the local golden yellow sandstone,these buildings have exquisitely carved facades with intricately patterned jaali,latticed screens,which serve to diffuse the harsh desert sunlight while allowing fresh air to enter.They also enabled women of the household to observe the happenings of the street unobtrusively.The glory of Medieval Jaisalmer came to an end in the 18th century when trade began to be routed through the sea ports of the Surat and Mumbai and the old caravan routes fell into relative disuse.The crafts of this arid region of the Thar wool weaving,embroidery,bandhej and pottery-appear to have attempted to negate the vast austerity of its sandy tracts through the use of vivid colour.The cultural matrix of Barmer,a desert town that was once a part of the Jodhpur estate,has much in common with the adjoining Tharparkar region of Pakistan.Since it is occupied primarily by the Meghwal and nomadic cattle herding communities,the crafts of Barmerbandhej,ajrakh,printing,embroidery and patchwork-are essentially an expression of the nomadic lifestyle and legends of their community`s origin and wanderings.

ACCESS Jaisalmer is connected to Jaipur(665km) and Jodhpur (98km)by both rail and road.Barmer too is connected by road and rail with Jodhpur and Jaipur;it is also connected to Kachchh by road. 1. Inset A memorial;its chhatri,fluted columns and arches are of the elaborately carved sandstone characteristic of this region. 2. Naqqashi kaam,the intricately carved wood reflects the ajrakh (block printed patterns) of Sindh in Pakistan. 3. Due to the large repeat sizes of the blocks used in printing,the craftsmen apply pressure on it with both their hands to ensure an even application of colour. 4. A potter stands among his waters at the village of Pokharan.

CAMEL TRAPPINGS
CAMELS,ONCE THE chief mode of transportation in the deserts of western Rajasthan,were adorned with several trappings including the tang(camel girth),the gorbandh (necklace),the godiya and sariya(ankle and knee bands),and the morka(bridle).Although the popularization of motorized transport in these regions has led to the decreasing use of camels for personal transport,camels adorned with these trappings may still be seen in the desert regions of Jaisalmer where they cater to safaris orgnaized for tourists.Camel girths are sturdy,narrow lenghts of fabrics that primarily serve to secure the heavy wood and metal saddle in position. The two-layered oblique interlacing technique used to create this camel belt requires cords made of two dark and two light plies;these cords are always split so that either the dark or the two light plies are uppermost, thus allowing the weaves to be manipulated to create motifs. on the camel`s back.Used in pairs,these girths are attached to each side of the saddle bar,passed under the camel`s belly and affixed to the other side of the saddle.The tang is made of natural coloured goat hair or cotton cords using the split-ply braiding technique where sets of four-plied cords are attached to a narrow support rod and each cord follows an oblique course where it may be split and in the process be seen or concealed.Through the manipulation of the braiding technique,patterns of men,women animals,trees and birds may be created with varying degrees of realism. A cotton camel belt. Production Clusters Jaisalmer Barmer Bikaner Products Tang-camel girth Gor bandh-necklace Godiya-anklet Sariya-knee band Morka-bridle Tools Gunthani-wooden hook

Detail of a reversible cotton camel belt done in single course oblique twining.

The saddle on the camel`s back is held in place with a belt made of goat hair.

A craftsman demonstrating a belt made by splitply braiding technique.

TERRACOTTA OF POKHARAN
Production Clusters Pokharan: Kumbharaon ki Pol Bhavani Pol Products Ghada-water pot Diya-clay lamp Badi-small open containers Pari-curd tray Parot-tray to knead flour Chada-broad-bellied churning pot Kuppari-water container Tania-cooling vessel Pannal-water drainage Hatoni-spice container Kitchen utensils Pitchers Toys Ashtrays Plaques Lamp Shades Flowerpots Paperweights THE POTTER PLAYED a significant role in the village community-it was he who provided the many utensils and storage items for daily use as well as the diya,lamps, for Diwali and the prerequisite clay idol of Lord Vinayak or Ganesha for marriage ceremonies.In return for his services the potter would get paid in kind,usually in grain or ghee,clarified butter.After the clay is prepared,it is thrown on the wheel and shaped;the object is given its final shape through tipai,the process of evenly beating its outer wall with a wooden paddle. The chief distinguishing characteristic of the Pokharan pottery is its ornamentation-lines,dots and stylized vegetal motifs are imprinted with terracotta,metal and plastic tools.The craftsmen judge a work by its bewk kaam(finesse),safaai(finish),chiknai (smoothness),achachi khudai(quality of carving) and uniformity of thickness.

Small containers. Tools Chhanni-sieve Chakariyo-stone gear wheel Chaak pherni-wooden stick used for turning the wheel Godadi-sack cloth Thapa-wooden paddle Pindi-supportive stone Khurri-bent metal strip Jhaad bhat, Mor bhatembrossing tools

Painted clay vessels.

Animal figurines.

STONE CARVING
Production Clusters Jaisalmer city: RIICO Handicraft area Products Chhajja-overhang Jharokha-window Manjisha--pillar capital Jaali-lattice worked screen Kangra-Window ledge Mihrab-arches Tables Lamp stands Chakla-platform for rolling flat bread Tumblers,plates Pen stands Tools Hathaudi - hammers Chheni - Chisel Tankla - thin chisel Darment - fine chisel Bepada-brush Metal Stencil JAISALMER IS RENOWNED for its stone forts and the intricately carved lattices and facades of its palaces and havelis,mansions.Such work was originally undertaken by the Silavat community who migrated to Pakistan during the Partition;they had however,trained local craftsmen in their technique and consequently the stone carving workshops of today are operated by artisans of various communities. The recent adoptin of machine operated tools has made this craft accessible to a market far larger than its traditional clientele of royal and noble background.Further,the use of lathe machine has revealed the stone`s hitherto unexploited rich deep yellow colouring and enlarged the range of products that may be created through the development of small items of daily used. 1. Detail of a carved balustrade of a balcony, Jaisalmer Fort 2. A niche with a carved jaali,Mehrangarh Fort, Jodhpur 3. A craftsman carving a jaali, lattice.

UDAIPUR,a city of marble palaces and lakes surrounded RESOURCES by a ring of hills was founded by Maharana Udai Singh in Craft Raw Materials Sources 1559, and became the capital of Mewar after the fall of Kavad Wood-adusal Udaipur district Chittorgarh in 1567.The rulers of Mewar,the fiercely independent Sisodia clan,refused matrimonial alliances with the Mughals and took great pride in their reputation as 1 Detail of the the prime defenders of Rajput honour.In 1615,a treaty was stone jaali,lattice finally concluded between the Mughals and the then work screen in Raja,Rana Amar Singh.Udaipur remained the capital of the City Mewar until it was merged with the Republic of India in Palace,Udaipur. 1947.The city is dominated by the massive City 2 Silversmiths of Palace,which overlooks Lake Pichola.A series of canals Udaipur take connected the numerous artifical lake that are surrounded silver ingots to by splendid palaces,ghats,steps leading to a other craftsmen waterfront,mansions and temples.The palaces and mansions who specialize in are a repository of glass inlay and mosaic relief,marble the smelting of relief and lattice carving,and paintings.The Rajputs,a the metal in warrior community,used armoury that was elaborately furnances. decoratedd with precious materials inlaid in steel 3 Nathdwara (damascening)and encrusting one metal over another.A boasts a colony vibrant craft traditional of wood turning,book of traditional binding,puppetry,dyed and printed textiles were practiced pichhwai in the region due to the cultural and religious beliefs of painters,one of traditional communities of whom is shown writers,chroniclers,bards,tribals,and a large variety of here at work in artisan communities.The crafts are still commercially active his home. The heavily painted interior of a still in the Udaipur region due to tourist and aspirations of the occupied haveli;kaleidoscopic light 4 A craftsman local population.To the northeast of Udaipur is streams through the stained glass from Molela Nathdwara,home to the 18th Century temple of Shri Nathji displaying a clay windows. and the pichhwai,pictorial painted cloths.Udaipur and plaque. Chittorgarh region support an active tradition of mininature painting. ACCESS Udaipur is connected with Jaipur,Mumbai and Delhi by air.It is connected by road to most parts of Rajasthan and by rail to Ahmedabad(252km),Jaipur(405km) and Delhi (663km).

Crafts of UDAIPUR Pichhwai-painted temple hangings Kavad-mobile shrines Terracotta of Molela Damascening Metal engraving Koftgiri-weaponry Thewa-gold leaf work Silver jewellery Meenakari - enamel work Dabu printig of Akola Leheriya - tie - resist dyeing Subclusters of UDAIPUR Udaipur district: Udaipur Rajsamand district: Nathwara Molela Chittorgarh district: Gangrar Bassi Akola Pratapgarh

KAVAD-MOBILE SHRINES
Production Clusters Udaipur district: Udaipur Chittorgarh district: Bassi Products Shrines Idols of Gangaur & Isar Bevan-processional swings for temple idols Bangle stands Bajot-low tables Chowki-smaller tables for daily use,marriages,domestic shrines Toran-plaque hung above the main door of the house Sthumb-an ornamental stand used in marriage ceremonies Chopda / Kumplesindoor or vermilion box Toys Rattles Chaklota belan-rolling pin & platform Carved wooden panels Furniture Mirror frames Figurines of : Musicians Elephant riders Soldiers Dhola-Maaru Animals Tools Jack plane Tagla-chisels Files Brushes Hand saw Hammer Gouges Turning lathe Power Lathes Band saw Grinding wheel Drilling sticks AT BASSI, ARTISANS of the kumawat caste make a range of carved and painted objects,among which is the kavad,the portable shrine with multiple folding doors,each of which is painted with representations of epics and myths.These are used by the Kavadia Bhatt,the itinerant priests who narrate epics whilst simultaneously pointed to the appropriate illustrations on the kavad with a pointed to the appropriate illustrations on the kavad with a peacock feather. The reading proceeds from the frontal panels to the inner until the tale is completed and the last panel is opened to grant the gathered viewers a darshan,glimpse,of the deity represented.The basic structure of the kavad is made of medium soft,low density wood-usually adusal,meetha neem or solar-the surface defects of which are filled with a mixture of sawdust and adhesive.The object is then dried and sandedd and coated with khaddi,a type of soil found in Bhilwara district,which acts as a primer and gives the object a shell white hue.Previously,naturally derived colours were utilzed but they have now been replaced with powder or poster colours that are mixed with gum and water and finished with a coat of transparent varnish.

A pigment painted pichhwai based on the theme of the Gopashtami,birth day of Lord Krishna.

An antique pichhwai depicting Krishna`s birth with details executed in gold and silver leaf.

PICHHWAI - PAINTED TEMPLE HANGINGS


AT THE SHRINE of Shri Nathji Nathdwara and other temples of the Pushti Marga sect,which emphasized sewa,service,to Lord Krishna as a means of achieving grace,large cloths with vivid depictions of Krishna`s childhood were hung behind the idol. These are called pichhwai,literally meaning at the back;they are an effective backdrop for the idol as well as an expression of the mood of the deity,the spirit of the season or the theme of the festival.Thus in the summer months,pichhwai depicting the lotus ponds and the shady groves of mythical Vrindavan are used to a provide a cool atmosphere for the deity, while in the monsoon paintings of stormy scenes of rain and lightning,or dancing peacoaks fill the entire composition, and shades of green dominate the palette.An especially popular theme is the Raaslila,the great circular dance in which each gopi or milkmaid saw krishna beside her,as if he were dancing with her alone;krishna in turn took pleasure in multiplying himself to please all his devotees.The dance represents the culmination of Bhakti,or devotion,in which the human soul meets the divine in a state of ecstasy.The Pichhwai are created by members of the Adi Gaud caste using traditional stone colours on cotton.Some painters have now begun doing smaller pieces and working with acrylic paints as these materials allow their work to fall within a far more affordable price range and thus encourage their sale to tourists and art collectors.

Inset Idols of the goddess Gangaur and Isar,the local names for Parvati and Lord Shiva,who are said to symbolize married couples and are used during the festivals of Teej and Gangaur. A kavad is a portable shrine with multiple folding doors that depicts stories from Hindu mythology.

Details of the gopis depicted in the style of the Pichhwai. Production Clusters Udaipur Nathdwara Products Picchwai - painted wall hangings Smaller paintings on cloth/paper Tools Coconut shell containers for colours Jara-broad brushes of goat tail hair Jhina-fine brushes of squirrel tail hair Imli ka lakdicharcoal from tamarind twings Ghonta-burnishing tool inset with an agate stone Opni-small agate burnishing tool Nepha-wood or iron rod used to hang the pichhwai

TERRACOTTA OF MOLELA
THE KUMBHARS,POTTERS,of Molela make an assortment of domestic clay vessels,but it is the handmodelled,hollow relief votive plaques that they are famous for.Every year during the month of Maag,ie,January to February,various tribal communitiesnotably the Bhil,the Gujjar and Garijat-arrive at Molela accompanied by their bhopa,priests,in order to buy new votive images of their deities.The deities whose images appear on Molela terracotta may be part of the mainstream Hindu pantheon (Chamunda,Kali,Durga,Ganesha)or more commonly,regional divinities whose cults are rooted in animistic belief systems(for example Nagadeva)or in folk legends celebrating local heroes andd heroines (for example, Dev Narayan,Tejaji,Pabuji,Gora Bhairav,Kala Bhairav,Vasuki,Bhoona and Mendu,Sadumata,Panch-mukhi).The murti,images , are built up and refined through a combination of basic clay work techniques-squeezing,pinching and coiling on a flat clay slab.The process has to be halted at intervals to allow the clay to dry somewhat and prevent the handmodelled forms from collapsing.Foliage,animals forms and decorative elements are all similarly rendered and the composition is gradually elaborated.Once complete,the murti is sun-dried before it is considered ready for firing.After being fired,the murti may be painted with stone and mineral colours and is finally finished with a coat of locally made lacquer. Inset A plaque depicting Dev Narayan shown on a horse and holding a bhola,spear,and a lotus.This form of Vishnu is worshipped primarily by the Gujjar community. 1. A plaque depicting village life;such contemporary themes are often commissioned as murals to be installed in buildings in various urban centres. 2. A depiction of a wedding procession;the groom`s shoulder cloth is tied firmly to his veiled bride`s odhni. 3. A votive plaque on which an entire pantheon is depicted. 4. Dhola and Maru,the star-crossed lovers of Rajasthani folklore who eloped on their camel are often represented in the indigenous miniature painting tradition. Production Clusters Rajsamandd district: Molela Products Figurines Idols Votive plaques Terracotta murals Tools Chack-potter`s wheel Lakdi ka pattiyawood scrapper Pindi-beating tool Lohe ki bhaardidcutting tool Baldi-chisel-like tool

DAMASCENING
DAMASCENING,the inlay of gold Production and silver wire on iron objects,was Clusters traditionally practiced by the Udaipur Siklikar who crafted functional yet Products exquisitely ornamented weaponry Talwar-sword for the Rajput warriors.First,the Daggers surface of the metal object to be ornamented is evenly scratched to Dhal-shield create a rough,finely lined Kholia-munalsurface,heated on a stove until red sword tip and hilt hot and then allowed to cool Rifle butts naturally. Locks The object is clamped in a vice and the process of embedding Chairs wire into the metal is begun-silver or gold wire is laid on the abraded metallic surface and pressed;the wire is further Surahi-pitcher flattened with the aid of opni or moonstone.Larger areas such Walking stick as the tip of the dagger are executed in silver or gold leaf.With grips the decline of the feudal lifestyle the craft that catered to the Animal figurines functional requirement of the damascened products came to a Female figurines close.The more recent of the previously used double taan or thicker wire that gave the pattern greater prominenc,has led to Tools deterioration in the craftsmanship. Engraving tools Opni-moonstone Hammer Inset A Sword hilt.

1. Tip and hilt of a sword inlaid with gold and silver wire. 2. A detail of an intricately patterned shield.

METAL ENGRAVING
Production Clusters Udaipur district: Udaipur Products Window frames Door frames Chairs,Sofas Beds,Dining Tables Screens Tools Katia-scissors Hataudi-Hammer Taankle-punch Chaapan-a flatheaded hammer Tadtadi-perforator Prakaar-divider CRAFTSMEN OF THE soni or goldsmith community engrave sheets of metal that are used to encase furniture constructed out of teak,haldu,mango and sagwan woods;although only silver was traditionally used , white or yellow metal are now employed due to the relatively lower costs involved.Previously the sheet metal was hand-engraved or ornamented with meenakari;nowadays,however,the cut strips of metal sheet are usually embossed with dies and embellished with plastic meenakari.The sheet is then fitted onto the wooden frame of the object and glued on with a synthetic rubber-based adhesive,pressed into position and dried;the ends are nailed as further reinforcement.Most pieces are given an antique finish by treating the metal with a silver or gold polish or acid and staining the wood with potassium.Certain products are made of a combination of both white and yellow metal;these are referred to as the Ganga Jamuna.

1 An engraved and punched picture frame. 2 Detail of an embossed and punched metal surface.

KOFTGIRI-WEAPONRY
Production Clusters Chittorgarh district: Gangrar Products Talwar-sword Marshaal-torch Axes,Dagger Shield Lath-staff Tools Hathaudi-hammer Sheni-punch UNTIL A HUNDRED years or so ago,koftgiri,the technique of encrusting one metal onto another,was widely used by the Gadi Lohars,the traditional armourers of Rajasthan,to create a range of weaponry and armour for the use of their Rajput clientel.With the growth of the ammunition industry,many older weapons of warfare and other paraphernalia have became obsolete.These objects are now seen only on the occasion of Dussehra when each family takes its collection of arms to a temple so that these may be consecrated.Although elite houses of the region still commission the occasional coat of arms and swords for ritual display at weddings,the wares of the Lahor are now mostly seen as decorative curios and are made as per the requirements of antique dealers and interior decorators.Iron disc are bought from Karkhanas at Ajmer adn Bhilwara,manually cut into the desired forms using a hataudi and a sheni and patterned with metal wires.Both women and men are involved in the processthe women prepare the polishes,finish the pieces and embroider the red velvet cases for the objects while the men do most of the heavy manual labour.

a shield fitted with two crossed swordsd;the Rajputs warriors trace their lineage to the sun and moon and consequently these motify are prominently displayed on shields and insignia of many clans.

THEWA -GOLD LEAF WORK


Production Clusters Chittorgarh district: Pratapgarh Products Traditional: Ittardanis-perfume bottles Boxes Platters Comtemporary: Jewellery Tools Chugga-pliers to bend wire Ambur-pliers to pull wire Katiya-wire cutter Chimta-forcepts Jaintee-wire gauge Hathaudi-hammer Gulsam-divider Vena-used to make dots

DESCIRBED AS rangeen kaanch pe sone ka kaam or gold work on coloured glass,thewa is essentially a form of quasi-enamelling where a silver wire frame is covered with delicately patterned gold leaf and sunk into a softened layer of coloured glass or enamel.The craft originated in Deolia, a small estate in the district of Chittorgarh that was ruled by Prince Bika of Mewar.The scarcity of water in the region forced a shift of capital of Pratapgarh,16km to th east;accordingly a community of Thewa artisans,the Rajsoni,came to settle there.The motifs of those tine reflect the lifestyles of the patrons-hunting scenes with elephants and palanquins ,deer and lions,Maharana Pratap,riding his illustrous horse Chetak,soldiers engaged in war,kings riding in procession and royal weddings.In addition,themes such as Krishna and the Gopis, Mrigavat and the peacock motif were also popular.With the loss of Patronage from royalty and nobility,the craft has turned towards a wider market.Consequently,thewa work is now more or less restricted to the making of jewellery-pendants, earrings, rings, broches. The motifs of preference too have changed-the primary forms in vogue today are floral trellises,peacocks and elephants.

1 A thewa worked pendant depicting a wandering minstrel charming the deer with his music. 2 The ornamentation on the pendants is created gold leaf on coloured glass. 3 The peacoack has today become the most widely used motif in thewa work.

SILVER JEWELLERY
Production Clusters Udaipur Tools Thappa -dies Chugga-pliers Jambur-tongs Katodi-Wire cutter Tanka-solder Jantri- drawplate Sammani / chimti Tweezer Naap ka kathiyacutter with measurements Vesa-mallet Dhingra - grooved block of Babul wood Sumba-tool with round edges Moos - crucible THE SILVER JEWELLERY OF Rajasthan is usually made of high grade silver and therefore serves as an investment and the surest from of currency that is usually readily redeemed at any village saraf,or jeweller,for cash.IT is for this reason that most of the jewellery worn by the rural communities of Rajasthan is solid or Thhos;the weight also acts as reminder of the item`s presence thus ensuring that it is not easily misplaced.The ornament may also have a functional purpose;for instance,the quarter kilo kada worn by Gujjar men on their wrists acts as an effective weapon;the taqri,wron by a Gujjar Woman just below her waist is believed to benefit her health;and the jantar usually contains a talisman to ward off evil spirits.At occasions such as animal fairs and religious festivals where people gather from far and wide,jewellery becomes a means of identifying a person`s caste,social and martial status-a chitki or toe ring identifies the wearer to be married while the bajuband,the flexible armband made of vertical interlocking units of silver that are corded together with a drawstring,indicates that the wearer belongs to the Jat or Mina communities of Shekhawati. A bangle with a locking device,Udaipur Kada or anklets , worn by Devasi women,Rani Village,Pali district. Products Ornament for the head & forehead: Rakhri,Borla and Tikka For the neck: Hansli-torque Jantar - amulet For the ears: Phooljhumka- earstud with attached domelike suspensions Karnaphool For arms & hands: Hatpuri-worn on the arm Hathphool - worn on the hand Churi, Bangri bangles Kangan - thick bangle Bajuband - armlet Kada-thick bangle For the waist: Kandora-waist belt For ankles & feet: Pajel-anklet Chitki,Bichhua-toe rings Nevliya, Kada anklets

The hansli,or torque,worn by Rabari women,Rani village,Pali district. The dies used by jewellers to shape elements of the silver ornaments are usually of brass or iron and are made in Loharpura,Nagaur by specialized craftsmen.

MEENAKARI-ENAMEL WORK
Production Clusters Udaipur district: Udaipur Products Doors, Doorframes Chests, Boxes Furniture Picture Frames Goblets, Armoires Cradles, Swings Pen stands, Trays Tools Salai - etching tool Kharal - mugdal - mortar and pestle Kalam or taqva tool used to apply colours Bhatti-kiln Chimta - forceps

PLASTIC MEENAKARI is a ornamentation technique used largely on aluminium and white metal that simulates the meenakari enamel work traditionally executed on silver and gold.This craft has developed in response to the loss of royal patronage;the substitution of silver and gold with cheaper metal and that of kaanch or glass,which characterized meenakari work,with liquid plastic colours ensures substantially lower material costs and faster labour thus making the craft products accessible to a large market.The plastic colour is applied onto a previously embossed metal sheet with the aid of a wooden or aluminium stick;

after a colour is applied the sheet is heated to allow the colour of fuse.Each colour is thus individually treated so that the colours do not smudge or blur;as the plastic paints are available in 12 shades, an object may require to be heated 12 times. 1. An entirely enamelled chest. 2. A book rest and case for the Quran-e-sharif. 3. The lid of an enamelled box.

Detail from the enamelled chest above.

DABU PRINTING OF AKOLA


Production Clusters Akola Products Ghaghra fabric Yardage Dupatta - stole Tools Wood and metal blocks Hanj-tray Wooden mesh or gauze Printing table Dye vats AKOLA IS RENOWNED for two specific types of dabu or mud resist prints-the phetiya and the nangna,are exclusive to this area;the former was worn primarily by the women of the Jat and Chaudhary castes,especially after childbirth or during marriages,while the latter were used as material for ghaghra by the Gujjar women.A local gum called bedja and oil is mixed with the residue of the previously used resist and boiled together for several hours.It is applied on the napthol/alizarin printed cloth with a metal block and dusted with ash to prevent the hot resist from sticking when folded. The viscous resist can withstand repeated immersions in indigo dye baths due to its viscosity;a crucial factor in the making of the phentiya as the Jats lay great emphasis on the depth of the colour achieved.Three types of mud resist are used in combination with vegetable dyes-the kirana or chuna is the weakest resist and is used for fine outlines;mitti is used when the cloth needs to be immersed in indigo a few times;and rait,the strongest of the mud resists is used for the extremely absorbent pomegranate and ferrous dyes. Inset Badabutta,large floral motif. 1 Nangna,motif based on a mango 2 Badabuta,large floral motif 3 Lapharm,plant motif. 4 Aekal,floral motif. 5 The traditional phentiya print used as the skirt cloth.

LEHERIYA - TIE - RESIST - DYEING


LEHERIYA,THE TIE-RESIST process peculiar to Rajasthan,is so named due to its characteristic stylized pattern simulating the waves,or leher.The patterning is achieved by rolling the fabric on the bias,binding it at certain intervals with thread and dyeing.An extension of this technique is mothra,small rectangles which are formed with the crossing of diagonal lines.Udaipur is renowned for its leheriya turban cloths-the saafa is continuous strip of fabric measuring 9.1 m(10yards) in lenght and 45 inches in width.that is worn mostly in Jodhpur;traditionally,the longer paag was worn in Jaipur and the pagdi by the Baniya community in the state.The latter two are tightly coiled before they are wrapped around the head and therefore require a length of fabric that may be as long as 27.4m(30yards) and about 9 inches wide.Although plain versions of all three are worn on a daily basis,those that were leheriya patterned were reserved for special occasions and certain seasons-the pachrang in yellow,red,green and blues;the samudra leher dyed in the coloured of the sea and the indradhanush,dyed in the colours of the rainbow were favoured during the rainy season of sawan.Sombre occassions,including periods of mourning were marked by duller colours such as mauve and brown,often in tiny mothra;and deep indigo is worn on the moonless night of the festival of Diwali. Production Clusters Udaipur Products Safa-wide turban Paag, Pagdi - narrow turban Odhni-veil Sari Tools Gherni-device to twist Khoonti-iron post Vessels for dyeing A leheriya master craftsman wearing a pagdi.

A leheriya pagdi with a zari edge;the technique of blurring the diagonal lines,seen in this sample,is known to only a few craftsmen today. An unopened leheriya pagdi with a small portion opened out to reveal the mothra pattern.

A leheriya master craftsman wearing a pagdi.

3 The combination of leheriya and mothra seen on this pagdi is achieved 1 A mothra turban cloth made through the use of multiple dyeing using the discharge technique. with colour discharge. 2 This bold pattern is associated with the monsoon and is worn primarily during the Teej festival

CRAFTS-DELHI Naqqashi-engraving Papier-mache Sandalwood carving Chik making Pottery Carved wooden Furniture Wood inlay Zardozi Silver Jewellery Costume Jewellery

Districts - 9 Craftspersons - 1.12 Lakhs

Weaving a chik from bamboo splits;chiks are also made from sarkanda stalks.

Festivals Dussehra Diwali Cuisine Mughlai cuisine Rumali roti-thin bread Shahi korma-dry fruit gravy Tandoori chickenbarbecued chicken Phirni-milk based sweet Attire Kalidar Kurtapanelled tunic Churidar-gathered narrow pant Language Hindi Urdu Landmarks National Museum Natioanl Gallery of Modern Art Crafts Museum Dilli Haat Janpath Red Fort Humayun`s Tomb India Gate Qutab Minar Rashtrapati Bhawan Connaught Place Bahai Temple Jantar Mantar Jama Masjid Chandni Chowk Purana Qila Tughlaqabad Kinari Bazaar Lodhi Gardens

DELHI,THE CAPTIAL of India,stands at the western end of the Gangetic Plain,bordered on the eastern side by the state of Uttar Pradesh and on the other three sides by the state of Haryana.Its strategic location along the north-south,east-west route through the subcontinent has given it a focal position in Indian history with many great empires having consolidated their domains from here.The vast urban sprawl of contemporary Delhi is ,in fact,a conglomeration of several distinct enclaves;the most notable of these are Old Delhi,with its Mughal-built 16th and 17th century monuments and the congested bazaars and thoroughfares of Chandni Chowk,and New Delhi with its spacious treelined avenues,grand vistas and colonial mansions,built by the British in the 1930s as their imperial Capital.Delhi`s fascinating diversity stems from being a city of immigrants.Beginning with the spate of Islamic invasions in the 12th Century,Delhi has received peoples of many cultures,a majority of whom were refugees from West Punjab following the partition of India.

Much of the city`s craft legacy comes from the period of Mughal rule,especially that of Shah Jahan who established Delhi(then called Shahjahanabad)as his captial.He was responsible for the creation of Chandni Chowk literally `Silvery Moonlit Square`-a boulevard lined with the havelis, grand mansions,and distinct shopping areas demarcated for the sale of specific commodities,where religious and commerical activity mix as easily as different historical epochs.For instance,the Kinari Bazaar,a street of tightly packed stalls selling all manner of glittering gold and silver trimmings such as braids,tinsel garlands and turbans for weddings and festivals, and Dariba Kalan where gold and silver ornaments are sold,is situated near the 18th century mosque,Sunehri Masjid or the `Golden Mosque`. ACCESS As the capital of India,Delhi is well linked by air,rail and road.The airports are linked to the city by coaches.

1 The lotus-shaped Bahai Temple. 2 Rashtrapati Bhavan,the offical residence of the Indian president was designed by Sir Edward Lutyens for the British Viceroys. 3 The Republic Day Parade,the India Gate in the background. 4 The mughal influence on cuisine and culture stays alive in the small lanes of Old Delhi,as an immaculately dressed gentleman serves delicacies from handis,cauldrons,near the Jama Masjid mosque.

A zardozi embroiderer working on fabric stretched on a huge frame called the karchoppa(also known as karchaband or adda)at a karkhana,workshop.

Craft Naqqashiengraving Papiermache

RESOURCES Raw Materials Sources Brass Sheets Brass Statues Waste newspaper Chawri Bazaar Aligarh Scarp dealers

Adhesive,Pigment,Colour Saharanpur in Uttar Pradesh solution Sandalwood Sandalwood carving Teak wood, Kali Wood, Red chandan (sandalwood) Chik making Sarkanda Bamboo Mysore Delhi Riversides, Swampy areas of Delhi & Meerut in Uttar Pradesh Assam, Local shops of Shahdara in East Delhi Uttar Pradesh, Haryana Nagpur,Indore,Assam,Jabalpur and Burma Mysore

Terracotta Clay - black, red, white Wood Sagwan wood Carving Wood inlay Dhudi Rosewood, Fanas, Champa, Patang, Lac, Delhi Maadi, Beeswax, Acrylic Plastic, Sippi Zardozi Metal wires, Gilt threads, Surat, Varanasi embroidery Purls

5 The Qutab Minar,erected in the 13th century,is an important Indo-Islamic monument.Made of yellow and red sandstone,it is heavily indented with fluting and inscribed with Arabic calligraphy,geometric and floral patterns.The sculptural ornamentation bespeaks a hybridized style that came to be associated with the Delhi Sultanate. 6 The Papier-mache effigy of the demon Ravana,the ten-headed mythological figure from the epic Ramayana,is burnt on Dussehra as part of a symbolic re-enactment of Rama`s victory over the demon. 7 A potter in his workshop at Uttam Nagar

Subclusters of Delhi Delhi City: Saket Mehrauli Govoindpuri Uttam Nagar Hauz Rani Kirti Nagar Seelampur Jama Masjid Chandni Chowk Shahdara Physical Features Aravali Ridge Rivers: Yamuna Biodiversity Flora: Sarkanda Grass

NAQQASHI - ENGRAVING
Production Clusters Gali Dhobiyan Bazaar Delhi Gate Products Lota-ritual vessel Ghoda-pot used for water Patila-cooking utensil Kadhai-utensil used for deep frying Plates, Glasses Hookah Surahi-narrow necked pot Bowls Tools Hathodi-hammer Kalaam-chisel Kattia-scissor Mogri-wooden hammer Samba-round tipped Chisel Patti-stencil used for leaf pattern Buffling Machine

METAL SHEETS,MOST commonly brass,are cut and beaten to Finally,the utensil is burnished with a buffing machine.Widely created the form of the desired object.The base and the body of the used in Muslim households,naqqashi objects are usually vessel are made separately and then soldered together.The soldered patterened with floral motifs joints are beaten with a hammer and the surface is scraped.The object is frequently heated in the furnace to keep the metal soft;it is also repeatedly beaten with a mogri, wooden hammer,in order to remove all the dents on the surface.A recipe of lac,buroza(a gum made from rice),powdered brick and mustard oil is made and heated until a viscous solution is obtained.This thick paste is poured into the metal object and allowed to solidify for 5 to 6 hours.The lac ensures that the utensil does not get punctured during the engracing 1. An engraved bowl further ornamented with enamel process when it receives multiple blows from the chisels and work. hammers employed to create patterns on the object`s surface.After 2. An engraved lac-coloured container shaped like a veena. the naqqashi is completed,the engraved object is heated so that the 3. A scroll holder with intricate cutwork. lac may be poured out of the utensil.The left-over lac stuck at the 4. An engraved silver container. edges of the utensil is burnt in the furnace and the engraved utensil 5. Detail of an engraved peacock motif;its outspread is then beaten from within to remove all dents. plumage forming the central motif on the lid of the container. 6. A brass container embellished with repousse and engraving.

ZARDOZI-GOLD EMBROIDERY
Production Clusters New Delhi Products Salwaar kameezpants and tunic Lehenga choligathered skirt & blousde Ghagra-gathered skirt Sari-draped cloth Achkan-men`s coat Handbags Shoes,Scarves Christmas decorations Furnishing Curtains, Lampshades Bed covers, Pillow covers Animal Trapping Tools Karchappa-big frame Ari-hooked needle THE NAME ZARDOZI,like the craft itself,is of Persian origin.Although it literally means gold-work,the term refers to the use of gold,silver metal wires,cords,purls and sequins,which are couched (by sewing) on expensive fabrics.It was probably brought to India by the Mughals and was used to make costumes of the members of court, wall hangings,the sidewalls of the royal tents and the trappings of the elephants and horses used by the emperor.During Aurangzeb`s region,royal patronage to artists and craftsmen ceased and the royal ateliers were shut down.Consequently,many craftsmen migrated to the neighbouring kingdoms of Rajasthan,Punjab and Gujarat to look for new patrons.The advent of industrialization adversely affected the craft and it was gradually dying out when concerted efforts to revive it begun.Today,the fashion and garment export industry make extensive use of zardozi to embellish their products;the large demand for this form of embroidery has led to the replacement of the needle used for couching with an ari or hooked needle. Two forms of Zardozi are practiced;the zardosa-elaborate work done on products like heavy coats,cushions,curtains,animal trappings and shoes with heavy silk,velvet or satin as base fabrics;and the kamdani-lighter needle work done on lightweight materials that are used as scarves. A fabric embroidered in a combination of zari and zardozi.

TERRACOTTA WARE
IN 1971,A settlement known as Prajapati Colony was set up to house the potters of Delhi,most of whom had migrated from the neighbouring states of Haryana,Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.The area received its name from the caste that the majority of traditional potters belonged to.At present,there are about 300 to 400 families practicing this craft,but many of them specialize in making particular products and have developed stylistic differences to maintain the market value of their products.After red and black clay have been kneaded into homogenous flexible dough,the appropriate quantity of prepared clay is made into a variety of artifacts using either the throwing or coiling is mostly used in making very large products that are too large to be thrown on the wheel and to make those with shapes that cannot be turned on the wheel. A terracotta sculpture of a mouse pulling a cart doubles as a diya holder.

Engraved terracotta lamp bases. A large terracotta pot that has been first thrown, then turned and finally ornamented with incised foliage patterns, accentuated by cutwork.

After the product dries a bit more,it is burnished with smooth and round stones.In some cases,natural coloured clay or a diluted solution of water and red clay may be applied on the product with cloth or the product may simply be dipped into the clay solution to give it a painted surface.The products are completely dried and then fired in a furnance.

Production Clusters Uttam Nagar: Prajapati Colony Govindpuri Hauz Rani: Kumbhar Basti Products Matka-water pot Surahi-narrow necked pot Gamla-planter Handi-cooking utensil Parot-larger platter Diya-oil lamp Aarti-lamp used in rituals Idol Large garden pots Tiles with patterns in relief Utensils, pots, jars Lampshades Tools Kumbhar chaakpotter`s wheel Electric wheel Khuriya-turning tool Mogri-wooden mallet Sua-fat needle Thapi-wooden beater Thapa - big thapi Maniya-die Dhari-comb Path-clay peeler Katni-carving tool Poncha-sponge Vania - Threadd

PAPIER-MACHE
THE CRAFT of shaping and moulding products from paper pulp is practiced in several states of India,primarily due to the low costs of the raw material and tools required.While the highly sophisticated papier-mache tradition of the Kashmir Valley may be considered one end of the spectrum,other expressions in this craft technique have included spontaneous and humourous toys,masks and pupeets,In Delhi,the technique that is followed begings with the soaking of paper in water until it is converted into pulp.The pulp is beaten with stone and wood and then midxed thoroughly with methi(fenugreek) powder and wheat flour and made into a masala (paste),which is used to create the basic shape of the desired object as well as to create designs in relief on the product.Small cut pieceds of mirror are pasted on the areas designated for such ornamentation and the product is allowed to dry in the sun for a day.Colour solution bought from Harayana is coated on the dried products and they are again allowed to dry before they are coated with lac to give the product greater strength and to ensure that the colours remain permanent. Mask of the God Hanuman,made at Naika.Masks,puppets,sets and theatre related items are also made here. Production Clusters Mehrauli: Kumbhar ka Mohalla Products Masks Puppets,Sets Boxes,Bowls Glasses,Plates Lampshades Wall hangings Wall Decorations Mirror frames and other ornamented items Tools Okhal-stone grinder Mural-wooden stick Sui-needle Pen nibs

Mask of the Sun God made by skilled craftspersons of Naika,the production unit of the SMM Theatre Crafts Trust.

WOOD INLAY
Production Clusters New Delhi Products Wall hangings Boxes Tables Icons Tools Chiran-chisel Files Blade Tagad-wood scraper Cutter Khurti-light hammer WOOD INLAY IS A technique wherein a pattern is engraved onto a piece of wood and positives of the design are carved in different coloured woods or other materials and set into the carved recess of the base with the aidd of a patti,mixture of adhesive and sawdust from the base wood.Complicatedd compositions are created by using different woods to demarcate different compositional elements.The most commonly used woods are dhudi,dark red rosewood,yellow fanas,champa,patang,lac and maadi.Once the desired pattern is successfully inlaid,the surface of the wood is levelled and a thin layer of beeswax is applied to the surface in order to give it additional smoothness and a superficial gloss.Intricate details are engraved on the product and a kohli-beeswax amalgam is rubbed onto the engraved lines;finally the object is given a glossy coat of French Varnish.Wood inlay is largely practiced in the Mysore region where the craft had received royal patronage under the aegis of Tipu Sultan; it arrived in Delhi through migratory craftsmen in search of new markets for their skills.In its original form,wood was inlaid with ivory and bone but these have now been replaced by different woods,acrylic and shell. 1 An idyllic rural vista created through the technique of wood inlay.Note the dappled shadows on the grounded,the shades tree barks and the mottled skies. 2 Scene pieced together from various woods prior to inlay.

CARVED WOODEN FURNITURE


Product Clusters Kirti Nagar Panchkuian Road Jail Road Products Chairs, Tables, Side tables Beds Cupboards Sofas THE CRAFT OF carving woodd into furniture items has long been extant in this region due to the availability of carving and carpentry skills.In the year 1975,the government set up a cluster of craftsmen at Kirti Nagar,a locality which was previously a jungle,where the sagwan wood needed for their craft grew in abundance.Presently,there are aroundd 50,000 to 6o,000 craftsmen engaged in this craft who work in the numerous workshops at the timber market of Kirti Nagar,In any given workshop,various craftsmen specialize in executing a particular stage of the craft process;thus while one may be responsible for designing and transferring the farma (stencil), image onto the wool, 1 The furniture made by local craftsmen is upholstered and sold by upmarket showrooms and emporia. 2 A carved bracket. 3 A carved and varnished bedstead. 4 Detail of the ornate carving of an unfinished chair. other carve the wood using batali(chisels),and sandpaper the surface.The products are not finished and polished,but are sold in the unfinished state in order to ensure that any faults or discrepancies in the wood or workmanship can easily be identified.The emporia or showrooms who are the primary buyers of these furniture products undertake the polishing,painting and finishing themselves.Although many of the designs being made are imitations or adaptions of those seen in magazines and furniture catalogues,the craftsmen also create their own designs,most of which are inspired from foliage or animal forms.

Tools Batali-chisel Nihani-Curved chisel Charausi-flat chisel Hataudi-hammer Pencil Farma-stencil Sandpaper

CHIK MAKING

CHIKS ARE BLINDS OR semi-rigid window panels made from fine bamboo splits or rigid stems of sarkanda grass,held in place by a warp of cotton threads that are spaced a part.Bamboo splits,locally known as tilli,are procured from Assam and for a local timber mandi,market.The lower parts of the stems of the wild sarkanda grass are sourced from riversides and swampy regions near Delhi or from Meerut in Uttar Pradesh.Pairs of cotton threads are individually wrapped around the rigid sarkanda stem or bamboo splits to create a surface which can easily be rolled but not folded or gathered.The chiks are edged with a nivar,woven tape;some are lined with fabric to make them opaque.Bamboo chiks are usually given a waterproof backing as they are generally used in veradahs and are exposed to the elements.The Chik is an inexpensive,earthy window blind which succeeds in diffusing harsh light while the geometrical patterns of the wrapped cotton threads contributes a certain elegance.

Production Clusters Kichripur Govindpuri Products Chik-blinds Tools Churri-knife Dori-thread Bricks

1 A chik made from dyed bamboo splits that are wide and flat. 2,3 Chiks woven from very fine bamboo splits,the thread work forming a tessellating jaali pattern.

SANDALWOOD CARVING
SANDALWOODD CARVING IS relatively new to Delhi;originally ivory carvers,the craftsmen were forced to turn away from their ancestral occupation to sandalwood when the ban on ivory was introduced in 1989.Sandalwood was selected as the new medium because of its preciousness,small fibre length and fragrance,and the products were designed to cater to the tourist market. Decorative rath carved in the round. Hence,the main objects produced are small scale models of the Taj Mahal,ornate ships and rath,chariots,which are usually made in parts that are deftly assembled.In recent years, the quality of sandalwood available in the market has greatly deteriorated and the craftsmen have had to shift to using rosewood;today there are only about five to seven craftsmen practicing this craft in Delhi. A miniature shrine for homes. Production clusters Sitaram Gali Sheesh Mahal Bazaar Products Models of the Taj Mahal & Qutab Minar Miniature temples & Rath (chariot) Frames Pocket mirrors Keychains, Pens Tools Chisels Kattra-file Reti-file Baali-vice Aari-blade saw Hammers

CRAFTS - UTTAR PRADESH Wood carving Tarkashi-metal inlay in wood Eborny wood carving Brass ware of Moradabad cane furniture Bamboo flute Pottery of Khurja and Chinhat Pacchikari of Agra Marble carving Soft stone carving Knotted carpets Glasswork Sanjhi-paper stencil Chikankari embroidery of Lucknow Kamdani & fordi ka kaam-metal work embroidery Silver work Zardozi-gold embroidery Varaq ka kaam-gold and silver foil Sheet metal work Terracotta Quitabat-calligraphy Bone Carving Clay toys Basketry Tharu applique Black pottery of Nizamabad Terracotta and pottery Wood and lac turnery Repousse Wood carving carpet and dhurrie weaving Meenakari-enamel work Block printing Moonj basketry Papier-mache Shazar stone jewellery Date palm craft Kite making Glass bangles Glass beads and toys

Landmarks Jama Masjid Taj Mahal Agra Fort Itimadd - ud daulah`s Tomb Fatehpur Sikri Bara Imambara Rumi Darwaza Ashoka Pillar Sarnath Dasashvamedh Ghat Dudhwa National Park Benaras Hindu university.

1. The 60 feet Rumi Darwaza,supposed to be a facsimile of one of the gates of Istanbul.Its uppermost part consists of an octagonal chhatri,domed rooftop pavillion,approachable by a staircase. 2. Mosque in Bara Imambara,Lucknow.The Imambara is a great columnless hall that was designed by Kifayut Ullah,a Persian architect during 1784. 3. A Block printer from Aminabad.

Huddled close to a bend in the Ganga,the city of Benaras,also called Varanasi,comes alive on its ghats,flights of steps leading to the river front.

Pundits,priest,resting on the ghats under a bamboo umbrella.

A couple selling paan,betel leaves.Paan with nuts and cloves is eaten as a digestive.These are offered in a ceremonial manner and stored in well crafted containers called paandaans.Paandaans and nut crackers are cultural objects integral to the tehzeeb, etiquette, of Lucknow.

UTTAR PRADESH,one of the most ancient cradles of Indian culture,lies on the vast IndoGangetic plain.It is watered by the rivers Ganga,Yamuna,Ramganga,Gomati and Ghaghara where many pilgrimage and trading centres are located. Politically it is one of the most prominent regions in the country and has shaped much of the national politics of India.The land has been witness to the main events of Buddhism,Jainism and the Bhakti cult.Islam spread with the advent of the Mughal rule.It has some of the greatest Islamic monuments such as Taj Mahal,Fatehpur Sikri,Bara Imambara;the sacred city of Varanasi,Buddhist stupas,of Sarnath and the Kumbh Mela or festival in Allahabad.The Buddha preached his First Sermon in Sarnath;in Shravasti he performed a miracle,and attained mahaparinirvana in Kushi-nagar.Many rulers hence were greatly influenced by his teachings.The Mathura school of art,especially sculpture,flourished during the Kushan period and reached its zenith in the Gupta period.The great Mauryan emperor Harsha had his capital in Kannauj.Braj Bhoomi,the region around Agra,Mathura and Vrindavan,the land of Lord Krishna`s birth and childhood,is a famous pilgrimage centre.Buddhism and Hinduism flourished until the invasion of Mahmud Ghazni.Liberal traditions continued to flourish during the Islamic period and late.Varanasi,also known as Kashi and Benaras,remained a prominent centre of Hindu learning and Jaunpur,under the Sharqi rulers,a centre for Islamic Culture.Pre-Mughal art and architecture reflect a religious inclination,

and the Mughal period ushered in an era of aesthetic excellence as well.Zardozi,metal enamelling,glass,ivory carving,metal repousse and tarkashi,flourished under their patronage.Akbar set up carpet weaving workshops,and zardozi,gold thread embroidery,was a must for royal garments and furnishings.Chikan embroidered garments were the court garments under the Nawabs of Lucknow.Paandaans and hookahs,elements of Muslim culture,were beautifully ornamented with enamelling,engraving,repousse and openwork.Varanasi produced kimkhwab,Silk fabric heavily brocaded with gold thread;a variety of lightweight silk brocades,cotton brocade and gyasar,boldly patterned silk with gold and coloured silk threads for use in Tibetan monasteries and religious ceremonies. Inset The mahi murattib,twin fish,was the state emblem of the Nawabs of Avadh.The fishes became a noble motif used in architecture and craft.Chikan embroiderers still use it.In Allahabad,south of Lucknow,rickshaw seats are flanked by painted fish.The fish appear on the state seal now.

Languages Hindi Avadhi Braj Bhasha Bhojpuri Khariboli Urdu Festivals Diwali Krishna Janmashtami Ram Navami Dussehra Kartik Purnima Makara Sanskriti Holi Buddha Purnima Moharram Eid-ul-Fitr Kumbha Mela Attire Aligarhi pajama-fitted pants Dhoti-draped lower garment Burqa-veil covering the head,face & body Silk brocaded saris

The Taj Mahal,commissioned by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan for his beloved wife Mumtaz,is described as one of the finest examples of building art in marble on account of its splendid ornamentation and exquisite craftsmenship.Built in the Safavid style of architecture in the 17th century AD,it continues to inspire carving and inlay craftsmen in Agra.

Turkish rule in the 12th and 13th centuries,nurtured the tradition of Arabic calligraphy with strong Turko-Persian influences,and also introduced Sufism in the Ido-Islamic creed.Traditional Sufi music and poetry,such as that of the legendary Amir Khusrou became linked to the various traditions of Sufi movement in Punjab,Braj and Avadh.Seen above is a form of the tughra,that has evolved from the monogrammatic handsign unique to each Turkish sultan,emperor,to a derivation of the Naskhi calligraphic style,where words or phrases from the Quran are composed within an arabesque or figurative form,still done by a Hindu painter and Muslim calligraphy artisans from Jarnailganj in Lucknow.

Cuisine Benarasi paan-betel leaf with nut & cloves Bati-roasted wheat balls Chokha-mashed potato or brinjal Jahangiri Mahal palace built by emperor Akbar inside the Agra Sheermal-bread Kebab-marinated and Fort.Detail of the facade,built in red sandstone with carved barbecued meat arches in marble. Gujia-sweetmeat Petha-sweetmeat

Crafts of SAHARANPUR Wood carving Tarkashi-metal inlay in wood Ebony wood carving Subclusters of SAHARANPUR Saharanpur district: Saharanpur Bijnor district: Nagina,Bijnor Muzaffarnagar district: Pilakhua

Craft Wood work Tarkashi-metal inlay in wood

Sources Eastern UP, Bihar, Sheesham,Mango Punjab Sheesham, Eastern UP, Bihar, Rosewood, Haldu Punjab Mango, Neem, Madhya Pradesh Tun Brass, Copper Moradabad wire Ebony (abnoos) Assam

RESOURCES Raw Materials

Ebony wood carving

SAHARANPUR metalcluster located in the northernmost corner of Uttar Pradesh,comprises the districts of Saharanpur,Bijnor and Ghaziabad.Saharanpur city was founded by Mohammad-bin-Tuglaq,who named it after a famous pir,saint,Shah Haroon Chishti.It became the summer retreat for the Mughal court due to its proximity to the Shivalik Range.Most of the district is covered with forests.Today it is the district headquarter and the biggest wood carving location in India.Wood carving is widely practiced in the stat- Saharanpur, Nagina, Pilakhuwa, Mainpuri , Bijnor, Aligarh, Bareily, Bulandshahr, Lucknow and Mathura.The region has a well developed repertoire of wood work-brass and copper wire and sheet inlay in Sheesham wood;carving done on sheesham,ebony,neem,sal wood for use in furniture;jaali,fretworked lattice screens and panels and wood inlaid with different coloured woods.Mainpuri in the south-central part of the stat,is a tarkashi,metal inlay in wood,cluster.Pilakhuwa in Ghaziabad district,was a well known block printing centre supported by block makers who had migrated from Farrukhabad to carve wood and brass-lined blocks.Their block carving skills were later adapted for making complex wooden boxes for export due to the decline in the block printing craft that was facing competition from screen printing.Craftsmen in Nagina and Bijnor has shifted from carving ebony wood to sheesham.The wood carving crafts of this region have evolved and today use motorized lathes;machines for drilling.Jig-saw cutting,sanding and for processing and seasoning of timber.The wooden products are still influenced by handwork like tarkashi and carving with hand tools-craft skills that provide employ-ment to thousands of people in the region.

ACCESS Saharanpur is accessible by road and rail.It is about six hours by road from Delhi.Pilakhuwa is situated 40 to 50 km from Delhi on the Delhi-Hapur Highway. 3 Solar seasoning plant in Saharanpur. 4 Craftsman carving on wood.

1 Logs of wood used as raw material. 2 Timber for sale in the Saharanpur mandi.Logs are auctioned and the best wood is bought by the furniture karkhanas,workshops.

WOOD CARVING
SAHARANPUR IS KNOWN its for wood carving,particularly for its openwork screens carved with the vine leaf pattern,anguri.The wood craft is influenced by Kashmiri designs since most of the craftsmen are descendents of Kashmiri immigrants.Usually the carving is in low relief,chilai,with a characteristic floral scroll design patterning the entire surface.It is found on trinket boxes,table tops,cutlery and office accessories.Takai,carving in high relief,is done on products for export and the upmarket.Screens are fretworked and finished manually.The designs are transferred onto planks using zinc stencils.Craftemen have also taken to using punched,a shortcut to engraving,to meet ever increasing demands.The choice of material,sheesham wood,is a Persian legacy,promoted perhaps by the Mughals.Secondly,the finegrained dark wood allows for deep carving without Chipping. 1 Chair with takai,high relief carving,with openwork. 2 Chilai,low relief carving.The floral jaal pattern is characteristic of wood carving of Saharanpur. 3 Chest of drawers in the shape of books wih punch marked texture. 4 Carved and fretworked wooden screen. A little buffing brings it to a high shine.Other woods used are teak,rosewood and walnut for deep undercutting;and mango wood is given a dark polish to look like sheesham.Sheesham is also used to carve printing blocks.Blocks are carved by removing material from the nonprinting area by drilling through to prevent the formation of air bubbles while printing.The grain of the wood is perpendicular to the block`s surface.The block is soaked in a mustard oil bath to season the wood.Wooden blocks are carved in Pilakhuwa,Varanasi and Farrukhabad.Engraving is also done for the tarkashi craftsman.Wood carving in Saharanpur began with architectural carvings.In 1882 an immigrant of Multan,Atta Hussain,established the first organized productin unit of wood carving.Today the main exports go to the United Kingdom,France,Germany,Australia,Spain and Saudi Arabia. Production Clusters Saharanpur district: Saharanpur: Purani Mandi Sheopuri Mandi Kamboh ka Pul Ghaziabad district: Pilakhuwa Products Traditional Doors Windows Fretworked screens Comtemporary: Callapsible, chairs, Cabinets, Tables, Boxes, Coastes, Trays, Bowls, Spoons, Acupressure Tools Tools Pulki-chisel Tahaki-chisel Chaurasi-chisel Cheni-chisel Thapi-mallets Lathes, Drills, Saws, Files, Nose pliers, Cutters, Divider Sili-sharpening slab

TARKASHI - METAL INLAY IN WOOD


Production Clusters Bijnor district: Nagina Saharanpur district: Saharanpur Ghaziabad district: Pilakhuwa Mainpuri district: Mainpuri Products Traditional: Khadaun-wooden slippers Book holders Screens Contemporary: Bottle racks Trolleys Television cabinets Coasters Tools Cheni-chisel Pulki-chisel Tahaki-chisel Chaurasi-chisel Punches Wooden Mallets Hammer TARKASHI IS THE ART of inlaying brass and copper wires in wood.Tarkashi is always done on hardwoods.The wire are hammered into a pattern engraved on dark sheesham wood.The wired sit flush within the surface.Evgraving is done with small chisels.Some of the motifs are machine cut.The surface is finished by buffing but care is taken so that the surface does not heat up and dislodge the wires. In Saharanpur and Nagina the designs are mostly floral not very intricate.In Mainpuri,where the craft originated ,the tarkashi is very fine.Intricate floral and geometric jaals are characteristically interspersed with tiny bhiriyans,dots.Bhiriyans are directly hammered into the wood.Initially both engraving and inlay was done by the same craftsman but now both are specialized skills in the karkhana,workshops.Finished pieces are assembledd by tarkhans,carpenters.Craftemen have also begun incorporating camel bone,bone powder,marble dust and silver with the wire inlay.In Saharanpur tarkashi developed from wood carving which was introduced when kashmiri craftsmen visited the place around the 1860s.In Mainpuri the craft was patronized by the Nawabs.Among the earliest products inlaid were khadaun,wooden slippers worn by pious Hindus.

1 Tarkashi and plastic inlay. 2 Tarkashi and plastic inlay on a folding book stand which is cleverly made from a single piece of wood by sawing and chiselling.Obviating the need for hardware.

EBONY WOOD CARVING


Production Clusters Bijnor district: Bijnor Nagina town: Quazi Lohari,Lal Noor Shah Zahir Mir ki Sarai Products Jaali comb,Judd comb Machli ki jaali-comb Tel wala kangya-oil comb Marore ki kalsi ka kanga-comb Double jaali ka gol kanga-comb Raja-rani ki kangi Oranamental boxes Walking sticks Tools Band saws Girja-gouge Chosi, Sumba, Taki Ari-chisels Barma-nail to drill hole. A SMALL POCKET of craftsmen in Nagina and Bijnor specialize in carving ornamental combs and trinkets boxes from abnoos,ebony.The combs are made in pairs,male and female.The male combs,raja ki kangi,have teeth on one side and the female combs,rani ki kangi,have teeth on both sides.Traditionally simple combs were made.To carve a comb,a piece of wood,the shape and size of a comb is sawn.One or both edges are tapered off and teeth are cut into them with chisels.The thicker side is ornamented with openwork and stylized carving.Although ebony wood carving in Nagina,the original centre.started about 300 to 400 years ago,today the craftsmen have shifted to carving in sheesham,dark coloured hardwood and making tarkashi objects.Here the carving is more delicate and meticulous,and closer to the traditional.Ebony being scarce and expensive has almost completely been replaced by sheesham.The craftsmen are Muslims.In Bijnor they are immigrants from Multan,a province in Pakistan.

1. Lid of an ebony box from Nagina 2. Ebony comb from Bijnor 3. Fretworked and carved wooden box from Nagina

A skilled craftsman engraving a brass plate in Moradabad,one of the biggest export centres of handicrafts in the state. Craft Brass ware RESOURCES Raw Materials Brass Brads scrap Sources Casting industries Ordinance factories MORADABAD REGION is historically a part of Rohikhand,now called Bareilly division.The Moradabad city,headquarters of Moradabad district,is located 150km from Delhi on the banks of River Ramganga.It was founded in 1625 and named after one of the Emperor Shah Jahan`s sons.The history and culture of the Moradabad district is linked to the Subclusters of Rohillas,a group of medieval Afghan adventures.Their military MORADABAD exploits and conquests in this part of western Moradabad district: Uttar Pradesh bordering Kumaon led to the region to be called Rohilkhand.The Rohillas belong,originally,to the region called Moradabad Roh in Afghanistan.They came to India in 1707 to trade in Sambhal horses,among other things.The region is thus predominatly Jyotiba Phule Nagar Muslim.Amroha has a substantial Shia Muslim Presence.Urdu district: and Hindi are spoken here,Today it is an important trade centre Amroha and one of the most densely populated cities.There are many smallscale brass ware industries and art brass ware is Rampur district: exported.The open plains of Moradabad district are drained by Rampur several rivers.The fertile terai has forests which have trees of Sheesham,semal,babul,ber,gular,eucapyptus and khair.Moradabad has over 600 units crafting brass ware for the Sheet metal paandaans export and home markets.Brasss objects are made either by (containers for keeping casting,moulding or sheet metal forming processes.A number paan, betel leaves and of ornamentation techniques are being usednuts) shaped like engraving,embossing,filling in coloured lac in engraved vintage cars. areas,etching,tinning and electroplating.Horn and bone carving is done in Moradabad and Sambhal.Rampur is well known for its handmade knives.Crafts such as zari,gold thread embroidery,block printing and ironwork are practiced in Amroha. Separate parts of a brass vase being ACCESS engraved. Several major rail lines and a national highway link Moradabad with other parts of India.The nearest airports are in Delhi (160km) and Agra (267 km).The state capital Lucknow in 339 km away. Crafts of MORADABAD Brass ware of Moradabad

A vase with lac decoration.

A brass engraver takes a moment`s rest.

BRASS WARE OF MORADABAD


Production Clusters Moradabad district: Moradabad Products Paandaan-container for storing paan Hookah Decanters Pot holders, Mirror, Frames, Table lamps Tools Darza-casting box Bhatti-furnace Gharia-crucible Sansi-tongs Karchul-spoon Thapi-mallet Kalam-chisels Lahni-chisels Lathe Wooden table MORADABAD IS A leading cluster for art brass ware in the country.Brass,valued for its golden lustre,is sandcast and the various levels of production are handled by specialized craftsmen. The dhaliyas,metal caste,casts the pieces,while the sheet metal workers and engravers have their own workshops.The entire process of production along with ornamentation usually takes 4 to 6 weeks. Kalamkari, Urdu for engraving and pen work, is done with controlled strokes of the thapi,mallet,on fine pointed chisels.The craftsman engraves from memory unless a new design is asked for.The engraving is shallow,called naqqashi or sada kalam,and deep engraving,called khudai or sia kalam.In khudai the designs are marori,intricate,and the chased depressions are filled in with coloured lac.The lac sticks are heated and applied to the metal.The design gleams in golden tracery against the translucent jewel-coloured lac.Naqqashi is sometimes done on a tinned surface.Traditional styles are mostly floral arabesques.Ornamentation,however,is limited to decorative and dowry items since domestic utensils are scoured with mud or ash after use.A traditional product that needs special mention is the paandaan,made by casting heavy-gauge sheet metal,either copper or brass. The hinges are manually made as well.Cast pieces are finished by sandpapering on the lathe.They come in all shapes and sizes ,such as miniature vintage cars.The size of the paandaans and the ornamentation reflect the social standing of a bride`s family.The intricate ornamentation is a legacy of the Mughals who also introduced newer designs.During Shah Jahan`s reign the brass ware of Moradabad was exported to Iran,Turkey and the Middle East.Aligarh and Jalesar are two other important centres of brass work in Uttar Pradesh.Craftsmen in Aligarh cast brass locks,statuettes,ornamental door handles and fittings.Jalesar is known for cast bells made in brass.

BAREILLY
BAREILLY LIES TO THE north of the state,bordering the hill state of Uttaranchal.Pilibhit and the northern areas of Bareilly and Shahjahanpur districts lie in the wet grasslands of the terai region.Bareily is a cane craft and zardozi,gold and silver embroidery cluster.Zardozi,introduced in the 12th century by the Turkish and Afghani rulers,is one of the oldest traditions of Lucknow,Varanasi,Agra,Bareilly,Rampur andFarrukhabad.Zardozi textiles were popular with the wealthy and ruling elite and today are used in bridal outfits and the garments industry. Pilibhit claims the uniqueness of producing more than 95% of India`s flutes even though the raw material,bamboo,comes from the Barak Valley districts of Karimganj,Hailakandi and Cackar in Assam.Untill the 1940s,migali wood was used , which was sourced from neighbouring Nepal.Migali being hard to cut and peel was subsituted by bamboo-a more superior material for making flutes.In Pilibhit,bamboo flute making sustains about 500 families.There is only one family of 8 brothers,employing 20 artisans who produce high quality flutes for renowned classical centre,is well known as a carpet weaving centre,with a high concentration of looms.The weavers are local unlike in the Mirzapur-Bhadohi weaving belt,where some of the weavers are migratory.Farrukhabad,adjoining Shahjahanpur district,is the largest centre for block prinitng.The designs are characteristics by the delicate keri,mango motifs,floral patterns and the chintz-style tree of life.Farrukhabad is known for its block making and printing skills.

ACCESS Bareilly is 212km from Agra,243 km from Lucknow and 96 km from Moradabad.Shahjahanpur,75 km from Bareilly, is located on National Highway 24,which connects New Delhi with the state capital Lucknow.The nearest airports are in Agra and Lucknow.

Crafts Cane furniture Bamboo flutes

RESOURCES Raw Materials Cane Bamboo

Sources Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala Assam

Crafts of BAREILLY Cane furniture Bamboo flutes

Subclusters of BAREILLY Bareilly district: Bareilly Pilibhit district: Pilibhit Shahjahanpur district: Shahjahanpur Farrukhabad distict: Farrukhabad

1 Cane furniture workshop, Bareilly. 2 Popular trees outside Bareilly town. 3 Carpets are stretched after weaving,to align them. 4 Dyeing yarn for carpet weavers in Shahjahanpur.

BAMBOO FLUTES
Production Clusters Pilibhit district: Pilibhit Products Flutes Pipes Toys Tools Knives Poker Scales Sandpaper A BAMBOO FLUTE is remarkable in its simplicity.It is a legendary folk instrument associated with Lord Krishna.The Hindi word bansuri is a synthesis of baans meaning bamboo and sur meaning musical note.The Indian flute is melodious and a wide range of notes are achieved from simple calibration of the air column in the bamboo.A community of craftsmen living in Pilibhit has made making flutes from bamboo a hereditary family enterprises.Bamboo is sourced from Silchar and other parts of Assam and converted into a wide range of flutes including toy flutes. 1 Bamboo of various kinds are brought to Bareilly from Assam.The town is also referred to as Baans Bareilly,derived from baans,the Hindi word for bamboo. Only a few master craftsmen known the closely guarded secret of indexing the musical notes precisely,which is done by piercing the bamboo to make holes for placement of fingers.Holes are made by burning with red hot metal pokers and all markings are done with special scales and tools.The professional flutes are made from seasoned bamboo which are carefully selected and stored before conversion.Great musicians of the Indian classical tradition source their instruments from here.The larger portion of craftsmen prepare inexpensive toy flutes sold all across India,at various fairs.The low cost flutes are made in very large volumes. Inset A flute meant for classical musicians. 2 A miniature painting from Rajasthan.Lord Krishna is depicted as a young cowherd playing the flute,enthralling Radha,the cow-herdesses and the animals.

CANE FURNITURE
Production Clusters Bareilly district: Bareilly Bithri Chainpur Ramnagar Alampur Zafradbad Bhojipura Allahabad district: Allahabad Kydganj Products Furniture Dustbins Racks Lamps Baskets Pot Holders Sofa Set Centre tables Tools Saw Kerosene Lamp Hammer Knife BAREILLY HAS BEEN a manufacturing centre for cane furniture since 1956.Owing to its big cane and bamboo mandi, wholesale market,the town is colloquially called Baans Bareilly.Cane and bamboo procurred from Assam,are distributedd to the neighbouring villages of Bithri Chainpur, Ramnagar, Alampur, Zafrabad and Bhojipura where cane furniture making is a cottage industry.The level of skills of the craftsmen is at par with those of Assam and Kerala.The main frame of the furniture is heat bent while seating elements are either woven from splits or fitted with whole elements. Joints are bound with splits and nailed in place.The cane is soaked in water before bending.Thinner cane is heat-coiled into decorative patterns and nailed in place and finally,the finished piece is varnished.The craftsmen are adept at making anything that is drawn out,shown or even described.Bareilly also sells cane splits to other cane furniture cnetres,like Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh.There are about 6000 craftsmen in Bareilly district.

Sofa sets made with heat bent cane,joined with nails and bound with cane splits.

A craftsperson`s house and workspace,Lucknow.The dry clods have been pounded and soaked in water to weed the debris before wedging the clay.

ALIGARH metacluster located in north western Uttar Pradesh,reflects many cultural characteristics of the neighbouring Braj Bhoomi,known as Lord Krishna country.Aligarh city,once called Kol,is a district headquarter and an important agricultural trade centre.

Craft Khurja and Chinhat Pottery

Subclusters of Aligarh Aligarh district: Aligarh, Purdil Nagar Inset Plaster of Paris moulds stacked in a corner. Etah district: Jalesar 1. Thrown,cast and hand-moulded products,drying in Hathras district: the sun,readdy for firing. Hathras 2. Throwing a ceramic pot in Khurja. 3. Designs being painted on the ceramic planters using Bulandshahr a turntable. district: Khurja

RESOURCES Raw Materials Sources Ahmedabad, Clay Bikaner Feldspar, Thanagarh, Delhi Quartz, Glazes

Crafts of ALIGARH Khurja and Chinhat pottery

It houses the well known Aligarh Muslim University.During Mughal times it was an important sarai,transit camp,for travellers on their way to Agra.The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb had a garrison built,which is how the town became a cluster for locksmiths.There are some 3000 units still handcrafting brass locks in the old city.The handmade locks are difficult to pick and many have interesting features like trick combinations.At present,hand-made locks face competition and are proving no match for the cheaply available pin-cylinder Chinese locks.The locksmiths have taken to casting decorative ware in brass.Aligarh is also well known for patchwork called patti ka kaam.In the old quarter,julahas,weavers,weave dhurries.During Mughal times the region was an important centre of indigo cultivation and saltpetre industry.Khurja in Bulandshahr district and Chinhat in Lucknow district,are two clusters producing glazed pottery and crockery in stoneware and bone china.Hathras and Jalesar have metal working clusters.A wide range of cotton rugs and handloom fabrics are woven in Hathras.

ACCESS Aligarh is accessible by road and rail.The nearest airport is in Agra (83 km)and Delhi(13km).Aligarh is 128 km from Meerut and 369 km from the state capital Lucknow.

Detail of a painted and glazed pot.

POTTERY OF KHURJA AND CHINHAT


ProductionClusters Bulandshahr district: Khurja Lucknow district: Chinhat Products Khurja: Planters, Flower vases Tableware: Cups,Mugs, Plates, Dishes / Bowls, Spoons, Pitchers, bone china crockery Beads Tiles Chinhat: Glazed terracotta, Bone China, ceramics. Tableware: Bowls, Mugs, Plates Statuettes Candlestands Toys-kitchen sets, Birds & animal forms Planters Glazed roof tiles Tools Plaster of Paris moulds Wheel, Ball mill Pug mill,Blunger Filter press, Wire Finishing: Khuria-scraper Chaku-knife Patti-hacksaw Jali-mesh Painting Tinka-twig, sponge Horsehair brush IN THE 14th century,some potters from Timurlane`s retreating army stayed on at Khurja, Delhi, Jaipur and Multan (Pakistan) and set up blue pottery workshops. The potters were from Egypt, Syria, Turkey and Persia. Khurja, earlier a potter`s village, became a centre for blue pottery,and later on of glazed ceramic ware,though unlike in Jaipur (Rajasthan),the raw material has clay mixed in the feldspar and quartz.The pottery has identifiable painted floral patterns,in shades of blue and brown, on an off-white background.A thick slip is used to raise some motifs in relief.The potters have also developed orange,brown, and light red glazes.Chinhat,which is in Lucknow district in central Uttar Pradesh, also originally a potter`s village, is a smaller cluster for ceramics and glazed terracotta.Chinhat ceramics have a rough appeal and characteristics green and brown glazes.The low plasticity of clay makes throwing a little difficult so most of the forms are cast. Firing in Chinhat and Khurja is done at 1180 to 1200 centigrade.Both clusters have a big domestic market and also export to Europe and Saudi Arabia. There are 500 ceramic units in Khurja town.

Inset Glazed ceramic bird figure.

1. Serving bowl made by slip casting method,painted and fired.The pottery is made in Khurja. 2. Glazed kettle and mugs of different shapes. 3. A moulded pot which has been painted and glazed,from Chinhat. 4. A leaf-shaped plate and its plaster of paris mould.The plates are glazed and painted after casting. 5. Chinhat`s toy tea sets have been popular for several years.

AGRA FORMS A part of Braj Bhoomi,the land of Lord Krishna`s birth and Childhood.Many towns in the area continue to be associated with his legend.Pilgrims from the world over flock for the Braj parikrama,pilgrimage.Agra,though distinctly Mughal in appearance,has deeper influences of the culture of Braj.The people of the area speak Braj Bhasha, a local dialect of Hindu. Under Sikandar Lodi,a ruler of Delhi Sultanate,various workshops were set up to train young noblemen and soldiers in handicrafts.The Mughal emperor Akbar set up carpet weaving and zardozi workshops and his grandson Shah Jahan immortalized the city when he built the Taj Mahal,a permanent archive of Structural explorations in marble which inspired many crafts. Today Agra is a bustling tourist destination and home to some of the finest crafts.The galis and katras,streets and corners of the old city,are craft hubs.Katra Neel is where a lot of the crafts like dhurrie weaving,leather work,marble inlay and zardozi are located.Mathura and Vrindavan are purely Lord Krishna`s domain.The Dark Lord is everywhere, in every house and in every craft formstencils,cast metal,batik and painting.Mathura,located on the banks of the Yamuna,was once an important centre fo Buddhism and home to a distinctive style of Sculpture. The craftsmen are skilled stone and wood carvers.Firozabad is and industrial town,located near Agra.There is a large conglomeration of small-scale units engaged in manufacturing glass ware. The sole occupation of the local people is making glass bangles and glass ware.In the streets one sees many thelas,sacks,laden with bangles which are being transported for decoration to different parts of the city.

Craft Pachhikari

RESOURCES Raw Materials Marble

Sources Makrana (Rajasthan)

Turquoise, Cornelian, Jasper, lapis lazuli, Malachite, New Zealand Mother-of-pearl, Coral, Jasper agat, Garnet Makrana Marble carving White marble (Rajasthan) Bhainslana Black marble (Rajasthan) Bhainslana Soft stone carving Soapstone (Rajasthan)

Crafts of Agra Pacchikari-marble inlay Soft stone carving Glass Work Sanjhi-paper stencils Subclusters of AGRA Agra district: Firozabad district: Mathura district: Mainpur district:

ACCESS Agra has an airport and is well connected to Delhi(203km).Agra is 363 km from Lucknow and 58km from Mathura.Firozabad (40km) from Agra)has a railhead and its nearest airport is Agra. Inset Blown glass being shaped in a wooden scoop,Firozabad. 1. Marble jaali,Taj Mahal,Lac-llike intricate jaali work on marble,seen from the interior facing the Mihman Khana,guest house on the east side. 2. A sandstone jaali,Fatehpur Sikri.This Mughal walled City was built by Emperor Akbar as his capital in the 16th

century.Built in sandstone,its unique architecture is a synthesis of Hindu and Islamic styles. 3. Details of a marble jaali from the Taj Mahal. 4. Pietra dura or pacchikari on the marble walls of Taj Mahal.The Florentine technique of Pietra dura,consisted of inlaying semi-precious stones in marble has been widely used in the monument. 5. Munabat kari or low relief carving on marble panel on the walls,Taj Mahal.

Production Clusters Agra District: Tajganj Gokulpura Products Tables Boxes Statues Coasters Tools Iron chisels Set Square

Detail of a Box.Black marble inlaid with semi-precious stones.

PACCIHIKARI - STONE INLAY OF AGRA


PACCIHIKARI OR THE inlay of semi-precious stones-agat turquoise,cornelian,jasper,bloodstone,mother-ofpearl,malachite and lapis lazuli-in marble is unique to Agra.The inlay is so fine that the inlaid patters seem to have grown out of the marble.It is hardly possible to detect the incisions.The inspiration for the crafts is the beautiful pietra dura work done in the Taj Mahal and the tomb of Itimad-ud-Daulah.The art was brought to India in the 17th century from Persia when Shah Jahan chose to build the Taj Mahal.The craftsmen who are predominantly Muslim,are said to be descendents of those same craftsmen.Stone slivers are carefully shaped into minute petals,leaves,and stems on a manualy operated emery wheel.Often,a single flower is composed of as many as 40 pieces that may take a whole week to painstakingly shape and inlay.The craftsman matches the shapes to a brass template. The designs are all floral,some extremely delicate.The marble surface is shallow carved,enough to embed the stones.The chisels are worked without a hammer or mallet.The carving has to be extremely crisp,so prior to chiselling,the surface is coated with red earth that makes the engraved lines of the pattern stand out,making it easier for the craftsmen to carve and inlay.The depressions are filled in with white cement that melts on heating.The marble surface is heated and the stones laid flush in it.Any tiny gaps in the inlay are filled in with white cement.The surface is buffed and polished.Inlay is also done on alabaster,gorara stone and black marble.There are specialized craftsmen for different steps of inlay.The master craftsman designs and inlays.Other craftsmen cut the stone,glue and finish the pieces.

MARBLE CARVING
AGRA HAS BEEN a centre for marble carving ever since the Taj Mahal was built.In fact,craftsmen carve tiny replicas of the Taj Mahal. But their real skill lies in carving intricate jaalis,floral geometrical lattices.The crisp openwork of the jaalis is an extension of the beautiful jaalis in monuments in and around the city.The geometridc jaalis are intertwined with floral motifs.The city has a repertoire of over 200 designs.The marble is bought from the Makrana quarries in Rajasthan.At the workshops,the design is stencilled on the marble surface,basic holes are drilled with a hand-held drill and shaped with chisels and files.The products cater to an international clientele and the flour-ishing tourist industry.The skills of the craftsmen today,are best seen at the ornately carved Radhaswamy Temple,memorial of the founder of the Radhaswamy sect.Pure White marble is also carved into threedimensional idols.Those meant for Worship are carved without a flaw.A ceremony called pran prathishtha,invoking the god or goddess that the idol represents to come to life,is performed before the idol is installed. Details of a marble mirror frame.The flowers are carved in the round,an example of the superb carving skills of the craftsmen.

Production Clusters Agra District: Mathura district: Products Jaalis-lattice screens Doors Frames Statues Tools Chisels Hammer

SOFT STONE CARVING


THE MAIN CENTRES of stone carving in Uttar PRadesh are Agra,Vrindhavan,Mathura,Varanasi and Hamirpur.Craftsmen in Agra and Vrindavan carve idols,statuettes and jaalis from various stones,and specialize in a particular stone.Alabaster is popular in Agra due to its resemblance to marble. But being an extremely soft stone,requiring only finger pressure to chisel,it has to be boiled overnight and then waxed to take on the design.Idols are at a times ornamented with paint and gold leaf overlay.The stone is also turned into containers.Craftsmen at Mathura specialize in carving nesting animals-elephants,owls,tortoises and egg-shaped objects-with the forms carved in floral jaali.Holes are drilled with a power drill and the insides hollowed out manually with chisels.The smaller animal is carved out through the jaali so the form has no joints.The piece is buffed to a finish.Varanasi is known more for souvenir carvings,statues of the Buddha,Figurines and nesting animals in gorara,a reddish stone,khorai and pallar that are popular with piligrims and tourists. Turned containers are also made.The local outlets are Sarnath,Vishwanath Gali and Dasashvamedhi Ghat. A market for the products exists in Delhi,Mumbai,Kathmandu and Germany.The craftsmen are former ivory carvers who switched to wood and stone following the ban on ivory in India,about two decades ago.Apart from softstone carving,craftsmen in Varanasi and Chitrakoot carve idols in relief on sandstone slabs which are placed under trees for workship.The stone comes from quarries in Chunar Hills near Varanasi.

Production Clusters Agra district: Mathura district: Varanasi district: Ramnagar, Chunar Hamirpur Products Agra: Gorar jaalis Turned gorara tableware Mathura: Varanasi: Statuettes Pen-stands, Photo frames Tools Electric lathes Zameen safni-to make holes Batali-files

Inset Turned stone container. 1. Detail of the Jaali,carving of the nesting elephant from Mathura. 2. Carved nesting elephant,i.e.elephants one inside the other,Mathura. 3. Carved khorai stone from Varanasi. 4. A marble table lamp,carving and openwork,.

KNOTTED CARPETS AGRA IS ONE of the earliest carpet weaving centres set up by the Mughals in India.In the 16th century Emperor Akbar invited Persian master weavers to set up carpet karkhanas,workshops,in Agra.The Carpets of Agra soon replaced those of Persian in quality the region of Shah Jahan.The royal carpets were stored in the Farrashkhana,carpet house,and Akbar,according to his historian,loved spending time there.The quality of carpets declined with the fall of the Mughal empire.

1. Elongated medallion designed with corners and pendants,patterned with a floral scrolling vine in the background. 2. Carpet depicting Shikar,a hunting scene,representative of the pictorial style found in late 16th century manucripts from Akbar`s karkhana,workshop. 3. A naksha,the design graph of the mussallah,a prayer carpet. 4. The mussallah,prayer carpet. Agra still produces some of the finest carpets in the country.Weaving is done by men in karkhanas.They use the asymmetrical or Persian knot and the density of knots per square inch varies according to the quality-120 to 330 knots/square inch is medium quality,and 330 or more knots/square inch is high quality.The patterns are classical Persian though the original pashmina pile has been replaced by wool and silk on a cotton foundation.A unique system in the karkhanas is the phera bolna where the master craftsman calls out the pattern and colours from a talim,which is a coded instruction to weave the pattern,and the weavers chant back their reply.Weaving is followed by finishing and washing.Finishing,realigning the knots and clipping the pile,is a meticulous process done bit by bit on hand-knotted carpets.Shahjahanpur knots the largest number of carpets for the domestic market.The woollen knotting in not very dense but the carpets are attractive and affordable.The weavers use a graph plotted by a nakshaband,artist.Each square in the graph represents a knot.Three weavers knot a carpet.Two work on the borders and one knots the field.The knot used is the Persian or Sennah.Today there are about 500 families that weaves in the town.The carpets are sold in Guwahati, Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir. Production Clusters Agra district: Agra Fatehpur Sikri ShahJahanpur district: Shahjahanpur Products Carpet types: Persian Abusson Turkoman Bokhara Tools Vertical roller-beam loom Talim-coded pattern Naksha-graph Kangi-beater

Production Clusters Blown glass & bangle Firazabad district: Firozabad Etah district: Jalesar Beads: Agra district: Agra Aligarh district: Purdil Nagar Firozabad district: Firozabad Glass bangle stall in Lucknow GLASS WORK GLASS CAME to India with the invaders from the Islamic world.Firozabad met the royal demand for jhad and fanus (types fo chandeliers),and produced vials for perfumes. Today,traditional bangles and newer products like glass toys are handmade in the streets of Firozabad.Blowing is a special operation and is limited to the karkhanas,workshops.Blowing allows for the creation of an endless variety of hollow objects.In case of mould blowing,great skill is necessary to make the glass take the shape and patterns while maintaining uniform thickness on all sides.Bangle making is to a great extent a cottage industry.The craftsman draws and winds molten glass into a tight spiral around the mandrel.The glass springs are then cut and aligned into bangles and patterned with nicks.Women working form their homes complete the ornamentation with gold paint.Glass toys are made in Agra and Firozabad.The Craftsman manipulates a glass rod over a flame by twisting,drawing and fusing glass into tiny bird and animal forms up to 5 cm in size.To make glass beads,wires drawn from a molten glass rod are wound around an iron spike,rolled,and melted over a small burner.To release the beads the spike is dipped in water.Tiny beads are shaped by hand on the spike. Glass vase from Firozabad A mould-blown hanging lamp. Etah district: Jalesar Varanasi district: Inset A closed form obtained by blowing.Two different coloured opaque glass is blown,fused with clear glass and blown again.Mouth and base are groung and polished for an even surface. 1. Glass thread spun around a bubble formed blown glass. 2. Sandblasted blown glass dish. 3. A sandblasted blown glass closed form. Varanasi Toys: Agra district: Agra Firozabad district: Firozabad Products Vases Crockery Jugs Chandleliers Lamps Beads, Bangles Tools Blowing rod Iron moulds Furnace Wooden scoops Shears Tongs,Burner Diamond cutters

SANJHI-PAPER STENCILS THE SANJHI OF Mathura is a ritual craft in which paper stencils of scenes from Lord Krishna`s life are cut freehand using scissors or a blade.The delicate sanjhi is often just held together by thin strands of paper.The stencils are used to create rangolis,powder transfer,on the ground and on water.These days the craftsmen are applying their skill to cut tiny bindis,stickers worns on the forehead,and secular images for the tourists. Sanjhis are originally images of Sanjhi Devi made in relief on a mud wall using fresh flowers,coloured stones,foil and mirrors.Sanjhis are still made throughout the plains of North India.Mathura;s Sanjhis,however,have become delicate

Production Clusters Mathura district Mathura: Kanskar Bazaar Vrindavan City: Shri Madan Mohanji`s Temple Products Stencils Bindis-stickers Cards Tools Radha,the consort of Lord Krishna. Scissors Pins

rangoli stencils depicting Krishna.If the sanjhi is a multicoloured rangoli,the main design is divided into a number of subsidiary chaskas,cutouts.The art has been hereditary and the craftsmen live near the Krishna Temple in Mathura.

Inset A sanjhi of Lord Krishna playing the flute,made with handmade paper,Mathura.

Pencil

A detail of the arched windows and the jaali,lattice screens,that cover some of the windows of the Bara Imambara,the great columnless ceremonial hall built in 1784.The complex has a massive courtyard,triple arched gateways,the Asafi mosque and a baoli,stepwell.The jaali effect is recreated in chikankari embroidery.

Crafts of LUCKNOW Chikankariembroidery of Lucknow Kamdani and fardi ka kaam-metal work embroidery Silver work Zardozi-gold embroidery Varaq ka kaam-gold and silver foil work Sheet metal work Terracotta Quitabat Calligraphy Bone carving Clay toys Basketry Tharu applique Applique Subclusters of Lucknow Lucknow district: Lucknow Chinhat Barabanki district: Barabanki Shravasti district: Shravasti

RESOURCES Craft Chikankari Kamdani and Fardi ka kaam - metal work embroidery Raw Materials Untwisted mill yarn Muga, Tussar Yarn Metal wire Sources Lucknow Surat(Gujarat)

Shell Porcupine quill Zardozi Zari, Metal purls, Sequins, Resham, Untwisted cotton yarn Silver, Gold Sheet silver Sheet copper Clay Kandi-dung cakes Quitabat-calligraphy Mineral colours : Iron oxide, copper oxide, Powdered lapis lazuli Earth colours : Khariya, Geru, Multani mitti, Sindoor, Neel Paveri Vegetable colours Handmade paper

Kolkata(West Bengal) Ajmer (Rajasthan) Surat

Varaq ka kaam Silver work Sheet Metal work Terracotta

Varanasi Mathura Locally available Local digs, Ponds Cowshed Lucknow

Local Dealers

Rajasthan Local Dealers, Stationers, Antiques dealers Lucknow Lucknow Lucknow, Bareilly Behraiche Lucknow, Behraich

Bone carving Clay toys of Lucknow Basketry Tharu applique Applique

Buffalo bone Camel bone Clay, Kandi, Powder colours Arhar stalks Cotton fabric Voile, Organdy

LUCKNOW IS A crowded old Mughal city with colonial architecture.The city is spread on both banks of the River Gomati.The land is slightly undulating and many streets are located on dhaals,slopes.Chauk and Aminabad are the main bazaars,the hud of artistic activity and the only place where one can come closest to experiencing the renowned adab,refined courtesy,of Lucknow. Lucknow traces its origins to the Suryavanshi dynasty of Ayodhya,its name to Lakshman(the brother of lord Rama)but its modern history really begins when, in 1732,Mohammad Amin Sadat Khan,a Persian adventurer,was made governor of Avadh,of which Lucknow was a part.His descendants came to be known as Nawabs and later as Nawab Wazirs.In 1755,the Nawabs shifted their capital from Faizabad to Lucknow.Today,Lucknow is the capital of Uttar Pradesh.Chinhat,a town that developed from a potters`village,is near Lucknow and accessible from Aminabad.The districts of Behraich and Shravasti are located in Northeastern Uttar Pradesh,bordering Nepal.During the reign of Ashoka it was a centre of Buddhism.Archaeological remains of some Buddhist stupas and Jain temples have been excavated in Shravasti making it an important place for pilgrimage.In fact,countries like Japan,Burma and Thailand have set up monasteries there.Villages of the Tharu tribe are located all along the border with Nepal in the deep forests.Barabanki has a large population of weavers and was one of the villages that took up khadi weaving on Gandhiji`s call for satyagraha,non-violent resistence,movement.

ACCESS Lucknow being the state capital is well connected to all the major cities in India by road,rail and by air. Inset Colouring of a terracotta object.

1. The making of kamdani,a metal strip embroidery 2. Freshly thrown lamp comes off the wheel.Diyas or lamps come in varying sizes and are used as oil lamps during Diwali,the festival of lights. 3. A Gujjar womam,twisting rope from saann grass in Behraich, in the adjoining district.

Production Clusters Lucknow district: Lucknow: Chauk Daliganj Barabanki district: Barabanki Products Traditional: Rumalshandkerchiefs Skull caps Angarkhas-long shirts Contemporary: Saris-draped cloth CHIKANKARI-EMBROIDERY OF LUCKNOW CHIKANKARI IS SUBTLE embroidery,white on white,in which minute and delicate stitches stand out as tedxtural contrasts,shadows and traceries.Some stitches are worked from the back and some from the front.In a unique,anokhi chikan,the stitches donot appear at the back. Bakhiya ,herringbone stitch,done on the reverse of the fabric,gives a shadow effect that became a dominant feature of the craft in the 1980s.Traders flooded markets with coarsely executed work and thoughtless design diversification had eroded the sensibility of the craft.The sensitive design intervention of organizations such as Dastkar and SEWA, were crucial in reintroducing finely crafted stitches such as murri,phanda,eyelets and a variety of jaali.This has improved the quality of craftsmanship and the livelihoods of craftspersons. Inset Fish motif with jaali or pulled thread work in the body.The fish motif was used in art and architecture after the Nawabs adopted the MAhi Murattib, the twin fish, as their state emblem. 1 White-on-white embroidery traditionally done on fine muslin uses darning,stem,satin and buttonhole stitches with pulled thread work and eyelets edged in buttonhole or stem stitch. The phanda stitch used on the edge of ambia or mango motifs creates an embossed texture. 2 Block used for printing the pattern before embroidering. 3 Chikan angarkha,garment stitched from fine muslin and embroidered with phanda stitch and wrapped back stitch,a revival of the elegance and refinement that was closely associated with Nawabi Culture. Kurtas-tunics Dupattas-stoles Scarves Drapes Table linen Tools Fine metal needles Scissors Wooden block for printing motifs

The fabric used is fine,and traditionally muslin.Chikan appears to have been derived from the Persian word chikin or chakin,meaning cloth wrought with needlework.It was originally a court craft having been introduced by Mughal empress Noorjahan.There were chikankaars in the courts of Kolkata,Delhi,Dhaka (Bangladesh),Gaya,Varanasi,Allahabad,Rampur and Bhopal.In Lucknow,the Nawabs of Avadh made the finely embroidered muslins a prescribed requirement of the ceremonial court.A single piece of chikan relies on many skilled craftsmen, designer, printer, embroiderer, washerman. Traditionally, different artisan families practiced and perfected one type of stitch and it would,therefore,often take between three to four craftsmen to embroider a single garment.

4 Detail of a large circular pattern with the royal emblem of twin fish and floral motifs using avariety of jaali work, eyelets, murri, phanda, and satin stitch. 5 Buta with mange motifs intricately rendered in bakhiya stitch, jaali work and phanda stitch. Amiba, keri or mango motifs are common to Benaras brocades, block prints and Lucknow embroidery. 6 A mango motif with a variety of embossed stitches. 7 A keri, mango motif, in taipchi stitch with a row of openwork. Taipchi or running stitch is the most elementary and inexpensive of all chikan embroideries and is used here to outline the motif.

Kamdani border on a lehenga, long skirt. KAMDANI AND FARDI KA KAAM-METAL WORK EMBROIDERY Production Clusters Lucknow district: Lucknow Rustam Nagar Products Dupatta-wraps Scarves Chiffon Sari Tools Needle Cowrie sheelburnishing Siyahai ka kaantaporcupine quill Butter paper stencil BOTH KAMDHANI AND fardi ka kaam are flattened wire embroidery on thin fabric.In kamdani the wire is worked into motifs whereas fardi,literally dots,uses the same wire to embroider silver and golden dots placed in patterns,The hazara butti,thousand dots design in fardi is characteristic of Lucknow.The embroidery is called mukaish in Punjab and badla in Gujarat and Mumbai.In kamdani,the wire attached to a small length of thread is pulled through the fabric with a needle.

Fardi,tiny dots, are made by wrapping a metal strip around a few warp and weft threads of the fabric.

In fardi the wire is used as a needle.For openwork,the fabric is pierced with a porcupine quill or pointed sticks made of ivory,wood or bone.The fabric is laid flat on a blanket and rubbed over with a cowrie shell.This flattens and burnishes the wire.The motifs are transferred from a perforated paper stencil.Pattern making is a specialized activity.Kamdani is fast becoming a rarity and most of the craftsmen are elderly men.Fardi ka kaam is done by women from their homes.

Metal wire attached to needle and thread,Porcupine quill,cowrie or shell.

A cowrie shell is rubbed over the embroidery to flatten and burnish the metal strips. Copper,silver and gold metal strips used in embroidery.

Detail of a flower motif.

SILVER WORK Production Clusters Lucknow district: Lucknow Products Paizeb-anklets with bells Jhumkas-earrings Paandaans-betel leaf box Lota-pot Katora-cups Matki-ritual pot Glasses,Plates Slippers Tabiz-amulet Dawait-inkpot Kalam-pen THE SILVERSMITHS IN LUCKNOW combine embossing,engraving and openwork on sheet silver to craft traditional utensils,bridal footwear and paandaans.Among Muslims,silver is of great ritual importance.For instance,a boy writes his first alphabet on a takhti(silver tablet),using a kalam (silver pen) dipped in dawait (silver inkpot).A bride wears silver sandals for her wedding.Mughal-style silver oranaments are intricate,but light. Tools Reti-file Chimti-tongs Plas-pliers Nehai-iron square Khalna-ball-ended punch Reza-cast Kalam-chisels Hathodi-hammer Katarni-copper wire brush Sandaan-die Detail of the embossed work Thappa-metal die Jantari-iron plate Owing to the strong Islamic influence most products are highly ornamented with repousse,depicting hunting scences and floral and fish motifs.Nowadays the silversmith also uses dies to emboss.The sheet is flipped over the embossed design is made crisper by chasing it from the front.Some parts of the design are encrusted by soldering.Craftsmen work individually. 1 A Silver tablet,inkpot and a pen 2 Silver sandals for a Muslim bride.

ZARDOZI - GOLD EMBROIDERY Production Clusters Lucknow district: Lucknow Kashmiri Mohalla Dera Baba Hazara Chaupatiyan Katra Bizambeg Wazir Bagh Purana Chautra Mansoor Nagar Rustam Nagar Nakkar Shah Ganj Husainabad Bhul Bhulaiyan Pandey ka Talab Multiganj Caliganj Bara Imambara Chhota Imambara Quaiserbagh Thakurganj Lalbagh Kursi Road Agra district: Agra: Tajganj Loha Mandi Mewati Products Traditional: Purses,Handbags Jewellery boxes Caps, Jackets, Slippers Contemporary: Lehenga-choligathered skirt & blouse Sari-draped Cloth Tools Karchob - a rectangular wooden frame Khakha - butter paper stencil Ari-hooked needle Metal needles Hammer to flatten the wire embroidery

ZARDOZI IN AGRA is traditionally done on velvet which is said to have been introduced by the Portugese.The zardozi of Lucknow is of a bareek or fine variety,however it is the quicker zari ka kaam that is keeping the craftsmen busy.Zardozi (Persian,Zar-gold,dozi-work) is gliettering,heavily encrusted embroidery done by couching wire purls,beads,sequins and spangles onto heavy fabrics with a needle.The splendour of zardozi is revealed in the manner in which it reflects light.The more the levels and directins of couching on the zardozi,the more appealing is the piece.The variety of purls,dull and shiny;sitaras,sequins and the padding help achieve the effect.Zari ka kaam ,also known as haathari,ari kaam and fancy kaam,is a quick chain stitch in zari and art silk,done with a fine hooked needle called ari.The craftsman deftly manoeuvers the ari,working it at a rapid pace,the hook picking the applique material,and couching it onto the fabric.

The craftsmen`s skill lies in maintaining the stitch size while working the needle at breakneck speed.The fabric is stretched taut on a karchob,large wooden frame,around which five to six craftsmen sit and embroider.The pattern is transferred from a perforated paper stencil by rubbing over it with chalk powder.Designs are made by the naksha naviz, artist. The embroiderers are mostly Muslim men.In Mughal India.zardozi adorned court costumes,canopies,bolsters,scabbards and trappings. 1. 14th century zardozi work done on velvet canopy,Lucknow. 2. Karchob,wooden frame,for stretching the fabric for ari work. 3. Detail of a velvet floor covering embroidered with silk and zari ari work that is unique to Agra. 4. Chaupatiyan,a heavily encrusted and embroidered zardozi bridal veil,Lucknow.

VARAQ KA KAAM-GOLD AND SILVER FOIL WORK VARAQ IS A gossamer thin edible foil,made from beating gold and silver for many hours.It is used to decorate sweets and other foods.Varaq is also supposed to posses medicinal properties-silver is cooling and gold,warming - and is sold to ayurvedic practitioners.The process of making varaq is labour intensive.It takes 4 hours of continuous pounding to reduce a 10 gm piece to 180 pieces of varaq.The silver is place between the deerskin leaves for a farma,hide booklet.The farma is pounded with an iron hammer till the silver slowly expands.As the sheet silver expanda it is sliced into twos or fours,which are then placed between separate sheaves.Gold needs to be beaten for 12 hours.Pounding Production Clusters Lucknow district: Lucknow Varanasi district: Varanasi Products Gold & silver edible foil

takes place on a stone slab. On rainy days the stone slab tends to gather moisture,so a small coat furnace is attached to it. Tools Farma or daftar leather booklet Kasauti ka pathar stone slab Phalua - blunt blade Cheep or chimti bamboo tweezer

Silver varaq, foil.

1 Black and front of an alam,a shaped copper standard that is taken out in processions by the Shia Muslims during Muharram.Motifs of the hands,horse and crescent moon recall the sacrifice made by Hazrat Abbas Alamdaar,the grandson of Prohet Mohammed at the historic battle of Karbal in central Iraq. 2 Containers for paan ingredients. 3 Tamba paandaans,engraved punched and repoussed form an essential part of Muslim dowry. 4 Repoussed copper spittoon for paan addicts 5 Water urn used by Muslims

SHEET METAL WORK Production Clusters Lucknow district: Lucknow: Ahiya Ganj Products Paandaans Kishti paraat-pans Deg-cooling pot Sini-metal plate Patili-Small deg Tonti lota-water pot Alam-standards Tools Kalam-chisels Prakaar-divider Nihai-iron slab Sisa-lead Khakha-paper stencils,dies THE SHEET METAL WORK of Lucknow combines ubhar naqqashi or repousse with jaal ka kaam or openwork.Most of the productsalams,paandaans,spittoons, and ewers,are made for a Muslim clientel.They are all lavishly ornamented.The design is transferred from a paper stencil.For repousse,the sheet is laid over a lac bed and bossed with chisels and punches.For a quicker job,iron dies are used.A stick of lead is rubbed on the sheet for bossing.The most elaborate of the products are the massive dowry paandaans.They are about a metre in width and the body is lavishly bossed,punched and engraved.A floral and crescent moon design is seen on most.Every Muslim bride brings with her a beautiful paandaan,the size of the container being a symbol of hospitality,becomes important.Smaller,lightly engraved paandaans are found in every home.The paandaan is the woman`s domain,while the paan ka galla or the paan stall is run by men.Lucknow is famous for its gilori paan with a special leaf and ingredients.During Muharram,copper alams or standards are taken out in procession.They are carefully bossed with images and symbols related to the assassination of the Prophet Mohammed`s family. Degs, copper pots

used for cooking are formed over swages in three parts-neck and two hemispheres for the body.The insiders of degs are limed.All the craftsmen-metal workers,engravers and limers - work in a street in Ahiya Ganj.

TERRACOTTA AND POTTERY Production Clusters Lucknow district: Lucknow Chinhat Allahabad district: Allahabad Gorakhpur district: Gorakhpur Nizamabad Products Kulhar-tea glasses Malwa-Joined bowl and pot Tutuhi-cup with spout Nadia, Nadwa - curd bowl Hauda-troughs Piyalia-shallow bowl Parva-container Larva-for Karva Chauth Chilum-pipes Tools Chak-wheel Lesur-Slicer Moulds POTTERS ARE IN important community of artisans in the villages of Uttar Pradesh catering to everyday needs of villagers-throwing water pots in summer,kulhars the year round,diyas or lamps for Diwali and sculpting clay deities and rough votive forms.Potters who live near towns and cities make decorative ware.The potters get their clay from nearby fields and village ponds.The men do the throwing and women help with all clay work except throwing.which is a taboo for 1 Malwa, a container for ubtan,gram flour and turmeric,and oil used during body massages.These are wheel-thrown objects,joined with clay slip and fired, Nizamabad. them.The Hindu potters are called kumbhars or kumhars and belong to a community called Prajapati.The muslim potters are called kasgars.Though experts at all throwing techniques they differ only in some of the products they make.An important difference however is in the finish.Hindus do not reuse a clay vessel,hence the Hindu potter does not labour over finish and ornamentation.In Muslim households,terracotta utensils are used till they give way and so the potter makes finer wares. 2 A terracotta handi,cooking vessel.In dhabas,roadside eateries,food is often cooked and served in a handi. Chinhat. 3 Roti daan,bread dishes sold outside a mosque in Lucknow. 4 Kheer,a sweet dish made from milk packaged in terracotta and sold by a vendor in Lucknow.

Surahi-pitchers Rakabi, Roti daan shallow plate Diya-lamp Wall Plaquers Bells

QUITABAT-CALLIGRAPHY QUITABAT,Calligraphy,is the most elevated of artistic expressions in the Muslim world.It derives its importance from the centrality of the Quran-God`s words transmitted through the prophet Mohammed and recorded first in the Arabic script.Calligraphy was the vehicle of the new faith-Islam,that became the religion of the countries under the Arab empire. The oral tradition of the nomadic Arabis interacted with the craftsmanship of Greece,Egypt,Syria,Persia and Turkey,in the formation of Islamic art-decorate manuscripts,geometric patterns,stone inscriptions,miniature paintings,carpets,textiles,ceramics and metal work.In 1200 AD,the Turkish sultans introduced the arts of calligraphy and manuscript illumination,to the Indian subcontinent.At imperial workshops,Persian and Arabic texts were reproduced and illustrated in Iranian styles,incorporating Indian elements.The Mughals developed the art of the manuscript to a sublime synthesis of skills-paper makers,illuminators,calligraphers and painters.Quitabat integrated the regligious message with the object`s decoration.Calligraphers had to learn several cursive scripts such as naskhi,muhaqqaq,thuluth,nastaliq,tauqi, and riqa.A variation of the cursive naskhi calligraphy,inscribed on stone monuments,had developed in Bengal between 1200 to 1400 AD.These were the beginings of tughra,a complex,stylized calligraphy style that was used by the Turkish sultans as their monograms.Today,several ingenious and creative explorations in quitabat are being practiced in Jarnailganj,Lucknow.They have been exploring an ornamental style-tughra,where text from the Quran is ingeniously configured in the shape of birds, animals and trees. After the painting is completed,it is turned over and burnished with an egg-shaped agat stone.Quitabat is taught along with religious texts,in maqtabs and madrasas,elementary and advanced schools. Production Clusters Lucknow district: Lucknow: Jarnailganj

Inset The form of a bird made up of the sacred Islamic words`Bismill`ah`r-Rahmani`r-Rahim`based on the tughra,style of ornamental calligraphy,done by a Hindu painter in Jarnailganj, Lucknow. 1 Shazarai-eTayaibba,tree of the pure,with the names of the 12 Imams,leaders,have been elegantly inscribed in gold paint on the leaves and at the base of the tree. 2 Shabihi-zuljeanah,the brave and faithful horse of Hazrat Imam Hussain,The grandson of prophet Mohammed. Products Tughra-ornamental Islamic Calligraphy Tools Brushes Bet muiskh-reed pens Agate-for burnishing and fizing colours Jade-for mixing gold foil and paint Opal-for burnishing.

BONE CARVING LUCKNOW WAS AN important centre of ivory carving in Uttar Pradesh.It extensively produced court objects for the Nawabs of Avadh-sword and dagger hilts,plaques to adorn the sides of carrigages and howdahs,chessmen,miniature figures and utilitarian objects like combs,bangles and mirrors.The British introduced ivory on furniture.Since the worldwide ban on ivory,craftsmen have been carving camel and buffalo bone with great skill. The work is of two types in Lucknow.The jaali,lattice work,characteristic of Mughal architecture is carved extensively on jewellery boxes and table lamps.For jewellery,different shades of camel bone and even dyed pieces are often used.Carving in the round,comprising hunting and forest scences complete with elephants,tigers,parrots,peacocks and flowering trees is done on thicker bones.Carved elephants in procession are popular in the European market.Trinkets are sold at Jaipur and Ajmer in Rajasthan.The openwork products are exported at Saudi Arabia. 1a, 1b Paper knife and comb Production Clusters Lucknow district: Lucknow Barabanki district: Barabanki Sambhal district: Sambhal Moradabad district: Moradabad Sarai Tarain Ghaziabad district: Loni Products Openwork boxes, lamps,Scissors, Paper knives, Pen stands, Buttons Earrings, Necklace, Rings, Pendants Ambari elephant Tools Ari-saw Chaursi ret,Teharkafile Half round file

made of bone 2 Table lamp with jaali work. 3 Animal hunting scenes carved in bone.

Che inchi tipehal-to sharpen files Tipehal-to sharpen files Barma-drill Prakaar-divider Sandpaper

CLAY TOYS Production Clusters Lucknow district: Lucknow: Takaitganj Products Band sets Serving Sets Raja-Rani sets Brides Sadhus Erotic toys Realistic vegetables/fruits Idols Tools Terracotta moulds Brushes Wire THE KUMBHARS OF LUCKNOW specialize in making tiny clay figurines,and naturalistic fruits and vegetables.The toys are made and sold in set,based on a theme.The craft began in the early half of the last century and was inspired by the Britishers` interest in collecting vignettes of Indian life-the early toys made were of washermen,gardeners,mendicants,barbers etc.The toy-makers belong to the Prajapati or potter community.In Uttar Pradesh,all painting-be it on clay,wood or puja pandals,temporary structures-is done by the Prajapati.The craftsmen once made of unique set of 12 birds that fitted into a matchbox.The figurines have cast-moulded bodies and handrolled legs and hands.The fruits are completely cast.They are sandpapered smooth before being fired.Painting the tiny faces,especially the eyes,and the deceptively real-looking fruits and vegetables requires immense artistic ability and an eye for detail.

Custard apple adn guava;painted clay toys. Craftsperson`s work-place and tools.In the background are coal-dust used in the kiln.

Clay birds,Those made earlier were tiny and 12 birds could fit into a matchbox. Realistic clay fruits in a sikki,grass basket.

BASKETRY Production Clusters Lucknow district: Lucknow Bareilly district: Bareilly Products Shallow baskets Tools Churri-small knife Churri-large knife 1 Churra,the basket weaver`s only tool. 2 Baskets from Bareilly. 3 Work baskets made from arhar stalks.The craftsman makes them by the roadside in Nakkhas, Lucknow. BASKETRY IS AN everyday craft in rural Uttar Pradesh.Readily available raw material-plant stalks and tree branches are woven into rough stake and strand baskets.In eastern Uttar Pradesh the arhar,pigeon pea provides lentil,and once harvested,the main stalk in woven into baskets for vegetable sellers,construction workers and gardeners.The activity is seasonal dependign on the harvesting of the arhar crop.The stalk and branches are soaked in the village pond for a day or two so that the fibre swells and becomes pliable.The thicker stalks are split.The stake element is rigid and passive and is formed of the thicker branches or the main stem.The strand is flexible and is manipulated in and out of the strand in an upward spiral.At the rim the ends are folded back into the weave.The thicker branches are used as the warp with the thinner ones serving as the intertwining weft.

THARU APPLIQUE Production Clusters Behraich district: Bishnupur Balaigoan Shravasti district: Shravasti THE THARU WOMEN use applique to ornament their traditional garmentsghaghra-choli,men`s caps,jackets and pouches.In this type of applique,incisions are made on the top fabric that is hemmed down on to base fabric.thus the form is revealed in the reverse.Shapes are not cut out from the fabric as is the reverse.Shapes are not cut out from the fabric as is the case with most appliques.In Bihar the technique is referred to as khatwa and in Gujarat as katb-both words suggestive of making cuts or slashes in the fabric.The background fabric is darker than the colour of the applique and the appliqued layer covers the surface extensively.The pattern are rectilinear and geometric,comprising triangles,fine lines and colourful borders.The fabric is bought from wandering salesmen and bright colours are preferred. Inset Detail of a border attached at the hemline of a long skirt made by Tharu women who live in remote villagaes in the terai region. Products Ghaghra choligathered skirt & blouse Caps Jackets Purses Bedsheets TV covers Handbags Kerchiefs Tools Steel needle Scissors.

Detail of the child`s jacket

A child`s jacket

Pouch

APPLIQUE IN APPLIQUE,PIECES OF cloth cut into patterns are sewn onto fine muslin.Applique is economical as it eliminates the need to embroider.Aligarh was well known for its applique shamiana or tent,though the skills are now being used to ornament dress material.In patti ka kaam,the fabric is cut into motifs and hemmed onto the base fabric.Stems are emboridered in `stem`stitch.In the days of the nobility,shamiana and chandowa,canaopies,were appliqued with waste cloth.Even today appliqued shamiana are commonly used for religious and social gatherings.The craftspersons are Muslim women and they work from their homes.Rampur is also a big cluster where applique is done.An applique called daraz,a rmemarkable seam detail used in the hand-stitched garments worn by the Nawabs,royalty,is unique to Lucknow.Daraz is done to join two pieces of fabric with two seams that are done on either sides of the fabric.Motifs such as the fish,leaf,flower,and star are the cutout forms use. 1 Detail of applique using a combination of fabrics and chikankari work. 2 Machili,fish motif,combined with singhoda,lotus fruit motif daroz done on a garment,Lucknow. Production Clusters Lucknow district: Lucknow Aligarh district: Aligarh Rampura district: Rampur Products Traditional: Shamiana-canopies Contemporary: Salwaar-kurtagarment ensemble DUpatta-stoles / wraps Yardage Handkerchiefs Scarves Cushion covers Curtains Bed covers Tea cosy

Sari-draped cloth Sari-draped cloth Tools Metal needle Thread Scissors.

Crafts of GORAKHPUR Black pottery of Nizamabad Terracotta and pottery Subclusters of GORAKHPUR Gorakhpur district: Gorakhpur Nizamabad Deoria district: Deoria Azamgarh district: Azamgarh

RESOURCES Crafts Black pottery Raw Materials Clay Slip:Bamboo leaves, Mango bark Levigated ochre Mercury Terracotta and Clay pottery Sources River Tons, Ponds,Fields Locally available Fariya village Varanasi Village pond

Assembling the parts of a horse. GORAKHPUR IS LOCATED in northeast Uttar Pradesh.It is a bustling business centre and transit camp for travellers to and from Nepal.The area has the appearance of lush wet-crop countryside.The land is drained by many small rivers and streams and dotted with large perennial lakes,temporary swamps,and jheels,cascades.The clay of the region is highly plastic and throws very well.Both Gorakhpur and Azamgarh have an air of well-being about them.The people are robust and the women donot remaind in purdah as elsewhere.Culturally the people are more akin to the customs of the adjoining statesdd of Bihar and Bengal.They worship goddess Kali,making votive offerings to her.The mother goddess,Ma Kali`s shrine are Navrati,Sharad Purnima and Ramnavmi.Terracotta horses are placed as offerings at devathanas or shrines of a male tutelary deity.The region is also linked to events in the life of the Buddha and Mahavira.Nizamabad in Azamgarh district is located on the Banks of the River Tons.The potters in Nizamabad are known for making large-sized black terrracotta pots,which are incised with silver-coloured patterns and for preparing a special kabiz,clay slip that gives the pots a black colour.The potters in Gorakhpur and Deoria districts make votive terracotta figures. ACCESS Gorakhpur is an important rail junction and well connected by road as well.The nearest airports are Lucknow(266km) and Varanasi(212km).Nizamabad is accessible from Varanasi and Gorakhpur by road. Thrown parts of the votive elephants and horses.

A semi-finished multicoloured mauni, basket.

An artisan coils a colourful mauni from rara and moonj,grasses that grow wild in the region.

Potter`s colony in Nizamabad town.An artisan carrying kandi,dung cakes,to the kiln.

A potter engraves unfired black pottery in his house-cum-workshop.

BLACKD POTTERY OF NIZAMABAD THE POTTERS OF Nizamabad make unique thrown black pottery incised with silver motifs that resemble the metal bidri ware of Hyderabad.The black colour of the pottery is the outcome of a clay slip and reduction firing.The kabiz,clay slip,contains,among other things,mango bark,bamboo leaves adn adusath leaves,all of which cardonize on firing.Thrown pots are dried and smoothened with ghont,a quartz river stone.Engraving is done freehand by the women with a paste of mercury,lead and zinc.The motifs are derived from nature.Firing is done in an open kiln by placing dung cakes between the wares and covering the heap with straw and mud.According to historical accounts the art of black pottery came from Gujarat.The ancestors of the potters had accompained Abdul Farah Nizamabadi to the village during the reign of Emperor Alamgarh,400 years ago.The craftsmen sell their wares only in Mumbai.

TERRACOTTA AND POTTERY THE POTTERS OF Gorakhpur and Deoria make votive terracotta horses and elephants using a combination of throwing and moulding.The various parts of the elephants are thrown separately on the wheel and then assembled.Clay slip is used to join the various parts.Surface ornamentation is done later by hand.Usually a cone or a sculpted figure on the elephant`s back denotes the Devi`s presence.The potter`s wife makes the eyes for the animal forms and also appliques the body with clay coils,foilage and bells.A dilute yellow ochre kabiz,slip is applied so that the colour darkens on firing.Firing is done in anwa,an open kiln.The elephant figures range in sizes from 1.5mt(4 feet) to only several centimetres in height. The votive elephants have an unadorned,free,almost abstract form.The elephants for sale in the urban market are usually heavily ornamented and stiffer in style.

Inset Detail of a goddess,in terracotta. 1. 2. 3. 4. Ganesh,the god of enterprise. A contemporary votive elephant from Naurangarh Votive terracotta horse from Gorakhpur. Thappa,die used for embellishment.

Production Clusters Gorakhpur District: Gorakhpur Deoria district: Mundera village Banwari Tola Products Votive elephants Production Clusters Azamgarh district: Nizamabad: Hussainabad Mohalla Products Lamps Incense holders Spice containers Inkpots Coin banks Surahi-pot Hookah base 1. A 4 feet high flower vase that can be dismantled. 2. The vase thrown on the wheel,made in two parts,the body and the neck which are joined with a slip. 3. Vase with design engraved and filled with a paste of mercury,lead and zinc. 4. Kabiz,the slip,is applied by the pour and drip method.The vegetable content in the slip carbonizes on firing and ,along with reduction oxidation,produces a uniform black colour. Decorative elephants / horses Erotic images Tools Chak - stone wheel Stick to spin wheel Khudali - shovel Chholani - hatchet Lesur - to slice the clay

Tools Throwing wheel Chakait-stick for rotating the wheel Cholanni-knife Suthwa-iron ring Ghont-quartz Cycle spoke Kiln

RESOURCES Craft Wood and lac turnery Raw Materials Eucalyptus Kuraiya Lac Kesar leaf Repousse Wood carving Carpet and dhurrie weaving Dhurri weaving Meenakari Copper, Brass, German Silver Sources Lucknow,Lakhimpur, Kheri,Sitapur Bihar, Mirzapur, Tenduli, Karvi Purulia in Bihar Locally available Varanasi

Crafts of Varanasi Wood and lac turnery Repousse Wood carving Carpet and dhurrie weaving Meenakari-enamel work Block printing Zardozid-gold embroidery Subclusters of VARANASI Varanasi district: Varanasi Mirzapur district: Mirzapur Sant Ravidas Nagar district: Bhadohi

VARANASI OR BENARAS largely lies in the flat alluvial plain of the River Ganga and its tributaries.Mirzapur,which is to the south,is located in the rocky and picturesque uplands of the Vindhya Ranges.The numerous streams draining thw uplands have created ravines.The plains become stiflingly hot in summer and the countryside is dotted with mango groves. Varanasi is famous for its langda mango.The rural economy is agrarian,though Varanasi,Bhadohi and Mirzapur earn the country considerable foreign revenue in silk and carpets exports.Varanasi is located on a bend in the Ganga huddled close to the river.Flights of steps lead down its ghats all along the river.Its labyrinthine lanes throb with life;alive with priests,poets,philosophers,holymen,pilgrims,musicians,weavers,silversmiths and traders.Varanasi,also called Kashi,city of spiritual light,it is considered as one of the holiest cities in the country and among the oldest in the world.For 3000 years it has been a centre of learning and spirituality for Hindus and Buddhists.Varanasi has always been an important centre of culture,art and religion.Traders from China and the Far East came to trade in silks on the silk Route.Across the river is Ramnagar which houses a museum where ivory antiques made by the royal craftsmen are preserved.The stone carvers,descendents of the royal ivory carvers,live in Ramnagar as well.Sarnath is an important Buddhist pilgimage since the Buddha delivered his First Sermon after achieving nirvana, enlightenment.Mirzapur lies south of Varanasi in the Vindhyan tract.It is located on the bank of the Ganga,about halfway between Allahabad and Varanasi.The river front is lined with stone ghats,flight of steps,mosques,temples and houses.

Wood-Burkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Gullad, Rehma, Madhya Pradesh, Simer, Savai, Kahema Gorakhpur, Naintial Wool Bikaner in Rajasthan, Panipat in Haryana,, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, Italy Varanasi Amritsar, Kolkata

Wool , Cotton Meena(enamel), Gulabi (pink) paint, Chandan ka tel Sandalwood oil

ZardoziBadla,kora,sitara, Locally available gold Katori,tilli,seed, embroidery Pearls,beads,Pipe beads,Imitation stones,Resham, Cotton thread & cord

Inset A brocaded ambia or mango buta. 1 Setting the wrap for a silk sari in ACCESS Varanasi.Silk and Varanasi is well connected to all major cities by road,air and rail.Mirzapur is brocade weaving are 200 km from Varanasi by road.Bhadohi is accessible by road from Varanasi. the city`s biggest industries. 2 Embroidering a badge in Zardozi. 3 With a flick of the wrist,the churra,knife,held in the right hand,cuts the yarn after each knot.Most carpet weavers around Bhadohi are farmers. 4 Detail of konia corner motif of a large mango buta brocaded in silk.The gold thread known as kalabatun,a silk core thread over which gold was wrapped,is typical of Varanasi brocade. 5 Metal Repousse in Varanasi.The plate is fixed in a bed of lac.

WOOD AND LAC TURNERY THE KHARADIS OR lathe workers in Varanasi make brightly lac-coated vermilion containers,teethers and toys in wood.Varanasi`s hallmark is the sindaora,vermilion boxes,in all shapes and sizes.Turned wood toys are simply fashioned and bright lacquered.Articles for export use better quality wood,fine grained kahema instead of eucalyptus,and chapra,pure lac.The craftsmen`s skills lie in forming ,hollowing and lacquering on a turning lathe.Turned wood is rubbed smooth with brick dust before lacquering.The craftsmen do not varnish the products but press a leaf called kesar dipped in oil to give the lac an everlasting shine.Painting is done by craftsmen called kohars who belong to the Prajapati community.The craft was introduced 400 years ago from Udaipur in Rajasthan by the then ruler of Kashi.Smaller units have two people while bigger ones have about ten craftsmen.Chitrakoot specializes in sindora and small toys. Turned and lac-coated rattles Sindora are traditional containers for storing vermilion that married Hindu women apply in the central parting of their hair.The one to the right is an older design and the contemporary designs are on the left. Production Clusters Varanasi district: Varanasi city: Kashmiriganj Chitrakoot district: Chitrakoot Products Traditional: Sindora-vermilion containers Jhunjhuna-rattles Chusni-pacifier Lattu-tops A toy duck,part of a toy train. Firki-tops Walkers Contemporary: Bed posts,Toys, Tea sets,Abacus, Skipping rope handles, Napkin holders, Nestling dolls, Bangle stands, Beads,Bangles Tools Power lathes Koon-hand lathe Chilne ka basula-adze Chaursa,Rukhanachisels Chotta rukhana-small chisel Barma & Barmi-nails to drill hole Batali-axe Banki-gouge Reti-file Prakaar-divider Ara-saw

REPOUSSE The gulab(rose),surajmukhi(sunflower) and keri(mango) are recurring motifs.Repousse is the most popular ornamentation for temple doors,covering plates for shikhara (spires and domes),palkis (palanquins),for idols,ritual utensils and temple accessories.The metalsmiths belong to the Kasera community.Other communities working with metal are Muslims,thateras,and banias.The products are sold in Vishvanath Gali and Sarnath. Production Clusters Varanasi district: Varanasi: Bhuletan, Basahi Village, Maidagin, Kashipura, Karanghanta, Lallapura, Dasashvemedh, Sapta Sagar, Resham Katra, Ramghat, Ranipara Products Chandeliers Mukut-crowns Theatre accessories Chamal jhadi-fly whisk handle Tabeez-amulets Plates for doors Khajoori-lamps Surahi-pitchers Lota-water container Tools Khaka-dies

VARANASI IS KNOWN for its brass and copper repousse work,executed mainly on wall plaques,trays,tabletops and planters.The Inset Repousse in German silver relatively soft metal is beaten out from the inside to reveal itself in relief.It is worked in combination with naqqashi,engraving.Varanasi is 1. Image of Goddess Durga also the home of ritual utensils.Repousse is locally called khalne ka kaam 2. Sheet metal crown for an idol.Repousse and by Hindu craftsmen and ubhar naqqashi by the Muslim cutwork craftsmen.Varanasi repousse is characterized by patazi naqqashi in which 3. Box made of German silver.Repousse and the areas between the repousse are filled in with decorative engraving. engraving.

Simbi-thin punch Hammer Chisel

WOODEN CARVING Production Clusters Varanasi district: Varanasi: Kathuapur, Kashmiriganj, Sunderpur, Laksa, Kedarghat, Rajghat, Khojwan, Gauriganj, Sonarpura Mathura district Products Varanasi: Miniature: Idols, Erotic figures, Birds, Animals, Musicians Contemporary: Boxes, Table lamps, Plaques Mathura: Mandwa ka suggaceremonial parrot Hudalawa ka suggaparrot Jhuloan sugga-parrot on a swing Cars, Planes, Rattles Dolls,Elephants Tools Chisels-pointed & rounded Needle file,Hand drill Cloth buffer Ari-saw Reti-file Hathauda-hammer Randha-planer Plas-pliers UNIQUE TO VARANASI are tiny wooden gods and goddesses carved and painted in amazing detail.They are carved from a single piece of wood.Toys include little erotic figurines mostly shown to male customers. The craftsmen also carve half-inch birds and animals that come in sets.The toys are brightly carved and they were originally carved to be sold to pilgrims.The tiny birds and animals are carved by slicing profiles from a wooden piece.The largest are four inches high,as in the case of the ten-headed Ravana and are assembled with small nails and glue.The toys are painted by potters of the Prajapati community.A coat of safeda,chalk,is applied before painting.The painting on the tiniest of toys is done to the last detail and they retain a folk flavour.Painted wooden toys are carved in Mathura as well. 1. Despite its small size this toy effectively captures the ferocious attack by the tigers on the elephant and rider. 2. A small carved toy of half to one inch size shows the dymanic action of horse and rider being attacked by a tiger. 3. Small wooden bird carved from a single piece of wood and painted. 4. A band of Toy soldiers playing musical instruments. 5. Toy cow with a calf. 6. Peacock,sparrow and parrot. 7. A carved table lamp and a wooden box made from kahema wood. 8. Toy animals carved in a single piece of wood. 9. Figure of Ravana,two inches high and made of assembled parts. The town being a pilgrimage centre,the toys mostly represent deities from Hindu mythology.Some toys like the wooden sugga (parrot) and charkhi(spinning wheel) are fixed on the marriage mandap(altar).Mandwa ka sugga is giftedd to the newly married.The ceremonial parrot is painted with turmeric(yellow),alta(red) and green colour.Craftsmen in Varanasi switched to wood and stone since the ban on ivory and have continued to carve wood with equal intricacy.The fine-grained kahema wood allows them to carve it like ivory.It is light-coloured and does not splinter and simple buffing brings it to a gloss.The wood carvers mostly live in Ramnagar,across the Ganga.Their fathers were ivory carvers at the royal court.

Inset A small wooden bird carved from a single piece.

Production Clusters: Carpets: Sant Ravidas Nagar district: Bhadohi, Noorkhanpur, Gyanpur Village, Disnathpur Village, Gopiganj, Khamaria, Ghosia Mirzapur district Agra district Aligarh district Dhurries: Mirzapur district: Mirzapur Agra district: Agra: Katra Neel Aligarh Products Carpets: Pile knotted carpets Dhurries Farshi-floor dhurries CARPETS AND DHURRIES HIGH QUALITY HAND-KNOTTED carpets -nearly 200 knots per square inch-are made in Bhadohi and Mirzapur which have the largest production in the country.Wool and silk are knotted,on a cotton foundation and both Persian and Tibetan knots are used.The weaving industry comprises dyers,designers and weavers.Knotting is done on a vertical loom.sometimes a carpet is knotted by four people.The pile is roughly clipped during the weaving and then carefully after.The weavers live in the villages surrounding the town and are mostly farmers who weave carpets between seasons.Dhurrie weaving is essentially a domestic craft that has found an international market for the patterned flat weave structures woven in Mirzapur.In Agra,stripped and panja dhurries with prayer niches were woven by women in the backyard of their homes.Now the craft is a major cottage industry.In Aligarh,Julahas,Muslim weavers,weave dhurries.Panja dhurries are woven in plain weave using the weft-faced tapestry technique. During the Mughal era,prayer rugs-saf adn mussalahs, were woven for the mosques in Agra.Workshops wove large blue and white striped dhurries for the durbars,courts and palaces.Under the British,narrative dhurrie depicting village life and native flora and fauna were made.The weavers use the horizontal loom to weave.In Agra many of the designs are inspired by the inlay work done in marble in the Taj Mahal.Traditional designs,rarely woven now,were the jaal,kosi,(geometric motif) and champa flower.Weavers now use lighterd colours,and brighter colours are given a stone wash. 1. Carpet with pattern of scrolling vines and blossoms with a border and a detail. 2. Detail of a flat woollen dhurrie,with geometrical forms woven with multiple wefts that are inter-locked.The production of flat weave dhurries is more than carpets in Bhadohi. 3. Detail of a woollen dhurrie,Mirzapur. 4. A pile carpet with a medallion form in the centre in a field of floral springs. Bed dhurries Jainamaaz-prayer rugs Tools Carpets: Khaddi-vertical loom Panja-beater Churra-blade Thokni-teakwood mallet Katni-blade Scissors,Brush,Rod Dhurries: Floor loom Panja-metal comb Kalpu-piece of wood Kani-pencil-shaped tool Bamboo or wood shuttles Chhura-curved blade

MEENAKARI-ENAMEL WORK THE MEENAKARI,ENAMELLING,in Varanasi is characterized by pink strokes on Varanasi white enamel.Unlike the vibrant enamelling in reds,greens and blues of Jaipur and Products Delhi,where the white enamel is left stark,the Varanasi craftsmen delicately add pdink to Traditional: the predominant white enamel.The motifs Hookah base have,rather appropriately,been lotus blooms and buds.The art was learnt from Persian Paandaan-containers craftsmen who visited the court of Avadh at Caskets Lucknow in the 17th century.Chased and engraved areas are filled in with Decorative objectselephants,peacocks,parrots enamel.which is composed of chemicals similar to those contained in glass and its base Trinkets is vitreous with a small percentage of metallic Containers oxide that is used as a colourant.Hollow silver forms are filled in with lac to give them Tools weight.For enamelling,the meena,enamel,is finely ground and mixed with water.A little Brushes itra,rose oil,is added to help fuse the enamel.The water is soaked up by a cotton Silai-metal spoke wick and the piece fired in a small electric with flat tip kiln.The enamels fuse at different Bhatti-homemade temperatures,so they are fired in order of furnace hardness.The craftsmen have extended their Heating filament repertoire from jewellery to silver trinket boxes,decorative elephants,birds and stationery.The pieces are enamelled in deep greens and blues,characteristics of silver enamelling;and parts like the underside of the elephant`s trunk,its ears and lotus blooms are done in gulabi or pink meenakari.The business is controlled by a middleman who gets the work done suppliers the finished products to buyers and sale outlets. Production clusters

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Ornate box painted in gulabi, pink, meenakari work, famous in Varanasi. Meenakari of many colours on a figure of elephant and riders. A parrot beautifully detailed with meenakari work. Enamelled silver owl. A silver owl cast in a mould.

BLOCK PRINTING LUCKNOW, Farrukhabad,Pilakhuwa,Tanda and Varanasi Production Clusters Products are the hand block printing clusters in Uttar Varanasi district: Lucknow: Pradesh.Farrukhabad and Lucknow are the most wellknown and among the earliest.They share a common Varanasi Sari-draped cloth vocabulary of the keri,mango,patten.Farrukhabad prints Lucknow district: Lungi-lower garment also use the `Tree of life`motif.The printing is extremely fine due to the superbly carved wooden and metal blocks Lucknow: Dupatta-stole The earliest Farrukhabad prints were chintz in their style.In Masaganj Rumaal Pilakhuwa,the patterns are inspired from handkerchief Aminabad plants,seeds,flowers andd vegetables. Lihaf-quilt covers Raja Bazaar Block printing in Lucknow is about 200 years old.The designs on the Farad-quilted coat Baag Bazaar blocks belong to the Mughal Table covers, Bed Nishad ganj Traditional;and the keri,mango covers, Curtains motif,in varying styles and sizes,is the Farrukhabad Jajams-floor distinctive element.Other motifs seem district: coverings to be influenced by the chikan Farrukhabad patterns.Blocks are carved in Dastarkhan Ghaziabad district: Farrukhabad,Varanasi,Pilakhuwa and tablecloths Lucknow.Printing is done on a Pilakhuwa padded table .The `Tree of Life` Finely carved block of keri buta,mango motifs , pattern uses more than a hundred from Varanasi blocks of various designs.

Tools Blocks Bamboo trays

1,2,3,4 Block prints with keri,the stylized mango motifs were the hallmark of kanauj,Lucknow.Farrukhabad and Varanasi in the 19th century.Shown here is a range of surface designs created with the traditional keri.

ZARDOZI - GOLD EMBROIDERY THE ZARDOZI CRAFTSMEN IN Varanasi and Bareilly In Mughal India,zardozi adorned court specialize in embroidering badges and ceremonial costumes,furnishing,scabbards and robes.Zardozi is heavy and ornat embroidery in which gold trappings of elephants and horses. purls or coils , beads and spangles are couched onto fabric with a needle and thread.zardozi work on badges is a very exacting craft as the logo specified must be reproduced precisely.Only the best craftsmen in a karkhana embroider badges.The metal purls used for badges are commissioned by the Army,Navy and institutes including the European Catholic clergy who commission work on ceremonial robes.Unlike the massive frame on which zardozi is done,the badges are made on small,one-man,adda,wooden frames.The fabric is either felt,velvet or heavy satin. Varanasi specializes in zardozi on emblems,crests and borders.Wire purls are couched onto the fabric with needle and thread.The piece seen here has a combination of ari and zardozi work.The unfinished flower petals have been padded with cloth and will be covered with zardozi,Varanasi. Tools Pitti-mallet Gitti-disc Ari-Hook,needles Mochna-tweezer Types of scissors Karchab-frame Products Varanasi: Traditional: 1. A badge of the Royal Engineers,made using a wide range of gold wires. 2. A zardozi badge 3. Badge done in zardozi for the export market,Varanasi. Masnads-elephant trappings Scabbards Purses,caps Garments Contemporary: Badges,Crests Robes for Christian Clergy Sari-draped cloth Bareilly: Badges,Crests Crowns Christmas hangings Matzahas-bread and cake covers Production Clusters Varanasi district: Chittanpura, koyal Bazaar, Pathanitola, Shivala, Gaurigunj, Kelia Bazaar, Tateri Bazaar, Lallapura, Shibala, Jaitpur, Bazaar Diha, Bhadoni, Badi Bazaar, Nadeshar Zardozi badges: Chittanpura Shivala Bareilly District: Bareilly: Allampur,anda, Baheri, Biharkala, Chandpur, Faridpur, Nawabganj, Meeraganj,Malukpur, Sheeshganj,Shergarh, Kaji tola, Kankar tola, Rabari tola, Rohli tola, Chak Muhammad, Sufi tola, Saillani, Siklapur, Mabada, Shekhar, Bazaria, Inyatganj, Jakheera, Meera ke Penth

Bicycle loaded with date palm leaf packaging for small wooden toys and other products.

RESOURCES Craft Moonj basketry Papier-mache Shazar stone jewellery Date palm craft Raw Materials Sources Moonj, Rara Paper, Clay Dendrite agated Date palm Allahabad Yamuna riverbed Banda, Hosangabad (MP ) Allahabad , Chinhat

Crafts of Aligarh Moonj Basketry Papier-mache Shazar stone jewellery Date palm craft Subclusters of ALIGARH District: Allahabad Banda Chitrakoot Hamirpur

ALLAHABAD metalcluster comprises the districts of Allahabad,Banda and Chitrakoot.The culture combines influences of Avadh,Bundelkhand and the Bhojpuri-speaking eastern lands.Allahabad is located at the sangam,confluence,of the three most revered rivers of the Hindus-Ganga,Yamuna and Saraswati.Every 12 years the Maha Kumbh Mela, a sacred Hindu pilgrimage and bathing festival,is held here.The Kumbh Mela supports crafts like papier-mache,and palm leaf baskets are in demand during the Kartik Mela.The city was the provincial capital of the Mughals for a long time.The architecture is a combination of Colonial and Mughal styles.The most conspicuous feature is the Allahabad Fort,the largest of Akbar`s forts,built on the bank of the confluence.Within the fort are the remains of a splendid palace,built by the emperor Akbar.Wild grasses such as moonj and rara grow in Allahabad,Gorakhpur and Behraich districts in eastern Uttar Pradesh.Women transform moonh grass into beautiful baskets for their own domestic use.In Allahabas city,moonj and palm leaf basketry skills being abundantly available,are untapped resources that need to be developed for generating income for craftpersons.Banda and Chitrakoot are located in the Bundelkhand tract of Uttar Prasdesh,bordering Madhya Pradesh.Banda town has been the centre for moss agate stone called shazar,which is used in jewellery.Turned wood and laccoated toys are made in chitrakoot. ACCESS Allahabad and Banda are well connectedd by road and rail .The nearest airports are Varanasi and Lucknow.Chitrakoot lies off the main road between Varanasi and Banda Pots thrown and kept for drying,Tenduawan village,Allahabad.

A craftsperson makes coiled basket in East Mahewa.Moonj basketry is a domestic Craft in Allahabad district. Immigrants from Jaunpur and Rewa in Madhya Pradesh make a living by weaving baskets and ragpicking in Allahabad.

MOONJ BASKETRY COILING IS A Basketry technique used by rural women in Allahabad,Behraich and Gorakhpur districts in eastern Uttar Pradesh to make objects for use in the kitchen.They are made from moonj and rara,grasses that grow wild in wastelands.Moonj baskets are lightweigh and weather very well.The baskets are used in the kitchen for storig flour and foodgrains.They are so tightly coiled that they are almost waterproof and long-lasting.Food ,especially rotis,flat bread,stored in them stays fresh.The moonj is harvested in winter and the peel of the stalks left out in the dew for about 3 days,for the colour to lighten.some Splits are dyed in bright colours to pattern the baskets.The binding of the baskets these days is being done with newer material like colourfu plastic strips,tinsel and cloth.Every girl learns to coil baskets from her mother.Baskets are made by a mother for her daughter`s marriage.The ones for everyday use are simpler and smaller.In Allahabad,the craftswomen fashion baskets to earn a living unlike in the villages whered it is a domestic craft.The baskets of the Tharus of Behraich are distinguished by their bold forms and stylized animal and human motifs.Special baskets with shell tassels are maded for the bride.In Gorakhpur,the women coil large beautifully patterned maunis,circular baskets with large mouths and convex buttoms that are laid in a row for the bride to step in as she leaves her home.The bride takes some with her laden with grain,sweets and other gifts.

Production clusters Allahabad district: Allahabad: Naina East Mahewa Gorakhpur district: Aurangabad village Astrapur village Behraich district: Bishnupur viilage Products Allahabad: Sini-bread basket Tipari-vanity case Placemats Trays Baskets Gorakhpur: Maunis-open baskets Behraich: Baithkas-circular seats Roti baskets Hats Coasters Tools Knife,Iron awl

1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Kitchen baskets,Gorakhpur Baskets from East Mahewa,Allahabad Dowry Basket Moonj basketry is done by women.The red and green colours are used for auspicious occasion and these baskets are made for the daughter`s dowry. A container with a lid for keeping valuables,Allahabad. A moonj basket called Tipari A round tray,Allahabad Detail of dowry basket,Gorakhpur Detail of tharu baithka,seat,Behraich.

Papier-mache horses.The horses are used at fairs for rides. PAPIER-MACHE Production Clusters Allahabad district: Allahabad Kydganj Agra district: Agra Products Idols Horses Figurines Masks Tools Hammer Knife Scissors Moulds PAPER-MACHIE CRAFTSMEN,Prajapati or potters by caste,mould wet paper stips stuck together with glue into huge hollow horses,idols and statues.The idols are made during Dussehra and Durga Puja ceremonies.The head of an idol or statue is made either from clay or from a papier-mache base coated with clay.Depending on the shape needed ,the mould is either an earthern pot,or a tin drum.Gaily painted horses are sold at village fairs as toys for little children.for the horse`s body, a bamboo armature is used.The craftsmen also make smaller forms and the pulp is cast in terracotta moulds,joined and dried or moulded freehand.The products are used for religious functions,marriages and village entertainment programmes.Papier-mache is essentially a traditional craft in village homes.Women pulp newspaper and multani mitti,fuller`s earth,to make containers for the kitchen and sometimes little toys for their children.For moulds they use their metal utensils.On a large scale,papier-mache toys are made during festivals to be sold at fairs.The craftsmen recall making a 80 feet statue of Hanuman for the Kumbh Mela,Holy festival celebrated in Allahabad.

1. Idol of Goddess Durga in the making.The face and hands have been finished in clay. 2. Realistic papier mache figures made for an exhibition. 3. A younger member of the craftsman`s family helping to paint the papier-mache horses.

SHAZAR STONE JEWELLERY SHAZAR IN PERSIAN means tree,and the stone,dendrite agate,gets its name from beautiful formations in the stone.The exquisite patterns of black and orange in the store are actually deposits of iron and manganese that have entered the agate under high pressure.The stone has to be sliced carefully to reveal them.The craftsmen look for a gaanth,knot,on the surface.The deposits are not evenly distributed and all stones do not have a clear dendrite formation.It takes experience to find out in which layer the deposits are likely to be . The stone is sliced using a huge bow-saw or power lathes.The fine slices are polished on a grinding wheel and buffed.They are then set in gold or silver by the jewellers.Banda has been the centre of shazar stone jewellery for the past 150 years.The jewellery and the unset stones are sent to Mumnbai in Maharashtra,Khambat in Gujarat,and Jaipur and Ajmer in Rajasthan. 1. Polished agate stone.These stones are sent to other parts of the country for making jewellery products and other articles for export. 2. Various colours and formations of natural dendrite agate.

DATE PALM CRAFT DATE PALM IS native to the Gangetic plain and nearly every part of the tree comes handy.The fronds are woven,rolled and twisted into a variety of useful products from mats,fans,brooms,and baskets to simple trumplets.Dried fronds are tied up to make inexpensive brooms,popular all over the state.The fruit is eaten and the wood is carved. Baskets made of leaves are in demand during festivities.Bokis and dolchis,small baskets,are sold outside temples as devotees place offerings for the deity in them.The production of hand fans and mats increases in summer.The mat is cool to the touch and popular in villages.Simple mats are used as packaging material.The craftsmen eke out a living with difficulty by making these data palm leaf products even though the raw material is freely available. Production Clusters Production Clusters Allahabad district: Allahabad Lucknow district: Chinhat Products Pankha-hand fan Dolchi-square basket Bhoki-basket Baja-trumpet Baksa-box Chattai-mat Brooms Inset Detail of date palm leaf. Tools Kasua-knife

Crafts of Uttaranchal Aipan-ritual floor painting Ringaal basketry Nettle fibre craft Likhai-wood carving Copperware Rambaans-natural fibre craft Lantana furniture Tibetan carpets Picchaura-painted textile Kashipur block printing Drift wood work Pine bark jewellery Papri wood work Handloom weaving Ornamental candles Stone carving Districts - 13 Craftspersons * (Included in Uttar Pradesh) The mountainous terrain of Uttaranchal is rendered cultivable mostly through terraced farming.Seen here is a cluster of houses amidst terraced farms in Okhimath,Rudraprayag.

Languages Kumaoni Garhwali Hindi Scripts:Nagri Festivals Jhanda Mela Kagh Mela Nanda Devi Mela Purnagiri Mela Piran Kaliyar Mela Joljivi Mela Uttarayani Mela Tharuwat Buxad Mahotsav Attire Ghagri-gathered skirt Picchaura-handpainted veil Woollen garments Hemp garments Goat-hair belt Cuisine Garhwali: Chainsoo-lentil Phaanu-mixed lentil Til ki chutney-sesame dish Raat-sweet bread Arsa-sweet puri Kumaoni: Ras-mixed lentils Bhaang-hemp chutney Singhal-banana pancakes Shai-semolina pancakes Buransh sherbatdrink made from the 1 Sheep rearing is practiced all over Uttaranchal.Bhotia families have been primarily engaged in weaving of pashmina,Angora,and Belchi wool products. 2 Kumaoni woman in the traditional woollen angra,short shirt with full sleeves;pagra,sash tied around the waist,and lehenga,long skirt. 3 Choliya dancers,Almora.Choliya is a wedding dance with two men wielding swords while dancing. 4 A folk painting in Almora depicting episodes from the life of Lord Krishna and the epic Ramayana. 5 A typical row of houses in Kumaon with likhai,wood carving on the doors and windows.The recesses are made for cattle. 6 Detail of a carved door jamb. 7 Scenes from the Ramayana:Carved wooden doorway of a newly built temple in Hanol,Dehradun District.

rhododendron flower

UTTARANCHAL,FORMERLY A part of the state of Uttar Pradesh was established as a new state in the year 2000.It is a land of humid lowland,green valleys,mountains,snow-bound ranges,glaciers and alphine meadows.It consists of two zones, the Shivalik Range and the Doon Valley to the north of Shivaliks.The holy Rivers Ganga and Yamuna originate from Gangotri and Yamunotri respectively.Dehradun is the capital city.The state is made up of two culturally and linguistically distinct regions,Garhwal in the northwest and Kumaon in the southeast.The history of Garhwal dates back to the Mauryan period and to the stone Age settlements found in Kumaon.Since then,the region has seen the rise and fall of kingdoms,religious influences and invasions of the Mughals,Sikhs and Rohilla till the Gorkha invasion in 19th century.The Garhwali,Kumaoni,Jaunsari,Bhot or Bhotia and Gujjars are the main communities.The Garhwalis are agriculturists.In the border districts live the Bhot or Bhotias.They are pastoral agriculturists and traders.They traded with Tibet before the international border was sealed.The Jaunsari,and the Muslim Gujjars who live in Garhwal herd cattle and migrate to the hills in the summer.The Jaunsari are known for their command over folklore.The terai plains are farmed by Sikhs who settled there after the Partition.The forests are dense with deodar,birch,oak and rhododendron.Ringaal,stinging nettle,rambaans,lantana and hemp grow wild and in aabundance. Indiscriminate felling of trees have left the hills bare where thick forests were once a rich source for timber. 8

Physical Features Terai grasslands Bhabhar plains Shivalik Ranges Doon Valley Himadri Greater Himalayas Major rivers: Ganga, Alaknanda, Bhagirathi, Mandakini, Yamuna, Tons, Kali, Gori, Pindar, Ramganga Biodiversity Flora: 8 Woman working in a paddy field,Rudraprayag. 9 Devprayag,on the confluence of the rivers Alaknanda and Bhagirathi. 10 A craftsperson weaving a chutka,traditional cut-pile blanket,made from Tibetan sheep wool in Dharamgarh,Pithoragarh district.These blankets are woven for their own use and also supplied to khadi & Village industries. 11 Pine trees seen from a weaving centre set-up by a nongovernment organization in Tripuradevi,Pithoragarh district,to help generate income from traditional skills of weaving. Sub-alpine conifer forest, Broad leaf forest, Deodar,Chilpine,Teak, Banj oak,Tun,Mango, Rambaans,Agave, Hemp,Papri wood, Ringaal,Stinging nettle, Lantana,Amaltas Fauna: Sheep, Goats, Yak, Angora rabbit Landmarks Jim Corbett National Park Rajaji National Park Rock paintings of Lakhu Udyar Nanda Devi Yamunotri Gangotri Kedarnath Badrinath Baijnath Temple Jageshwar Temple Hanol Temple Rishikesh Haridwar

Hemkund Sahib

A row of houses called bakhili. The cold climate demands an open area called khawan in front of each house. Carved wooden facades characterize the Kumaoni houses.

Crafts of ALMORA Aipan Ringaal Basketry Nettle fibre work Likhai Copper ware Subcluster of Almora Almora district: Almora Ranikhet Bageshwar district: Bageshwar Pithoragarh district: Munsyari Champawat district Nainital district Udham Singh Nagar district: Kashipur Nettle Fibre work Likhaiwood carving Copper ware Crafts Aipan

RESOURCES Raw Materials Geru, Rice paste, Abeer gulal, Turmeric, Sindoor, Dhatura flowers, Burnt coconut shell Sources Local Stores

Ringaal Ghad ringaal basketry Dev ringaal / malang

Local Forests Beringa block, Didihat, Munsyari, Dharchula, Mookot, Dhanpur, Bhandar Remote forests Local forest Local Forest

Jhumra ringaal Pine bark Stinging nettle

Deodar,Tun,Amaltas,Mango etc

Local forest

Copper

Moradabad, Delhi local mines Local forests.

Pine wood (fuel)

ALMORA METACLUSTER COMPRISES the Kumaon region,dotted with meadows,lakes,evergreens forests.In the north are snow-covered ranges with passes through which the Bhotias traded with Tibet,and they are flanked by Nepal in the east.Kumaoni culture is an amalgam of Tantric,Buddhist and Shaivite traditions.Tantric art has greatly influenced adorn every doorstep.The kumaonis are farmers who terrace their fields.Spinning and weaving are common domestic activities.The Bhotias of Pithoragarh district are expert weavers.Almora is a picturesque town situated on a large spur near the Kosi River.the sacred peaks of Kedarnath,Nanda Devi and Nanda Kot are visible.The forests are full of Himalayan oak and rhododendron.Market streets in the older cities like Almora are line with houses made with traditional wood carvings.Tweed is woven in Raniket.Bageshwar is situated on the confluence of Gomti and Surya rivers,90km from Almora.Both Almora and Bageshwar have alarge population of coppersmiths,who make pots and pans for local communities.Nainital is located around a lake that is named after the goddess Parvati and her emerald green eyes called naina.the craft of making candles is one that local women have recently acquired as a means of livelihood,and beautifully crafted candles are sold in Nainital.Pithoragarh,is the easternmost hill district of Uttaranchal.The northern parts are thinly populated,mostly by the Bhotis.Kumaon has a distinctive style of architecture seen in houses,temples and naulabawaris or water tanks.Every Kumaoni house has an auspicious aipan painted on the threshold.Kumaonis are worshippers of Lord Shiva and Shakti.Their songs centre around folklore and the change of seasons Chaounphula,the most popular dance is performed by both men and women, linking hands and dancing in a circle. ACCESS Motorable roads connect Nainital,Almora,Bageshwar ,Pithoragarh and Chamoli.The nearest airport is in Pithoragarh which is 186 km from Nainital.The nearest railheads are in Khatgodam (35km),Haldwani(40km) and lalkua(60km) which connect the region to Delhi,Kolkata and other cities and towns.

Setting the wrap for weaving on the back strap loom.

Detail of a Pichhaura,veil worn by the bride.The veil is painted by a group of women for the occasion withd swastik motif and dots.The red and yellow colours symbolize abiding conjugal life,health and prosperity. Separating fibre after soaking the stinging nettle in water before using it for weaving. Spinning wool on the takli, a spindle.

AIPAN-RITUAL FLOOR PAINTINGS AIPAN IS A ritual of Kumaon,drip-drawn on the floor and walls where religious ceremonies are to be performed.The symbolic white patterns differ for each ceremony and social occasion.Traditionally,aipan on the threshold are freshly made every morning.the ground is first prepared by smearing it with a liquid mixture of clay,cowdung and straw.When it dries,a coat of geru,red clay,is applied and allowed to dry.the artist,a woman,swiftly draws out the prescribed motif in rice paste using her ring finger,anamika,and moving out from the centre.The rice paste drips onto the ring finger from the other fingers.The aipan is drawn freehand,from memory.Aipans are drawn on floors walls on the chauki on which a deit is placed the threshold.in the courtyard ,on pots containing the tulsi plant and on winnows.They are drawn for ceremonies of birth,marriage,death and thread ceremonies,and for the various festivals throughout the year.

The central part of the aipan is considered ceremonial and has a prescribed motif while th outer part is decorative and can be extended or reduced to fit an important element without which the aipan is considered unfinished.Aipan for a dead person is without dots on the 12th day.Three days later it is rubbed out with mud and a new one made with the dots.The aipan on the floor of the prayer room and the deity`s seat has Tantric motifs,called peeth or yantra,related to the deity.The Kitchen walls are painted with animal motifs.Wedding aipans are made from turmeric,vermilion and charcoal.Entrances to homes are decorated with good luck patterns,many times just vertical white lines.These are now being painted on greeting cards,wall hangings and other products.

Production Clusters Almora district Nainital district Products Floor paintings Painting on winnows Greeting cards Stickers Wall hangings Boxes Wall tiles Tools Mortar,Pestle Brushes

1. Winnows decorated with aipan. 2. A chauki or seat for deities with aipan for Goddess Lakshmi 3. An aipan, a ritual floor diagram.The deity will be placed in the centre.the motif of feet indicate that it is meant for Goddess Lakshmi 4. An aipan with a geometric design;dots at the intersecting junctions signify the completeness of the design. 5. Aipan on a threshold with a background of geru,red clay.

RINGAAL BASKETRY RINGAAL IS A small bamboo,varying between three and five metres in lenghts,found in the hills of Uttaranchal.The pithy stalk is Pithoragarh district: flattened.The outer skin is made into splits and interlaced into carrying baskets,containers,mats and winnows.Ringaal varies Bhainskot village according to the altitude at which it grows.The ghad ringaal or Bageshwar district kathin ringaal from which baskets are generally made grows in the Chamoli district lower altitudes (3000 to 5000 feet) in both Kumaon and Garhwal.The finer dev ringaal which splits cleanly in found at Almora district higher altitudes in Kumaon.Farmers fetch the ringaal from the forest Pauri district in October to November and weave baskets in the winter when there New Tehri district is not much work in the fields.The warp splits are beaten to remove the pith and flattern them.The ribs are only partially cleaned.The weave has spokes and grows spirally,strengthened at the base and Products rim with extra weft twined weave called tyal.The tyal splits face Tokri-grain measures outwards accentuating the difference in weave with textural contrasts.Some baskets are ornamental with complex weaves and Doka-large baskets open weaves.Dvaks are made from two baskets fitted into each Dalia-Shallow other,the finer one inside,and bound at the rim with reeds.Winnows baskets are woven in a close weave twill pattern.Mats are made by weaving Puthuka-grain baskets spliced ringaal in a basket weave pattern.In traditional two-storey houses,the flooring is made from a ringaal mat plastered with Dvak - double mud.Ornamentation by way of colour use splits blackened with pine walled baskets bark smoke.Pink bark is heavy in oil content and gives off a shine as Suppa-winnows well. Jhoola-cradles 1. The basket on the right has external vertical Mats elements,smoked Chairs black,for extra support. 2. A craftsman splitting Dustbins ringaal in Chamoli. Lampshades 3. Basket in the shape of a pot. Tools 4. Basket for carrying firewood. Khurpi-knife Production Clusters Mallet Lamp 5 Storage basket from Pithoragarh. 6 A large open weave agricultural basket being carried in the typical hill style with the help of a headband,Okhimath. 7 Rungada,a sieve woven with ringaal splits.

NETTLE FIBRE CRAFT STINGING NETTLE,bicchu buti,grows wild as undergrowth particularly in Almora and Chamoli.The stem fibres are pliable and used to weave and knit fabric.The villagers harvest nettle and leave the stems soaked in the river till they soften and swell .The stalks are thrashed on the boulders to release the fibres. The fibre is bundled up and sold to locak handloom weaving units where it is treated .The brownish fibre is spun into yarn and knitted or woven into shawls,stoles,bags and other products. 1. A stole knitted from nettle fibre. 2. Handwoven fabric from nettle yarn. Production Clusters Almora Chamoli Products Stoles, Shawls, Bags Tools Hatchet Spindle, loom Knitting needles.

LIKHAI - WOOD CARVING Production Clusters Pithoragarh district: Munsyari Almora district: Birkhan, Kul, Chopra, Peora, Seoni village, Satoli,Diyari, Dwarahat, Almora, Jageshwar Bageshwar district: Bagheshwar Products Doors Windows Pillars,Railings Rafters Cupboards Shelves 1. Main entrance with painted wood carving. 2. Carved entrance of a house in Jageshwar. 3. Painted wood carving on a house facade. LIKHAI IS THE ornate wood carving tradition which was an integral part of the hill architecture in Kumaon.This carving is found primarily on structural elements of dwellings which are embellished with folk,religious and Tantric motifs.Hard tun wood(toona celiata) is used.Temples are carved from deodar,tree of the gods-a durable wood,with high resistance to insects and dry rot.Likhai has low and high relief carving done combining many stylized plant and geometrical motifs into a single window,door,pillar or lintel. The intricacy of carving on the doorway is indicative of the owner;s status.Door jambs sometimes have up to 14 rows of carvings-swans,parrots,lotuses and serpentine creepers,carved on separate panels and joined in a step formation.Often,a carving of a deity adorns the lintel.In Munsyari many houses have Tibetan motifs like the three-flower motif,the arch and dragons.Some of the finest wood carvers also come from Munsyari.In Uttarkashi and Chamoli districts of Garhwal the carving is mainly confined to temples.These stone structures have wooden facades carved with narrative scenes from Hindu and folk mythology.The style resembles that of neighbouring Himachal Pradesh.Likhai,embedded in the architectural and traditional wisdom of the Kumaon region,is a dying art today.Rising costs and unavailability of good quality wood along with changing architectural perferences have adversely affected the craft. Frames Shutters Temple carvings Tools Gol nihani-chisel Gol patesi-round chisel Rafi-small chisel Naha-narrow chisel Bareek ari jhiri / Patesi / Chhini-chisel Aari-handsaw Mugari-mallet Basula-adze Randha-planer Reti / thikori-file Gunia-T-square Burmas-drill

Sikand-bar clamp

COPPER WARE Production Clusters Almora district: Almora town: Dharmi Mohalla Bageshwar district: Bageshwar,Segare, Choganchina,Binser, Uderkhani,Jashi Gaon, Gair,Banga,Nuplia, Bhatkhola,Khark, Tamta,Jula,Tamture, Bilana,Dawaldhar, Gingori Khola Chamoli district: Chamoli,Nagrasoo, Badrinath Products Gagar-water pot Bari-largge cooking vessel Tola-rice cookers Tailid-small vessels Lota-water pots Deepak-lamps Tumbers, Jugs, Filters, Vases Bhankuri-musical instruments Tools Sambhal-crowbar with anvil Sansi-tongs Posi karthi-brazing irons Deoxidizing pit Swage blocks,Blower,Water bath Hammer,Mallets, Punches,Callipers 1. Tola,The pots have been ribbed and peened to strengthen the sheet body. 2. Water Filter 3. Water Jug engraved with a punch. 4. Degchi,vessels used for cooking rice. 5. A swage stone on which sheets are formed. 6 Gagar,a water pot.Every household in the region posses at least one gagar since copper is considered sacred in the Himalayas 7 Gagar,a water pot 8 Copper jugs. TAMTAS,coppersmiths,fashion vessels from sheet copper for daily and ritual use.Copper,called tamba in Sanskrit,is regarded sacred by the people of the Himalayas.Every temple has an object made of copper and every house has a copper pot to store water.The metal is known to have medicinal properties and keeps water pure.Copper smithery is a hereditary tamtas work from home.The craftsmen buy the sheets from contractors who procure them from rolling mills in Jagadhari in Haryana.Copper was initially extracted by the tamtas from local mines,a process which was a closely guarded secret.Pots are formed in two halves and joined with brass solder.The sheet is formed by drawing it over a swage stone.The finished vessel is heated until red-hot and immediately buried in a pit of rice husk and acid.It comes out shining.The rim or mouths are finished by beadingd and handles are riveted on.

The surface is fatigue resisted by peening.The concentric peening acts are ribbing and strengthens the walls.The cultural influences,Tibetan adn Shaivite,in the region are reflected in the motifs and forms of the vessels.The same vessel is made in various shapes for the Kumaoni,Garhwali,and Nepali customer.The tamtas also specialize in another kind of decorative were called Ganga-Jamuni in which brass and copper are used together.The two metals have different melting points and joining them is a specialized task.

THE DEHRADUN METACLUSTER comprises craft clusters lying in the Garhwal region.Dehradun is situated in the fertile Doon Valley at the foot of the Shivaliks.The best basmati,long-grained and fragrant rice comes from here.The town is an important educational centre and many offices of the central and state government like the Oil and Natural Gas Commission and Forest Research Institute are located here.Mussoorie is said to be the queen of the Garhwal Hills.It straddles a ridge in the Garhwal Himalayas-a region which is developing into a major tourism destination.The holy River Ganga is visible from one end of the ridge and River Jamuna from the other Uttarkashi is home to the Gujjar and Bhotia tibes,bothe agrarian pastoralists.Women of the Bhotia community weave heavy woollen textiles for their own use.Angora rabbitds are being reared.Rabbit hair is spun with sheep wool to make yarn for handloom weaving centres.The newly formed statehood has brought independence as well as challenges to Uttaranchal-of building a basic infrastructure for development of the region and for improving the quality of people`s lives.The region has several crafts based on plant fibresbamboo,lantana,nettle and ringaal.These can be vital for linking organic agriculture with crafts,as conservation of forest resource is one of the regions chief concerns. ACCESS Dehradun is a railhead and many trains including the Shatabdi Express are available from Delhi.The nearest airport is Jolly Grant with a daily flight to Delhi.The other clusters are all accessible by road.State transport buses connect the villages.

Subclusters of DEHRADUN Dehradun district: Dehradun Pauri district Chamoli district: Chamoli New Tehri district: Kedarnath 1. Detail of wood carving depicting scences from the Ramayana at the entrance of the Mahasu Temple in Hanol,Dehradun district. 2. A traditional fivestorey house,made of wood and stone. 3. Weaving in chamoli. 4. Man carrying a carpet home,Chamoli 5. Carpet weaver in Chamoli. Crafts of Dehradun Rambaans-fibre craft Nettle fibre craft Hemp rope making Carpet weaving Handloom weaving Lantana furniture Wood carving Ringaal basketry RESOURCES Craft Rambaans fibre craft Carpet weaving Lantana furniture Ringaal basketry Nettle fibre craft Raw Material Rambaans Woollen yarn Lantana Ghad ringaal, Jhumra ringaal Stinging nettle Sources Pauri, New Tehri, Kedarnath districts Ludhiana,Panipat,Amritsar in Punjab Uttaranchal Hills Lower Garhwal Hills Uttaranchal forests.

RAMBAANDS-NATURAL FIBRE CRAFT Production Clusters Dehradun district: Dehradun Products Langar Fishing Net Dhurrie Brushes Coasters Baskets Mats Bags Hats Slippers Toys Stuffing A hat Tools Decoraticator machine RAMBAANS IS A variety of the sisal plant and grows abuntantly in the lower hills of Uttaranchal.The leaves of the plant are long fleshy blades radiating from the roots.The glossy but stiff cream-coloured fibre extracted from them is used,after processing and treatment,a similar process used for jute and hemp to make utility and decorative products.The fibre is bunched,rolled and braided into toys,rope,table mats,bags and hats among other things.It does not deteriorate if it comes in contact with saltwater.The villagers cook the leaves into a tasty dish.The fibre is extracted using a diesel decorticator.It is washed thoroughly,dries and bound into bales.There are around 300 species of the sisal plant but fibre is extracted only from some of them. 1. Detail of a circular table mat. 2. A coaster made from rambaans.The fibre is spun into yarn and made into a narrow braid,which is arranged into coils stitched together in the desired pattern just like jute coasters. 3. Rambaans fibre woven in a cotton warp and then crafted into utility items such as house slippers and hats.

LANTANA FURNITURE Production Clusters Dehradun district: Dehradun Chamoli district: Chamoli Products Chairs Peg Tables Racks Baskets Tools Hammer Blow Torch Knife 1. Detail of lantana furniture bound wiht its splits. 2. A tray resembling those made from cane or bamboo. 3. A table made of lantana wood.The stem can be heat-bent like cane. LANTANA CAMARA,known as panchphulli in Hindi,has overrun entire hillsides in Uttaranchal and experiments to find uses for it have been going on for some time.One of the uses discovered looking at the hard woody stem was lightweight furniture.The main stem is strong but can be split.The stem is heat bent and the edges are bound with lantana splits,nailed in place.Lantana is probably a native of South America which was brought to India by a priest as an ornamental plant. It is a perennial woody shrub,which has become a major pan tropical weed.Its infestation has now spreadd all over Uttaranchal`s lower hills.Thousands of hectares of land have become unproductive owing to lantana infestation.Somtimes villages have had to shift being unable to cope with the menace.The leaves and seeds are poisonous to cattle and thus have no fodder value.It is also being used to generate electricity,used as fuel,and to make agarbatti,incense sticks.The only plus point in favour of this weed is that it affords soil cover and checks soil erosion.

TIBETAN CARPETS IN UTTARANCHAL WOOLLEN pile carpets are knotted by Tibetan settlers,the Bhotias,and at weaving centres set up by the government.Wool is traditionally bought from Bhoti shepherds.In Manduwala,near Dehradun,grum-tse,Tibetan carpets,are woven at a handicrafts centre.The foundation is cotton thread.Carpet weaving is an important source of income for the displaced Tibetan community.Among the Bhotias,weaving is a cottage industry.They spin and weave the wool of the sheep they rear,and make garments and carpets.The wool is cleaned using a wild fruit pangar,is a natural detergent.Initially the wool was dyed with extracts from tree bark and fruit but easily available and colourful industrial dyes are perferred now.In Timala Bagar organic carpets are woven from sheep wool dyed in natural dyes.Knotted pile carpets are woven on a commercial basis in Bhimtal and Joshimath.Bhotia designs have however been replaced by better selling Tibetan motifs.The designs fall into two categories-stylized geometric motifs and the floral and dragon designs showing a Chinese influence.The carpets are characterized by a boldness of colour and motif.Weaving is done on a vertical broadloom. Production clusters Dehradun District: Manduwala Chamoli district: Chamoli Bhimtal Joshimath The design is followed by looking at the reverse of a finished carpet slung over the loom or from a colour graph.Many carpets are woven from memory.The knots are fewer compared to other centres but the pile is dense and springy.The carpets are finished by shearing and sometimes contouring along the design to produce a bevelled effect.The Bhotias also weave a blanket called chutka using the looping technique.It is woven on a treadle loom called pithichand.Bhotias sell their woollen products at annual fairs at Bageshwar,Jaulgibi and Thal.The Tibetan carpets have an international market. Inset Detail of a graph with a chinese dragon showing the head,neck and forefeet. Bageshwar district: Timala Bagar Rudraprayag district Pithoragarh district: Munsyari Products Tibetan carpets Plain pile carpets Organic carpets Tools Takli-drop spindle Vertical loom Rod, Mallet, Knife Scissors 1. Pile carpets on display 2. Pile carpets with circular motifs called mentok. 3. Medallion carpet with a Great Wall of China border motif. 4. Medallion Carpet 5. A Variation in the form of a medallion carpet.

THE LANDLOCKED STATE of Bihar on the eastern Gangetic basin is bifurcated by the River Ganga into a largely fertile agriculture plain Ramnagar Dun in the north,and rugged terrain in the south.The socio-religious life of the state is informed by many influences-the river and her Gangetic Plains tributaries,harvest cycles and associated festivals,a strong tribal Major Rivers: presence and an imposing cultural past.Personages from history and Ganga,Ghagra,Kosi, myth co-exist here-Sita,Lord Rama`s wife , was the daughter of Ghandak,Mahananda Mithila;the Buddha attained enlightenment in Bodh Gaya;Mahavira merged with the eternal at Pawapuri,and Guru Gobind Singh was born at Patna.Empire and Emperors too have come and gone-the Biodiversity Mauryas and the Guptas,the Khaljis,Sher Shah Suri, the Mughals,the Flora Bengal Nawabs and then the British Raj have steered the destiny of Sal Forest,Reed Beds, the region. Cane,Wet Grasslands 1. Impressive vestiges of the erstwhile Darbhanga Raj can be Fauna: found in the Palace complexes of Rajnagar and MAdhubani in Tiger, Leopard, the form of various palaces and temples. Sambar, Nilgai, Python Physical Features Landmarks Nalanda University Darbhanga Raj Bodh Gaya Rajgir Hot Springs National Park: Rajgir Nagi Dam

Religion and rituals,both mainstream Hindu and tribal,form the wellspring of many a craft tradition,like Madhubani painting.Other crafts have utilitarian roots,like khatwa or applique work.Yet others are rooted in ritual as well as quoidian use,like sikki grass products.There are local markets for votive offerings to all kinds,and national and transnational markets for traditional embroidery,painting and pottery.It is only recentl that craft-potential of their skills to alleviate poverty and thereby help them clim social and economic ladders they had not dared to contemmplate just hundred years ago. 2 A detail of the Buddha at the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya. 3 Carvings on stone at the ruins of Nalanda University.

Languages Maithili Magahi Bhojpuri Hindi Attire 4 A wall piece in cotton with motifs from nature,embroidered in sujuni. 5 A peacock motif in mud relief serves as a niche in the wall of a house. Dhoti-Kurta-draped lower cloth and tunic Gamcha-shoulder cloth Sari-draped cloth Sherwani-coat-like garment Cuisine Sattu-roasted gram flour Litti-roasted dough balls filled with sattu Thekua-fried sweet made of wheat flour dough Festivals Chhattha Puja Sarhul Karma Soharai Shyama-chakaiva

6 Detail of the wall painting on a kohbar ghar,the nuptial chamber,Madhubani. 7 A priest in Gaya region wearing the ubiquitous gamcha or shoulder cloth. 8 Terracotta idols of Raja Sailesh,the mythical god of the Dushadh community,in Pandasari village of Darbhanga district. 9 One of the most repeated and attractive symbolisms of the paintings from the Mithila region: the bride,is decorated with symbols of fertility and prosperity.Depicted here is the lotus motif in which the puren leaf symbolizes the placenta,and the stem of the lotus plant stands for the umbilical cord.It also includes a trinity of fishes.with the sugga or the parrot.

10 The lotus plant is an omnipresent form in art,architecture and crafts of India.It symbolizes fecundity,abundance and well being.It is one of the most significant plant forms found in Bihar. 11 The River Ganga is the backbone of Bihar`s socio-cultural fabric. 12 An illustration of a temporary sugarcane shrine constructed during the Chhatha Puja.Hindu devotees worship the setting sun on this occasion,practically living on the banks of the River Ganga for a whole night and day.The Chhatha Puja involves elaborate ritualistic preparations that engage various craft activities.

Crafts of MADHUBANI Terracotta Madhubani painting Sujuni embroidery Sikki craft Papier-mache Lac Bangles Subclusters of MADHUBANI MAdhubani district: Jitwarpur village Rati village Lehriganj Rahiyan village Sarso Phai Pandol Darbhanga district: Maula Ganj Pandasari village Muzzaffarpur Busra village A kumhar at work;the potters of Madhubani create a range of objects from roof tiles to votive offerings. LAc bangles,a sign of matrimony,are always in demand;the industry involves nearly 5 million people in the region.

TO THE NORTH OF the Ganga lies the Madhubani metacluster that comprises the Madhubani,Darbhanga and Muzzaffarpur districts.It falls under the cultural region of ancient Mithila.It is as if the Gangad along with her tributaries,the kosi and the Gandak,had conspired to endow Mithila with the geographical seclusion that ensured a unique cultural milieu. Home to the conservative Maithil Brahmins,among other castes,this region has highly nuanced caste dynamics that inform all aspects of its socio-cultural life,including the rich craft heritage.The vicissitudes of history saw the rise to power of the Maithil Brahmins around 14th century AD.Though they were landd-holding Zamindars,they assumed the trappings of dynastic rule.The khandavala dynasty rule.The Khandavala dynasty was one of them,and their estate,Darbhanga Raj,was the richest during British times.Independence and democaracy ensured the end of the princely states and the zamindari system,but traces of feudalism still abound.In the strict caste lines drawn around communities,in the accompanying division of roles in the highly conservative gender roles,in the antiquated social customs,in the very lilt of the Maithili language lurks the Mithaili of yore.Mithila`s crafts reflect these influencesthus,Madhubani paintings are done only by women,and the painitngs andd wall murals of the Dushadhs,who are on the periphery of the caste scale,have themes and motifs drawn from their caste and class realities.

ACCESS Madhubani in 174 km from Patna,which has an airport,Darbhanga is 122km and Muzzaffarpur is 66km by road.All the three districts are easily accessible by rail and road from other parts of the state. Inset Madhuban painting on the recurrent Radha Krishna theme.

RESOURCES Craft Sujuni embroidery Madhunbani painting Lac bangles Terracotta Papier-mache Rag doll making Raw Materials Cloth - (cotton / Silk) Colours Lac Clay - (Black / Yellow) Waste paper Cloth rags Sources Patna Madhubani Balrampur Darbhanga Madhunbani Patna

Making papiermache;the craft brings in much needed money and fosters a sense of community.

TERRACOTTA

Chhatawala tariya 1,2 The kirodhini and the brightly painted chhatawala tariya are among the many terracotta objects that have ritual significance in ceremonies like weddings.

TERRACOTTA OBJECTS ARE made with black and yellow clay.The kumhars or potters of Darbhdanga have a wide repertoire - horse and rider votive offerings in several sizes,images of deities,gaily painted ritual vases,toys,a wide range of utility objects and painted horse and elephant riders from the Raja Sailesh legend.According to the myth of the Dushadh community,Raja Sailesh,their local hero belonged to have ruled between the 5th and 6th century AD.His kingdom spanned across Tibet,Bhutan,Nepal and Mithila.Episodes in the Mahagatha epic show constant struggles between the deities of the dominant castes and the deities of the subaltern castes.Depicted in various crafts of Madhubani,Raja Sailesh is an eqduestrain rider with an imposing scale and posture,reflecting a vibrant terracotta tradition.A combination of processes goes into the making of the horse/elephant and riders-throwing on the wheel,as well as hand-formed pottery techniques such as coiling,pinching and hand-beaten work.Details are emphasized by relief and recessed textures.A large number of ritual objects are made for festivals and weddigs.These are painted in the distinct Madhubani style,using outlines and bold strokes of colour.Terracotta ware is always in demand in the local markets,be it utility products like pitchers,clay ovens and other kitchen ware,or festive and ritual objects.

Production Clusters Darbhanga town: Maula Ganj Products Sets of toys made for ritual use: Elephant Dhakana dipo-lamp with cover Matakuda for preparing curd Khoti for storing grains Borasi-fire-preserver Chuli-oven Images of gods and goddesses Characters of various local legends like Raja Sailesh Tools Pitten-beater Choli-knife-like tool Chaku-knife Chabiya-modelling tool Thapi-wooden finishing tool Thappa-stamp Feet-scale Patthal-burnishing tool Pindi or Peel for shaping Khuriya-turning tool Chan-cutting string

Figure of Raja Sailesh riding on an elephant.Scences from his local folklore are depicted in wall painting,sikki craft and papier-mache.

MADHUBANI PAINTING Festivals like chhath and Chauth chand are also occasions for doing this ritual art.This traditional art form was freed from its yoke to ritual life due to a drought that brought economic life in Mithila to a standstill in 1966.Government officals who were touring the region for relief work were astounded by way of its painted walls.A few women were persuaded to paint on paper.Madhubani painting has never looked back since.Already a world renowned the themes and motifs of Madhubani are drawn from a palette of mythical art form,Madhuban`s aesthetic potential depends on figures,gods and goddesses,ritual activity and very importantly,local flora the fragile links between the women artists,the an fauna.The region of Mithila abounds in marches and ponds from where cultural milieu,and economic.Three forms of Madhubani`s paintings are prevalent.Aripana is the women draw their staple motifs of puren,lotus;fish,turtles,snakes and ritual floor art that is made afresh on auspicious other elments of aquatic life.These nature motifs are also loaded with occasions like pujas(worship),vratas(vows) and symbolic meaning-the turtle is also a symbol of Vishnu in one of his sanskaras(rites of passage).It uses white rice avatars,the snake is venerated as the guardian of the underworld,and the paste,turmeric,sindoor (vermillion powder) to depict lotus and bamboo signify feminine and masculine sexuality respectively.Pastoral scenes are also favoured.Rites of passage from birth tantric symbolic forms,symbols for the Mother Goddess,and motifs from nature and everyday to death are accompained by ritual painting on the walls of a houseslife.Bhitti chitra or wall paintings fall under two sathhudi,a ritual observed during the seventh and ninth months of main types-those made by the upper caste Brahmin pregnacy;chatiyar puja,done on the sixth day after the birth of a child;annaprashan,to mark a child`s first eating of grain;akshararambh to and Kayasth women,and Dushadh paintings and mud murals made by the marginalized themes from mark a child`s entry into the world of learning;janaur,to mark the mainstream Hinduism-the Shaiva,Vaishnav and symbolic rebirth of young Brahmin boys;marriages and deaths. Shakti cults.The walls of the gosain ghar or prayer room are brightly paint with myraid deities and religious folk narratives. The kohbar ghar or nuptial room is painted when there is a wedding-newlyweds perform many rituals,especially facing the eastern wall,to pray for martial bliss. ORIGINALLY A FORM of bhittichitra or wall art,this ancient art form of Madhubani is a heritage rooted in the rhythms of Hindu ritual life.Predominantly a feminine expression, Inset Detail of a Dushadh painting depictign the Sun.

Snake motif from the kohbar ghar.

Latpatiya sugaentwined parrots.

On the right,is a Mithila painting of Brahma,Vishnu and Lakshmi,gods from the Hindu pantheon,done in tantric style.Tantric painting is replete with gods and goddesses from the Hindu pantheon and the style follows specifications of colour and rendering given in the tantric texts.These paintings have to be perfect;the artists destroys the painting if there is even a slight mistake.

Recuring motif of a wall painting in the kobhar ghar,the nuptial chamber.The six lotus flowers encircling a single bamboo stem are fertily symbols with the lotus signifying the female and bamboo representing the male generative powers.Parrots,fish,turtles,banana and betel leaves ,all surrounded them,all symbolized fertility and regeneration. The kohbar ghar is one of the best instances of ritual symbolism in the Madhubani style.It is a shrine celebrating married love and union, and the motifs reflects the mood. Divine couples like ShivParvati and Rama-Sita,and other celestial beings guard and bless the couple. There are also fertility symbols that remind the couple of their duty to propagate the family line.

Production clusters Madhubani district: Madhubani town: Jitwarpur village Rati village Darbhanga district Products Painting on paper Painting on sari Tools Various brushes

The Dushadhs draw their visual language from a vital oral tradition.Most of the narratives in their paintings and mud relief depict the exploits of Raja Sailesh,the hero of their epic,Mahagatha.The episodes of this epic show the struggles between the sub-altern deities and those of the dominant castes.The elephant,which is the mount of Raja Sailesh,is a motif that appears commonly,along with motifs drawn from nature.

Godana,which means tatto,is a skillful adaption of body art motifs into painting.Religious symbols are popular,especially those with talismanic power,as are geometric designs,nature motifs and lucky charms like the swastika.By creatively repeating and juxtoposing motifs,the women make the tattoos come alive on walls and on paper. Inset Fish motif from the kahbar ghar. 1. Detail from a godana painting-Matsya Avataar from the Dasavatar,the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu. 2. Detail from a Dushadh painting.The Dushadh community has evolved its own style of Madhubani painting.

3 Detail from a Dushadh painting;the themes of the paintings are based on motifs from nature,legendary heroes and mythological stories. 4 Lord Krishna surrounded by gopis,cow herdesses,playing his flute;a detail from a Dushadh painting. 5 Lord Krishna on a tree with his flute;a detail from a Dushadh painting.

SUJUNI EMBROIDERY Production Clusters Muzaffarpur district: Busraa village Madhubani district Darbhanga district Patna district Products Bed covers and Cushion covers Scarves, Jackets, Saris,Dupattas, (stoles),Salwar , Kameez (garments) Bags,Wall Hangings Tools Various needles Embroidery threads Circular embroidery frame Pencil and Scissors Tracing Paper SUJUNI IS A TERM FOR straight running stitch embroidery on layered cotton.Women quilt together old sari and other pieces of cloth with tiny running stitches,and embroider these beautifully.The product is a quilt-cum-bedspread,sometimes stuffed with tattered cloth to give it added thickness.Sujuni is labour intensive-the number of stitches per square inch varies from 105-210.A fine running stitch all over the sheet in the same colour as the base cloth creates the background upon which motifs are outlined in chain stitch.The design is then filled in with tiny rumming stitches in coloured thread.An age-old practice among women in almost all parts of the country,what makes sujuni remarkable is the unique narrative elements in its embroidery.Women stitch their experience,their sorrows and their realities on the sujuni,transforming a mundane quilt into a testimony of their lives.Each sujuni tells a tale-the trauma of being a woman in a man`s world,domestic violence,female infanticide,effects of alcoholism and gambling on a family and similar issues.Social concerns like evils of dowry,education of girls,lessons in health-care and AIDS are also depicted.Thus each sujuni becomes a testament of personal trials or of social change. 1. Detail from an embroidered bedsheet,showing women and children in a public space.The bedsheet frames community life and descibes a public space where the women come together,supervising their children at play. 2. Detail of a classroom scene from a sujuni bedsheet. 3. The fabric is stretched taut between rings,which helps the artisan to stitch. 4. A sujuni cushion cover. Old sujunis had motifs from religion,nature and daily life.The shift in narrative themes is recent,after voluntary organizations encouraged women to stitch their lives,so to say,on the sujunis.Efforts by concerned agencies to contemporize sujuni have struck gold-not only has a product diversification been achieved,sujuni had also entered the international market,like Busra,an important productin cluster in Muzaffarpur,sujuni has changed the story of many a woman`s life.

SIKKI CRAFT THE HUMBLE SIKKI grass in marshy areas in Mithila is transformed by women into a range of objects that find both ritual and everyday use.Grass is dyed in colour and creatively used along with the natural golden to create objects steeped in the distinct Madhubani aesthetics.Using the ancient method of coiling,the needle -like takua is the only tool used to craft objects of great variety.Products are reinforced with a base of strong moonj grass,which also grows abundantly in the area.The craft is traditionally passes down from mother to daughter - well crafted items used in the house display the skills of a girl and become part of her dowry. Figures of deities are made for worship,as are votive offerings for festivals.Sailesh puja,the only festival of the Moosahar tribe,involves a wide range of colourful sikki products of ritual use.Toys,table mats,coasters,traditional Ganesh masks and of late,even mobile phone covers are made for urban markets as far flung as Guwahati,Chennai and Mumbai. A box in the form of an elephant;a contemporary product. An illustration of a sikki basket.

Ardhanareeshwara,a representation of the half-male and half-female form of Shiva.

1. An image of a peacock;beautifully created images of animals and birds made with sikki grass are popular. 2. A traditional box;the objects made from sikki are not only utilitarian,but also decorative and ornamental,often having a religious significance. 3. Nataraj,the dancing form of Lord Shiva;detail from a wall hanging.The figures of deities are made with sikki and installed in homes for worship. 4. The face of a goddess crafted with sikki grass. 5. A figure of the legendary hero,Raja Sailesh.

Production Clusters Darbhanga district Madhubani district Muzaffarpur district: Muzaffarpur Town Products Utilitarian objects: Pots, Bowls, Platters, Boxes, Cases and Baskets Table mats, Coasters, and Hand fans Decorative objects: Mobiles, Bangles, Toys, and Figures of animals Ritualistic objects Figures of deities and masks Tools Takua-needle shaped iron object with a rounded head of lac.

PAPIER MACHE Production clusters Madhubani district: Rati village Rahiyam village Villages in Rajnagar Products Containers, Baskets, Tea pots & Plates Mirror bases, Gift items, Bangle stands, & Decorative pieces Bird & Animal forms & other toys Figurines of gods & Goddesses Tools Okhal and musligrinding apparatus Sandpaper THIS CRAFT IS NOT indigenous to the regin and is in a nascent stage,but the products are charming precisely for the reason that they have a raw,earthy appeal.No tools are used,except sandpaper to impart a finish.Most of the products are hand-painted ,and bear the unmistakable Madhubani stamp in choice of colour,motif and style.The forms are similar to the terracotta oneselephants,characters from the Raja Sailesh legend,figurines of gods and goddesses,and otherd votive offerings.Toys and dolls often depict women doing household activities or playing musical instuments.Animal and bird figures are often whimsically painted, adn have vivid expressions.Women also make toys in clay,in form and scale like the papier-mache ones,and their themes reflects a lively engagement with life.The market for papier-mache products picks up around festivals and wedding seasons.

Papier-mache figures: (Left) Goddess Laxmi seated on a lotus. (Right) Toy;woman grinding grains on a hand-operated mill.In many parts of India,girls are given toys depicting household chores.

The Hindu goddess,Durga,in papier-mache.Figures of gods and goddesses are in demand during local festivals.

Painted papier-mache objects like this candle stand are made for the urban market.There is very little demand for products made from this material in the local markets since the craft is not traditional. Elephant and figures made by women.The forms are rooted in the terracotta tradition of votive objects and animal figures.

LAC BANGLES Production Clusters Darbhanga district: Pandasari village Madhubani district: Muzaffarpur town Tools Hatt for shaping the lac Kin-die to size the bangles Furma-die to impress the design on the lac bangles LAC BANGLES ARE perennially in demand,especially in north India,as theyd are considered an auspicious sign of suhag or marriage by women,cutting across caste and community lines.Muslim artisans from Rajasthan who migrated to other regions around 1947 are credited to have brought the craft to Bihar and other parts of north India.The industry now involves nearly five million people in Bihar,most of them local tribals.Muzaffarpur town is one of the largest production centres for lac bangles in Bihar.Lac is an ancient material for obtaining colour,known and exploited by Indian craftsmen as a less expensive means of decoration and of applying colour.It is an insectbased resin that is collected and processes by traditional craftsmen as an effective substitute for precious mineral and synthetic substances.The bangles have an inner core of refuse lac and an outer layer of high-quality lac.Hot lac mixed with pigments and chemicals is rolled and stretched on a shaping mandrel that corresponds to the size desired.Mostly,the bangles are reinforcedd with an aluminium core. Value additions are made in terms of embellishments-glass beads,decorative wire,mirror pieces and even gold foil.The market value of the bangles depends upon the nature of the embellishments.The bangles are sold locally as well as supplied to places like Nepal,Patna,Vaishali,Begusarai,Silliguri and Jhanjarpur.There is an increased demand for lac bangles during festivals like Chhattha Puja,local fairs and the wedding season.

Lac bangles decorated with glass beads are heated on a woodend mandrel to make final adjustments in their size.

Crafts of Patna Stone carving Wooden toys Khatwa-applique Subclusters of Patna Patna district: Patna city: Chotta Patna Devi Patharkatti village Khukdi village Gaya District: Gaya Nalanda district: Nalanda Silao village Nepra village

1. A craftsman carving an idol from stone. 2. Stone carving is the occupation of the entire village of Patharkatti in Gaya.

RESOURCES Craft Stone carving Raw Materials Marble Granite Black Marble Gorara-soft stone Wooden Toys Khatwaapplique Gamdha,semal and ambda wood Cloth Sources Daltonganj, Jharkhand Bihar Patharkatti in Bihar Jhansi & Tikamgarh in Madhya Pradesh Patna Patna In Bihar,the art of khatwa has emerged out of the women`s is now a tool for their empowerment.

TO THE SOUTH of the Ganga lies the Patna metacluster that comprises Patna,Gaya and Nalanda.Shaped on the twin anvils of politics and religion,this region witnessed rise and fall of many empires,and the passing of many holy feet.Ancient Pataliputra (Patna) was the centre of commerce,culture and the political capital to man ancient and medieval empires.In free India,it is the state capital of Bihar.Nalanda at its peak from 5 AD to 12 AD,was an international university,acclaimed as a centre of Buddhist learning.Bodh Gaya,Nalanda and Rajgir are places of Buddhist pilgrimage that have stupas,hemispherical funerary mounds;temples,rock-cut shrines,monasteries and beautiful statues of Lord Buddha,built in stone.Mahavira,the founder of Jainism had also meditated and preached in Rajgir,which has several jain temples.Gaya is also a sacred site for Hindus.In 1726,stonecutters belonging to the Gaur Brahmin caste were invited from Rajasthan,to renovate the vishnupad Temple in Gaya.They were settled in Patharkatti village,near Gaya.TodaY,stone work is concentrated in Patharkatti,Gaya town and the surrounding villages.Turned stone bowls and tableware are made from ornamental gorara stone,in Gaya town.Idols are carved in marble and soft stone in Patharkatti,which also has a stone quarry.Craftsmen of lower castes were not allowed to carve idols,thus they make turned utility items such as plates,bowls and cups from gorara stone.Tussar silk weaving is done in Nepra and Shilao villages in Nalanda district;Alinagar in Bihar Sharif;and Manpur in Gaya district. ACCESS Patna is situated on National Highway 30 and is also on the main line of the Eastern Railway making it a well connected destination.It also has a national airport making the city accessible by air.

Bihar has a wealth of toys carved from wood,done in abstract folk form.

STONE CARVING Production Cluster Gaya district: Patharkatti village Khukdi village Gaya town Products Idols of Gods and goddesses, Lord Buddha, Lord Mahavira Animal forms Household decoratin articles Daily utility articles Kharad-grinding equipment Stone bowls Tools Cheni-chisel for shaping stone Hataudi-hammer Gunya-right angle Parka-divider Grinder, Cutter, Drill and Abrasive paper Tools Cheni of different diameters have a specific function,from beginning to the finishing.For carving out the finer details,a cheni of a small diameter,fitted with a diamond tip,is used. BIHAR HAS HAD A vital stone carving tradition,as is testified by a stone pillar of the Mauryan period that inspires awe for its high polish even today.The stone idols and other products today are a record of the region`s cultural evolution.Most stone carvers hail from Patharkatti village in Gaya district.Of Rajasthani descent,they were brought to Bihar by Rani Ahilyabai of Indore in 1726 to renovate the vishnupad temple to Gaya.After the temple was completed,they were invited to settle down here and began to craft idols. 1. Lord Hanuman,the devotee of Lord Rama in the mythical epic Ramayana. 2. Nandi,the bull vehicle of Shiva;carving in marble. 3. A Stone sculpture of Lord Buddha at Patharkatti village. 4. A statue of Shakti,the incarnation of Parkal-a divider-like tool used to Goddess Durga,on her mark proportions on the stone mount,slaying the demon before cutting. Mahishasura. Though stone carving has a strong local and national market,the international market eludes them for two main reasons-the hight transportation costs involved, and governmental restrictions on a the export of stone idols.Stone carving is seen as a result of `labour`-the artistic value goes unappreciated,discouraging many artisans.The artisans have diversified their craft and now make products for utilitarian purposes.Many stone carvers switch to wood to cater to tourist demands.

WOODEN TOYS Production Clusters Patna district Darbhanga district Muzaffarpur district Products Various animal toys Tortoise, Horse, Elephant with rider Rath-chariots Band set Mother-child toys Raja-rani toys Tools Reti-finishing tools Batali-chisel Rukhani chimta-small tweezer Saw, Mallet, Drill, Hammer Elephant figure carved with wood;light wood is used to make small wooden toys. THE WOODEN TOYS OF Bihar are typified by their abstract folk style.Well finished and beautifully painted,they are made from the wood of semal,gamdha,and ambda trees.They are sliced from a plank of woodd and carved to get three-dimensional effect.They are made from one piece of wood,the profile cut and then shaped and finished using paints and colourful pigments. The use of colours is vivid and reminiscent of the Madhubani style.All the images are icons of activities or of heroes and celebrities shown riding horses or elephants.Toys of animals,birds,mother and child,and horse and riders in a procession are made. 1. Ambari elephant-ceremonial elephant with a howdah or covered seat on its back for the rider. 2. Horse and rider;the folk style of the carved wooden toys is similar to those of excavated figures belonging to the Mauryan period.Craftsment make toys on order too. a Ari-saw b Batali c Reti,file,is used to bring out curves while carving.

KHATWA-APPLIQUE KHATWA HAS THE same wellspring as sujuni-the desire to make the best out of waste.It consists of applique work on cloth with chain and straight stitch embroidery as a linear element.The traditional khatwa had reverse applique in which a layer a cloth is applied onto a base cloth.The top layer has incisions or slashes that are folded and stitched down,revealing the pattern with the colour of the base cloth. Traditional motifs drawn from nature or geometry have given way to scenes from social life as well as graphic commentary on sensitive issues such as AIDS.Ecofriendly khatwa is an interesting offshoot-natural-dyed tussar silk is employed in the applique work.This silk is entirely made by a tribal women`s group from Dumka,Jharkand.A voluntary organization has been the catalyst that created this symbiotic market.More such initiatives need to be taken-popular crafts like khatwa have enormous potential to fuel the growth of other allied markets. Inset Detail of Khatwa showing the main forms of a man,bird and leaves in applique and the beehived,bees and plants done in embroidery,to enhance the theme. Production Clusters Patna district: Patna city Darbhanga district Muzaffarpur district Madhubani district Products Saris,Dupattas Cushion,Bed and Sofa covers Curtains,Table cloths Wall hangings Tools Scissors,chalk, Embroidery threads, Needle, Tracing paper, Pencils, Sketchpens, Sharpeners, String

Cut motifs are stitched on the base material according to an abstract or narrative design.Much like sujuni,khatwa has been contemporized after voluntary organizations took up the cause of the women artisans and their craft.

Examples of Khatwa work;trees,creepers,flowers and animal motifs.Elephants and birds are traditional motifs.Recent khatwa has incorporated new designs and motifs.

Crafts of Patna Tribal jewellery Jute craft Subclusters of Bhagalpur Bhagalpur Munger Purnea Haveli Kharagpur Katihar Preparing yarn for weaving on the charkhi.From here it will be transferred to the charkha and then to the nari.The weaving begins only when the nari is fitted into a shuttle.

RESOURCES Craft Tribal Jewellery Jute work Raw Materials Copper and zinc; Brass,Silver Jute Sources Locally avilable Katihar and Purnea

THE DISTRICT OF Bhagalpur,divided by the Ganga,has fertile fields as well as good forest cover.It used to be a flourishing port city till the days of the British Raj.The region was well known for the manufacture of tussar silk,dyeing,salt,indigo,glasswae and cottn handloom industry.European traders visited here for its cloth that fetched a high price in Europe.Tussar silk yarns,handloom weaving and cloth trade formed the basis of the region`s economy.Unique cotton and silk blends are a speciality- a 19th century British publication names a few: Bhagalpuri, bafta, duriyas, namunahs, chaharkhanahs, and khariasari.Even today,Bhagalpuri yardage is the mainstay of its economy.Tribal communities have been rearing tussar silkworms in the forest on leaves of asan,arjun or sal trees.Bhagalpur has become the centre for tussar silk weaving,supplying to urban and international markets.Sericulture,silk reeling and weaving are evolved cottage industries here. ACCESS Bhagalpur is well connected by rail,road and air.Buses are available from Patna(285km) or any other city of Bihar.There are direct trains from Delhi,Mumbai,and Kolkata.

1 Yardage fabric woven with reeled tussar yarn and katia,spun tussar yarn which gives it a unique texture.Bhagalpur procduces a wide range of textures for apparels and heavier weights for furnishings,woven on handlooms. 2 A craftsman weaves on a pit loom,locally called the khatkal,which has been modifies to improve production.

3 Detail of a handwoven tussar sari produced by weavers in Bhagalpur.Traditional sari weaving almost entirely displaced by tussar yardage fabrics made for export,is being revived.

4 Detail of a sari woven in natural colour tussar in combination with black dyed tussar developed by an NGO (non government organization) in Bhagalpur.

TRIBAL JEWELLERY MANY FACTORS SUCH AS an active life,reasons of security whereby ornaments are constantly worn on the body,community identity and religious beliefs,give tribal jewellery its robust character in form and construction. Craftsmen who make silver jewellery produce similar ornaments in other metals and alloys for the tribal communities.These ornaments are made from an alloy of 60% tin and d20% each of copper and zinc.The liquid alloy is formed into a sheet which is pressed over a die or carved manually,is then shaped into ornaments such as rigid necklaces,anklets,bangles,etc.The rigid necklace or torque generally made of solid metal in worn throughout Rajasthan,Gujarat and the Gangetic plains.In Bihar the torque is hollow,made from sheet metal. One type of anklet is tubular,formed from engraved sheet metal while another type is cast in brass as one piece and plated with a zinc based alloy.Fish-shaped votive offerings are a specially of this place. Inset A brass tube,used to deflect the flame of an oil lamp,serves as an ingenious blowtorch. 1 Silver fish are made as votive offerings.Fish is a symbol of fertily that is omnipresent in several crafts of Bihar,Orissa and West Bengal. Production cluster Munger District Haveli Kharagpur district Products Necklaces Torque Bangles Bracelets Anklet Amulet Votive offering (fish motif) Tools Hammers,Files,Pliers Blowtorch Nib for engraving Metal block,Dies

JUTE WORK JUTE FIBRE IS extracted from the stem of the plant grown as a cash crop in Bihar,West Bengal,Assam,Orissa,Uttar Pradesh and Tripura.Jute mills form an important industry here.Katihar and Purnea have jute mills producing jute yarns which have a bigger market than handcrafted jute products made by craftsmen in their homes.The tough outer bark of the plant is softened in water by a process called retting to loosen the fibres. A table mat;fibres are first made into a braid and coiled to form modular units.These circular units are assembled by stitching with a needle and configured to make a variety of shapes. Jute fibres are long and lustrous and were traditionally handspun in Bihar.A range of products are handmade,using very simple tools,by braiding the fibres and assembling the braids into a variety of configurations resulting in bags,coasters,shoes and other utility items.The range of designs prevalent has been introduced by government sponsored design development programmes. A shoe made from the same principle of braiding jute fibres and using the braided ribbon to construct a form. Production Cluster Katihar district Purnea district Products Bags Coasters Table mats Shoes Doormats Figurines of Goddess Durga Hammocks Tools Comb for straightening fibres Needle Thread Scissors

Languages Santhali Kurukh Mundari Sadri Nagpuria Kortha Karmali Hindi, Urdu, Oraol Landmarks Temples: Baidyanath Temple, Deogarh, Jagannath Temple, Ranchi, Parasnath Temple, Giridh, Hundroo Falls, Ranchi Wild life Sanctuaries: Palamau

Sohrai are the paintings done during the harvest festival.The name itself comes from an ancient word,`soro`,which means literally to drive with a stick.It is the festival of the early winter months when the paddy has ripened and is about to be harvested. A woman from Chandil, Sarikela, using a handmade Women selling toddy, locally broom to garner foodgrains. known as `hariya`.

Hazaribagh ISko site, Hazaribagh (ancient rock art)

THE HEAVENLY FORESTED stated of Jharkhand lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau.Rich in coal,iron,bauxite and other minerals,Jharkhand is one of the richest mineral storehouses in India.Nearly 23% of the state is foreseted,and home to some of the oldest indigenous peoples of the world.The area is also rich in Paleolithic deposits .

Anthropologists hold that the Chota Nagpur region might have witnessed the transformation from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens.This claim to antiquity rests on findings of prehistoric hand axes and blades in the region of Pathalgarwa,and Harappan pottery in Hazaribagh.Jharkhand`s mineral wealth led to heavy industrialization-coal mining was started around 1775,and Inset Mask of a tiger for Chhau dance,Saraikela. the first iron and steel company was set up by Jamshedji Tata in 1907.Somehow,the fruits of industrial development continued to elude the tribals.Tribes like the Santhals,the Mundals,the Gonds and the oraons,while being storehouses of traditional knowledge,were ill-equipped to deal with the demands of the modern world.

Land alienation and the impoverishment of the tribals further worsened matters and the impoverishment of the tribals further worsened matters.It was Birsa Munda,a legendary local hero,who raised the first voice of protest against British colonialism in 1894.Jharkhand was a dream that has had a long gestation period-it was finally carved out of Bihar as a separate state,in August 2000.In Jharkhand,the forests have a presence beyond the physical.Society,culture,economy,and craft are all defined by the forest in an intrinsic fashion.Nature is the keystone of the tribal way of life,and this finds ample reflection in the craft repertoire of the state.Animal and bird motifs appear at their stylized best in dhokra craft,and also in the sohrai and khovar paintings of Hazaribagh.New crafts,like papier-mache also show an abundance of motifs from nature.About 50% of India`s tussar silk and lac production comes from Jharkhand.Its forests have trees that are hosts to silkworms and lac insects.

Physical Features Chota Nagpur Plateau Major Rivers: Damodar, Son, Koel Biodiversity Flora: Tropical deciduous Forests,Special flower Bearing trees,Sal trees, Bamboo,Arjun,Asan (silk host),Kusum(lac host),kendu,Amla, Behera(medicinal Plants) Fauna: Tiger, Elephant, Leopard, Wild boar, Nilgai

1 Durga Puja,worship of Goddess Durga, is a popular festival in east Jharkhand.Many of the craftsmen shift from making masks to making Durga Idols. 2 This highly decorative mask is a fine example of the masks used in the Chhatu dance.This one is particular is used for the Chhau dance.This one in particular is used for the Krishna lila. 3 A dhokra cast figure of Bhagwan Birsa Munda,who was a local freedom fighter.His statues are found all over the state.The same figh=ure is made in various other crafts.

4 The Baidyanath Temple at Deograh,one of the several temples in the temple complex,is an important pilgimage centre for the worship of Lord Shiva and Shakti or divine power. 5 Terracotta dolls like this one depicting a tribal woman are popular in local markets. 6 Woman carrying baskets of hariya,local toddy. 7 A tribal woman clothed in two yardages draped around the body. 8 A potter hauling clay on a hand constructed balancing structure.

Festivals Karma Jitia Sohrai Sarhul Durga Puja

RANCHI IS THE capital city of Jharkhand,situated at 2140 feet above sea level and surrounded by hills and forests.It used to be the summer capital of Bihar during the British Raj because of its idyllic charm.The 17th century Jagannath Temple,modelled on the one in Puri in Orissa,is one of the landmarks of this region.Another is the Hazaribagh wildlife sanctuary,66 km from Ranchi,abode of the tiger,among other wild animals.Home to mainly Oraon and Munda tribes,Ranchi still echoes with Birsa Munda`s call to freedom.He led an armed insurrection against the British in 1897,and kept challenging the might of the Raj until he was arrested in 1900.Every important establishment in Ranchi is named after him,and he is remembered as Birsa Bhagwan,God,by those he sought to free.He appears as a theme in wood craft and papiermache,as a strong young warrior carrying bow and arrows.Apart from traditional crafts like dhokra,crafts like papier-mache,wood craft and jute craft have been introduced by voluntary organisations.Traditional crafts like bamboo are being revisited-an NGO in Ranchi is doing research and development with a view to evolving products that conform to the contemporary idiom and quality imperatives. ACCESS Ranchi has an airport and is connected with other towns in Jharkhand by the National Highway No.23 and 33 and roads.It has direct train connections to Kolkata,Patna,Raourkela and Delhi.

Women working in a lac factory in Khunti,Lac,a natural resin extracted from insect secretion,is a non-toxic versatile material for decorating craft objects and as a protective surface coat for wood,metal and papier-mache.The Indian Lac Research Institute located in Ranchi continues to find new applications for the ancient material.

Crafts of Ranchi Bamboo work Dhokra casting Musical instruments Silver jewellery Wall painting of Hazaribagh Subclusters of RANCHI Ranchi district: Ranchi Khunti,Kokar Morabadiut Gutgora Bamahani Hazaribagh district: Hazaribagh Belwara Ramgarh Musical instruments Jewellery Craft Bamboo work

RESOURCES Raw Materials Bamboo Kholi(shell of drum) Animal skin Silver Sources Local markets, Tonar markets Urmanghi village Local market Ranchi market

1. Women of the village engaged in making bamboo mats and baskets to be sold in nearby villages 2. A craftsman making silver jewellery 3. A coaster is made by stitching plaited and coloured jute fibre. 4. Carving of a wooden wall hanging in process.

BAMBOO WORK BAMBOO GROWS ABUNDANTLY in the region and has been traditionally used to fashion utility articles of all kinds.In the tribal way of life,bamboo finds versatile expression-from storage containers of all kinds to bows for hunting,from fine combs to tappa,huge baskets,for carrying hens.People walking on roads carrying fish in a kumni,fish net,is a common sight in these parts.Entire villages in this region are made of bamboo craftspersons-the men usually cut the bamboo and split the stalks,while women weave mats and baskets.Traditional items adhere to basic designs,and are generally devoid of ornamentation.Local knowledge is exploited to maximize the potential of the material.For instance,the length between two nodes determines the quality of bamboogreater lengths are preferred for basketry.Two qualities of bamboo are used:ropa with longer fibres is more pliable and is used for baskets and containers;while lathi with short,strong fibre goes into making skeletal structures and armatures for products.

Bamboo answers all the modern concerns for eco-friendly material.Voluntary organisations are now trying to create a market for contemporary products in bamboo,like well-finished modular furniture.Local craftspersons are being trained to use mechanized equipment and explore possibilities in design.Lampshades adn such items that would be of used in modern urban homes are being developed,too.Bamboo has the potential to fuel the economy of the region and benefit those who dwell on the periphery of development.Traditional items of everyday use are perennially in demand in the local market,especially in the bi-weekly haats,markets.Sales also increase during festivals and the wedding season.

Production Clusters Ranchi district: Ranchi Soso Chelagi Khunti Bamahani

Bamboo basket 1. Bamboo bow. 2. Kumni, fishing net is used to catch fish for both domestic consumption and in the market. 3. Process of making a bamboo product. 4. Soop, winnowing trays. Traditional: Dawra-container Soop-used to clean rice Challa-used to clean wheat crops Tokri-basket Kacha-big containers to store rice Kumni-used to catch fish Products Chakli-bhar-container to carry mud Bena-hand fan Dhanush-bow Tappa-a huge basket to carry hens Hair combs Contemporary: Sofa sets Dining tables. Side tables Lampshades Magazine holders Other decorative items Tools

Kattu-a tool to take off the skin of bamboo sticks Hexo-file Kulhari-axe Churi-knife Hammer Screwdriver Wooden file Try square Leather punch Sandstone Baby vice

DHOKRA-LOST WAX METAL CASTING Production Clusters DHOKRA IS THE name given to metal cast objects in brass or bell metal made across central and eastern India.An ancient craft,it is made by the lost wax or cire Ranchi district: perdue process,which is one of the oldest metal casting techniques known to civilization.Usually,an item has intricate surface ornamentation in the form of Khunti:Bajar talei pellets,lattices and spirals.A mould must be broken to extract the piece being Dumka district made;hence each piece is a unique expression.In the Ranchi region,dhokra is Sikarpara made by the nomadic Malhore craftsmen.The Jadupatua painters practice dhokra in Dumka region. Products Animal and human figures,Deities Door handles,Bowls Ashtrays, Bottleopeners Diyas-oil lamps, candle stands Face masks,Small toys Amulets, Anklets, Pendants

There are myriad themes:animal forms,mythical creatures,and vignettes from everyday life.For the local markets,the craftspersons make figurines of gods and goddesses,and items of daily use,like the pyala,which is a measuring cup.Dhokra objects art are popular in national and international markets:items like stylized door handles,human and animal figurines are made to order.Stylized representations of Hindu gods are popular.Items are priced according to the weight and quantity of metal used-the more the metal,the costlier an item.Market exposure comes from the works being displayed and sold through state emporia or voluntary organizations. Pyala,the measuring jar,made in different sizes is the most traditional of all dhokra products.Each size is equivalent to a specific weight and is used to measure rice and grains.

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS MUSICAL AND DANCE are an integral part of tribal life.Drums are an intrinsic part of all celebrations,be it tribal festivals like karma,Jitia and Sarhul,or even Christmas carols sung by a tribal laity.The Gorayat Mahli and Ghasi tribes make musical instruments,predominantly a variety of drums that accompany weddings and other tribal celebrations.The body of the drum,called kholi,is made by the ironsmith,and the animal hide or chamra is sourced from local markets.Hides from different animals are used for different kinds of drums:for instance,a nagada is made of buffalo hide,while a dholak is made of cowhide.The skill of the drum maker lies in his ability to treat the raw hide properly,as well as layer the inside of the kholi with a paste of incense,mustard oil and jaggery.This paste aids in the refraction of sound waves and the amplification of sound.These drums are made predominantly for the local markets,though the demand is dwindling.As more tribals come into the orbit of modernity,practices like community dancing are changing form.Sales depend on regional and national fairs and on the middlemen who sell the drums in places that the craftsmen cannot afford to travel to.

Production Clusters Ranchi district: Ranchi Soso village Products Nagada-kettle drums of the old naubat,traditional ensemble,of nine instruments,played with sticks. Dholak-barrel-shaped side drum Dhamsa-drum Dhag-a large drum Tasa-copper bowl covered with skin Mandar-a barrelshaped drum peculiar to Santhali music Tools Churi-a sharp blade like tool to shave the hair from the animal skin Sil patthar-a stone used to sharpen the churi Aari-a pointed iron rod to puncture and make holes in the animal skin Dhora-a device used to twinde leather thongs Tipori,Khari-wooden sticks,used to play the musical instruments

TRIBAL JEWELLERY A Tribal woman wearing pairi,anklets made by Jadupatua craftsmen in Dumka.The anklets are solid-cast over a clay core.

Sancha,dies,used for patterning silver and sheet metal Production Clusters Ranchi district: Chelagi village Products Pairi-anklets Sigri-necklace(called hisirin in Munda) Payal-anklet(called ander in Munda) Bajubandh-armlets Khunso-hairpins Mundra-earrings Anguthi-finger rings Sigri or rigid necklace called hisirin in the Munda language. Tools Bhatta-earthern furnace Nehai-metal slab Bakanal-hollow pipe Kaisla-metal cube with hemisperical holes to make balls of silver. Khalni-file Adhani-metal rod to give diameter to the silver ring. Katghira-metal plate Jaitri-for shaping metal die to draw very thin silver wires/strings Sohni-tweezer Parghani-metal slab used to make silver strands. Sancha-dies Takua-thin rod

Pairi,a silver anklet made by the lost wax casting method as a single piece and without using a clay core,Chelagi.

SILVER AND WHITE metal jewellery worn by the tribals in made by the craftsmen of the Soni community,who practice agriculture during the monsoons.Tribal men and women wear jewellery.Interestingly,the pieces are made using modern sanchas or dies that are bought from the market in Ranchi.The jewellery forms are traditional:the rigid torque made in hollow construction with chasing and die-stamped components,solid torques with a square section tapering to the end and chain links made from wire with diepressed pendants.Anklets are cast by the lost wax method in silver and white metal.The craftsmen generate a wide range of forms from wire,sheet and cast techniques.Emporia and jewellery stores across the state stock these ornaments,and also take orders.

1. Sigri,a necklace.Seedshaped pendants are strung on a yarn chain.Cotton rope forms the core of the chain that is wrapped with dyed cotton threads. 2. Necklace composed of several chains made of wire with a diepressed pendant.

WALL PAINTING OF HAZARIBAGH Inset Sohrai painting showing God Pashupati, (literally the god of animals)on a bull and a plant motif. Detail of a khovar painting depicting the Tree of life motif.An undercoat of black colour made with manganese earth is spread with a broom or by hand.This is later covered with white kaolin earth which is scraped off with a comb or using one`s fingers (sometimes covered with fine cloth),to reveal the black colour of the undercoat. SITUATED AT ABOUT 2000 feet above sea level,Hazaribagh is a thickly forested region in the heart of the Damodar river valley.Ancient rock art sites have been discovered here,like the famous Isko site in Hazaribagh town.The forms and motifs of prehistoric art of ancient tribes like Khurmi,Ganju,Santhals and Oraons who live here. While entire tribal villages have elaborately painted houses,two varieties are outstanding:Khovar and Sohrai paintings.Much like the bridal chambers of Mithila,Khovar paintings have fertility symbols celebrating union and propagation.Bird motifs,especially the parrots and peacocks,are popular,as are fruit bearing trees.They are mostly made in the wedding season,which extends from January to May.Sohrai is observed during Novemenber to December celebrating the harvesting.Cattle are cleaned and worshipped ,as are agricultural implements,like the plough.Sohrai paintings characteristically have a male god,Pashupati(popularly known as Shiva),the lord of animals shown standing on the back of a bull.Though tribal khovar and sohrai paintings have not had the market exposure that Madhubani paintings have had,the region has enormous cradft energy waiting to be tapped.

Detail of a sohrai painting which was originally made on a mud wall with red oxide, red ochre, kaolin white and manganese black.

A sohrai painting that depicts animals,birds and lizards done by the Kumi tribe.These forms are used as fertility symbols in the paintings.

Production Clusters Hazaribagh district: Hazaribagh Products Wall paintings Tools Broom Comb

Children standing in front of a wall with sohrai painting.

Khovar painting on the wall of a house during the marriage season.

In the sohrai painting done by the Kumi tribe,Lord Pashupati`s form symbolizes Lord Shiva`s damru,drum,that is shaped like an hourglass.

Craftsperson making a Chhau mask. RESOURCES Crafts Jadupatua painting Black terracotta Raw Materials Clay Clay Sources Rattanpur block River Dhove Subclusters of Dumka Deogarh district: Deogarh Jasidih Dumka district: Dumka Sikaripara Nonihat Jadupatia Crafts of Dumka Jadupatua painting Black terracotta LOCATED in the northeast of Jharkhand,Dumka is in the heart of the Santhal Pargana,home to the Santhal tribe.The Santhals are one of the largest tribes of India,Spread across Jharkhand,Bihar,Bengal,Tripura,Assam and Orissa.An ancient tribe,the Santhals are a proud people with socio-cultural institutions of their own-they worship their own bongas,spirits,regulate their village life according to ancient custom,and are one of the few tribes in India to have their own script,the Olchiki.Celebrated for their vibrant music and community dances,the beats of the Santhali maadal,drum,echo in Dumka even today.The famous Baidyanath Templed,dedicated to Shiva and Shakti,and a staple on a Hindu pilgrim`s itinerary,is located in Deogarh. Ranchi and Dumka have stone reserves.A dark-coloured hard stone is quarried at Padgaha in Dumka.Cattle feed containers,wheat and paste grinders, lamps, utensils, and blocks used in house construction are made in Padgaha,from stone. ACCESS Dumka is well connected by road.Daily bus services are available from Ranchi and other major cities of Jharkhand.The nearest airport is in Deogarh.

Woman preparing hat out of kosi grass

A dhokra craftsman,belonging to the Jadupatua community,puts wax on the clay figures after they have been sun-driedd for over two hours.

The Jadupatua artists,also called Chitrakars,are followers of Hindu religion and are considered to be Brahmins by the Santhal tribe.These chitrakars are invited by the Santhalis on the occasions of death or birth in a family to read out their paintings,making the occasions auspicious,giving peace to spirits of the dead and wishing a good life for the newborn.

JADUPATUA PAINTING THESE ARE RITUALISTIC scroll paintings made by Jadupatuas,the itinerant minstrel-healers of the Santhal tribe.An ancient traditional,these scrolls are narratins of myths and tales from the Santhal cosmos,like the exploits of the tiger gods Satyapir and Satyanarain.Hindu themes like scenes from Krishna`s life extracts from the Ramayana,and lives of Bengali saints like Chaitanya are also popular.Twenty or more panels are arranged vertically,and the scrolls are unrolled to the accompaniment of songs or chants sung by the Jadupatua himself.The painters or chitrakars hold priest-like status in the Santhal community-they must perform at the time of births,deaths or marriages, and are given offerings to pray for the occasion.The paintings are simple illustrations,devoid of an evolved symbolism like that of say,Madhubani or Warli paintings.The themes depend on the occasion of display-a wedding scroll would have stages of a marriage right from the beginning when the bride-groom`s family visits the bride`s village to see her,down to the actual ceremony.Usually,the scrolls are not painted for sale,unless an order is placed. An image of Goddess Kali. Production Clusters Dumka district: Jadupatia Tools Brushes Vegetable paints

The scrolls consit of twenty or more individual story panels arranged vertically,which are unrolled and rerolled as the story is sung.Older scrolls were painted on fabric.Those shown here,are painted in natural paints on paper-generally a series of individual sheet sewn together.

BLACK TERRACOTTA BLACK AND RED TERRACOTTA items are thrown on the wheel in Jisidh.The process used is that of reduction firing.When the products are fired ,those that must turn black are first put into a tightly-seales terracotta utensil which is then fired,while the red ones are placed in the furnace directly.Due to lack of oxygen,the pots inside the utensil turn black. Terracotta Jewellery Women of the Sonar tribe in Nonigaon make hand-formed and diepressed terracotta jewellery to be sold mostly in the markets of Shantiniketan and Kolkata. 1. Necklace made with terracotta beads and diepressed pendant. 2. Bowls,the terracotta bowls are used domestically while the black bowls have more market value. 3. Kamandal surahi,pot with a spout. 4. Coin bank Production Clusters Dumka district: Dumka,Nonigaon Products Kamandal surai-water container Nal walli surai-pots with taps Gamalla-flowerpots Deepak-lamps Tools Kumhar ka chakkapotter`s wheel Chakhayat-wooden hemisperical tube Maria-hammer Dice-mould also made of mud Seet patiaa-wooden slab on which the mud is beaten. Gulak-coin banks Phooldani-vases Momdani-candle stands Ashtrays Paon walla jama-foot scrubber Small toys sets Kulhad-small containers to drink tea Jewellery: Bala-churri-knife Hasli-necklace Jhumka-earings

Agarbathi or incense stick stand.

Hair clips Malas-necklaces

Crafts -ORISSA Dhokra casting Ganjappa cards Papier-mache toys Stone carving Bandha-yarn tieresist-dyeing Patachitra-painting Bomkai sari Terracotta Cane and bamboo work Wood carving Brass & bell metal ware Sikki work Betel nut carving Coir craft Horn carving Katki chappal Silver filigree Districts : 30 Craftspersons - 0.76 Lakhs A Dongaria tribal girl from Khajuri village in Khumi,Rayagada. Stone carving straw craft Cowdung toys Coconut shell carving Tribal ornaments Palm leaf engraving Flexible fish-brass and wood Lac ware Sisal fibre craft Paddy craft Root carving Dongaria scarf Applique 1. Shepherds with palm leaf sunshades in Singpur village located between Rayagada and Parla Khemundi. 2. In Lingaguda village,the road serves as a common courtyard which is used by villagers for threshing grain,in the tribal region of Koraput. 3. A vendor outside Lingaraja Temple,Bhubaneshwar.Coconuts have mutlipurpose uses,as an offering ,as food,a source of oil and the shell is used to craft small objects 4. The Mukteshwara Temple complex in Bhudaneshwar, a city significant for its temple architecture in stone. 5. One of the twelve stone wheels of the chariot of the Sun God in Konark Sun Temple.The wheel motif is found in wood and stone carving crafts. 6. Patachitra,painting on cloth.Schematic pictures of the Jagannath Temple were painted as souvenirs for pilgrims. Kotpad sari Languages Oriya Hindi Telegu Cuisine Rice and lentils Fish curry Attire Bomkai sari Bickitrapuri ikat sari Dhoti-man`s draped lower garment Kurta-tunic

Festivals Ratha Yatra Holi Chandan Yatra Snana Yatra Bali Yatra Landmarks Jagannath Temple Lingaraja Temple Konark Sun Temple Hirakund Dam Lake Chilika

Bhitarkanika Bird Sanctuary

The major crafts of Orissa are dependent on the various religious and social ceremonies mostly linked to Lord Jagannath.The Tradition of painting patachitra was first used to decorate unfinished idols.Shola pith was used to decorate the idols of the trinity-Lord Jagannath,Subhadra and Balabhadra.Both crafts owe their origin to the worship of Lord Jagannath.In late 16th century,Orissa was annexed to the Mughal empire resulting in a confluence of different cultures.Ganjifa,the Mughal playing cards,became Indianized and silver filigree was introduced here.In recent years local materials like sikki grass,straw,coir and cowdung have been THE HISTORY OF Orissa,ancient Kalinga,has been shaped transformed into decorative objects.Buddhism,Jainism,tribal by major political events and the religions that flourished over beliefs,and the various sects and cults which were later woven together into Hinduism,all existed in Orissan deity of Lord the centuries.The Kalinga war which silenced Asoka`s war Jagannath.Orissa`s varied tribal population in the western drums forever is the sheet anchore of Orissa`s history.The districts are a repository of living crafts visible through their succeeding Orissan king Kharavela,who came to power during the second half of the 1 st century BC,was a jain who system of weekly markets. furthered the religion`s cause.After him,a succession of dynasties began with the Sailobhavas,followed by the Inset Elderly ladies drawing images of Lord Jagannath using Bhauma-Karas and Somavamsis,and ended with the great coloured powder,Guntavati shrine,Raghurajpur crafts village. Ganga family,which came to power in the 12th century.The period between 7th ato 12 th centuries saw the rise of Orissa as a centre of outstanding artistic expression ,commerce,pilgrimage and civilization.The art of temple building became increasingly refined during these centuries,developing a unique and exquisite Orissan style.

Craft of Ganjam Ganjappa cards Flexible fish Brass and bell metal ware Cowdung toys Betel nut carving Coconut shell carving Subclusters of Ganjam Ganjam district: Berhampur Bomkai Patrapur Mathura Kanchana Belaguntha Chikiti Gajapati district: Parla Khemundi Koinpur Chandragiri Zinc Flexible Brass fish-brass and wood Craft Raw Materials

RESOURCES Sources Raghurajpur Bhubaneshwar Ganjappa Sutta-cotton cloth cards Apuchi-tarmarind seed Jhuna-incense stick Chalk powder ,Lac Neli-for blue colour Sankh-Seashells Geru pathar-for brown colour Hingul pathar-for red colour Harital-for yellow colour Lamp soot-for black colour Brass and Bell metal, Brass Bell metal utensils

Bhubaneshwar Home made Purchased in the form of old utensils and machine parts from the local market Kolkata Bought in the form of old brass utensils from local market

WoodGanjam kurum,Sishu,Kotrangi,Sagwan,Gambhari

THE METACLUSTER OF Ganjam consists of two districts:Ganjam and Gajapati.These are in south of Orissa,with Gajapati sharing its boundaries with Andhra Pradesh.Much of Gajapati is exceedingly mountainous and rocky,but is interspersed with open valleys and fertile plains.Ganjam is a coastal area with large tracts of fertile plains.Ganjam is a coastal area with large tracts of fertile red soil.The fish industry contributes a large percentage to the economyd of Orissa and the direct influence of this proximity to the sea can be seen in beautifull and intricate motifs like that of macchi,fish,in the silk and cotton saris of Bomkai.The region is home to crafts like betel nut and coconut carving,flexible brass fish,brass ware and bell metal ware.Being a coastal area there is anmu of coconut trees. The people utilize all the parts of the coconut tree for handicrafts.The kingds of Parla Khemundi were the initial patrons of all major crafts,-like horn workmany of which are practiced even today.The influence of the cult of Lord Jagannath is felt in this region as all over Orissa and the tradition of making patachitra and papier-mache masks is prevalent.Patachitra tradition was also combined with the introduction of round playing cards called ganjufa during the Mughal rule under Akbar in the early 16th century.The craft of carpet making,introduced by Tibetan migrants,is an important occupation for the womenfolk of this community living in the hills of Chandragiri. ACCESS The nearest railhead is Berhampur,a major station on the South Eastern railways.The National Highway 5 passes through Berhampur linking it with other parts of the state and the country.The closest airport is in Bhubaneshware 1. Bomkai village is a well known handloom weaving cluster producing Bomkai saris. 2. Detail of the cross border of a Bomkai sari. 3. Bamboo craftsman in Parla Khemundi. 4. Weaver in his pitloom in Bomkai,Ganjam district.

GANJAPPA CARDS ONE OF THE legacies of Mughal India,ganjif,called ganjappa cards in Orissa,are painted playing cards made of cloth-pasted circles held in place by tamarind glue.Once commonly played in India,Nepal,Iran,Turkey and some Arab lands,the game has become obsolete now.The aesthetic value of the cards has ensured their survival,though many artisans now make the new 52-card ganjappa.The traditional Mughal ganjifa,said to be standardized by Emperor Akbar,was a game of 96 cards with eight suits of 12 cards each.It was not long before local religious themes were incorporated:The Dasavatar ganjifa with the incarnation of Lord Vishnu;the Ramayana version;the Navagraha or nine planets ganjifa and the Ashtadikpala ganjifa are some of the variants that were popular across the country.Cards for royalty were made of ivory,tortoise shell,mother-of-pearl,while those ford commoners wered fashioned from papier-mache,palm leaf or cloth.Very few craftsmen make traditional ganjifa cards now-elaborate Hindu themes and illustrations have been replaced by dots and other simple motifs.Most artisans also make patachitra paintings,papier-mache toys and masks,for the cards alone cannot ensure sustenance.The cards are sold in regional and national craft melas,and in craft emporia in metropolitan cities.Today,Orissa is the only centre for traditional playing cards where ganjappa is played for recreation.

Cards showing scenes from the Ramayana,Parla Khemundi.

Das Rangi cards depicting ten incarnations of Vishnu,wherein each colour signifies an incarnation.

Two incarnations of Vishnu.Yellow symbolizing kachua or tortoise and red for varaha or boar,Parla Khemundi.

Ganjappa cards from Danda Sahi in Jagatsinghpur district. Production Clusters Gajapati district: Parla Khemundi Puri district: Raghurajpur Khurda district: Bhubaneshwar Products Ganjappa-playing cards Tools Cutting stencil Grinding stone Brush Scissors Ply board

FLEXIBLE FISH-BRASS AND WOOD Production Clusters Ganjam district: Ganjam Products Flexible fish and snakes Prawns-not flexible Tools Brass fish: Earthenware pot Sandasi-pincer Hatudi-hammer Sabal-plateform Chimuta-large forceps Channi-chisel Wooden fish: Kalapasmeasurement tool Ari- file Gojuni-needles A SPECIALITY OF Ganjam is the flexible brass or wooden fish made of separate pieces linked by a chain.It is so skillfully assembled that it flexes like a live one.They were toys made out of old brass utensils by traditional craftsmen which have now become a rare craft.Components like fish scales are cut from thin brass sheets,pierced with holes,and joined with a fine chain of brass that allows each piece to move.The face and tail are also joined by chain.Wood is also used,though less often.For all the skill and meticulousness needed to craft these items,the returns are not very high.Hence very few traditional Kansari craftsmen are willing to carry on the legacy.Far more market exposure is needed to save this unique craft from dying out. Inset Flexible brass fish with concealed brass chain. 1. Wooden flexible fish with the face of Lord Jagannath made by the only master craftsman in Belaguntha. 2. Brass flexible fish made in Berhampur. 3. Wooden flexible fish,intricately carved and assembled with the brass chain visible.

BRASS AND BELL METAL WARE Production clusters Ganjam district: Jagmohan Mamudia Devbhumi Mathura Kabli Surya Nagar Nuapentha Patrapur Dhabra Belaguntha Berhampur Gajapati district: Parla Khemundi Gunpur district: Gunpur Sahara Puri district: Balakati Bainchua Rajsunalhal Brahmagiri Itamati Balasore district: Remuna Belangir district: Toroba Dhenkanal district: KASA (BELL METAL) and pital (brass) are copper alloys of ancient pedigree in the Indian subcontinent.Highly recommended by traditional medicine texts,utensils of bell meatal are considered to be the best suited for everyday use as well as for ritual offerings to the gods.Kitchen ware made of bell metal is still a prestigious part of a bride`s dowry,signifying her family`s economic status.Old bell metal and brass are melted down,allowed to set,and then forged by repeated hammering and beating into the desired shape while others are cast and turned.A collaborative activity involving at least four artisans,coordination is of the essence in the process.Most of the products made in Patrapur are small,made with few joints.The labour intensive process of the craft translates into steep pricing of the products.Bell metal utensils,though perennially in demand,have yielded a share of their marketd to mass produced steel,aluminium or plastic utensils.Many craftsmen also undertake repair work of old utensils to supplement their earnings. 1. Bell metal bowl from Patrapur in Ganjam district. 2. Thalia-brass plate 3. Brass ladies used for stirring 4. Bell metal bowl made in Patrapur Products Thali-tray Thalia-plate Qina-cup Bela - bowl Lota-water pot Pilisaja-wick stand Dibi-lamp Kunda-water tub Gara-water pot Dhupadani-incense stand Gilasa-glass Phuldani-flower vase Khatuli-small sofa for idols Ginni-small cymbals Tale-big cymbals Rukha-big lamp Tools Hatudi-Hammmer Sandasi-pincers Ruha/Ugha-file Lihini-scraper Kundad-lathe Bhanra-hand operated drill Drill

Bhuban Indipur Okherma Karamal

Kala Pankha-hand blower Koi-crucibles

1. A cowdung toy of Lord Jagannath,the principal deity of Orissa. 2. Simplified forms of animals and birds are common,like this figurine from Mathura in Ganjam. 3. Jagannath with brother Balabhadra and sister Subhadra,simple forms and colours with litte embellishment. 4. Figurine of Hanuman,Parla Khemundi. 5. Tribal woman and man,Parla Khemundi.

COWDUNG TOYS For centuries,toys made from cowdung have served as cheap substitutes to wooden and metal toys,especially for marginalized communities.The raw material is free,and the cost of production almost negligible.Mostly made by the women of the stone carver community,these brightly painted toys are rustic in design.Birds and animals are popular motifs,as are statuettes of Lord Jagannath and his companions.These are sold in the local markets alone.Cowdung enjoys a great deal of value in India and is thought of as holy as well as having antiseptic property.

Production Clusters Ganjam District: Ganjam Mathura Koraput district: Koraput Nawrangpur district: Nawrangpur Puri district: Puri,Raghurajpur Products Idols Animal figures Bird figures Tools Tulli-brushes

COCONUT SHELL CARVING COCONUT SHELLS ,CALLED nadia,are inexpensive in Orissa,given its long coastline where coconut trees grow in abundance.Decorative and utility items crafted from coconut shells work out cheaper on account of the low cost of raw material,and less labour involved in comparison to betel nut carving.Most products are sold at local and national craft emporia.

BETEL NUT CARVING WOOD CARVING SKILLS have been ingeniously adapted to craft figurines and knick-knacks made out of betel nut shells,called guha.Miniature betel nut statuettes of deities like Jagannath,Subhadra and Balabhadra are deemed ideal for household shrines.Large temple structures or replicas of Jagannath`s rath,sacred chariot,have a core of plywood covered with betel nut pieces,and are popular with tourists.Miniature chairs and small toys are made for children.The price of a small item is hardly commensurate with the labour involved,thus,betel nut artisans also curve coconut shell products to supplement their income.Local sales are largely buttressed by tourist buyers,while national exposure comes from sales emporia in metropolitan cities.

Production Clusters Ganjam district: Berhampur Belaguntha Products Betel nut carving; Figurines Idols Statues Coconut shell carving: Sindhoor-vermilion container Incense and candle stand Birds,Animal figures Bangles

1. Candle stand made of coconut shell. 2. Container for storing sindoor powder. 3. Figure of a deer carved

Tools Vice,Hand Drill Sandpaper,wood files Koinch-pliers Ari-files.

View from the Lion Gate of the Shanti Stupa, Dhauli. It is the site of a set of Emporer Ashoka`s rock edicts dated about 260 BC. Stone relief from the Shanti Stupa in Dhauli depicting the Bodhi tree, symbol of the Buddha, and devotees offering obeisance. Subclusters of BHUBANESHWAR Khurda district : Bhubaneshwar Banapur, Khandagiri Crafts of BHUBANESHWAR Palm leaf engraving Stone work Pepier-mache Resources Craft Stone work Raw Materials Granite Sandstone Kuchila Kendumundi - soap stone Sources Mayurbhanj Topang in Khurda district Keonjhar district Keonjhar district

BHUBANESHWAR, the modern capital of Orissa, is a subdivision of Khurda district. It is a centre of trade, commerce and religion. Of the 7000 temples that once existed in Bhubaneshwar, only 500 remain, spread around the Bindusagar Tank. These temples epitomize a comprehensive history of the Orissan style of temple architecture from its very inception to perfection spreading almost to two thousand years from 3rd century BC to 16th century AD. These temples are testimony of an ancient carving tradition. The craft of stone carving draws inspiration from the impressive Lingaraj Temple, Jagannath Temple and the Jain monasteries at Khandagiri and Udayagiri. The pervasive Lord Jagannath legend and proximity to the temple town of Puri with its festivals has directly influenced the crafts of this cluster. Many of these are ancestral occupations of the craftsmen and crafts like stone carving, patachitra, palm leaf engravings and papier-mache are prominent in religious practices and rituals. ACCESS Bhubaneshwar is connected by air to Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkota, Raipur, Chennai, Hyderabad and Nagpur. It is also linked by rail and road with all major cities.

Papier- Waste newspaper, Bhubaneshwar mache Bamboo stick, Cloth, Clay, Tamarind seed, Cardboard, Sawdust

TALAPATRA KHODAI - PALM LEAF ENGRAVING Production Clusters Bhubaneshwar Puri district: Raghurajpur Products Wall hangings Bookmarks Vermilion container Ornamental boxes Lampshades Carved and painted fans Tools Lekhana - stylus Naurini - cutter Whetstone In Orissa, engraved palm leaves, known as talapatrachitra, have traditionally been used for writing down horoscopes of newborn infants. The Nayakar community, traditional astrologers, prepared these talapatrachitra. These engravings are fine line drawings, which illustrate manuscripts. A very steady hand is required to use the engraving tool on a thin strip of palm leaf. In the limited space available to them, the artists recreate human figures, capturing the minutest details of body and costumes with only a lekhana, stylus. Often and entire engraving is done on three to four leaves and later stitched together to form a scroll. A charecteristic feature in some talapatrachitra are semi-circular flaps, which have a figure on the top surface and a verse beneth it or another image on the other side. The themes illustrated in the contemporary palm leaf engravings are the Ramanaya, Mahabarata, Kamasutra, Krishna Lila, Vishnu Purana and tales of Lord Jagannath. This craft borrows from the same tradition as the patachitra, due to their proximity and cultural similarity. 1 Lekhana, and engraving tool 2 Detail of an used to inscribe text and engraving depicting illustration on palm leaves. After elephant composed of engraving, the leaf is smeared female figures. with black dye and then cleared 3 Talapatrachitra of

Sewing needle

off from the remaining areas.

Lord Ganesha with his wives Riddhi and Siddhi.

PATHAR KAMA - STONE WORK The rock cut caves of Khandagiri, Lalitgiri and Udayagiri, and the Konark Sun Temple stand testimony to the rich stone carving tradition of Orissa. The Shilpkar community are the traditional specialists of this craft. With intervention from government agencies people from other communities have also taken up the craft, which is prevalent in almost all districts of Orissa. Stone idols of Hindu deities, the Buddha, and mythological characters are carved and stone carved animal figures outside temples are a common sight. Decorative sculptures depicting ment and women, animals and birds are also made. Carved stone objects are commissioned by temples in and around Orissa. Hotels and emporia across the country also contribute to a high demand of these sculptures. 1. Idol of a five headed Ganesha. 2. Sculpture of a tree nymph, the tree and deer symbolizeing fertility. 3. A reclining Ganesha idol inside a conch shell. Production Clusters Khurda district: Bhubaneshwar Khandagiri Puri district: Puri Balasore district: Balasore Cuttack district: Cuttack Products Idols, Animal figures Figures of apsaras Tools Karata - hand saw Khat kas - tool for drawing Hatudi - hammer Gunati - chisel Thukka - wooden hammer Hata baresi - axe

PAPIER - MACHE In Orissa, papier-mache masks and figurines are inspired by the patachitra tradition. Mukha, masks, are made by using a mould of clay and newspaper. Paper and cloth rags are soaked and applied in layers with locally made gum on the mould. Saw dust mixed with gum is applied smoothly, dried and burnished with sandpaper. As in patachitra painting, the colours are made from seashells and rocks. The detailing such as the outlines of the figure`s eyes in red and black follows the patachitra styles. Masks of deities, demons and animals are made for use in the local folk and classical dance performances. The figures and other products like dolls, pen stands and lampshades are made in many sizes. 1. Mask of a god. 2. Mask of a goddess 3. A tiger mask Production Clusters Ganjam district: Ganjam Puri district: Raghurajpur Khurda distrct: Bhubaneshwar Products Masks of gods Masks of demons Animal figures Flexible dolls Pen stand Lampshades Tools Korani - spatula Tulli - brush Nadia sadhei - paint container Rubna - stone grinder Pathra kadhi tamarind seed grinder

Women make the chita paintings using rice paste every Thursday during the month of Margashira. The ancient temple of Lord Jagannath situated here is the nucleus of Puri`s and indeed Orissa`s socio-religious life. The most important festival is the Ratha Yatra, chariot procession, when the temple`s deities - Jagannath, Subhadra and Balabhadra - are taken out in procession to the Gundecha Temple in the temple chariots. The Jagannath cult has nurtured and supported a wide range of crafts - carving of idols in wood, stone, shola pith; patachitra or cloth painting, applique, dhokra casting, papier mache and several others. This has made the craft repertoire, rich in media, which draw on the religious traditions of Puri and local resouces for their inspiration. The Jagannath triad is the most common motif that appears in most of these crafts. Puri is a coastal area, green with dense vegetation. The countryside is dotted with poinds and coconut palms, banana, mango, jackfruit and gulmohar trees. The flowering trees and animals, have been depicted in a detailed and stylized manner in palm leaf engravings and patachitras, which have religious themes. Raghurajpur, Puri and Bhubaneshwar, have a large number of chitrakars, painters; some of them live near the Jagannath Temple in Puri.

Figures of lions guarding a temple in Puri Crafts of PURI Patachitra - painting Pipili applique Shola pith craft Seashell craft Coir craft Wood carving Subclusters of PURI Puri distrct: Puri, Raghurajpur, Pipli Shola pith Shola pith Seashell craft Seashells - gauri patar, kauda, conch shells, tokas, muli sankh, samuka Craft Wood carving Applique Resources Raw Materials Neem wood, Sidar, Teak and Sheesham Cloth Sources Cuttack Cuttack, Mumbai, Kolkata, Raipur Puri Puri, South Africa

ACCESS Puri town is about 80 km from Bhubaneswar and can be reached via road or rail. Inset : The popular icon of Jagannath painted on the walls of a residence in Raghurajpur.

Palm leaf strips have been joined with stitches, which enables them to be folded. The folk theme of Nabagunjara has been engraved on the palm leaf in the talapatrachitra, palm leaf painting tradition. Arjuna is shown bowing to Lord Vishnu or Krishna depicted as Nabagunjara, a composite creature formed of nine different animals. Talapatrachitras are done in Puri, Raghurajpur and Bhubaneshwar.

Raghurajpur in Puri district, has the larges number of chitrakars, painters. Seen here is an unfinished patachitra painting of Lord Krishna an Radha in a central medallion with stylized lotus motif. The petals have alternating pictures of a gopi, cowherdess and Lord Krishna, The alternation represents the rasa, dance, in which Krishna multiplies himself so that he can dance with every gopi.

PATACHITRA - PAINTING Patachitra or painting on cloth, is among the most distinct forms of traditional painting in Orissa. The word is derived from the Sanskrit word patta meaning `canvas` and chitra meaning `picture`. The iconic paintings, a domain of the Chitrakar community of painters, depict religious themes - stories from the Ramayana, Mahabarata, Krishna Lila and incarnations of Lord Vishnu. But the most popular depiction is that of Lord Jagannath. The patachitra has its roots in the schematic paintings of the Jagannath Temple that were made as souvenirs for the pilgrims. The paintings are colourful and characterized by creative mothfs and details of human figures, jewellery and costumes. The canvas is skillfully made. Cloth is bonded with

Production Clusters Ganjam district: Puri district: Puri Khurda district: Bhubaneshwar Products Paintings Ganjappa cards Painted dowry chests Panels Tools Tulli - brush Scissors Cardboard Nadia sadhei - colour containers Jhuna barada - coarse grinding stone Rubna - stone grinder 1. Painting of Lord Krishna with gopikas, cowheresses. 2. Painting of Krishna playing the flute with a gopika. 3. Dowry chest: cloth painted in the patachitra tradition, is pasted onto the wooden surface. 4. Patachitra depicting Krishna subduing Kalia, the snake demon. Kalia`s wives, Naginis, beseech Krishna to spare his life. Thus Kalia is banished from the river.

gum made from powdered tamarind seeds, dried in the sun and burnished on both sides with a coards stone and subsequently with a smooth pebble. The colours used in the paintings are extracted from rocks and seashells. Patachitras have two kinds of borders floral and geometric. The common motifs painted on these borders are called dahaniya macchi, kangura,

Lahara macchi, goolai, sapa ad chauk. The patachitras have an important role in the rituals of the temple at puri. They are temporarily installed in place of the deities during the few times the idols are taken out of the temple for the processions. Puri district, especially Raghurajpur, has the highest concentration of the Chitrakar community.

PIPILI APPLIQUE Production Clusters Puri district: Pipili Ganjam district: Kanchana Cuttack district: Cuttack Products Trasa-banners Chandua-canopies Chhatti-umbrellas Cover for shrines Animal puppets Wall hanging Lantern Parasols Bags Pouches Cushion covers CONCENTRATED IN PIPLI village of Puri district,the applique work of Orissa is district in style and imagination.Banners,canopies,umbrellas made in patchwork,and applique with embroidery stitches,are related to religious festivals processions and the Jagannath cult. Bold stylized forms of birds,lotus,elephant,lion,the sun and moon,are appliqued on to a base cloth and outlined with embroidery stitches.The central lotus motif is distinctive of Orissa applique,constructed with concentric rows of traingles,tips of which are filled with cotton,giving the petals an extra dimension.The demand for traditional banners and canopies having declined,the craftsmen have adapted their vocabulary for tourists and pilgrims which has brought changes in designs,motifs and led to the diversification of products. Inset Detail of a mouse appliqued on to a base cloth with chikana,chain stitch,distinctive of Pipili applique. 1. Contemporary canopy with rhombic forms done in patchwork,and elephant figures,circular forms and triangles appliqued on. 2. Wall hanging with the motif of Jagannath whose face has been outlined with chain stitch.Rows of traingles are characteristics of Pipili appliquerepresenting petals of a lotus.Here the triangles decorate Lord Jagannath`s face. 3. The chhatti,a contemporary version of the ceremonial umbrella has two cloth covers,one on the outside and the other inside ornamented with patchwork and applique.The central mast has a cover made into a cylindrical form with leafshaped edges.

Tools Sewing machine Scissors Needle Measure Tape

SHOLA PITH CRAFT Production Cluster Puri Products Ornamentation and backdrop of idol Sculptural objects THE SOFT STEM of a wild-growing water plant,shola(Aeschymene aspera),is used to craft statuettes and three-dimensional sculptures.The objects,made from the pith,weigh little, contracting and expanding with changes in temperature.since the 11th century,the craft has its tradition in the Jagannath Temple,where the adornment of the idols and their decorations are done with shola pith.The material is also used for making ritual decorations and sculptures of Hindu deities.The most common colours used by the craftsman are reddish-brown and white.The products are made with intricacy and the ornamentation requires skill and experience.The flexibility of the material allows great

Idol Konark Wheel Flower vase Artifical flowers Display objects Tools Guakati-nut cracker singha bhati-drawing tool Churri-knife Burnishing tools

finesse especially for detail.

Shola(Aeschymene aspera)

SEASHELL CARFT THE BEACHES OF Puri are abundant in seashells that are used for making articles of utility and decoration.Small shops selling seashell products are a common sight on the beaches of Puri and outside the Jagannath Temple.The products are embellished by engraving on them,by painting or both.Shells of different qualities are also bought from other states in the country and even other countries.The pieces illustrate various themes from the life of lordd Jagannath and other Hindu mythologies.Small items like ornaments and photo frames are commonly made in most of the coastal areas.Engraved and painted lampshades are made by very few and highly skilled craftsmen. An ornate replica of the temple chariot made of seashell. Production clusters Puri Products Lampshades Keychains Buttons Pen stands Mirror & Photo frames Curtains Pendants, Bangles, Rings, Hair clips Tools Saw Hand drill File Sandpaper

Detail of an intricate engraving on a seashell.

COIR CRAFT NADIA KATA,COCONUT fibre,is transformed into beautiful toys and decorative objects by tying and folding the fibres together.The craftswomen in Satasankha and Sakhigopal,make these animal figures,Nearly a decade ago,this craft was introduced in these villages,which are abundant in coconut plantations,to generate employment for women.The figures are made in parts and then assembled together.Facial features are added with coloured wool,stitched on the figure.Sometimes,fibre is also coloured to make them attractive.Apart from animal figures,wall hangings and utility products are also produced. Artisan shaping coir into animal figures. Production cluster Puri Products Ropes Doormats Toys Curled coir Dolls Birds Animals Handbags Tea coasters Table mats Tools Manual spinnerets Dye vats Frames Pressing machines Katuri-scissors Sui-needle

WOOD CARVING Production Clusters Puri district: Puri Raghurajpur Products Small idols Statues Wooden walking sticks Carved ashtray Tools Kholom-U-shaped chisels Batali-flat chisel Batali-half-round chisel Barasi-hammer Karata-saw Khot Kas- tool used to draw lines Tai- Iron base Sandpaper Idol of Ganesha unusually depicted like Laddu Gopal,the child Krishna with a laddu,sweet. CARVED WOODEN FIGURES made in Puri are directly influenced by the proximity to the Lord Jagannath Temple.Elaborately carved wooden sculptures are made in Puri,where craftsmen use wood like neem,cedar,teak and sheesham.Small figurines of gods and goddesses are bought by local people.The forms,themes and motifs are directly governed by the religious culture of Puri.Besidesd the trinity of Lord Jagannath,other Hindu gods like Ganesha,Krishna and Laddu gopal are also made.Some of themd are polished with wax to obtain a glossy and smooth texture.The craftsmen make souvenirs for tourists who visit the Puri temple.They also make utility products like carved walking sticks and ashtrays.Demand for the carved objects made here has dwindled in the last few years.The painted bird and animal forms echo the patachitra style of the region.

Traditional wooden toy bird,Bhubaneshwar and Bargarh.

Carved and painted toy camel,Raghurajpur and Bargarh.

Idol of Ganesha reclining inside a conch shell,Puri.

Carved head of a walking stick.

Idols of Jagannath and Subhadra,made in Raghurajpur.The turned wood and painted idols are abstract figures with prominent face and eyes.Jagannath has stump arms and Sudhadra is shown without arms.

DHENKANAL IS AMONG the centrally located districts of Orissa.It is believed that it was named after a chieftain called Dhenka who ruled an area around the present township.Located nearly a hundred kilometres away from Bhubaneshwar,Dhenkanal is famous for the Balbhadra Temple built in the 18th century.The town is clustered with temples dedicated to the many deities of the Hindu pantheon.Most of Dhenkanal is covered with dense forests and long ranges of hills making it a home for many plant and animal species.The River Brahmani divides the district,and along its plains are vast expanses of agricultural land.The forest plays an important role in the economy,providing not only timber,bamboo and firewood,but also leaves,flowers and resins which are useful ingredients in medicines and are also used in crafts.Bamboo craft and straw craft have been introduced in the district by external organizations to increase employment opportunities in the district.Traditiona metal craftsmen of the Kansari community make brass and bell metal objects.The nomadic craftsmen doing dhokra work settled here from Raipur (in Chhattisgarh) and Barddhaman(in West Bengal) a few years ago. ACCESS The nearest airport to reach Dhenkanal is at Bhubaneshwar (99km).The Dhenkanal railway station is part of the South East Railways network.Regular bus services link the district to Bhubaneshwar, Cuttack, Puri, Rourkela, Sambalpur and also Raipur.

RESOURCES Craft Metal wared Metal bead jewellery Bamboo work Raw Materials Brass,Bell metal Sources Dhenkanal

Subclusters of Dhenkanal Dhenkanal district: Rai Narsinghpur Bhuban Saptasajya Karamal Jiral Crafts of Dhenkanal Dhokra casting Brass and bell metal ware Brass ornaments Straw craft Bamboo craft

Brass sheet, Charcoal, Silver sheet, Dhenkanal Nitric acid Bamboo Cane Local forest Dhenkanal

1 Dhokra craftspersons at work. 2 The Dhokra craftspersons settled in Sadeibereni were nomadic having come from Raipur in Chhattisgarh and Barddhaman in West Bengal,both places well known for dhokra casting.

3 A craftsman beats the utensils with a light hammer to make the surface even and uniform.He has to use both his hands in rhythm to achieve a uniform shape. 4 Paddy waste is used by craftsman in making religious artworks.Paddy is the main crop grown in the village fields.

DHOKRA-LOST WAX METAL CASTING Production Clusters Dhenkanal district: Saptasajya: Sadeibereni village Cuttack District: Narsinghpur Anubhul,Baramba Rayagada district: Daspala Phulbani district: Phulbani Products Dibbi-kerosene lamp Kanchi Kathuraturmeric and oil container Mana-measuring bowl Karat-money purse Jagar-lamp Andu-anklet Khodu-bracelet Harpajja-bangles Goghuri-bells Angtha mudi-thumb ring Guakati-nut crackers Pendants,Necklaces Vegetable cutting knife 1. Bird-shaped hook for hanging clothes,Sadeibereni village in Dhenkanal. 2. Tribals rowing a boat across the river,Phulbani. 3. Two figurines of women,from Koraput district. 4. Metal wire brush used for cleaning dhokra objects 5. Adivasi men,Sadeibereni 6. Idol of Ganesha from Sadeiberebi in Dhenkanal district. DHOKRA,A CRAFT OF ancient origin,is the name given to the folk form of lost wax metal casting practiced in the tribal pockets of West Bengal,Bihar,Orissa,Jharkhand,Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh.The craftsmen combine their understanding of metal with artistry,which has led to identifying them as artists more than metal workers.The craftsmen make a clay core which resembles the end product.This core is wrapped with thin threads,drawn from beeswax which is mixed with dhuna,resin,from the sal tree(Shorea robusta).The craftsmen in Orissa prepare wax threadsd with the help of a three-part tool called nahalo,janta and choki.The object is usually hollow cast through the lost wax process,a technique said to have a history that goes back nearly 5000 years in India.The characteristic feature of dhokra objects is its threaded appearance.The mould is broken after the object is cast.Hence,each piece is unique.Unlike the classical tradition of metal casting the dhokra craftsman gives free rein to his imagination.Craftsmen extract a mixture of metals from scraps to make objects of Utilitarian purpose and ritualistic purpose for tribal communities.The craftsmen are nomadic,and have only now begun to settle down.The demands from non-tribal marketd have started influencing the craft.Craftsmen in Dhenkanal belong to the

Ghontara,a community which is also found in other districts of Orissa.They cast dhokra objects which are for household needs ornaments and ritual objects.Their ware is mainly sold in the local weekly market.The popularity of the craft has paved way for diversification into objects produced in bulk quantity.

Tools Nahala, janta, Chokitools for making wax threads Hatudi-hammer Sandasi-forcepts Birsa-weighing scale Hotta-beater Mothua-polished wooden plank Churi-knives Sulga-model making tools Butt-wire brush Reti-iron files Dhukuna-blower Martul-wooden hammer Tangriya-axe

7,8 Dhokra technique consists of making an image in clay which is the core over which wax strands are wound.This is coated with clay again to form the positive mould.On heating,the wax melts and in its place the molten metal is cast.Seen here is the wax strand wrapped around the clay core. 9 Coin bank. 10 A finger-held lamp with a peacock head,from Sadeibereni. 11 A fingerd-held lamp from Sadeibereni. 12 A camel from Sadeibereni. 13 Lamp from Kantilo in Nayagarh district. 14 Measuring bowl called mana from Baramba in Cuttack district.

BRASS AND BELL METAL WARE Production Clusters Dhenkanal district: Bhuban: Gopalpurpatna village Ganjam district: Jagmohan,Mamudia, Devbhumi,Mathura, Kabli Surya Nagar, Nuapentha, Patrapur, Dhabra,Bellaguntha, Berhampur Gajapati district: Parla khemund: Gunpur district: Gunpur,Sahara Puri district: Balakati,Bainchua, Brahmagiri,Itamati, Rajsunalhal Balasore district: Remuna Cuttack district: Bhatimunda Balangir district: Toroba Products Thali-tray Thalia-plates Qina-cup Bela-bowl Lota-water pot Pilisaja-wick stand Dibi-lamp Kunda-water tub Gora-pot for water Dhudpadani-flower vase Khatuli-seat for idols Ginni-small cymbals Tale-big cymbals Rukha-big lamps 1. A craftsmen finishing a cast vessel on the lathe. 2. Brass ghagri for fetching and storing water. 3. Plate with small cast bowls attached to it. 4. Beaten brass bowl. 5. Large cooking vessel. Tools Hatudi-hammers Sandasi-pincers Ruha / Ugha - file Lihini-scraper Bhanra-hand operated drill Drill Kala pankha-hand blower Koi-crucibles BRASS AND BELL metal,considered to be pure have traditionally been used in making utensils.These vessels are used during auspicious occasions and are part of most Indian households,and also given as dowry.The craft is practiced by the Kansari (derived from Kansya meaning bell metal)craftsmen who work with brass,bell metal and copper.Using scraps of metal,craftsmen exact the required material or make the alloys in the form of a disc.These are heat-forged and shaped with hammers by several artisans working in close coordination.Thereafter a gadha,master craftsman,gives it the final shape with a light hammer.The vessel is smoothened and finished on the lathe.Mass produced articles made of steel,aluminium and plastic are now posing a threat to this craft.

BRASS ORNAMENTS Production Clusters Dhenkanal district: Karamal town: Govardhanpur Bhuban Allkhuma Indipur Products Necklaces Hairpins Rings Tools Dhar-scarp iron Umehi-pot to burn charcoal Jantii-die Ruha-file Katuri-cutter PROMPTED BY THE low demand for utensils of bell metal and brass,some craftsmen from the Kansari community have also started making ornaments with brass.An inherent understanding of the metal has encouraged the craftsmen to produce these brass ornaments which are cheaper than the traditional silver and gold jewellery.The ornaments are inspired by tribal jewellery and also by the intricate silver filigree of Cuttack and Puri.Angular and circular beads are fashioned and then used for creating necklaces.The craftsmen also make hairpins and rings. 1. Brass beads and leaf-shaped strips are strung to make a necklace with a brass clasp. 2. Detail of a brass pendant. 3. Detail of a necklace made of brass faceted beads,Govardhanpur.

Siuda-pincer Suruna-forceps Chulta-hammer

Production Clusters Dhenkanal district: Bhuban block Jiral Products Wall hangings Figures of animals Tools Forceps Koinchi-scissors Blade Pencil Hammer

STRAW CRAFT THE INNER RIB of the paddy crop,which otherwise goes wasted,is used to create an artwork.The rib is split into two longitudinal halves with the help of an ordinary blade.This strip of straw is then pasted on paper,for reinforcement,with the coloured skin out.A ply board is covered with the coloured skin out.A ply board is covered with black cotton cloth to serve as a background.Individual pieces of straw are cut and pasted onto the board using adhesive,revealing small areas fo the board,creating thin and delicate black lines for details like the facial features and ornaments. 1,2 Religious icons of Jagannath and his brother Balabhadra made with strips of straw. Gluing minute strips of straw into an image.

BAMBOO CRAFT CRAFTSMEN IN DHENKANAL make utility products from thin bamboo strips.Many species of bamboo grow abundantly in the nearby forest:Sundar kaniya,shelia bans,kanta bans and balami bans.Bamboo strips are also dyed to make patterns with interlacing strips.The craft has been introduced by voluntary organizations and government agencies to create employment opportunities.Home decor and utilitarian articles like racks,trays,table lamp and candle stands which suit contemporary and urban needs are crafted by artisans. Production Clusters Dhenkanal district: Rai Narsinghpur village Products Flower basket Fruit tray Brush holder Flower pot Mat Hand fan Letterbox Cassette stand Table lamp Ornament box Waist belt Shp model Candle stand Dressing table 1. Fruit basket made from bamboo strips. 2. Gluing bamboo chips has created an interesting texture for the peacock`s body and plumage. 3. Lampshades made from bamboo. Tools Katuri-scissor Churri-knife

Subclusters of Sambalpur Bargarh district: Barpali,Bargarh Sambalpur district: Sambalpur Sonepur district: Sonepur Crafts of Sambalpur Bandha-yarn tie resist-dyeing Terracotta and pottery

RESOURCES Craft Bandha-yarn tieresist-dyeing Raw Materials Yarn-cotton and silk Dyes-napthol dyes, vat dyes Terracotta and pottery Mud / clay, Firewood, Straw

SAMBALPUR IS THE entryway to western Orissa-to its lush forests,wildlife and waterfalls.The great River Sources Mahanadi divides the district into unequal parts.One of the Madhurai,Coimbatore longest dams of the world,the Hirakud,stands across the river,facilitating irrigation and agriculture in the region.Cotton was cultivated in the region and Sambalpuri Sambalpur ikat-weaving skills are widely acknowledged.It was the seat of Vajrayana sect of Buddhism,propounded by the Sambalpur ruler Indrabhuti.The city is quoted in Ptolemy`s work of 2 nd century AD, titled Geographike, as `Sambalaka`. Some of the oldest Buddhist monasteries and Hindu temples such as the Samaleswari and Patneswari temples are found in Sambalpur.Ten tribes,which make up nearly one-third of the district population,are custodians of a rich tribal and folk culture.The terracotta products made in this region have an important role in religious and social ceremonies.The Lankapuri Hanuman and terracotta tiles made in Barpali are unique to this region.The clay for making terracotta products is readily available on the river bank. ACCESS Sambalpur lies on the main railway line connecting Bhubaneshwar with Rajpur in Chhattisgarh.It is alos connected to the main railway line connecting from Kolkata to Mumbai and from South Orissa(Koraput)to Kolkata.The district is also very well connected by road with all the major cities and towns of Orissa and neighbouring states.

1. Seen here is the famous bandha or yarn tie-resist-dyeing process practiced in Sambalpur,Nuapatna,Sonepur and Bargarh. 2. Craftsman giving finishing touches to a clay roof title which is unique to Barpali. 3. Kamda,a wooden frame,on which is stretched the tie-dyed weft of an entire design prepared in the bandha technique requiring skill and precision,Nuapatna.

BANDHA-YARN TIE-RESIST-DYEING BANDHA OR IKAT or yarn tie-resist dyed-textiles of Orissa are widely acknowledges for their skillful patterns,distinctively rendered curvillinear motifs and the combinations of ikat and relief texture due to supplementary warp and weft weaves.The typing of threads for elaborate dyeing processes before weaving,requires precision.The technique of single ikat is predominantly used except in the saktapar designs which is done in double ikat.The two main bandha weaving clusters are Sambalpur in the west including Bargarh,Barpali and Sonepur; and Nuapatna in the east.The weavers in the Sambalpur-Bargarh region belong to the Meher community and in Nuapatna they belong to the Patra community.Bandha required skills for detail: of deconstructing the desired pattern accordign to the density of the cloth;winding threads on the frame according to the calculations made;covering selected sections of the weft with rubber tubing;binding with thread and finally dyeing.Sambalpur specializes in cotton saris used for ceremonial occassions with motifs symbolizing prosperity and fertily.The bichitrapar and saktapar saris are unique examples with motifs of duck,fish,lotus,creeper,elephant,lion,deer;the kumbh,temple or serrated edge,and fine white outline of the ikat motifs.Sonepur saris are woven in mulberry and tussar silk with calligraphy and nagabandi,the coiled serpent motif.Ceremonial cloth called Gitagobind pheta with calligraphic forms,produced in Nuapatna,is used to dress the statues of the Jagannath trinity.Mulberry and tussar silk is primarily used.Conch shell,fish,deer,butterfly and stars are also widely used motifs whose symbolism is derived from mythology,the coastal environment and the contexts of marriage and worship.

Production Clusters Sambalpur district: Sambalpur Barpali Cuttack district: Nuapatna Tigiria Bargarh district: Bargarh Sonepur Balangir Products Saris Yardage Bedcover Cushion covers Stole Tools Aansari-yarn winder Spinning wheel Yarn opener Kaamda-wooden frame Dyeing vats Pit loom Shuttle Pirn Jhadu-sizing brush Knife

1 Contemporary cotton yardage of saktapar design woven in Sambalpur.Saktapar refers to the board game chaupad,depicted with red and white squares with black outlines. 2 Detail of a pallav,cross border or end piece,of a cotton sari woven in BargarhSonepur area.It has bandha motifs of duck,lotus,konark wheel ,elephant ,and lion with stripes and locally inserted extra weft motifs. 3 Silk khanddua woven in Nuapatna,is worn by brides and has motifs of elephant,lotus,lion,deer,parrot ,stars woven with single ikat yarn.

4 Detail of contemporary silk sari with calligraphic forms and diagrams probably inspired by traditional chita,ritual floor paintings.The calligraphic forms state stutis,hymns to god. 5 Detail of a tussar silk sari with the kumbh,triangle,motif at the border and fish motifs woven in extra warp technique.Fish is an important part of the diet of coastal Orissa and symbolized prosperity.Besides,it is the first incarnation of Lord Vishnu and an auspicious symbol.

KUMBHAR KAMA - TERRACOTTA AND POTTERY Production Clusters Bargarh district: Barpali Sambalpur district: Dhoapura Sonepur district: Sonepur Products Traditional pots Lamps Candle stand Tulsi chaura - planter Animal figures Roof tiles Haandi, Maathiya water containers Surahi, Kalash, Gadu, Rukha, Todiya cooking vessels Tools Kumbhar Chako potter`s wheel Ugalni pitna, Majhia pitna, Chiknaini pitna - wooden beaters Peend - stone support Paali - bamboo stick The terracotta tiles made in Barpali village of Bargarh district have images of animals that have mythical allusions. They are portrayed with vivid expressoins, which almost brings them to life. People of the village believe that these tiles, locally known as khappar, bring fortune to their homes. Images of monkey, mouse, lion, elephant and birds are put atop the tiles. The mouse signifies Lord Ganesha`s mount, the bee and pigeon symbolize the arrival of Goddess Lakshmi and the frog is a sign of the monsoon. The khappar are made by the Rana craftsmen who belong to the potter`s community in western Orissa. The same community in Sonepur is known for making the special Lankapuri Hanuman figure, wihch on the festive day of Bhadrap Amavas is carried with a flaming tail throughout the town. People of Sonepur believe that the town is Lanka where, legend says, Lord Hanuman`s tail was lit up and he went on a rampage and burnt it down. The craftsmen in Sambalpur also make utesils and water pots for household use. They also make ornate tulsi chaura, in which the tulsi, basil herb is planted, and worshipped. The terracotta pots are thrown on the wheel and beaten for shaping and finishing. They are sold in local markets. Inset : A turtle roof tile. 1 Storage pots made by the throwing technique in Cuttack. 2 Figure of Lankapuri Hanuman from Sonepur that is made for a ritual associated with the epic Ramayana. Sonepur is considered to be the island Lanka by the local population. 3 Barpali roof tiles are used to ward off evil. The owl is regarded auspicious as it is Goddess Lakshmi`s mount. 4 Bride and groom seated in a palanquin. Bhubaneshwar. 5,6 Figures of monkeys on Barpali roof tiles. 7 Frogs and other animal forms crafted on roof tiles.

The riverine district of Cuttack is the former capital of Orissa, and also the oldest city in the region. The Keshari dynasty founded a military camp called `Kataka` in 989 AD, from which the city derives its name. The Barabati fort in Cuttack is an important historical landmark of Orissa. Some of the earliest and valuable Buddhist sites are located at Lalitgiri and Ratnagiri on the banks of the River Birupa in the district. Situated on the Mahanadi delta, Cuttack is a prominent commercial centre now. Most of the canals used for irrigation and transportation in Orissa are found here. The district is rich in handicrafts which contribute greatly to its economy. Ikat, the yarn tie resist dyed technique of Nuapatna is the most famous and revered craft of Cuttack. The region is also famous for silver filigree, a craft which was introduced by the Mughals when they conquered Orissa in the 15th century AD. The katki chappal, handcrafted footwear is unique to the district. Other crafts that Cuttack is known for are metal utensils and carved wooden objects. Located on the banks of River Vaitarani, the neighbouring district of Jaipur, which is part of this metacluster, is nearly 92 km away from Cuttack. It was once the capital of Utkal territory and prosperous in trade and commerce. It is now an important pilgrimage centre, having many sacred shrines. Stone carving and articles of sikki are the crafts practiced here.

Subclusters of CUTTACK Cuttack district: Cuttack, Bhatimunda Narshinghpur Baramba, Lalitgiri Sukhapada Jaipur district: Madhupurgarh Crafts of CUTTACK RESOURCES Craft Silver filigree Raw Materials Sources Pure silver Local market Copper Charcoal Dilute sulphuric acid Sambalpur, Puri, Barmdipur and Kendrappa Mountains of Lalitgiri Dhenkanal and Koraput district Bandha - yarn tie resist dyeing Silver filigree Applique Dhokra casting Brass and Bell metal utensils Sikki Craft Horn work Katki chappal leather footwear Stone carving Terracotta Wood carving Inset : Bell metal casting is widely practiced craft. Clay moulds with openings for pouring molten metal are placed in a coal furnace. 3 Dhokra casting in process in Baramba. The artisan is wrapping the clay core with wax threads which when melted will be replaced by meta. 4 Brass and bell metal vessals used for storing water 1 Detail of the cross border of a silk in Bhatimunda. Besides ritual objects, a range of sari with bandha motifs of flower, cooking, serving and storage vessels are made by the fish and butterfly figures, Nuapatna. Kansari craftsmen. The large pots are called handa, 2 Detail of silver filigree work of the small pot is called ghada while the bowl is called Cuttack. The craftsman is working on konsa. the main frame called farma which is later elaborated by filling in forms called sikko made of thinner wires.

Sikki craft Sikki - grass Stone carving Wood carving Boimara stone Woods - Gambhari, Sagwan

ACCESS Cuttack is well connected to other parts of Orissa by rail and road. The closest airport is at Bhubaneshwar, 30 km away.

CHANDI TARKASHI - SILVER FILIGREE Production Clusters Cuttack district: Cuttack Puri district: Puri Products Ornaments: Hairpins, Nosepins, Earrings, Bangles, Neck Chains, Toe rings, Tie pins Display items: Chariot, Idols, Konark wheel, Animal figures, Taj Mahal model. Utility products: Pen holders, Photo frames, Cigarette cases, Candle stands, Ashtrays, Buttons, Coat pins, Spoons, Money purses Tools Chimta - tongs Katuri - cutter Hatudi - hammer Bakunari - hollow pipe Kansuli - die for silver balls Jantil / Kitkira / Dhalla - types of dyes Seardi - small tongs Lehi - paltform Madhia - small hammer Moskala - metal knife Ghadia - earthenware pot Sandosi - pair of tongs Chulla - earthen stove File Dibidi - oil container 1. A metal die and pestle for shaping silver sheet. 2. Pliers and cutting tools used by silversmiths. 3. Container for serving paan, and edible leaf with betel nut served after a meal. 4. Detail of silver filigree work. Silver filigree is a craft for which Cuttack is well known. The craftsmen, who belong to the Sunar, goldsmith, community of Orissa, practice the craft which was introduced in the state during the Mughal rule. Thick silver wires are used to the farma (frame) into which the small sikko (design pieces) made from thinner wires are fitted. The carftsmanship lies in fitting the small parts perfectly in the farma. Decorative and elaborate motifs influenced by the Mughal era have inspired the intricate designs produced by craftsmen. They make jewellery and decorative figures like idols of gods, animals and replicas of the Konark wheel and The outer case of a ladies` purse in silver filigree. the Taj Mahal. Objects used in the home such as photo frame, candle stands and cones to Silver filigree serving dish. serve paan, betel nut leaf, are also common products. Sales of products increase during festivals and they can otherwise be found retailed in state and national emporia.

Production Cluster Puri district: Puri Balasore district: Balasore Khurda district: Khandagiri Bhubaneshwar Jaipur district: Sukhapada village Products Idols Figures of apsaras Figurines Animal figures Tools Chisels

STONE CARVING Boimara sandstone is abudently available in the Lalitgiri hills, from where the craftsmen themselves cut the stone. They carve sculptures of deities and figurines. Most of the carved stone figures are commissioned by temples from surrounding villages. The styles are inspired by the sculptures found in Konark, Bhubaneshwar, the rock-cut caves of Khandagiri, Lalitgiri and Udaygiri, preserving an ancient tradition in Orissa. Figures of elephants and lions carved out of stone are also a common sight at temple entrances. Greater demand for ston idols now comes from hotels and emporia. 1. Stone sculpture of Ardhanareeshwar which signifies Shiva`s masculinity and Parvati`s feminity as a unified force in the cosmos, made in Puri. 2. Soft stone idol of Lord Krishna standing under the kadamb tree.

Hammer Saw Sandpaper

SIKKI CRAFT Sikki, golden grass, found growing wild in marshy areas is used to make sikki objects. No material other than the grass is used in the craft. The only tool used is a needle, with the help of which the craftspersons coil the grass. They usually buy straw which is already processed and coloured in magenta, pink, green or red. Although a traditional craft in these parts, the objects now made are designed for urban and contemporary markets. Table mats, tea coasters, hats, trays, bags, lampshades and a range of boxes are some of the articles made by the craftspersons, who also work as farm labour. They have been introduced to design development by voluntary groups and governmental organisations. The products crafted with silli are sold in showrooms and handicraft emporia. Production Clusters Jaipur district: Dharmasala Block: Garh Madhupur Komagarh Betaumadi Antra Pachukundi Bharatpur Gangutia Kharilo Srichandanpur Products Table mats Coasters Straw hat Baskets Tray Bags Temple - shaped box Lampshades 1. 2. 3. 4. Grass table mat made with the coiling technique. Grass footwear: new product development. Process of coiling. Detail of a variation in the coiling technique used for making table mats and coasters. 5. The shape of the container derived from Jagannath Temple is called devrapedhi. Tools Needle Scissors Measuring tape

KATKI CHAPPAL - LEATHER FOOTWEAR Women from the Moharana caste in Orissa make leather footwear, which are known as katki chappal. They were made to be worn on special social occasions but in contemporary times, the chappal is also used for daily wear. They do not have the straps or laces and are slip-ons. Floral motifs are embroidered on the chappal with resham, silk threads. The design of the chappal and the decoration has remained the same over time. Tools (from left) - sharpening stone, stitching awl, tag lifter, skiving tool, pincer. Production Cluster Cuttack district: Barang Products Slippers Sandals Shoes Tools Shoe last Whetstone Stitching awl Tag lifter Pincer Measuring tape The craft gets its name from Cuttack because it originated in Dhadapatna village of the district, nearly 150 years ago. At the time, they were plain without any embellishments, but embroidery was introduced recently. Katki chappal are now made only in Barang in the district. A unique feature of the Katki chappal is that both parts of a pair can be worn on either leg; there is no left or right side. 1. Lasts made for making the katki chappal 2. Embroidered chappal or slip ons worn and used indoors.

BRASS AND BELL METAL WARE Production Clusters Cuttack district: Bhatimunda Ganjam district: Jagmohan, Mamudia, Devbhumi, Mathura, Kabli Surya Nagar, Nuapentha, Patrapur, Dhabra, Bellaguntha, Berhampur. Gajapati district: Parla Khemundi Gunpur district: Gunpur, Sahara Puri district: Balakati, Bainchua, Brahmagiri, Itamati, Rajsunalhal Balasore district: Remuna Balangir district: Toroba Dhenkanal district: Bhuban, Indipur, Okherma, Karamal 1. Different types of hand held bells used during worship. The handles have motifs of the Konark wheel; trishul or trident-shaped weapon associated with Shiva; and Vishnu seated under a snake`s hood. 2. Bell metal vessel used during worship. 3. Lamp with figuring and handle. Tools Hatudi - hammers Sandasi - pincers Ruha / Ugha -file Lihini - scraper Kunda - lathe Bhanra - hand operated drill Drill Badia Patkar / Akarmasila - stone platform Kala pankha - hand blower Koi - crucibles Craftsmen of the Kansari community are specialists in making utensils from brass and bell metal. They are among the chhatisaniyoga, 36 categories of servants employed in the service of the Jagannath Temple. Brass and bell metal utensils integral to religious ceremonies, items of dowry and gifts and an integral part of the household. Utensils made in Cuttack distruct are larger than those made in Ganjam district, Belaguntha. They are made in two or three parts and joined together. It takes a well coordinated team of three of five craftsmen to make a single vessel by the heat forging process. Some bell metal ware is made by the casting process, and Bell metal utensils finished on the lathe. Due to the high labour cost, the craft has lost its market to steel and aluminium vessels, A wide range of tools used are made by the craftsmen themselves.

Products Thali - tray Thalia - plates Qina - cup Bela - bowl Lota - water pot Pilisaja - wick stand Dibi - lamp Kunda - water tub Gara - pot for water Dhupadani - incense vase Khatuli - seat for idols Ginni - small cymbals Tale - big cymbals Rukha - big lamps

KATHO KAMA - WOOD CARVING Production Clusters Cuttack city Puri city Ganjam district: Raghurajpur Products Furniture (relief work) Animal forms Almirah - cupboard Jaali work Idols Tools Chisels Hammer Saw Sandpaper Orissa has a tradition of installing carved and painted wooden idols of deities in lcoal shrines. Craftsmen also make idols for installing at people`s home. Different qualities of woods are used to make these figures. The most common are gambhari and sagwan. Of these, gambhari is the wood most used. The craftsmen in Baramba, Cuttack, apply a thin layer of atha, the adhesive made from tamarind seeds and chalk powder, on the icons after they are carved. This closes the pores of the wood and does not allow colour to be 1. Carved and unpainted figure of lion based on the sculptural tradition amde in Baramba. 2. Turned wood container with a tapered lid made in Bangdhugara in Rayagada district adjoining Cuttack. 3. A fretworked and painted toy in the shape of a monkey that has a swinging action. 4. Carved and painted idol of Lord Jagannath. absorbed when the icon is painted. The first later is painted in white and detail are painted on it with enamel paints. The painted object is coated with lac mixed in spirit, to obtain a glossy and smooth finish, making the icon waterproof, and colors more permanent. Sequins are pasted on the products to make them more attractive.

The southern district of Koratpur and the adjoining Nawrangpur, Phulbani and Rayagada are the tribal hinterland of Orissa. The region falls within the Eastern Ghat hills and its fertile forests provide materials for building houses, tools and musical instruments; and tubers and fruits for food. The hills are home to tribes like the Santhal, Kondh, Gond, Munda, Oraon and Bondo and their economy is based on agriculture, food gathering, hunting and fishing. Many of the craft objects made in this region carry religious or social significance. Crafts and ornamentation are an intrinsic part of tribal identity. Metal crafts like dhokra objects and brass ornaments are made by traditional metal craftsmen for tribal communities. The scarf embroidered by the women of Dongaria Kondh trivbe of Rayagada district and worn by them is unique to this region. Other crafts like wood carving, lac combs and paintings were done extensively by the Kondh tribe which they have discontinued because of unfavorable economic conditions. Nawrangpur is well known for making lac-coated bamboo objects. Bamboo is widely available in the forests. Rice is the staple crop that is cultivated in the plains. The innovative paddy craft, a speciality of this region has emerged from the availability of this raw material. ACCESS The closest railway station to Koraput town is the Vizianagaram Railway station in Andhra Pradesh. The twon is also well connected by road to Vizianagaram. The headquarters of other districts are connected to each other by road. However, to access the village areas, it is advisabe to hire private taxis. 1. Embroidery of a kapra gonda, Dongaria scarf. 2. Rolling hills of Eastern Ghats, Koraput district. 3. A bride waring tribal ornaments made by goldsmiths in Pilika village, Nawrangpur district. 4. Bamboo basket seller at a weekly market in Chitkona near Bissamcuttack. 5. A woman of the Dongaria Kondh tribe. 6. Women in Nawrangpur heating the lac strands for decorating bamboo boxes, lakho pedi.

RESOURCES Craft Dhokra casting Lac ware Raw Materials Sources Brass, Beeswax, Clay, Paddy Local market husk, Charcoal, Cowdung, Firewood Lac Chandahani forest in Nawrangpur Local market

Subclusters of KORAPUT Koraput district: Tangniguda Kotpad Nawrangpur district: Jhoto Bal Nawrangpur Damnaguda Papadahandi Taragaon Phulbani district: Barakhamba Phiringia Rayagada district: Bissamcuttack Kurli Hato Munigudav Jigidihi Crafts of KORAPUT Kotpad sari Dongaria scarf Dhokra casting Tribal ornaments Bamboo craft Paddy and root craft

Terracotta toys, Bamboo products, Mirror pieces, Colour powder, Plyboard, Wooden toys, Coal Kotpad sari Cotton yarn

Bargarh in Sambalpur

Castor oil, Cowdung, Roots Local market of Al tree, Ash of burnt wood Tribal ornaments Brass, Bell metal, Soldering material, Coal, Sulphuric acid, Nitric acid Kodpad

KOTPAD SARI Products Clusters Koraput district: Kotpad Products Pata, sari - draped cloth Gamcha - towel Tuval - shoulder cloth Tools Manghta - pit loom Tossar - stick used for marking weft Doongi - shuttle Pawan - wooden frame with pegs Natayi - small spinning wheel Bharni - large spinning wheel Poorni - small hollow bamboo tube producing the characteristic pyramidal motifs called kumbha. Saris especially are differentiated according to the ritual occasion of use and status of the wearer. The kumbhakarno pata is a bridal sari, identified by its ornate pallav, end piece, and two or three types of the typically Orissan kumbha on the borders. The sundermani pata distinguished by two broad bands on the pallav, with a kumbha on either side of these bands, is worn by family members at weddings and other special occasions. The men achieved by the play of Al-red with off-white, and motifs drawn from nature and immediate cultural scapes. The dyeing of the yarn itself is time drape the tuvals as upper garments, which also have consuming and complex. The Kotpad weaves make saris or pata, gamcha a variety of motifs and borders. The price of a sari or a tuval depends on the range and degree of and tuval. They weave on pit tradle looms using three shuttles, craftsmanship displayed on the pallavs and borders. The handwoven textiles of Kotpad are known for the use of the natural red dye that is extracted from the roots of the Al tree. The stark simplicity is the hallmark of Kotpad weaves, Inset : Detail of the shuttle used to weave a cotton pata, sari. 1. The vertical and cross borders of the pata sari use Al dyed yarn. 2. Detail of the horizontal stripes with motifs in extra weft. 3. Detail showing the kumbh motif which is also an elegant solution to weaving with three shuttles which are interlocked. 4. Detail of the phool cheeta chowk motif symbolizing the groom`s seat of honour.

DONGARIA SCARF - KAPRA GONDA Production Clusters Rayagada district: Khajuri Products Scarves, Wrap Tools Suji - sewing needle Detail of the embroidery Dongaria Kondh inhavit the Nyamgiri hills near Bisgamcuttack, deriving their names from dongar, hills. Dongaria scarf. Size 2 X 5 feet. Women of the Dongaria Kondh tribe embroider a scarf called kapra gonda which they wear over a white sari with a red border. This sari is a single length of fabric that is draped around the lower and upper part of the body and complemented with one scarf worn around the waist and the other draped on the chest. The scarf is given as a token of a proposal by an eligible boy to the girl of his choice. It is embroidered by his sisters or by girls for their lovers. The scarf is woven in basket weave by male weavers of the Dom community and subsequently embroidered by the Dongaria women.

DHOKRA - LOST WAX METAL CASTING Production Clusters Rayagada district : Jigidihi Phulbani district: Podar Sahi Cuttack district Dhenkanal district Products Andu - anklet Dhokra, metal casting done by the lost wax process, is an ancestral craft practiced by the Chitraghasi and Ghasi tribes. Molten bras is individually cast in a wax mould with an inner core of clay and paddy husk. The inner core is coated with a smoother layer in order to refine the shape. Beeswax mixed coal tar is drawn into fine threads and wrapped around the clay model. A thick coat of coarser clay mixed with rice husk is applied over the wax mode. The final mould is provided with a vent to a drain out the wax that is melted in a furnace. Molten brass poured through the vent takes the form of the melted wax and the clay mould is broken to remove the cast object. The special characteristic of dhokra is that each object is individually moulded and cast; the cast form has the texture of the wax threads. Khodu - bracelet Harpajja - bangle Goghuri - small bells Angtha mudi - toe rings Guakati - nutcrackers Mana - measuring bowl Dibbi - kerosene lamp Karat - coin bank Jagar - lamp Pendants, Necklaces Vegetable knives Inset : Pendant of a necklace made by the lost wax casting technique. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A clothes hanger, shaped like the head of a cow. Figurine of a tribal man. Dhokra figure of a woman giving birth to a child. Bell used in temples and also around the necks of animals. Sickle with a handle made in dhokra casting. Tools Tessa - baddi - choki for wax threads Birsa - weighing machine Hotta - beather Pedda - wooden plank Churi - knives Kanthi - tools to make patterns on wax Ukha - iron files Markhu - blower Butt - wire brush

TRIBAL ORNAMENTS Tribal communities have a great love for adornment that is expressed in ornaments worn during religious festivals and important social occasions. The ornaments are usually made from brass, which is cheaper and easily affordable. The craftsmen who make these ornaments belong to the traditional goldsmith community known as Sonar. Other communities like Bhotia and Bhat also make them. The ornaments are fashioned by hand or in a mould. Design moulds or korli are available in the market with which designs are embossed on brass sheets and then used in making pendants and rings. Ornaments are also made by the lost wax casting or dhokra method. The ornaments have a consistent demand locally and at the weekly haat, market, while the demand is particularly high during trival festivals like Mondie, Diyali and Gundicha. Products Lobankhari - rose rings Beseri - nose rings Jaali phuli - earrings Saada phuli - simple earrings Jhika - elongated earrings Ginni maali necklace Dhaan maali necklace Baari - simple earrings Tools Mutla - hammers Chimta - tongs Samna - tweezer Daagal - platform Blow lamp Kotri - scissors Korli - dies or moulds Channi - chisels Khutua kari - small chisel Duboo - die for silver balls Ootungi - small hammer Solka khari - thin long needle 1. Dhokra necklace 2. Detail of dhokra necklace 3. Dhokra hairpins made in Jigidihi, Rayagada district. Chipna -small chip Chanch kahri - die for Production Clusters Nawarangpur district: Taragaon, Pilika

4. Ginni maali - necklace made from die pressed

ring Gorsi - earthen ware utensil Kotni - metal cube Kotni kahdi - metal rod Doongi - thin metal

BAMBOO CRAFT Production Clusters Koratpur district: Baipariguda: Keraput village Nawrangpur district: Nuaguda Gajapati district: Parla Khemundi Products Baipariguda: Flower baskets Fruit trays Containers Flower pots Floor mats Hand fans Nuaguda: Chongada - small baskets Dalla - big baskets Kulla - winnows Tappa - chicken baskets Dhandaar - fish traps Poroda - round mats Tatti - sleeping mats Bada - doors Tools Katuri - scissors Churri - knife Cutters Katuri - sickle shaped tool Tangiya - axe Ghoda - stand Several varieties of bamboo grow in the area, and are used by the craftsmen according to their properties. The thickness or the diameter of the bamboo stem as well as the distance between two subsequent knots decide the quality of the bamboo. The thin and flexible tupi baas variety has the maximum length between knots, and is most preferred for craft purposes. The bamboo is first dried thoroughly, cut into thin strips that may be dyed, and then made into a range of products. Along with traditional baskets and containers, decorative and utility items are also made for urban markest, which are retailed in craft emporia and fairs. 1. 2. 3. 4. Basket for carrying fish Bamboo basket for vegetables which is carried on the head. Storage basket Tools for cutting and making bamboo strips.

PADDY AND ROOT CRAFT Production Clusters Nawrangpur district: Dhaliguda Kalahandi district Dumermunda Bolangir district: Kumudipadar Titilagarh Saraibahal Products Idol of Lakshmi Elephant figure Tribal marriage crowns Replicas of temples Hand fans Lampshades Baskets Tools Churi - knife Tangiya - axe Koinchi - scissors Suji - needle The use of paddy is symbolic of prosperity, a good harvest and general wellbeing. There is ritualistic significance in the crafting of Goddess Lakshmi who signifies wealth and prosperity. Unhusked rice is used for making chains, figures of deities, animal figures, flowers, garlands and other votive objects. The making of a shrine though labour intensive, is made more for the spiritual satisfaction that it brings to the task. No tools are required, rice graing and cotton cord being the only raw materials used. The craft of root carving is a recent innovation. The roots of telai and rathi tree from the local jungle of Kolasuru are used to carve different forms according to the shape of the root. Then it is fired with a blow lamp to make it pest resistant. It is smoothened with sandpaper and varnished. Root carving is now practiced by a craftsman who inherited the skill in Phiringia, Phulbani district. 1. Shrine made from paddy seeds, coloured bamboo strips and threads. 2. Paddy seeds are sandwiched between bamboo strips and secured with thread. 3. Figure of a mouse carved out of the root of teli and rathi tree.

LAC PRODUCTS Nawrangpur, adjoining the Koraput district, is famous for its lac ware made by the Shankari community. Once patronised by the king of Jeypore, these boxes in graduated sizes are now made as gift items and are even exported. Boxes and containers made by the bamboo craftsmen are procured and women coat the box with lac. The decoration is also done with lac mixed in powder colours. The lac-coatd box called lakho pedi is an important article of dowry. Terracotta and wooden toys are also lac-coated. Clay toys are bought from the kumbhars of Godugudda and coated with lac. Lac is an insect-resin and the host trees on which these insects deposit their secretion are kusum and barboti which gor in Chandahani forest in Nawrangpur. Product Clusters Nawrangpur district: Nawrangpur Products Terracotta with lac: Jagannath idols Jhumka - toys for children Bamboo with lac Lakho pedi - a set of five dowry boxes Bichona - hand fun Pengu noda peashooter Kula - winnow Tools Kaati - knife Sua - needle Baason baddi bamboo stick Umbai - utensil to burn coal Takudi - iron rod Scissors River stone

1. Terracotta and lac coated raja rani dolls 2. Lakho pedi - box made from bamboo strips and coated with lac 3. Colour powder mixed with lac in the form of chappra and wires. 4. Terracotta and lac coated figurines of Lord Jagannath, Subhadra and Balabhadra.

TERRACOTTA AND POTTERY Production Clusters Koraput district: Santeiput village Nawrangpur district: Tandaguda village Terracotta utensils and ritual objects are integral to rural life and are in demand perennially. Along with traditional utility items like pitchers and utensils, the potters also fasion decorative items out of clay. Most of the items that are made are thrown on a traditioal wooden wheel. A coat of red kola, Inset : Paisa kundi - coin bank clay, is applied as a finish, and the items are fired in a community furnace. Decorative items made for sale through emporia or craft melas mostly adhere 1. Ghagri - pot for fetching and storing water. to traditional motifs like the fish or turtle. Locally, utensils and pitchers are 2. Terracotta mask from Tandaguda. sold in weekly haats or hawked door to door. The tribal festival of Pous 3. Lamp used for doing aarti - ritual related to worship Purnima or full moon in January adds a spurt in sales. 4. Koroma - pot used for storing water and cooking 5. Terracotta products in Santeiput left in a shaded area for drying. 6. A woman on her way to sell ghagris at the local haat. 7. The potter`s wooden wheel rotated by hand is still used in most parts of Orissa. Districts: Puri, Ganjam, Sambalpur, Bargarh, Bhubaneshwar, Cuttack, Mayurbhanj Products Water pitchers Incense stands Lamps, Foot Scrubs Tools Kumbhar chakko potter`s wheels Pitua pathar - mugri stone Ugalni pitna, Majhia pitna, Chiknaini pitna - beating tools

The district forms the northern boundary of the state of Orissa, bordering West Bengal and Jharkhand. It is famous for the availability of sone especially soapstone. This stone is exported in huge quantities to all the craft centres in districts of Orissa, and also to stone carving centres in the neighbouring states. Khiching is known for its quality and abundance of granite, which directly accounts for a huge cluster of stone carving in Mayurbhanj and Balasore. The crof of sabai is grown locally and thus accounts for huge production centres of the products made by using sabai grass for rope making. The district comprises three natural divisions. The eastern slopes and the other two divisions are undulating plains. The central portion is covered by the forests on Similipal Hills. Species like sal, peasal, sisu, asan, kusum, kendu, mahua grow abundantly. Timber, firewood, kendu and sal leaves are the major forest produces of the district. Other important forest produce inclues tussar cocoons, lac, sunari bark, sabi grass among others. Crafts of MAYURBHANJ Dhokra - lost wax metal casting Subclusters of MAYURBHANJ Mayurbhanj district: Baripada Kuliana Udala RESOURCES Craft Raw Materials Sources Udala, Baripada and Baleshwar Dhokra Brass, Copper, Tin ACCESS The district headquarters, Baripada, is easily accessible by road as it is situated on National Highway 5 which links Bhubaneshwar and Kolkata. Travel to the interiors of the district is best done in private vehicles.

1. Dhokra craftswoman preparing very smooth clay using hunka matti or the termite clay. 2. Khudia Khunta is one of the main clusters practicing dhokra craft since the time of their ancestors. 3. Dhokra craftsman in Kuliana with the final clay moulds. The furnace is home made, comprising a pit dug in the ground with a cover made from a terracotta vessel. 4. Farmer threshing paddy in Kuliana village, Mayurbhanj district.

Votive clay figures of horse and elephant made by a potter in Sorisha Kotha. These small figures are made for those who cannot afford large terracotta votive horses and elephants.

DHOKRA - LOST WAX METAL CASTING The special characteristic of dhokra casting is that only one cast can be made from a mould that is completely broken after the casting is over. Thus the quality and finishing of the product depends totally upon the initial work done on the clay and wax dummy of the desired product. The products are made using the process of lost wax casting. A unique feature about the products made by some craftsmen is that for making the big statues of gods and goddesses, they usually smear the coied texture of the wax threads to impart a smooth finish to the status. The product thus looks like a bronze statue instead of dhokra. In recent times, however, the nomadic tribe of metal casters have settled down. The craftsman have become aware of the importance and demand of their craft in the national and international market. Apart from their own effort, numerous design development and training programmes organized by the Government of India and various NGO`s have introduced new products that are aimed at contemporary markets.

Production Clusters Mayurbhanj district: Kuliana Ranibandh District: Phulbani, Cuttack, Rayagada, Dhenkanal Products Kerosene lamps Measuring bowls Purses Lamps Anklets Bracelets Bangles Idols Bottle openers Keychains Incense holders Tools Beater Knives Wire brush Files Hammer Axe

Inset : The bowl is caled maano in Mayurbhanj, lakshmi maano in other parts of the state and used in rituals. It is also used as a bowl for measuring grain. 1. The completed wax work is left for drying in the sun. The form given to the obect in wax is aking to that of the desired final outcome of the object. 2. Lamp made in the Bastar style. 3. A traditional dhokra anklet 4. Traditional container for keeping money. 5. Container which can be hung, Kantilo. 6. Figurines of adivasi men 7. Peacock - shaped lamp, Kantilo in Nayagarh district.

Physical Features Mountains: Singilela, Chola Major rivers: Rangit, Teesta Biodiversity Flora: Silver Fir, Pine, Argeli, Oak, Orchids, Cotton Fauna: Yak, Musk deer, Otter, Goral

Mahakala, the guardian deity during the Chaam performances; part of the Phang Lhabsol festivities in honour of Mt. Kanchenjunga. Districts - 4 Craftspersons - 0.10 Lakhs Crats -SIKKIM Choktse - tables Ku - Buddhist figurines Cotton weaving Sub Clusters of SIKKIM East district: Gangtok Rumtek North district: Mangan West district: Gezing South district: Namchi Inset : The yak, and important animal of Sikkim Gyal tsen, prayer flags, carried as part of the Saga Dawa procession. RESOURCES Craft Ku figurines Raw Materials Copper Sources Old vessels Local agriculture Making of a three dimensional model in mud before carving the wood for a choktse or table. Choktse - tables Kath or tsingh tree wood Local forests Cotton weaving Cotton Carving the details on the wooden mask. KAN-CHEN-JUNGA, `house of five treasures`, represented by its five soaring summits, is the guardian deity of Sikkim. The capital, Gangtok, is the commercial centre of the state. Sikkim is composed of several ethnic groups - the Bhutia, Lepcha, Nepali, tribes and the plainspeople. Sikkim has a rich landscape, snow capped mountains, forests, fertile valleys, raging torrents and placid lakes. It is a naturalist`s and orinthologist`s paradise. Sikkim`s settlements are found along the banks of Teesta River. The impact of Buddhism, Tibetan culture and the ethnic milieu of the state along with its festivals have greatly influenced handicrafts. The Lepcha people have empathy for the environment, which is reflected in their folk-songs and dances. They are expert weavers and creative with cane and bamboo. The Tibetan Bhutias drew the Lepchas into the Buddhist faith, established matrimonial relations with them and paved way for the cultural and social assimilation of the two communities. The Lepchas practice spinning, dyeing and weaving. The Nepalese, mostly Hindus, practice agriculture, trading and work as silversmiths. The mighty Kanchenjunga plays an important rols in Sikkimese life and is worshipped as a deity. Masks are significant of the people`s religious beliefs. Made of carved wood and papier-mache, they are worn during dances performed by the monks. The Government institute of Cottage Industries promotes skills in painting, wood carving, mask making and weaving. Sikkim`s high quality rice paper is made from the bark of argeli (Edgeworthia gardenia). Buddhist iconography is the major inspiration for the craft forms, vocabulary of motifs, colours, textures and the lush silk brocades, which are procured from outside the state. ACCESS Gangtok can be reached by road from Siliguri in West Bengal. Siliguri is well connected by rail and road to other parts of Assam, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. It has air connections to Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai and other cities.

Festivals Saga Dawa Phang Lhabsolprayers offered to Mt. Kanchenjunga Lossoong-New year Losar Landmarks Pemayangtse Monastery Rumtek Monastery Reshi & Yumthang hotsprings 1 Painted woodwork on the facade of a monastery in Gangtok. 2 Idols installed in the Ihakhang or the altar. 3 The Namgyal Institue of Tibetology in Gangtok houses a stunning collection of traditional Tibetan silk thangkas,Buddhist scroll paintings 4 The Rumtek Monastery. 5 A fresco at the Rumtek monastery.The atmospher of this painting is charged with the enery of the cental motif and works outwards in the form of an aura. 6 A lama kneels before entering the Ihakhang,(Iha means God,and khang means placde),Tsuklhakhang Palace. 7 A Bhutaia woman chanting prayers with a rosary. 8 A young monk rotating the money,prayer wheel.Handheld prayer wheels called lak hor are also in use. Tendong hill Kanchenjunga National Park Languages Lepcha,Bhutia Nepali Attire Pagi-man`s dress Toga-woman`s upper garment Domydam-woman`s lower garment Cuisine Momos-meat dumpling Chang-fermented millet

Idol of the deity Chenrezi inlaid with semiprecious stones of yu (turquoise)and chiru (coral).

KU-BUDDHIST FIGURINES KU OR BUDDHIST figurines are made in copper using lost wax casting.The craft in Sikkim has its own peculiarities in the process,motifs and features.As opposed to the metal casting in Moradabad in Uttar Pradesh or Faridabad in Haryana,the speciality lies in the kind of materials used.Unlike the statuettes made elsewhere in India,these figurines have distinct Mongolian features and motifs.A master model is made form wax or clay.Every feature and expression has to be hand-carved to perfection.The entire model is prepared in parts and then pieced together to form the master model.This prototype is used for making the wax mould which is used for reproducing several wax models for casting. Ku idols,known for the carving of the namzhad or the attire on the idol.

Production Clusters East district; Rumtek Products Buddhist Images Tools cutting knife,Divider Hacksaw blade Stove,Carving tools Pincers,Hammer Chisel

A rubber mould of silicon or rubber solution is made.This flexible mould captures every detail of the artist`s original model,and is one of the most critical phases in the copper casting process.From this another wax mould is made and coated with cowdung slurry and several layers of sawdust and yellow mud.

Image of Chenrezi or Avalokiteshwara,the Bodhisattva of Compassion.

1. carving the base of the Ku. 2. Process of layering the wax mould before firing.

A small hole is carefully drilled at the top which serves as the opening for pouring the molten metal-bronze or copper.It is fired in an oven.The wax image within the clay melts.In the hollow space,the molten metal is poured and cooled.The outer mud casing is broken to reveal the metal statue.It is finished by filling and polishing the statue.A swag is applied on it to remove the impurities.Lastly,it is buffed and gilded in gold or silver.

Inset Craftsman using his leg to hold the statue while carving the details on the metal figurine.

CHOKTSE-TABLES CHOKTSES ARE SMALL WOODEN tables which are intricately carved,painted and polished.The tables are foldable,portable and are made in varying designs and dimensions.They are Tibetan in origin.They are made from wood locally known as kath or tsingh.The various parts of the table are first cut from wood and then carved.The pattern to be carved is transferred on the wood with the help of a paper stencil.The craftsmen are very proficient in drawing complex motifs freehand without using any reference.Holes are drilled using a drilling A choktse with various Tibetan motifs. Tools Pen Drilling machine Carving tool Cutting tool Tikkyu-curved chisel Ika-striaght chisel machine on the portions to be completely removed around the motif.Using a set of tikkyu(curved tools)and ikas (straight tools),details of the form are carved out.This makes the carved out form,locally known as teh,look three-dimensional.The carved panel is fixedd in a choktse or painted and polished if it is to be sold as an individual piece.The choktse is sanded properly to smooth the surface,coated with primer and dried.The colours are painted according to a sequence. Red, blue, green, pink, orange, chocolate-brown and golden are used. Production clusters East district: Gangtok Products Folding tables Panels Altars

Below Carved wooden forms of the Tashi Takgye,eight auspicious symbols.

Gyaltsen(victory banner)

Dhungkar (conch shell)

Dug (parasol)

Bhumpa(treasure vase)

Sernya(golden fish)

Pema(lotus flower)

Choekyi Khorla(wheel of Dpalbhe`u(knot of dharma) eternity)

Dragon motifs carved on the side panels of the choktse.

Shown to the right is the completed chokste,and below it,are its foldable side panels.

Language Bangla Hindi Nepali Tibetan Festivals Durga Puja Gangasagar Mela Jagaddhatri Puja Poush Mela Christmas Eid-ud-Fitr

Durga idol getting transported from the inner lanes of kumartuli in kolkata where the potters live and work.The craftsmen make idols duringd the months preceeding Durga Puja celebration which falls in October each year. Districts - 18 Craftspersons - 3.19 Lakhs Crafts -WEST BENGAL Wood carving Beaten silver engraving Hill painting Carpet weaving Kanglan-stitched boots Terracotta Cane furniture Sheetalpati-reed mats Gambhira masks Metal works Shola pith craft Metal ware Leather craft Terracotta Jewellery Kantha-patched cloth embroidery Sherpai-measuring bowls Wooden toys Dhokra-lost was metal casting Clay work of Krishnanagar Terracotta of Bankura Patachitra-scroll painting Ganjifa cards Conch shell carving Coconut shell carving Stone carving Masland-grass mats Lac coated toys Chhau masks Beaten silver work WEST BENGAL is mainly the delta formed by the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers.To the north are the Himalayas,in the south are plains covered by hills and wetlands,the Sunderbans,the largest mangrove forest in the world.The northern region has a strong influence of the SinoTibetan culture due to proximity to Tibet,Bhutan and Sikkam.The western plains have the Santhal culture with its tribal overtones.Further south, one finds the towns and cities where the Ganga bifurcates the state into two regions.Kolkata,the capital city,displays her eclectric character of Bengali culture interwoven with the colonial influences,and also embraces the various communities who have migrated here.Life is a celebration all the year round,with many festivals and religious events.However,the most popular festival is Durga Puja which is celebrated on a grand scale all over Bengal.Fairs,cultural events and religious ceremonies are organized which enables acceleration in trade and commerce,providing livelihood of all the various crafts and businesses.Bengal has seen the rise and decline of Buddhism,hegemonic Brahmanism,the Bhakti movement,Islamic rule,The colonial era,and finally the Partition and Independence of India.1947 when the eastern part went to Pakistan and eventually became Bangladesh.Bengald has ageold folk traditions preserved among the tribals and villagers such as Chhau mask dance,Baul singers and dhokra casting.The easy avialability of raw materials such as clay from the river banks,bamboo,grass,shola pith and wood,enables craftsmen to flourish.A unique feature in Bengal is the large variety of artisanal communities such as chitrakar(painter);kumbhakar (potter);kansakar(metal worker);sutradhar(wood or stone carver);tantubay (weaver);and sankhakar(conch shell engraver).With its natural beauty whih has inspired poets and writers for ages,West Bengal has been a home of many traditional crafts like the making of Baluchari and Jamdani sari,terracotta sculpture and pottery,and dhokra objects.

Inset Detail of a cotton stole,a diversification of the simple elegant handwoven sari.Red-the colour of blood and passionsymbolizes marriage and is represented by red-alta on a woman`s foot,and sindoor,vermilion,in the married woman`s hair parting.

1. Woman drinking tea in a terracotta cup. 2. Lake Market in Kolkata has roadside stalls which make and sell banana and sal leaf plates that are eco-friendly and disposable. 3 Disposable clay bhaand,earthern cups,are extensively used inthis region.Sweets ,tea and the famous mishti doi,sweetened curds,are served in terracotta bowls of various sizes.

Cuisine Mishti doi-sweetened curd Mudid ghonto-fish head preparation Alu posto-potato with poppy seed Sandesh-sweet Attire Mayur pankhi dhotipleated lower garment Kurta-cotton tunic Lal paar sari-white sari with red border 4 Butter lamps lit at an altar in Kalimpong Monastery. 5 A Buddhist monastery in Darjeeling that has extensive use of carved and painted wood work. 6 Detail of the terracotta friezw panel of the Shyama Raya Temple. 7 The potter`s wheel surrounded by shaped pieces of clay which form various figurines for votive offering,Panchmura village.

Landmarks Victoria Memorial Fort William Kalighat Terracotta Temples Dakshineshwar Temples Shantiniketan Jaldapara Forest Sunderbans Botanical gardens Bhutia Basti Monastery Belur Math Physical Features Himalayan Foothills Alluvial Plains Major Rivers: Ganga,Hooghly, Rupnarayan,Damodar, Teesta

ONE OF THE most beautiful hill stations in the country,Darjeeling district in the extreme north of West Bengal lies at an elevation of about 7000 feet(2100m) above sea level.Tea,timber and tourism are the three mainstays of the economy of the district.Cash crops such as orange and cardamom are cultivated here.It is situated on a long,narrow mountain ridge of the Sikkim Himalayans that descends abruptly to the bed of the great Rangit River.The crafts of this region reflect the varied cultures of different ethnic groups settled here like the Tibetans,Nepalese and others.Coming down to the plains,here Siliguri is the main commercial city of north Bengal and its importance comes from its strategic location near international and state borders.It is situated on the banks of the River Mahananda.Spread around the foothills of the eastern Himalayas,the town is an important transit,trading and educational centre. ACCESS The Bagdora airport(13km from Siliguri).offers connections to Kolkata,Delhi and Guwahati.Siliguri is accessible by rail and road as well.

Carft of Darjeeling Wood carving Beaten silver engraving Hill painting Carpet weaving Terracotta Cane furniture Subclusters of Darjeeling Darjeeling district: Darjeeling Kalimpong Siliguri district: Siliguri Matigara Cane furniture Craft Wood carving Beaten silver engraving Carpet weaving Terrracotta

RESOURCES Raw Materials Sources Sapwood planks and Darjeeling paints Silver sheets Wool and vegetable dyes Clay Ela mati-fine clay Cane Kalimpong Darjeeling Uttar Dinajpur Balasore Tea Gardens Siliguri Arunachal Pradesh

1 A craftsman painting a thangka,painting made on cloth with Buddhist themes or mandalas,for medition. 2 Thangka painting done for the Jangsa Monastery in kalimpong.

3 Beaten silver engraving:detail of a craftsman chasing on a silver sheet that has been punched from the back.

Wooden headboard with Tibetan motifs,Darjeeling. WOOD CARVING WOOD CARVING IN the northern district of Darjeeling is done on Sapwood planks,mostly used for making folding tables and architectural elements used in monasteries.Carved relief panels for windows,doorways,altars and carved pillars are made from wood. The motifs are essentially Tibetan,like Chi-Ming Du(face of Kanchenjunga mountain),dragons,and the eight Tibetan auspicious symbols called Tashi Takgye.Some items are made as panels with relief carving,others are prepared as individual motifs which combine fretwork and deep relief carving so that they can be used to decorate surfaces of furniture and building components such as pillars,door frames and lintels.The vocabulary of wood carving is different in the southern plains of Dinajpur and Bardddhaman where masks,wooden toys and wood panels are made.In Darjeeling,the craftsmen from the Bhutia community carve various wooden objects and then paint them with vivid bright colours.With the rising influx of tourists,and decline in the traditional ritualistic activities,the craft has diversified.In spite of the diverse products carved today,traditional influence is apparent in the motifs,patterns and designs of the carvings.Wood carving is practiced in the Tibetan Refugee Centre.Here the craftsmen carve wooden planks,which are used as book covers for the Tibetan scriptures in various monasteries across the globe. Inset Conch shell-shaped wall hanging. Production clusters Darjeeling district: Darjeeling Products Shrines,Tables Panels,Wall hangings Tools Hammer,Chisels Sandpaper

Tashi Takgye-Tibetan symbols of good fortune.shown here are four signs in carved wood.Tibetan Refugee Centre,Darjeeling. Choekyi khorlo(wheel of dharma)

Dhungkar (conch shell)

Bhumpa (treasure vase)

Pema (lotus flower) Detail of a dragon,one of the four supernatural animals of Buddhism,which symbolizes .and creativity.

A cutout motif of a bird,fretworked and carved.The feathers are raised,a form of carving that creates a relief on the surface.

BEATEN SILVER ENGRAVING VARIOUS TYPES OF craft objects are made out of silver in West Bengal.Theyd can be broadly divided into two distinct categories-traditional ritualistic Tibetan and Bhutia silver ware,and contemporary silver products like trophies,medallions and utensils,made in Kolkata.In the former,objects are made from woodd and the silver engraved sheets are used to decorate the outer surfaces.Silver beaten into sheets are engraved with various motifs and patterns.Intricate engraving and an excellent finish give the produce of this cluster an exquisite look.The craftsmen strictly adhere to the traditional religious motifs of Tibet.Essentially traditional Tibetan,Bhutanese,Nepali and Sikkimese motifs are Om Mani Padme(prayer wheel with the inscription-`hail the jewel in the lotus`),dragon,Tashi Takgye(the Tibetan and Chinese auspicious symbols),Norba (the fire Traditional betel leaf container with Tibetan Traditional silver and bronze motifs,silver and bronze. container. altar),Dorje(the thunderbolt),the wheel of life,and the lotus.Metal objects,particularly silver,are in vogue in Kalimpong.The craftsmen in Kalimpong cater to the religious needs of Dharamsala and Ladakh in the northeast and other places Production Clusters Short blade Tibetan Darjeeling district: sword with a bone Kalimpong handle,and engraved Products silver sheath. Religious objects: Mani penne-Tibetan prayer wheel Butter lamps Ghopa-bowls Incense burners Geiling-flute Phigumthali-religious utensils Kettle Kukri-knife Jewellery Tools Traditional long-necked tea kettle.

Anvil,Hammers Chisels,Welding Lamp

HILL PAINTING Production Clusters Darjeeling district: Kalimpong Darjeeling Products Paintings Tools Paint Brushes HILL PAINTING IS essentially done on black polyester cloth with watercolours.The craft is practiced in the district of Darjeeling.Introduced in Kalimpong by a missionary,they were earlier painted on canvas,but with the rising number of tourists,the craft found a wider market,resulting in large-scale production of these paintings,motivating the switch to polyester.The paintings portray Tibetan and Nepali people in their traditional dress and also deities of Tibet.The craftspersons also paint the natural beauty of the surrounding landscape.They sell and supply to local traders and to neighbouring areas of Sikkim and Nepal.

1 Artisan painting on cloth,hill painting. 2 Hill painting on display at a roadside shop.

CARPET WEAVING Produciton Clusters Darjeeling district: Darjeeling Tibetan Refugee Centre Products Carpets Tools Vertical loom Metal fork-shapded beater Yarn winder Shuttles Wooden rod for forming loops 1 Tibetan pile carpet with motifs of the dragon,a mythical bird and clouds. 2 A carpet weaver at the vertical loom.A finished carpet is used as a reference for weaving. 3 Woven woollen carpet with Tibetan motifs. 4 Pile carpet with a lotus motif and a swastika border. CARPET WEAVING WAS started at the Tibetan Refugee Centre to provide an employment opportunity to the refugees for their selfsustainability.The wool used for making the carpets is dyed with vegetable dyes;however,for bright colours,chemical dyes are also used.The wool is normally brought from Tibet.The carpets are made on looms using the double knot technique.The carpet has a pile structure woven in a cotton warp and a predominatly. wool weft.The wool weft is looped around a rod and woven at regular intervals with plain weft.The loops are later cut to form the pile surface.Dragons and floral motifs are interwoven with the geometrical shapes.Traditional Tibetan motifs like leather coins.dog`s paw,druk(dragon),Tashi Takgye(eight auspicious symbols)are mostly used for the carpets.Various colourful compositions are made using these motifs.

KONGLAN-STITCHED BOOTS TIBETANS LIVING IN the mountainous region were required to walk long distances with their yaks and hence needed footwear that would protect them from the rough landscape and the cold weather.These boots are a modified version of a leather bag,which was tied to their feet to keep them warm.The only objective of these shoes was to provide protection and warmth.These boots have a thick leather sole,and high layered sides made from either leather or thick cloth.The posterior of the boot towards the upper end is left open and tied with a hand-braided belt.Konglan knee boots are usually used by the wealthy Tibetans and the Bhutanese as a part of their formal outfit.These boots have their upper part heavilyd brocaded,and the sole is made of yak or sheep leather.These boots are made from heavy woollen cloth,leather,and khochen,silk-like material.Sometimes the inner linning is made of fur.No socks are worn with these boots.The boots have a unique feature-there is no difference between the left and right leg of the boots and they can be worn Production Clusters on either feet.The boots worn by women are called sombas.The kanglans are Darjeeling district: of better quality and have elaborated brocade work on them.The brocade fabric is traditionally from China.The boots are made by the craftsmen from Kalimpong the Bhutia community mainly scattered around Kalimpong. Products Do-cha-ladies` boots Kanglan-gents` boots Lham-Tibetan dance boots Tools Knives Scissors Needles White cotton thread Fine embroidery threads

1. A pair of Konglan boots. 2. A konglan boot with attached silk brocade to make it knee length. 3. An artisan attaching the felt to the sole of the boots. 4. Thick felted cloth is used for the upper part of a pair of konglan boots. 5. Frontal view of a woman`s boots.

TERRACOTTA Production Clusters Siliguri district: Matigara Uttar Dinajpur district: Kunor Products Tiles Planters Pots Jars Lampshades Idols Figurines Tools Potter`s wheel Blades Moulds IN NORTHERN BENGAL,immigrants from Bangladesh practice the craft,however,in the south of Bengal,the native craftsmen prevail.In Darjeeling and Siliguri,which are tourist attractions,the craftsmen mostly cater to the market demand for pots,and stylized terracotta objects like statuettes and wall panels.Matigara is famous for making large terracotta pots.They are thrown in parts and then joined together with the help of a clay slip.Objects are adorned with the help of tools and sometimes figures made from moulds are attached.The clay used for making various objects comes from the river beds of the Uttar Dinajpur area and the clay used for decoration comes from the tea gardens.The craftsmen make tiles and tubs for small plants.Some of them also make telephone stands,lampshades fancy idols and decorative tiles.Motifs recur across items;the four commonly seen motifs are those of the tribal woman with a child,the palm tree,Ganesha figures,or typical motifs of Bengal,designs like lata (blooming creepers)and kalka(mango motif).Terracotta in Matigara is of very recent origin,though the craftsmen who migrated to this region have been involved with the craft through generations. 1. Matigara is well known for its large pots.The pots are wheel-thrown and later decorated with engravedd and cutout forms before firing. 2. A large wheel -thrown pot which has been decorated with a palm tree motif in relief. 3. A terracotta hanging lamp decorated with lattice work from Uttar Dinajpur district. 4. A potter adding details to the clay pot thrown on the wheel.

CANE FURNITURE Production Clusters Siliguri district: Siliguri Products Furniture Baskets Lampshades Wall Hanging Tools Dao-cutting tool Hammer Blue lamp stand Handsaw A stool made of typical construction found in Colonial cane furniture:curved heatbent components,multiple structural members,nail-jointed and converted by split cane binding. SILIGURI,LOCATED RIGHT next to western Assam,is an important trading post for raw cane and cane furniture.Skilled craftsmen who migrated from Bihar had settled here to produced cane furniture items for local and upmarket use.Sturdy items of furniture are made with the use of very simple tools.Canes of different diameters are used depending on structural or decorative uses.Split cane is used for binding and weaving the surfaces of the seat and backrest.Thin cane rods are used for making bent and decorative motifs that are attached to the surfaces. The process includes cutting the cane,bending it with heat,joining with nails and binding,sandpapering the surface and varnishing.Cane furniture is mainly made to cater to its popularity as either garden furniture or indoor furniture that is an alternative to wooden furniture.Furniture requires sturdy and thick cane which is obtained from Arunachal Pradesh in the Northeast.However,a thinner species which is available in north Bengal is used to make other products like baskets. Craftsman at work with cane.

COOCH BEHAR IS A former princely town and today serves as the administrative headquarters of Cooch Behar district.The town is centred around a lake called Sagardighi.The raw materials of the crafts practiced in the cluster,namely reeds for sheetalpati,bamboo,jute and shola pith are grown locally as they need humid climate.The subclusters Bhetaguri,Ghughumari,Lankabar are villages around the Cooch Behar town.

Since it is located on the rail route connecting Kolkata and other important Indian cities to the northeastern states,this metaclusters serves as an important transit point for trade.The handicrafts of the metacluster are practiced more for commercial reasons than for personal consumption.Apart from Durga Puja,Jalpesh Mela in Jalpiguri,and Rash Mela in Coochbehar are the major festivities of the metacluster.Month-long fairs are held where these crafts find a good market.Bhawaiya is a popular kind of folk-song in Cooch Behar.They are also sung in Rangpur,Dinajpur,Mymensingh,the northern districts of Bangladesh,and Goalpara district of Assam,apart from Cooch Behar. Farmer transplanting rice plants in Kunor,Uttar Dinajpur. Inset A carved wooden musical instrument made for the Santhal tribe by a craftsman in Mahishbathan,Dakshin Dinajpur district. Crafts of Cooch Behar Sheetalpati-reed mats Gambhira masks Subclusters of Cooch Behar Cooch Behar district: Cooch Behar Bhetaguri, Ghughumari, Lankabar Uttar Dinajpur district: A mosque in Malgaon,Uttar Dinajpur. Craftsman carving a gambhira mask from a log of wood. Raiganj Kaliaganj Dakshin Dinajpur district: Mahishbathan Jalpaiguri district: Jalpaiguri Maldah district: Maldah

ACCESS The nearest airport to Jalpaiguri is Bagdogra.Jalpaiguri is connected by rail to kolkata and well connected by road to other towns in Cooch Behar. RESOURCES Craft Sheetalpatimats Gambhira masks Raw Materials Sources Reed(Maranta Dichotoma) Ghughumari Wood-mango,gambhari and neem, Paints Dakshin Dinajpur

A shola pith artisan of Bhetaguri Cluster,making paper-thin sections of the material by slicing the core of the shola plant into thin layers.The pith of the shola stem is used to make garlands,toys and decorative idols by craftsmen called malakars.This craft is widely practiced in West Bengal and Orissa.

SHEETALPATI-REED MATS Production Clusters Cooch Behar district: Ghunghumari Products Mats,Handbags Small purses Tools Bonthi-cutting tool Small knife SHEETALPATI,literally meaning `cool mat`,made of a locally grown reed(Maranta dichotoma) is famous among the mats made in the state.It is produced in the northeastern district of Cooch Behar.The members of the Kayastha caste are mainly involved with this craft.The mats are called so because they impart coolness to the person sitting or sleeping on them.Products like mats,baskets,hand-fans and bags are painted with thin strips of the reed.Dyed strips are added to create more patterns in the weave.The strips may not be long enough to last through the weave;so new strips are overlapped and woven in a way that does not require joinery.Coloured mats have traditional Bengali motifs.The quality of the sheetalpati mat is judged by its glossiness,smoothess and fineness of texture.Apart from the thriving traditional market,the craft has also found a place for itself in the contemporary urban market.

1. A sheetalpati floor mat.Dyed strips have been used to create the checked pattern. 2. Detail of the plaiting technique done in twill weave structure. 3. Table mat with an auspicious motif-the coconut placed in betel leaves on a kalash,pot. 4. Table mat with an elephant motif.

GAMBHIRA MASKS Dakshin Dinajpur district: Mahishbathan Products Masks Tools Chisels, Hammer Paint Brushes THE CRAFT OF mask making in West Bengal is closely related to the folk dance forms,such as the ritual dance masks of Darjeeling,Gambhira masks of Maldah and chhau masks of Purulia.The former two are made of wood,the latter is made out of papier-mache using moulds.Gambhira dance and gamdbhira songs were quite popular in Bangladesh,Dinajpur and Maldah district of Bengal.Lord Shiva,is also known as Gambhir and Gambhir was originally celebrated as a puja,worship.The dance is a combination of narrative,song and music whihc resembles a folk play.The performers wear gambhira masks.The play is enacted by the character of a grandfather who narrates the story to a grandson character and the refrain is sung by a chorus. Gambhira reflects contemporary social problems.The folk dance is performed to the accompaniment of folk instruments such as the harmonium,flute,drum and judi.The masks are made from locally available wood of mango,gambhari and neemd trees.The circumference of the log to be carved into a mask has to be around two feet.The craftsperson according to his imagination carves the mask and then paints it with bright colours.

Mask worn by the performers of gambhira folk play and dance. Different kinds of gambhira masks.

MURSHIDABAD
THE FORMER KINGDOM OF THE Nawabs of Bengal,Murshidabad still echoes with traditions of culture and learning.The district became part of the Gaur kingdom in 1197 and passed it to the British East India company in the 18th century.Murshidabad district Bhagirathi.To the west lies a high,undulating continuation of the chota Nagpur plateau.The eastern portion is a fertile,low -lying alluvial tract,part of the Gangetic delta.The district is drained by the Bhagirathi and Jalangi rivers and their tributaries.Baharampur is the district headquarters.Agriculture is the main activity,while sericulture and mango cultivation provide a boost to the economy.Murshidabad ,Maldah,Birbhum,Bankura and Purulia are districts that have large settlements of silk weavers.The tradition of weaving Baluchar butidar saris(drapes with floral ground)was famous;the motifs reflects an aristocratic lifestyle mixed with Hindu,Muslim and European elements.Mango motifs,equestrian figures,and the hookah-smoking male figures appear in niches that resemble the freize panels of the terracotta temples in Bishmupur.This weaving tradition declined at the end of the 19th centurey.Though today the weaving industry produces patterned fabrics with jacquard looms,the earlier Baluchar butidar saris remain unmatched by the new versionds.Khagra,Kunjaghata and Jiaganj are famous for producing bell metal utensils and brass pots by casting and by beaten work process.A traditional form of beaten work called petano kansa that was practiced for shaping kansa vessels by beating,is being replaced by faster methods of dhalai kansa casting. ACCESS Murshidabad has rail and road connections to other towns in the district.The nearest airport is in kolkata.

Agriculture is the mainstay of Murshidabad district due to the alluvial plains and the tributaries of Ganga that drain the region. Fishermen on the River Ganga.

Detail of a Baluchar sari.

Crafts of Murshidabad Shola pith craft Metal ware Subclusters of Murshidabad Murshidabad district: Jiaganj Khargram Baharampur Kunjaghata

RESOURCES Craft Raw Materials Sources Shola pith Shola wood ,stem Shola wood from wetlands,Surul Metal ware Copper ,brass,tin Khagra in Baharampur

1. Stucco work called pankher kaaj is done on private residence.A mixture of conch shell,lime and curd paste is used for making intricate and decorative forms on architecture in Khagra,Baharampur. 2. A kansakar,metal craftsman , beating and shaping a brass plate. 3. A craftsman polishing a beaten brass vessel on the buffing machine.

SHOLA PITH CRAFT Production clusters Murshidabad district: Baharampur Products Ambari elephants Human figures Mythological figures Oranaments for idols Toys Wedding headgear Tools Blades,Scissors chiadi-bamboo blade Adhesive Cutting the shola into paper - thin sections. Shola pith flowers SHOLA PITH IS the art of making objects from the soft,porous,light and supple pith of the shola stem.This water plant grows in lakes ,ponds and wetlands;and is partly submerged in the water.The outer skin is brown and is peeled off to use the soft portion from the core.The core is sliced into strips,which can be shaped according to the artist`s imagination.The process is simple,but the craftsmanship requires a steady hand and great skill.In west Bengal,these artisans are called malakars.Shola pith items form an integral part of the major religious rituals in West Bengal.Skillful hands shape this stem into many objects such as models of temples,churches and mosques,carved images of Durga in Bengal,Wedding headgear,idols of gods and goddesses,flowers,garlands,display objects and toys.The craft has gone through a major shift after the abolition of the zamindari system,prior to which it was restricted only to religious and ritualistic products like wedding headgear,flowers and garlands.The end of Zamindari system saw a fantastic growth in public Durga pujas.Today,a sizable population of shola pith craftsmen earn their livelihood by making ornaments for idols.Other products like statuettes and models are inspired by the ivory carvings of Murshidadbad.Craftsmen in Maheshpur mainly cater to the export market by producing large quantities of artifical floweres of various kinds with shola.

Mayur pankhi,peacock-shaped boat. Ambari elephant-the ceremonial elephant with a seat and canopy for the riders,is also carved in ivory and wood.

Topar,headgear worn by the groom during a Bengali wedding.

Mukut,headgear worn by the bride made in shola pith.

METAL WARE KANSA,AN ALLOY WITH a high proportion of tin to copper,was the primary material used for making utensils in Bengal.Kansa utensils did not tarnish easily and were suitable as cooking and serving dishes. Khagra in Baharampur town,was famous for petano kansa,process of forming vessels by beating,which is being replaced by dhalai kansa,shaping vessels by pouring molten metal into a cast.Traditionally,plates,tumblers or bowls were forged out of lumps of kansa on anvils and steel-shapers by a team,heating and beating the metal simultaneously.The dhalai kansa process of casting uses a box mould,made of refractory earth.This is stamped over a master pattern to form two parts of the mould,each held in an outer metal casing that is cylindrical in shape.The molten metal is poured through a wooden funnel into the mould,and the cast is set aside for cooling.The cast bowl is extracted from the mould,and the pouring funnel is removed and remade.Semi-finished bowls are placed back in a tampering oven,and heated and cooled thereafter to release any internal stresses.The bowl is then polished on a lathe,and decorative markings are made if necessary.The dhalai kansa method is more prevalent than petano,as a craftsman is able to produce a larger quantity Production Clusters Murshidabad district: Jiaganj Kunjaghata Baharampur town: Khagra Products Cast bowls,Utensils Plates,Spoons,Tumblers Petano or beaten kansa plate. of objects.The process being more mechanical,the artisan requires less skill.The high productivity and sale of dhalai kansa products also make it more profitable than petano kansa.Apart from kansa,brass is also widely used for shaping utensils of various kinds.Brass pitchers are made by the kansabaniks at Kunjaghata,Baharampur and in Navadwip. Individual parts of a pitcher are shaped and forged;joined or brazed with a soldering paste;finished and polished. Inset : Glasses made by dhalai kansa or box mould casting process. Cast bowls which have been polished on the lathe. Beaten brass pitchers Tools Moulds,crucible Kund-lathe Katori-scissors Noadi-steel chisel Hapor-furnace Compass, Hammer Anvil,Forceps

Brass Pitcher

Individual parts of the vessel are forged and shaped by beating.Here the base plate has been joined to the body,and the craftsman is giving it a beaten texture.

Subclusters of BIRBHUM Birbhum district: Sriniketan Surul Lokepur Bolpur Barddhaman district: Barddhaman Katwa Dainhat Nadia district: Natungram, Navadwip, Krishnanagar, Ghurni

A mud house with thatched roof among fields of paddy in Sian village, near Bolpur. The palace of Maharaja Krishnachandra in Krishnanagar. The Maharaja had encouraged clay image makers through his patronage.

Birbhum District Comprises two distinct regions; to the west lies an undulating, generally barren upland, part of the eastern fringe of the Chot Nagpur plateau, to the east is the densely populated, allvial plain of the Gangetic delta. The principal industries include cotton and silk weaving, rice and oilseed milling, metal ware and pottery manufacture. Siuri is the district headquarters while Birbhum is home to many folk festivals, like the Kenduli Mela that draws a large number of the wandering minstrels of Bengal, the Bauls. All the festivals are associated with large fairs where the crafts of the entire state are showcased. Based on his convictions about traditional knowledge systems in crafts and their relevance to the education of the art student, the Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore set up the Shipla Sadan in Sriniketan as part of the Viswabharti University at Shantiniketan. Shilpa sadan imparted training in craft skills to local people as well as produced and sold craft items mediated by art professors and students of Kala Bhavan, the Faculty of Fine Arts at the University.Barddhaman district, the granery of Bengal, is a major communication centre lying astride the Banka River. Of historic interest are the Maharaja`s palace and gardens, several ancient Muslim tombs, 108 Shiva Lingas, and various 18th century temples. Equally important is the adjacent Nadia district, with a unique tradition of Sanskrit scholarship. Krishnanagar, its administrative headquarters, is famous for the manufacture of coloured, realistically modelled clay figures. ACCESS Shantiniketan, Barddahaman and Krishnanagar have a railhead, and roads connect them to other towns in the district and state. The nearest airport is Kolkata.

Detail of embossing on leather.

Crafts of Birbhum Leather work Terracotta jewellery Kantha - patched cloth embroidery Sherpai - measuring bowls Wooden toys Dhokra - lost was metal casting Craft Dhokra - lost was metal casting Leather work

RESOURCES Raw Materials Brass, Sand, Clay soil, Paddy dust, Beeswax, Mustard oil Leather, Dyes Sources Dariapur, Barddhaman district Surul, Birbhum

2 Fabrics which have been painted with wax and resist dyed have been hung to dry. Kala Bhawan, the Department of Fie Arts at Shantiniketan was a pioneer in integrationg craft traditions in their curricullum for art education. They introduced batik and leather work to craftspersons in the region. 3 A craftsperson carefully stitches two layers of fabric with running stitch. The skills of making traditional embroidered kantha are being diversified to make products for urban markets which in turn help to provide income to artisans.

LEATHER CRAFT Embossed leather craft is practiced at Surul village in Shantiniketan. The craft was initiated to the cluster through Kala Bhawan, the Department of Fine Arts section at Viswabharti University. Rabindranath Tagore had invited batik artists from Java, Indonesia, to introduce the technique in India. In its initial phase it was restriced only to batik on leather. Kala Kutir in Sriniketan still retains the original tradition of batik. However, the craftsmen of the cluster have diversified to embossing designs on leather and then doing batik on it. The process of embossing entails softening the leather, embossing the designs through dies, and dyeing the product. Production Clusters Birbhum district: Surul Bolpur Products Bags Lady`s purses Wallets Key rings Jewellery boxes Hand gloves Accessories Tools Punches Metal Blocks Skiving tool Dyes, Roller, Blower Polishing Stone 1. An artisan hand painting an embossed leather piece. 2. AN embossed and painted leather purse. 3. Leather purse with embssing. 4. An old kantha quilt from Jessore (Bangladesh) with several variations of the kalka, mango motifs, embroidered in the corners. 5. Detail of the embossed texture with the kalka, mango motif.

TERRACOTTA JEWELLERY Terracotta is one of the most ancient manifestations of human creativity. However, terracotta jewellery is one of the most recent additions to the domain of terracotta artifacts and to the fashion world. It finds a huge market in Kolkata among both the young and the old. Clay is shaped and formed by hand using techniques of slabbing, pinching, coiling, die and pressing and carving. The individual parts are fired and strung into ornaments such as necklaces, earrings, and bangles. Production Clusters Birbhum district: Shantiniketan, Bolpur Products Earrings Necklace Bangles Tobacco pipes Tools Chhile - strips of bamboo 1. A necklace made with clay beads and pendant. The clay pendant has been shaped by hand, decorated with markings and recessed texture, and fired. 2. Details of a necklace with terracotta and wooden beads. 3. Earrings

A sujuni, kantha made in Jessore, Bangladesh, from a museum collection. The central form is a thousand petalled lotus symbolic of fecundity and abundance, and considered auspicious. KANTHA - PATCHED CLOTH EMBROIDERY Production Clusters Birbhum district: Shantiniketan Surul Bankura district South 24 Parganas district Products Traditional products: Lep - quilt Sujuni - bedspread Baytan - wrap for books and valuables Oar - pillow cover Arsilata - wrap for mirrors and combs Durjani - wallet cover Rumal handkerchief Contemporary products: Sari - draped clth Stoles Table linen Furnishing fabrics Pillow covers Bedspreads Quilts Tools Needle and thread Inset : Baytan, a square kantha has been folded and stitched to Kantha, patched, quilted and make a wrap for valuables. vividly embroidered textile was made mainly in Bangladesh 1. Detail of and antique sujuni, bed spread, from Kolkata. (earlier known as East Bengal), The embroidery in the borders meticulously recreates the West Bengal and Bihar, our of sari border patterns which typify the handloom saris of old saris and dhoti. Essentially a Bengal. woman`s art, they are made as 2. Contemporary kantha textiles developed by an NGO in gifts for family and friends. The collaboration with craftspersons. work of the Hindu and Muslim women differed the kind of motifs and the patterns used. The Muslim women used more geometrical patterns and floral motifs which were executed with fine craftsmanship. On the other hand, the kantha made by Hindu women were pictorial and narrative, with forms from daily lie, composed around a central floral motif. Kantha is used as a quilt, a wrap, or folded as a bag. The unique thing about the kantha is that it is made entirely from re-used cloth; threads removed from it are used to secure the layers together. The sari borders that are removed are often re-introduced as stripes which form the borders of the quilt. The density and direction of the running stitch creates a unique tonality and a rippled effect. The design usually relies on a central circular form occupied by a many petalled lotus flower and four mango or tree motifs to mark the four directional axis. The space between the lotus and the trees is filled in with figures, objects and symbolic motifs. These motifs are drawn from the women`s social and physical environment. The lotus as a central form is similar to the form of alpana, the ritual floor painting. Several voluntary and welfare organizations have set up units which helped extend the art and in turn provided a secondary income to women.

WOODEN TOYS For centuries, wooden toys found their market essentially in rural fairs. A group of such toy makers had settled down in Natungram about a century and a half ago. The craft is basically seasonal in nature. Earlier, the toys were small figures, the males with their hands raised and the females with their hand by their side. The raja-rani, (king and queen) and owl are well known wooden toys. These toys are made by chiselling a length of wood with a square section and painting them with bold colours. Nowadays, the toys are produced with a similar technique but the forms differ. Besides toys, figures of gods and goddesses are carved in relief on rectangular or square wooden sections. These are very popular in urban markets due to their contemporary appearance. The most popular is the wooden owl (associated with Goddess Lakshmi) painted in bright and vibrant coloours and available in various sizes. These owls are made from the thick branches of trees. 1 The carved and painted owl is cleverly oriented along the diagonal or the square so that its beak is formed along one edge and the corresponding faces are chiselled out to reveal its large eyes and faceted head. The body is similarly formed with its wings located on its breast, made prominently by chiselling the wood to reveal its delicate feet. 2a, ab Owls of different sizes. The painting accentuates the features of the owl. 3 Different stages of making an owl. Production Clusters Nadia district: Natungram Products Animal figures Idols Wall hangings Wood panels Tools Kurul - hand axe Karat - hand saw Bais - gripping tool Chisels

SHERPAI - MEASURING BOWLS Sherpai, Kunke or bowls for measuring rice are made only in Lokepur near Siuri in Birbhum district. The word derived from ser referring to a unit of weight and pau which means a quarter in Hindi. The bowls are carved out of wood and embellished with riveted sheet brass decorations. The wood or mango, palm, sirish or sishu trees is used. The bowls are turned on the lathe machine but earlier the form was carved and sculpted by hand. Then the wood is coloured black with the help of a few herbs soaked in water for two days. Brass sheets are embossed with various patterns and motifs and then riveted on the wood. Traditionally, a set of twelve bowls was made, which were extensively used by well to do farmers. After losing the traditional market, these bowls have found their place as decorative items in urban homes. 1. A set of 12 measuring bowls carved from wood and decorated with embossed brass work. Production Clusters Birbhum district: Lokepur Siuri Products Rice measuring bowls Jewellery box Lamps Ashtray Tools Ugo - file Bina, Chachhana, Sutri - polishing instrument Akdo - digging tool Hand axe Hammer Spinner Saw

DHOKRA - LOST WAX METAL CASTING Production Clusters Barddhaman district: Dariapur Bankura district: Bikna Products Idols Utility Items Ashtrays Wall pieces Measuring bowls Tools Chisels Tongs Brush Tatal - welding instrument They sold statues of gods and goddesses, various sized bowls symbolic of Goddess Lakshmi, small lamps, and small toy models of animals, birds and bells. The Dhokra tribes of the Bankura region are mainly involved in making idols of gods, goddesses, birds and animals; while the Dhokra tribes from Purulia and Barddhaman districts engage themselves in the making of various sized measuring bowls, anklets and tinkling dancing bells. The dhokra metal objects use lost wax method for casting hollow and solid objects. The objects are mainly of two types; the sold ones with clay Diya - a lamp from Barddhaman inside and the hollow ones. A rough mould of sand, clay and paddy dust is covered with a mixture called gala, made of mustard oil and Figurines, Barddhaman. beeswax. The intricacies of the final design are worked on this gala. Influence of the coiling technique can be seen in the decoration of the metal work. The spiral and parallel lines are used extensively to create patterns on the object. Brass replaces the gala by the lost wax process. The unique feature of the dhokra casting in Bengal and Bihar is that the curcible for melthing the metal is attached to the mould and both are fired together. A thick strand of wax protrudes at the The Gahrua or Dhokra Kamar highest point of the wax model and provides a future passage tribes are traditionally involved with the craft of metal sculpture in for molten metal. West Bengal. In earlier times, this tribe led a nomadic life, repairing old or broken utensils.

Inset : A transistor with dhokra cast body.

The four stages of making a dhokra product.

Idol of Goddess Durga made in dhokra, Bankura

Bankura horse cast in dhokra technique, Barddhaman.

CLAY WORK OF KRISHNANAGAR Production Clusters Nadia district: Krishnanagar Ghurni Products Figurines Fruits Vegetables Birds Insects Animals Tools Cheari - bamboo carving tools Basua - wood and bamboo tools Chiadi - bamboo strips Brushes Knife Jute The clay images of Krishnanage ar well known for their realistic appearance, and the detailed and intricate miniatus are created with clothes and accessories. They represent a breakaway from the traditional form since the 18th century. The craftsmen belong to the caste of Kumbhakar or potters. Ghurni in Krishnanagar has a concentration of potters. Krishnanagar is on the banks of Jalangi River and the clay is brought from the riverbed. Fine clay dolls are also produced which represent all professions and trades in minute detail, replete with costume and accessories. The figurines are made in parts and assembled together. Plaster of Paris moulds are used to cast different body parts when the figurines are made in large quantities. A metal wire is used for support and reinforcement in the clay models. They are fired in a kiln and painted with poster or water colours. The craft still has a market in rural melas and craft emporia. 1. The figurine of a lady made completely of clay. 2. Fisherman looking at sea. 3. Baul singer with his ektara, a single string instrument. 4. Village woman carrying water in a pot. 5. Labourer with a gamcha or cotten towel, tied around his waist. 6. Baul singer in the characteristic yellow kurta, tunic, with a sash tied around his waist.

Subclusters of BANKURA Bankura district: Bankura Panchmura Bishnupur Bikna Sonamukhi Susunia Purulia district: Purulia, Charida, Balarampur Midnapur district: Midnapur, Pingla, Naya, Digha, Sabang Craft Crafts of BANKURA Terracotta of Bankura Patachitra - scroll painting Ganjifa cards Conch shell carving Coconut shell carving Wood carving Stone carving Maslond - grass mats Lac - coated toys Chhau mask Stone Carving Terracotta Conch shell carving

Bankura lies on a densely populated alluvial plain, and agriculture is the main source of income. Mica, china clay, iron ore, lead, zinc, and wolframite deposits are worked in the locality. The area remained a focus of Hindu culture for a long time, especially during the reign of the Malla kings during the 17th and 18th century,

when the capital was situated at Bishnupur, the site was famous for its contribution to the fields of music, art and culture. The district`s strong tribal presence is accompanied by its legacy of post-Gupta terracotta sculpture and its extensive use in

RESOURCES Raw Materials White stone Clay, Firewood, Bamboo strips Conch shell Sources Susunia hills Panchmura, Bankura Kolkata, Tuticorin, Chennai, Sri Lanka Bishnupur

constructing monuments and temples. With the gradual waning of Buddhism in India and the simultaneous spate of Vaishnavite and Shaivite revival in Bengal, hundreds of brick temples were built with terracotta reliefs depicting episodes from the Ramayana and Mahabarata. The Muslim rulers who followed were forced to depend on local talent for the construction of their monuments, a phenomeneon that led to a new vocabulary of forms and architectural elements, where Islamic architecture was influenced by Bengal`s fold culture and the Chala huts. In the temple town of Bishnupur, the annual festival that is held between 27th and 31th December is characterized by an exhibition and sale of local handicrafts and a display of the varied musical traditions of Bishnupur. Purulia district in the western part, is well known for the Chhau mask dance; it is performed in the open air by dancers wearing masks made from wood, clay and pper crafted by the sutradhars, wood working artisans. Midnapur, Purulia, Bankura, Nadia, Birbhum and Murshidabad were the main centres of pata painting, a prolific fold expression of Bengal that is executed on pata, cloth, and paper. Several styles have been developed; some pata were painted by professional painters for local use in villages, some by hereditary painters for urban clientele, still others were developed around the local temples and pilgrimage centres and yet another style was painted by the Santhal community that depicted various legends and origin myths. ACCESS Bankura, Purulia and Midnapur have a railhead and roads connecting it to other towns in the district and state. The nearest airport is Kolkata. Inset : The Shyama Raya Temple in Bishnupur was built in 1643. It is covered with terracotta frieze panels that depict episodes from Lord Krishna`s life and the Ramayana. 1. Votive terracotta horses in a potter`s home. The renowned Bankura horse given as a votive offering to local deities is made by the potters in Panchmura. 2. A patachitra painting made by a boy in Naya, Midnapore district. 3. Bengal has an eloquent tradition of folk painting.

Ganjifa cards Cotton rags, Tamarind Glue, Natural colours, Water colours Patachitra painting Chart paper, Cloth, Vegetable colours

Naya, Midnapur

TERRACOTTA OF BANKURA Production Clusters Bankura district: Panchmura Products Traditional: Horses Elephants Manasa chali Shashti putul - folk deity Bonga - Santhal deity Contemporary: Flower tubs Decorative tiles Figurines Tools Pitna - for beating Balya - for beating Kabari - bamboo drawing tool Ucha - bamboo strips for polishing Inset : A terracotta relief of Durga or Mahishasurmardini. A kumbhakar, potter, makes the head of a horse figure in Panchmura. Ritual Horses, elephants, Manasi Chali (the crafted pitcher symbolizing Manasa, the Snake Goddess) and Shashti (the guardian deity of children) are produced in Panchmura, Bankura. For the votive elephants and horses, the clay is thrown on wheels and parts of the body are made seperately, and joined later. The basic adornment is done with small clay balls and thin clay coils. This craft in Panchmura started with the rise in the popularity of the local serpent deity Manasa. Local people promise to dedicate terracotta horses and elephants to the serpent deity on the fulfillment of a wish. The genesis of the famous Bankura terracotta horses and elephants lies here. These Bankura horses have also attracted the urban market where they are used as object of art. The men make the parts of the horses, which have to be thrown on the wheel, and the women undertake the decoration part of it. The women also make the hand formed small horse figures. Apart from the votive terracotta, the women also make plenty of clay dolls and toys by the pressing and moulding methods. Some of these hand formed dolls are also used for some ritual purposes. The Bankura horses are characterized by their erect neck and ears; and a dynamic look. The jaws are wide and a set of teeth can be seen; the eyebrows are drawn and the forehead is decorated with the chandmala necklace. Manasa Chali, terracotta facade of a shrine. The snake deity Manasa is worshippd for protection from snakebites.

PATACHITRA - SCROLL PAINTING Patachitra or scroll painting of rural bengal are made by the Patuas, a branch of the Chitrakar caste. The Patuas are professional artists who make images and paintings for a living. They are also accomplished singers. The mythical narratives, contemporary tales anf floklore painted on scrolls are carried from villageto village, and narration is accompanied by folk songs. There are three types of formats in patachitra - the vertical scroll, horizontal scroll and a single quadrangular sheet. The width of the paintings may be from one to two feet, while the length can be up to 25 feet. Earlier, the pictures were painted in vegetable colours, on cloth or paper. There are different stylistic characteristics such as the distinct tribal style of the Santhal patas, those from Birbhum, show an overindulgence of emotion and sentiment and the Bengali style in the Kalighat bazaar patas. These days the chitrakaras, painters of Midnapur and Purulia districts are the only ones involved with pata making. The patuas, painters, also serve as priests for the Santhal community, and make patas with Santhal folklore. The craft has been affected by the onslaught of lithography, oleography and bazaar pictures. Product Clusters Midnapur district: Naya Tamluk Products Patas of various sizes Tools Paintbrush Chart paper Old cloth Vegetable colours 1. Detail of a scroll painting done on a continuous long paper which is unrolled as the story proceeds. 2. A vertical scroll showing the sequence of a story from Santhal folklore. The three formats used are the gighal pat, vertical scroll, with all the frames being a part of a single story; and chauka pat, single quadrangular picture. Inset : Patachitra by a chitrakar depicting the goddess as Mahishasurmardini, Durga killing the demon Mahisa, flanked by the deities Ganesha, Saraswati, Lakshmi and Kartik. A chauka pat from Naya, Midnapur district.

Narasimha avatar suit. Varaha avatar suit.

Balarama avatar suit. Jagannath avatar suit.

Matsya avatar suit. Kurma avatar suit.

GANJIFA CARDS Ganjifa, rounded cards made out of handmade paper in Bishnupur, Bankura district are very similar to the ganjappa cards of Orissa. The cards bear the images and symbols of the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu called Dasavatar. The game had flourished under the royal patronage of the Malla dynasty of Bishnupur. The craftsmen claim that the designs of the cards have not changed at all in the last one thousand years. Apart from Dasavatar cards, they also make Dasa Mahavidya cards, illustrated the ten rupas, forms of the Mother Goddess, Sati. But primarily these cards are made on specific orders. Wet cotton rags are layered and pasted into cloth roundels with tamarind glue. After the cards have dried, the designs are painted on a white backgrounds. The roundels are 4-5 inches in diameter. The back is plain and unpainted. The craftsmen prefer to use watercolours now due to the increased cost of natural colours. Production Clusters Bankura district Bishnupur Products Ganjifa cards Tools Cotton rags Dasavatar taas are made in packs of eight or twelve suits. A popular game once, it is now archaic, valued more for being antique rather than for play. 7 Kalki avatar suit. 8 Parshurama avatar suit. 9 Ram avatar suit. 10 Vamanea avatar suit. Tamarind glue Watercolour

CONCH SHELL CARVING Conch shells are used in two significant ways in Bengali tradition. One is in the form of the bangles worn by married women, and the other is using the whole shell to blow into it, during religious ceremonies. The conch shell bangles suggest the marital status of a woman. According to Hindu custom, the bride`s first pair of conch shell bangles must have a rim of red lac. Crafting bangles, ornaments and ritual objects from conch shell is unique to Bengal. The craftsmen belong to the Sankhakar community. The blowing sells are usually plain but nowadays are engraved with ornamental patterns or an episode from an epic. The shell is hard and hence it is difficult to cut it. The carving on the shell is done with the help of various files. A grinding machine removes the rough outer surface of the shell, which is then filed, engraved and polished into the desired shape. Conch shell is procured from Kolkata, where it comes from the beaches of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka. Tools : The conch shell and the tools required for various process. 1. Engraved conch shell bangles. 2. Craftsman engraving on a conch shell. 3. A shell cut into pieces for making engraved bangles. 4. Hookah made of conch shell.

Production Clusters Bankura district: Bankura Products Engraved conch shells Bangles Rings Pendants Hair clips Vermilion containers Tools Chelai - chisels Chunni - long thin chisels Buli - thick chisel Files Hammers

COCONUT SHELL CARVING Production Clusters Bankura district: Rampur Products Replicas of terracotta horses Animal figures Figurines, idols Human figures Tools Karat - hand saw Hammer Chisels Files Mechanized tools The craft of coconut shell carving in West Bengal started as an adaptation of the celebrated conch shell carving. The technique and the tools used for the craft are the same as that of conch shell carving. However, the product range of coconut shell ranges from teapots to bangles and ornaments, and from bowls to replicas of terracotta temples of Bishnupur. There was a scarcity in supply of conch shells in West Bengal during the 1980`s, and hence their prices soared. Craftsmen adapted their skills to carve coconut shells and also wood apple shells. Now they are exploring cheaper alternatives like pumpkin shell and fish scales to keep the craft and the market alive.

Inset : Detail of a vase. 1. 2. 3. 4. The coconut shell. A vase made from the shell. Coconut shell vase painted black. Coconut shell model of Shyama Raya Temple.

WOOD CARVING Terracotta objects like ritual horses and elephants produced in Panchmura, Bankura have been able to carve out a niche for themselves in the craft sectrum of the country. The Bankura horse has become symbolic of craftsmanship and has inspired the symbol of a government handicrafts marketing corporation. The terracotta horses and elephants are being replicated in wood. Due to the popularity of the terracotta horse, craftsmen started carving out the horse in wood to cater to the tourist demand. In 1965, an artisan started producing the wooden replica of the famous Bankura terracotta horses. With his finding a decent market for the products, the process of diversification of the products also started. Though there is a good market, the major constraint is the availability of skilled labour and the insufficient returns.

Production Clusters Bankura district: Rampur Products Replicas of Bankura terracotta Animal figures Figurines Idols Human figures Tools Karat - hand saw Hammer Chisels Files Mechanized tools

1. Craftsman at work in Rampur. 2. The four stages of carving the figure of a Bankura horse. 3. Carved idol of Goddess Durga and her family. The carving depicts the victory of good (Durga) over evil (Mahishasura). The goddess is fervently worshipped during the Durga Puja festival.

STONE CARVING Stone carving in West Bengal is primarily practiced in Susunia Hills at Bankura district. The easy availability of raw materials from the quarry in the hills have facilitated the craft for long. However, the stone carvers of Susunia are faced with a grave challenge these days as the state government has imposed a ban on quarrying in the hills. Stone carving was also prevalent in Dainhat in Barddhaman district. Products like floor tiles and milestones were made on a regular basis in the cluster for long, but the artisans diversified to carving figures of Hindu deities as well as other artistic figures in the last 50 years.

Production Clusters Bankura district: Susunia Products Idols Reliefs Tools 1. A traditional die carved in stone. The die is used to set Hammer sandesh, a sweet prepared from milk. A small stone carving Chisels from Susunia. 2. An ensemble of the Goddess Durga, Lakshmi, Saraswati: Ganesha and Kartik and Mahishasura being slain. The mount of Durga, the lion, attacks Mahishasura the demon. Stone relief carving. Conch shells carved in stone. The conch shell is considered to be very auspicious in Bengal. It is blown by the devotee during prayer and has a resonating sound.

An unfinished stone carving of Goddess Kali.

Maslond mat with vertical borders. The subtle difference in colour is due to the culm of the grass which is darker towards the top and lighter in colour towards the roots. MASLONG - GRASS MATS Production Clusters Midnapur district: Ramnagar block Khalaberia Sabang block Sarta Chandkuri Products Mats Tools Aara - bamboo frame for loom Haata - reed and beater Katee - sickle shaped cutter Chhoonch - needle Peere - wooden platform Fine madur splits which have been tie-dyed in black dye obtained from natural material. Maslong mats are made from the grass called madur kathi (Cyperus corymbosus) or Chinese mat grass. This grass grows around four to five feet tall in a swampy region around Midnapur. These woven mats are well known in Bengal and derive their name from the Persian term for a throne - masnad. The main centres for weaving these mats are Khalaberia and Sarta. Sarta has the biggest market for trading of mats. The mat has a plain field in the centre surrounded by a border with motifs. The border patterns are reminiscent of the handloom saris of Bengal. There are two types of mats based on coarser and finer madur kathi splits. The mats woven with finer splits look beautiful due to the subtle colour difference between the madur kathi splits. The thicker and lighter colour from the lower portion of the culm and the thinner and darker from the upper portion, are used for the pattern. Animal, bird and floral motifs are used. Motifs are introduced depending on the occasion for use; mats used for sleeping and eating food on have vertical borders along the edge. Mats used by Muslims have Quranic verses or images The maslond is woven on a simple horizontal loom at floor level. Fine strips which have been tie-dyed are being woven by the weaver, assisted by his wife. Wooden platforms kept under the warp enable the weavers to sit on the loom itself. Plied cotton yarn is used in the warp. of mosques. Mats used during marriage ceremonies have butterflies and peacock motifs and very large border covers. The mats are woven on very simple floor looms and most of the weaving is done manually. The loom itself is of very low cost, and the grass grown locally is not expensive. The mats are labour intensive and weavers use the technique of tie dyeing the stalks to accentuate the patterns and borders. Initially only the women practiced the craft but now it has become a profession for the entire family. The mats are widely used by the local people to sleep on, and also as floor coverings and wall hangings. Detail of a grass mat woven with coarse splits of madur used in combination with dried stalks.

CHHAU MASK The craft of mask making along with Chhau dance has been a tradition here for well over a century. The Chhau dance has qualities similar to a primitive ceremonial dance, reflected in the masks. First, a clay model of the mask is made, over which layers of waste paper and rags are pasted and then dried. Painting and embellishment is done on the dried mask, and the clay scraped off. Masks depicting characters from mythological stories, various gods and goddesses, animals, birds, demons are made. The Chhau mask makers are originally woodcarvers or sutradhars by profession. The masks are generally made during the month of Fagun, January, to February. Earlier they made masks out of wood and the decoration was simple. Production Clusters Purulia district: Charida 1. A craftsman making a clay model from which moulds will be taken. 2. Three stages of making a Chhau mask. 3. Masks of male and female tribal characters in the Chhau dance. 4. Mask of a tiger made in Charida in Purulia district. Elaborate Chhau mask of the Goddess Pratima from Purulia Products Masks of myriad characters from Hindu mythology Tools Thapi - wooden spatula Drills, Chisels, Brushes Scissors, Hammer

LAC COATED TOYS 1 Lac coated bull and tortoise figures made by lac bangle craftsmen. 2 Figurine of Goddess Durga. 3a Shashti, mother goddess and goddess of fertility figuring is offered to the deity by childless couples. Shashti is shown holding two children and sometimes with four children. 3b Mother and child toy is depicted in several different ways. Here the mother is shown bathing her child. In several districts of West Bengal, lac coated terracota toys and votive figurines are made by sankhakars, conch shell craftspersons. Originally the craftspersons were involved in the making of conch shell bangles but due to the decline of the craft, they shifted to making terracotta dolls. The women of the families, who were already involved in making shell bangles, had shifted ther skills to making lac coated toys. Besides toys, lac bangles are made in Surul in Birbhum district and Balarampur in Purulia district. Terracotta dolls are made in moulds and by hand, heated on a small oven and then coloured with lac. The front is brightly coloured, while the reverse is painted black. The terracotta figures of Shashti putul, goddess of fertility, and mother and child figurines have pointed faces that are made by pinching and pressing clay in a distinctive way.

Production Clusters Midnapur district: Paschimsai village Khoroi Products Dolls and Toys

Inset : Clay toys die cast in moulds which have remained unchanged for centuries. Jaynagar, South 24 Parganas district. View of the western colonnaded facade of Victoria Memorial facing the Hooghly River. The marble monument was built in honour of Queen Victoria in 1921, houses 3500 artifacts of the Raj era and oil and watercolour paintings that depict the history of the city. Crafts of KOLKATA Beaten silver work Clay figures Subclusters of KOLKATA Kolkata district: Kolkata Kumartuli Bhawanipur South 24 Parganas district: Jaynagar Canning 1. An arrangement of the fishing traps done in a stream, South 24 Parganas. 2. Idol of Kali being loaded to transport for the Durga Puja festival, Kolkata.

Kolkata, the capital of West Bengal, is the second largest city in India and one of the largest in the world. Ten of Kolkata`s suburbs have well over 100,000 people each. The Kolkata metropolitan area is 228.5 square feet, extending more than 64 km along the Hooghly River. Kolkata is a major seaport and insdustrial of eastern India; jute is milled, and textiles, chemicals, paper, and metal products are manufactured. Kolkata was founded 1690 by British East India Company as a trading post. In 1756 the nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud Daula, captured Kolkata from the British, but Robert Clive reclaimed the city. Kolkata is a city teeming with life and culture which coexist with poverty. The city`s largest mosque is a red sandstone monument built like Akbar`s tomb in Sikandra. Jorasanko is the ancestral home of Rabindranath Tagore with beautiful wrought iron grill work and a museum of the master`s paintings. Kumartuli is a potter`s village where life size clay images of Durga and other gods and goddesses are made. Raja Krishnachandra of Nadia introduced the concept of immersion of the idols after worship, necessiating the making of new images. This helped sustain the craft of clay image making. The potters have migrated to kolkata from Krishnanagar, which is renowned for creating realistic clay figures. The legendary Kalighat which has a temple for Kali the principal deity of Bengal is also synonymous with Kalighat paintings done by traditional chitrakars, patuas or patidars. The paintings were based on religious themes, caricatures and portraitures of the elite society of the 19th century (Babu culture) and topical events. Kolkata has bene often described as a city steeped in culture due to its colonial architecture, unusual bookshops and coffee houses, keen political interests, music, dance and art film making.

ACCESS RESOURCES Craft Beaten silver work Clay figures Raw Materials Silver sheets Clay, Plaster of Paris, Metal wire Sources Kolkata Krishnanagar, Kolkata Kalighat painting : A watercolour painting which depicts women engaged in preparations for a ceremony, outside their house with a chala, curved roof, resembling the mud plastered thatched huts of rural Bengal. The painting belongs to the genre of paintings which drew on several influences - 19th century urban Kolkata. Western art, the introduction of oleography, lithography and phtotgraphy, and Raja Ravi Verma`s depiction of women. Kolkata is well connected with all the major cities of the country by road, rail and air. Dum Dum is an international airport. The clusters are connected to Kolkata by road and rail.

The life size idol of goddess Kali and her entourage made of hay, before the application of clay that is finally the base for painting the figures, on the outskirts of Kolkata.

Kali idol getting finishing touches at a roadside workshop, Kumartuli, Kolkata. The making of painted lifesize clay images thriving during the festival od Durga Puja held in the Bengali month of Aswin (October). Images of the ten armed Goddess Kali are worshipped in ancient houses and pandals erected specially for the Puja. After the four day ceremony, these images are immersed in the river. On account of the popularity and religious significance attached to this festival, the tradition of making clay figures has become a family craft in Bengal.

BEATEN SILVER WORK Silver work started in Bhabanipur during the colonial days. Kings of different states, dignitaries like viceroys and the governors would visit the shops at Bhabanipur for intricate and exotic silverware. However, after independence and the abolition of the Zamindari system, the glory of the craft started fading away due to lack of clientele. The cluster, which at one point of time catered only to the privileged, began to decline. Many craftsmen diversified their skills to expan their production range to other metal works and also to making trophies, medallions and other minor utensils. Silver sheets are beaten into desired shapes on an anvil, and the ends fused with paan, a solution of silver and brass in the ratio of 16:7. Designs are chiselled on the surface, and the polishing is done by hand. 1. Craftsman engraving a design on a beaten silver bowl. 2. A silver trophy. 3. Beaten silver teapots from Kolkata. Production Clusters Kolkata Bhawanipur Kansaripara Products Trophies Medallions Spoons Forks Glasses Bowls Teapots Tools Hammers Shovels Files Chisels

CRAFTS ANDHRA PRADHES Bidri ware Paagadu bandhu yarn tie resist dyeing Banjara embroidery Lac bangles Dhurrie weaving Painted scrolls of Cheriyal Nirmal painting Lace making Silver filigree Dhokra - lost wx metal casting Sheet metal work Wood and lac turnery Veena - string instrument Jute craft Block printing Districts - 23 Craftspersons - 0.87 Lakhs Mural painting on the ceiling of the mukhamandapa (main hall) of Veerbhadra (fierce form of Lord Shiva) Temple in Lepakshi, Anantpur district. The painting depicts various divinities attending the marriage of Lord Shiva and Parvati. These murals have influenced various narrative painting traditions such as kalamkari. Metal work Telia rumal - yarn resist dyed textile Knotted carpet Leather puppets Crochet work Wooden toys of Kondapalli Stone carving Wooden cutlery of Udayagiri Raja rani dolls Kalamkari - painted textiles Wood carving Bronze casting Terracotta Palm leaf work 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Threshing and processing of jute being done in a lake connected to Vamsadhara River, Srikakulam district. Farmer loading grain in a bamboo basket used for transporting paddy, Balkonda, Srikakulam district Tribal woman wearing a rigid silver necklace or torque, Jamgaon, Adilabad district. Banjara woman in traditional dress and jewellery. Hyderabad has a sizeable population of the Banjara community. Stone carving of a dancer on a pillar in the natyamandapa, dance hall in the Veerbhadra Temple, which is a repository of sculptures and mural paintings of the Vijayanagara era.

Attire Panchei - draped lower garment Gadwal, Uppada, Venkatagiri - saris Cuisine Gongura - bitter spinach preparation Pasara podi - green gram powder Biryani - lamb or chicken rice dish Mirchi ka salaan chilly side dish Festivals Ugadi - New Year Makara Sankranti harvest festival Tirupati Brahmotsavalu temple festival Id-ul-Fitr

Hinduism gained prominence during the rule of the Satavahanas, Chalukyas and the Cholas. Subsequently, it witnessed the sway of Islam from the 14th century. In the 18th century it came under the Nizams of Hyderabad and remained with them till India gained Independence. Successive dunasties from the Ikshavakus, Pallavas, Chalukyas, Kakatiyas, Vijayanagaram kings, Qutb Shahis, Mughals and the Asaf Jahis, have contributed significantly to the regions varied cultural tapestry and a heritage studded with spectacular monuments, temples, mosques, palaces, all vibrant with arts, crafts, dance and literature. It is home to one of the classical Most of the tribal communities live west of the coastal plains Indian dances with fold elements, interspersed by narratives that are densely forested and hilly. To the north is the Deccan called Kuchipudi. The leather shadow puppets, tolubommalata, Plateau, one of the oldest geographical formations, which have been puoular in the region for centuries. The stat has a includes the Telangana districts. It was created by combining vital textile tradition of sari weaving and khadi; a repertoire of the old princely state of Hyderabad with the Telugu speaking ikat, kalamkari, block printed textiles and a wide spectrum of portions of the former state of Madras. The southern part of skills of weaving muslin to coarse cotton fabrics, and silk. The these ranges extends to Tirupati in the Rayalseema region. temple of Lord Venkateshwara in Tirumala Hills in Tirupati, is Rayalseema has the harshest environment. It was once a a hub for craft related activities because of rituals, fairs and prosperous farming and industrial centre that is now facing masses of devotees through the year. drought. The earliest accounts of Andhra Pradesh date back Inset : Detail of a jamdani, figured fine khadi fabric woven in to the 3rd century BC during Ashoka`s reign. It was an Ponduru, one of the few places which produces very fine important Buddhist centre especially in Amravati and handspun cotton yarn on the traditional charkha, spinning Nagarjunakonda. wheel, Srikakulam district. Andhra Pradesh has three geographical and cultural regions of Rayalseema, Telangana and coastal Andhra, that represent different historical, political and ecological conditions and different patterns of livelihoods. The broad alluvial plains fed by the Godavari and the Krishna rivers are part of coastal Andhra. Disposable sal leaf bowls and plates are used as substitute for paper and plastic, Monda market, Secunderabad. Mecca Masjid is a huge mosque which has bricks from Mecca used in the central arch.

Landmarks Amravati Chanragiri Lepakshi Golkonda fort Charminar Sri Kalahasti Tirupati Mecca Masjid Salar Jung Museum Languages Telugu Urdu Hindi Marathi Banjara Physical Features Coastal plains Eastern Ghats Deccan Plateau Major rivers: Godavari, Krishna, Tungabhadra Biodiversity Flora : Cotton, Teak, Babul, Palm, Bamboo, Wood: Red Sanders, White Sanders Fauna : Goat, Deer, Tiger, Sheep, Peacock

A boy wearing a crochet cap for the Id namaz, prayer, at Mecca Masjid, Hyderabad.

Subclusters of HYDERABAD Rangareddi district: Hyderabad Secunderabad Medak district Mahaboobnagar district Nalgonda district: Pochampalli Koyalagudem Crafts of HYDERABAD Bidri ware Paagadu bandhu yarn tie resist dyeing Banjara embroidery Lac bangles

RESOURCES Craft Bidri ware Raw Materials Zinc, Copper, Silver, Gold wire, Yellow clay, Castor oil, Beeswax Resin, Bidari matti Paagadu bandhu - Cotton and silk yarn yarn tie resist dyeing Banjara embroidery Lac Bangles Cloth Shellac, Aluminium, Wire Wax Stone Glass Bangles Sources Hyderabad

Bidar Fort Hyderabad, Karnataka Hyderabad Workshops in Charminar Mumbai Mumbai & Australia Firozabad

Hyderabad, the capital of Andhra Pradesh is situated on the right bank of the River Musi, a tributary of the Krishna. he city is on top of the Deccan Plateau. Golconda lies to its west, the Brisish residency and its bazaars and the British cantonment of Secunderabad to the north east. Sultan Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, who founded it in 1591, was an enlightened ruler, a peot, scholar and patron of the arts. His kigdom was a flourishing centre of trade in pearls, diamonds, horses, steel and cintz or dye painted and printed cloth. At his court and in his bazaars, Hyderabadis rubbed shoulders with traders, scholars and artisans from different lands. Hyderabad has a uniquely composite culture, a lenage of Hindu and Muslim customs, mingled with Arab, Persian and Turkish influences, evident in its language, food manners, arts and crafts. Hyderabad, significantly, was the largest princely state in India, with its own flag, currency and coins, postal system, railways and even its own radio. It was Asaf Jah who instituted the title of Nizam, which was used by successive rulers of the state. After the reorganization of states in 1956, Hyderabad was merged with the new state of Andhra Pradesh and the city became the new capital. A large population of ikat weavers live in Koyalgudem, Pochampalli, Puttapaka and Chautupal in Nalgonda district. These villages specialize in weaving cotton textiles for furnishings, apparel fabrics and saris while silk ikat are woven in Pochampalli. Cotton is cultivated in Mahaboobnagar district.

Inset Charminar during ID festivities. The 16th century monument built by the Qutb Shahi rulers is a bustling commercial in the old city. 1. A bidri craftsman filing a piece of zinc. 2. Flower bazaar during Diwali in Mozamzahi market, Hyderabad. 3. A craftsman weaving an ikat sari in Pochampalli. 4. Small pellets of silver are heavily pounded to make varaq, silver leaf which is so frail that it has to be stored between the pages of a book.

ACCESS Secunderabad, the twin city of Hyderabad, is the headquarters of the South Central Railway. All major trains stop or depart from here. Hyderabad has an airport with both international and domestic flights. The clusters are all well connected by road.

BADRI WARE THE TECHNIQUE OF inlaying silver and gold on steel or copper on a black background travelled from Iran to Rajasthan in the 13th century AD,and from there to Bijapur in Karnataka,and flourished during the reign of the Deccan Sultanate.The use of a rust-proof and non-corrosive alloy base made of zinc and copper was an innovation introduced in Bihar in northeastern karnataka,which is how the craft got its name.The making of a bidri product involves four steps-melting the alloy,casting the article,engraving and inlaying the design and finally,oxidizing.It uses a range of inlaying methods such as tarkashi,using wires;taihnishan,with sheet metal;mehatabi kaam,reversal of surfaces where the design is cut out in sheet metal and is inlaid;munnavat kari,embossed design work.The black colour that is characteristic of bidri ware is achieved by polishing the article with a mixture of bidari matti,the mud which is from Bidar Fort,ammonium chloride and a resulting mixture called navasaram.Coconut oil is rubbed in to enhance the blackness.The designs are influenced by Mughal motifs of geometrical and floral patterns.Verses from the Quran in Arabic script are also used as embellishment.Traditional products made are hookah, aftaba, surahi, ugaldaan, boxes, zalabchi, muqaba or round containers with domeshaped lids,bedposts and mir-e-farsh or weights to hold down floor coverings.

Product Clusters Rangareddi district: Hyderabad: Nampally Kali Qaber Masab tank Products Traditional: Hookahs Aftaba-type of vase Surahi-wine containers Powder boxes Ugaldaan-spittoons Zalabchi-washbasins Muqabas-containers with dome-shaped lids Bedpost Mir-e-farsh-weights to hold down floor coverings Modern: keychain Ashtray Paper cutter Figurines Tools Box mould Crucible,Chisels Tongs,Divider Lathe machine Kalam-drawing chisel Aambur-plier Engraving tools Tat patti-wire drawing die Hammer,Hacksaw

1 Flower vase inlaid with silver foil.The ground is inlaid with foil and the floral pattern is seen in the background of metal. 2 Vase inlaid with copper wire. 3 Zalabchi ,a washbasin,with ornate inlay work.In the centre is a fretworked mesh with silver inlay. 4, 5, 6 Vases inlaid with silver foil.

Range of single and double ikat cotten yardages woven in Koyalagudem. PAAGADU BANDHU-YARN TIE-RESIST-DYEING Production Clusters Nalgonda district: Pochampalli Koyalagudem Puttapaka Gatuppal Chautupal Prakasam district: Chirala Products Sari Dupatta-stoles Yardage Furnishings Bedcovers Tools Maggam-loom Panni-reed Acchu-heald shaft Chitkaasu-weft ikat frame Thread Rubber tubing Chitkaasu,curved frame with pegs,for preparing weft ikat,Koyalagudem and Pochampalli. Detail of a cotton bedcover woven with double and single tieresist-dyed yarn,Koyalagudem. IN ANDHRA PRADESH,cloth patterned by tie-resist-dyed yarns is known as paagadu bandhu,chitki,and more popularly by the Indonesian term ikat.Ikat was initially woven in Chirala,a coastal town in Prakasam district,which had a flourishing market in the 19th century for telia rumal or square cotton cloths produced for the Arab market and exported to the Middle East,Africa and Burma.These were used as loincloths by fishermen in Mumbai.An increase in the demand from export markets helped spread the technique to Pochampalli and the neighbouring villages of Koyalagudem,Puttapaka and Chautupal who later diversified to produce sari,yardage and furnishings.Over a period of time each village developed a specialization:Pochampalli in silk saris of both single and double ikat,Puttapaka in fine cotton and silk sari and yardages,Gatuppal,Chautupal and Koyalagudem in cotton and silk yardage for furnishing and shirting.Ingenious technology such as the chitkaasu,a curved frame with pegs on which the weft threads are groupedd and tied for dyeing,has sustained production.Weaving is a full time activity,often the entire family being involved in the craft.Simple geometric designs,multicoloured patterns,stripes and chevron forms are dominant patterns.Other influences include Gujarat patola,ikat patterns from Orissa , Japan adn Guatemala(South America) introduced by exporters and trade.The most significant impetus has come from the Festival of India programmes(1982-1992),which revitalized the weaving craft.

A range of cotton fabrics for use as dress materials, woven in single and double ikat, Koyalagudem.

A range of silk fabrics woven in single and double ikat, Pochampalli.

1. Quilted and embroidered dowry bag. 2. Pouch based on the traditional khalchi,which is made by folding a square piece of cloth. 3. Traditional pouch done in running stitch used to quilt the pouch.Banjaras creatively use running stitch to create interlaced patterns. Kanchali,the traditional backless blouse worn by women has embroidery,mirrorwork and metal buttons or beads as embellishments .Strings attached to the sides help fasten the blouse around the back. Detail of a Banjara artisan doing mirrorwork on a skirt border.

Production Clusters BANJARA EMBROIDERY EMBROIDERY IS INTRINSIC to the traditional costumes of the nomadic Banjara community.The Banjara were bullock pack drivers and traders in salt.They belong to one of the oldest nomadic communities,highly organized and with a language of their own called Gar Boli.Traditionally,women of the community embroidered costumes,accessories like storage bags,covers,pouches and fabrics meant for rituals and daily use.The embellishments are replete with colourful threads,mirrors,cowrie shells and stitches.The basic stitches used by Banjaras of Nalgonda are the herringbone stitch-rela makki(chain stitch),mallik kanta(chevron stitch),and cross stitch.These stitches encircle mirrors,run through beads and cowrie shells to form symbolic and decorative motifs.The motifs,which are drawn from nature and geometry,are juxtaposed creatively.From making traditional products for themselves and their families,the Banjara women now embroider diverse items for sale.Product diversification has been supported by voluntary organizations and government agencies. Rangareddi district: Hyderabad Yellama Tanda Ibrahimpatnam town: Sanjeevreddy Nagar Shankar Nandinagar Products Traditional Products: Batwa-purses Khalchi-pouches Phetia-skirt Kanchali-blouse Contemporary Products: Appliqued toranhanging for doorways Bags and purses Tools Needle and thread Sewing machine

Production Clusters lishing it with glitter.Lac bangles have been made since the 15th century in this region.There are two types of processes involved in making lac bangles-the BANGLES ARE AN auspicious and important aspect of hand crafted process and the method which uses a adornment for a woman in India.There is a great range of mould.About three decades ago,an influx of designs and materials used in making bangles due to their Rajasthani craftsmen into the city resulted in the use religious significance,being symbols of marriage and of the mould technique which contributed to faster celebrations.Of these materials ,lac is very popular due to it production.They produce many attractive designs being the oldest source of colour,its low cost,malleability and using coloured glass pieces and bangles,and silver the potential for embeland gold glitters. LAC BANGLES 1. Bangle shop in Lad Bazaar,Hyderabad 2. Lac bangles. Rangareddi district: Hyderabad: Lad Bazaar Products Bangles,Photo Frames Kalasha-pot Elephant figurines Tools Chimta-forcep Kathiya-plier Farma-mould Hatha-conical Wooden die Batti-furnace Scissors,Tongs

Crafts of WARANGAL Dhurrie weaving Painted scrolls of Cheriyal Nirmal painting Lace making Silver filigree Dhokra-lost wax metal casting Subclusters of WARANGAL Warangal district: Warangal Kazipet Cheriyal Pembarti Karimnagar district Adilabad district: Nirmal

RESOURCES craft Dhurrie weaving Raw Materials Cotton yarn Sources Coimbatore & Bangalore Nirmal Siddapur River Kazipet Karimnagar Utnor Local forests

Nirmal painting Tella poniki wood Mud Lace making Silver filigree cotton thread Silver

Dhokra crafting Barik matti(fine mud) Beeswax Brass

THE WARANGAL METACLUSTER consists of four districts-Warangal,Karimnagar,Nizamabad and Adilabadbelonging to the Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh.Chhatisgarh,Orissa and Maharashtra border the north.On the south they are bordered by the other districts of the Telangana region:Rangareddi and Nalgonda.Warangal was the capital of the Kakatiya rulers in 12th century AD.The Warangal Fort,the four Kakatiya gateways and the thousand pillar temple still stand testimony to this era.Warangal formed a part of the Nizam`s dominion,and later of the Mughals,who captured Golconda in 1725.It was an established centre for carpet weaving in the Deccan,supplying carpets and prayer mats to the Muslim royalty.Warangal,Adilabad and Karimnagar districts are the cotton-growing belt in Andhra Pradesh,which extends up to Maharashtra.There are a numnber of handloom and textile weaving units set up here.Sheet metal workshops existed during the rule of the Kakatiya rulers,when Kavacha or cladding and Vahana or Chariot were adopted and articles like vases and flowerpots were produced.The hilly regions of Adilabad are inhabited by tribes.This tribal area is continous with the tribal area of Bastar.The khonds of the Adilabad forests are ancient inhabitants of this area,most of them being metal casters involved in dhokra casting. ACCESS Hyderabad(140km)is the nearest airport to Warangal and it is well connected by road and railway to all the major cities.

1. Detail of the weft faced structure of a cotton dhurrie,showing the tapestry technique of weaving multiple wefts used in Warangal. 2. Filigree craftsmen in Karimnagar.The flattened wire of silver is bent using a special tool. 3. Professional dhurrie weavers in Warangal weaving on an outstretched warp in a pit loom. 4. A craftsman in warangal embossing a metal sheet. 5. Artisan making pin lace by interlacing threads wound on plastic shuttles.The lace is very fragile and is mounted on a drum.

Detail of a dhurrie woven in a weft faced plain weave structure.

Production Clusters Warangal district: Warangal: Kothawada Products Jainamaaz-prayer rugs Shattranji&Jamkhastrips dhurrie Patterned dhurrrie Ikat dhurrie Block printed dhurrie Tools Pit loom Frame looms

DHURRIE WEAVING DHURRIE WEAVING IS an established industry in Warangal with a large population of skilled weavers and facilities for dyeing.The jainamaaz,also known as a musallah or prayer rug,traces its ancestry to the earliest example of a flat weave rug that was acquired on loan from Jama Masjid in Bijapur for an exhibition in Delhi in 1903,which was left behind in 1686 by emperor Aurangzeb,in the mosque in Bijapur(in erstwhile Deccan).The tradition of using the jainamaaz,rug with a single mihrab(prayer arch motif)and saf(multiple arches)still used in mosques to pray on,has warranted a regular supply of these from the dhurrie weaving clusters in and around Warangal.Warangal has a thriving cottage industry producing the characteristic multicoloured dhurries using the weft interlocked technique.In recent years,ikat technique of patterning yarn and kalamkari prints were adapted to Warangal dhurries,extending the range of products.The designs that 1 The charm of the flat weave dhurrie lies in the simple stripe structure,and symmetrical placement of motifs and geometrical forms. 2 Cotton dhurrie woven in the weft-faced plain weave tapesty technique.The flat weave dhurrie is sturdy due to the compactness of the weft. 3 a,b,c,d Prayer dhurries with variations of the mihrab that have been creatively interpreted by weavers. 4 Jainamaaz,a prayer dhurries,24"X48" with a mihrab,an arch and a tree of life motif resembles musallahs of Deccan provenance; an antique textile from a private collection. 5 Detail of the mihrab motif,a superb interpretation of the prayer arches and minarets as seen in the jainamaaz from a private collection. 6 Jainamaaz were also woven in Rajasthan,Agra in Uttar Pradesh and Khambhat in Gujarat.The mihraab,single arch motif,symbolizing the prayer niche has been integrated with the stripes in an old jainamaaz from a private collection. are characteristic of Warangal dhurries are geometric,angular motifs used in tapestry weave structures,coloured horizontal stripes used in jamkhans and shatranjis and the mihrab motif in the jainamaaz and saf.The colours used are distinct with reds and blues used in combination with neutral colours.The designs range also has flat weaves with raised or extra weft patterns.The weavers belong to the Padmasali community and weaving is a hereditary occupation.Pit looms and frame looms equipped with multi-treadles are prevalent.A wide variety of dhurries are woven in cotton,jute and wool for export and the home market.The weavers are either organized in cooperatives or work independently.

PAINTED SCROLLS OF CHERIYALS Production Clusters SCROLL PAINTINGS ARE narrative pictures painted on cloth used by Warangal district: traditional storytellers who travelled through villages,reciting tales of Cheriyal legendary heros.They belong to a glorious narrative tradition of the Products Telengana region in northwest Andhra Scroll painting Pradesh.As these paintings are now confined to Cheriyal village,they are Mandheysavalu called Cheriyal scrolls.The Gollu-doll sets naqqash,artist,belonged to traditional Masks artist families lending to the scroll paintings,the name naqqashi,meaning painting.A characteristic feature of the Tools Telengana scrolls when compared with Brushes and other narrative scrolls is that they Watercolours depicted stories and legends from Hindu Scissors texts and mythology that were specifically linked to particular castes.The choice of episodes and iconography of each deity was set keeping in mind the caste for which the scroll was made.The traditional scrolls are normally in vertical format,illustrating stories in a series of horizontal panels separated by floral borders.Those using a horizontal format are divided into two horizontal panels.A floral border in the middle separates the two panels while the linear narrative is demarcated by a tree or a building.Single pictures meant for wall decoration and traditional Squirrel-hair brushes. Part of the Bhagavatam scroll depicting Krishna holding Mount Govardhan.

banners are the new products that have replaced the traditional scrolls.They are made on khadi cloth and the artists make their own sketching brushes with hair of squirrel or rat-hair tied to a vetherpulla ,stick.The artists also make masks and gollu -doll sets or mandheysavalu.

Masks called drishti bommala which are believed to ward off the evil.

Bhagavatam scroll narrating episodes from the life of Lord Krishna and his leela,divine acts.

An episode from the Mahabharata depicting Arjun who shoots the rotating fish above him by looking at its reflection in water kept in a container on the ground.

NIRMAL PAINTING THE ORIGINS OF NIRMAL toys are named after Neemanaik,a village headman,who manufactured weapons during the 14th century.He had a workshop where the manufactured weapons.Among his craftsmen were artisans who did wood carving and portrait painting.The Nawabs of Hyderabad tapped the skills of these craftsmen and became generous patrons of this craft.Interiors of royal residences were embellished with intricate glided designs that soon grew to be eponymous with Nirmal.For the Nirmal craftsmen,painting is a hereditary occupation.They were traditionally painters of ganjifa playing cardds,and toys.The ganjifa cards and the box for the cards are a speciality of the craftsmen.Nirmal designs have distinctive floral patterns similar to Mughal arabesques.The colour palette is sophisticated and the forms are bound by gold outlines.Earlier,the craftsmen used indigenious mineral and vegetable dyes for

Production Clusters Adilabad districts: Nirmal Products Pankhas-hand fan Palanquins Ganjifa set of 96 cards colouring their products.It is believed that they could even produce gold colour from herbal extracts.In more recent products,the floral designs are restricted to the borders.Niramal toys are made from soft,white and seasoned poniki wood,carved,joined ,finished and made ready for painting.Lappam,made of tamarind seed powder and fine poniki wood dust is applied for shaped and levelling the surface.Oil colours and watercolours are applied on a coat of white paint.colours and details are rendered to give the toys a lifelike quality and then they are varnished. Dashavatara set of 120 cards Furniture Paintings Fruits Animal Figurines Napkin rings Paperknives Jewel boxes Tools Rampam-axe saw Uti-chisel Shanam-carving tool Badisa-axe Thapey-primer applying tool Poovu akurai-files

1 Carved and painted toy tiger made in Nirmal 2 A paperknife shaped like a bird.Animals,birds,fruits and vegetables are painted naturalistically by Nirmal Craftsmen. 3 A traditional hand fan has a wooden handle which is attached separately.It is made from a palm leaf-its stem are laminated with cloth on both sides and treated with glue,smoothened ,painted and varnished. 4,5 Handpainted birds. 6 Detail of a panel that makes up a screen.The craftsmanship,the floral pattern and colours are rarely seen in the new products.

LACE MAKING Production Clusters Warangal district: Kazipet Products Doilies Bed Covers Table Linen Lace Tools Plastic bobbins Needles,Pins,Scissors. with openwork and is made with simple tools-threads wound on bobbins,pins and a tightly stuffed cushion.Pin lac or bobbin lace of Kazipet,is a surface made by intertwining threads and forming chains with the help of pins.It is finer and different from the crochet lace made in Narasapur,West Godavari district,which has a large cluster of crochet lace makers.Lac making was introduced to kazipet by a missionary as an occupational craft for women.The craftspersons in this cluster make a range of products for export to Italy. 1,2 Table mats and doilies are crafted by the lace making technique. LACE MAKING IS AN ancient craft which originated in Europe.It was introduced to other parts of the world by Christian missionaries whose vestments were decorated with lac.Lac was used as decorative edging and soon replaced embroidery as it was detachable,and it could transform dresses to follow different styles of fashion.A Lace fabric is lightweight,delicate

Part of an alb.

SILVER FILIGREE Production Clusters Karimnagar district: Karimnagar Products Fruit bowls Betel leaf holdders Trays Flower stands Ashtrays Vermillion containers Jewellery Buttons Tools Hammers Anvil Charkha-wheel Moulds Iron gauge Pliers Pincers Files Dividers Chisels 1. Detail of palakishti,a fruit bowl. 2. Paandaan,a box for storing betel nuts and leaves. 3. A container for kumkum or vermilion powder. THE PRACTICE OF silver filigree in Karimnagar is about two centuries old.Loops of thin silver wire are set in intricate wire.Earlier,silver ingots were beaten by hand on an anvil and oelongated into a long wire by passing it through a wire gauge.The finest wires are stll made in the old drawing technique,then twisted and flattened.A filigree object is a comnbination of a number of component parts that are pieced together.The main difference betweend the work of Karimnagar and that of Cuttack in Orissa is in the process.In Karimnagar,two round wires are intertwined adding tensility to the frame;in orissa only one square wire is used.The design used are derived is called the Karimnagar design which was known for delicate and exquisite craftsmanship.However,the present tendency is towards bolder designs.

4. Kishti,bowl,made in silver filigree.

DHOKRA-LOST WAX METAL CASTING Production Clusters THE CRAFTSMEN MAKE bronze and brass objects by an ancient casting technique called dhokra,wherein Adilabad district: a clay model is made as the core,over which,wax threads are wrapped around to form a layer.This is Adilabad: again covered by another layer of clay that is Jamgaon equipped with an opening.Molten bronze or brass is Keslaguda Ushegaon poured into this which melts the wax completely,replacing it with brass or bronze.The cast Chittalbori object requires the mould to be broken each time and Rampur therefore each object is unique.The dhokra craftsmen belong to the Woj community and make idols of local Products deities-Janghubhai,Bheemdev and Persiphen.The craft Gumela-vase has travelled from the Bastar region of Chhatisgarh which is contiguous to Andhra Pradesh and Chitti-measures Orissa,and shares a common vocabulary seen in the Bells slender and elongated metal figurines.There are around 60 families involved in thisd hereditary craft Jalkara-lamps in five villages around Adilabad. Namali deepamlamps Newari-anklets Animal figurines Guram figurineshorse Wallhangers Duparna-holder for lamps Gungroo-anklet bells Jadga-holder to throw seeds in the fields Chang-cattle bells Vothini-spoon Tools Chimita-tongs Dhukini-blow pipe Batti-furnacde Hatti-to make wax coils Hathodi-hammer Sancha-mould chakar pitha-to level the wax Rethi-files Moond kati-finishing tool Sonsi-perforated circular plates Pida-to collect wax from mould Bells of varying sizes are primarily made for farmers to bell their cattle. Masks

SHEET METAL WORK ITHADI NAKSHI KALA,brass sheet metal work,is an established craft of Warangal at Pembarthi and Rangasaipet since the rule of the kakatiya dynasty five centuries ago.The terms nakshi or nagshi in Telengana region and navshi in Coastal Andhra,have been adapted from naqqashi,the Urdu word for engraving.sheet metal is formed by beating and is embossed for crafting kavachas (claddings)for the idols,Vahanas(chariots)and icons.Specific chisels are used for embossingcreating a raised pattern and for giving depth and details by chasing or indenting. Sheet metal is beaten and formed into a container,and engraved.Nalgonda.

Production Clusters Warangal district: Warangal, Pembarthi, Rangasaipet Nolgonda district: Chandur Products Idols Trophies Kavacha-claddings Tools Chisels: Chakkadi mola-for straight lines Guttala mola-for round carvings Kannu mola-for finder details Cutting mola Batta mola -for depth Ubbettu mola-chisels for embossing in 20 sizes Moosa-crucible Pat karu-iron holder Box mould Garita-spoon Cement models

Primarily,a temple-related craft,a large number of souvenirs,plaques and trophies are also made by sandcasting.Where molten metal is poured into a mould made of refractory earth.The cast objects are finished and polished.Prominent motifs are the kakatiya gateway,mythological scences,the entourage of Rama,Buddha attaining Nirvana,hamsa or swan and floral motifs.All the craftsmen are from the Vishwakarma community,referred to as Kamsalis.Their ancestors were jewellers who crafted gold ,silver and bronze ornaments for deities.

Detail of Kirimukha,face of glory-a lion-like face,on the prabhavali or arch behind the deity.

Meauring jar.

Anklets form an important part of the ornaments worn by tribals in Telegana.

Icon of Goddess Durga embossed and engraved in Sheet metal ,Warangal district.

Subclusters of VISKHAPATNAM Viskhapatnam district: Viskhapatnam Etikoppaka Vizianagaram district: Bobbili Gollapalli Wadada Wadada Buditi Crafts of Visakhapatnam Metal work Jute craft Wood and lac turnery Veena-string instrument

RESOURCES Craft Jute craft Wood and lac turnery Raw Materials Jute fibre Wool:palakarra ankudu(Wrightia tinctoria) Metal work Brass and other alloys

Veena-string Panasakai-wood from instrument the jackfruit tree (Artocarpus heteropylla)

Kodugu-palm leaf sunshade for sale in Dharalapurdu market near Viskhapatnam.

VISAKHAPATNAM,also known as Vizag,is an important port in coastal Andhra Pradesh.The district is bordered in the Sources east by Bay of Bengal and to the north by vizianagaram and Srikakulam districts.Visakhapatnam was named after the God Buditi of Valour,Vishakha.Once a small fishing village,it formed a Srikakulam part of the Maurayan empire,under Ashoka in 260 BC,and Srikakulam Forests near passed on from the Andhra kings of Vengu to the Pallavas,Cholas and Gangas.In the 15th Etikopakka century,Vishakhapatman became a part of the Vijayanagara empire.It was transformed into a port town under the Bobbili,Vizianagaram British.Now a busting industrial and commerical city,it has the country`s largest ship building yard.In the northern part of the district are the limestone Borra Caves.To the east of these caves,is the Araku Valley which is home to several tribal communities known for their folk dances and colourful costumes.Ponduru in Srikakulam district,has a unique tradition of making khadi or handspun yarn from short staple cotton and handwoven muslins that are decorated with jamdani,brocaded motifs.Today,the skills of hand-spinning and weaving muslin are severly affected by the unavailability of short staple cotton,which could be cultivated in the region.Vernacular products like palm leaf umbrellas,sunshades and bamboo baskets made for farmers are particular to Visakhapatnam and Srikakulam districts.Well crafted Saraswati veenas,musical instruments,are made in Bobbili in Vizianagaram district,renowed for classical music.Etikoppaka on the coast,has a large population of turned wood and lac toy makers.Several techniques of metal casting and sheet metal forming are practiced in Buditi. ACCESS Visakhapatnam has its own airport and is well connected by rail and road.Viskhapatnam is 585 km from Hyderabad,the state capital.

1. Craftsman in Etikoppaka applying coloured lac to a turned object. 2. A brass vessel being beaten to shape in Buditi,where brass vessels and bronze cast idols are made. 3. Craftsman working on a lathe to make turned wood toys in Etikoppaka. 4. Craftsman making a miniature veena,a string instrument,in Bobbili.

WOOD AND LAC TURNERY OF ETIKOPPAKA IT IS BELIEVED THAT in Andhra Pradesh the craft of lac ware started about two centuries ago in Nakkapalli.Some of the craftsmen belong to the fifth generation of the founder Dimili Bangaram of Nakkapalli. The Vijayanagara kings,Rajas of Etikoppaka specializes in turned tocracy were its first patrons.Etikoppaka speicializes in turned wood lac-coated toys,including complete toy sets of cooking vessels,table-ware and furniture.The special items are mirrors in fancy frames and toy carts.In lac turnery,the seasoned wooden object is evolved in circular shapes on a lathe by the skillful manipulation of suitable hand tools,and coated with lac.The toy makers have marketed their ware in exhibitions,and several designers have collaborated with them to develop designs.The traditional toys were marketed in local fairs.Etikoppaka is a well known craft pocket in Visakhapatnam district with over 300 artisans engaged in the lac ware craft,who are in surrounding villages. Production Clusters Visakhapatnam district: Etikoppaka Yelamanchili Dimili Narayanapuram Kailaspatnam Products Toys Cutlery Jewellery Bridal boxes Stationery Tools Planer Saw Boring tools Inset Turned andlac-coated box. 1. Turned and lac-coated wooden bowl made in Etikoppaka to cater to the urban market. 2. Turned wooden containers using tree-based colours made by artisans in Etikoppaka.Research and experiments in developing tree-based colours have been done in the cluster. Cutting tools Hand drills Brushes Files Power and hand lathe

VEENA-STRING INSTRUMENT INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC HAS been an integral part of Indian culture evident from the innumerable treatises on music.The district of Vizianagaram played a pivotal role in the field of cultural activities.The ruler of Bobbili began the tradition of playing veena by providing training for musicians and he alos established veena-making workshops to train the craftsmen.The Saraswati veena,a string instrument made by craftsmen in Bobbili,Gollapalli and Wadada in Vizianagaram district and Nuzividu in Krishna district is unique for the quality of sound and the fullness of tone emanting from the instrument.The veenas made in Bobbili had reached a pinnacle in design with resonating sound worthy of talented veena maestros in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. It is made from a single piece of wood from the jackfruit tree,instead of in three pieces.The tapering end of the central bridge usually has a lion`s head carved on it.Plastic is now used instead of ivory and stag horn in the decoration done in inlay technique. 1. Detail of a Saraswati veena with a lion`s head at one end of the instrument`s neck,Nuzividu,Krishna district. 2. Veena made in Nuzividu,Krishna district,where artisans make the veenas. 3. Peacock-shaped veena.The swan and peacock are the mounts of Goddess Saraswati.The Bobbili veena is also called Saraswati veena. Production Clusters Vizianagaram district: Bobbili Gollapalli Wadada Krishna district: Nuzividu Products Saraswati veena Miniature veena Tools Axe,Saw Chisels Pliers Hand drill Calipers,Compass Files Planner Hand lathe

Production clusters Srikakulam district: Bejipuram Patharlapalli Gudem Lopento Patharanivalasa Products Hammocks Baskets Pouches Bags Dhurries Household articles Tools Wooden frame Wooden six-sided box as mould Dabbanamb-large needle Frame loom

JUTE CRAFT JUTE IS CULTIVATED in Srikakulam and Vizianagaram districts.Factories at Ponduru,Chiprapalle,Rajam,Vizianagaram and Chilakapalem purchase raw jute from farmers.The availability of the raw material,the potential of crafting products thus adding value to jute,and unemployment particularly among women in rural areas prompted the local administration to introduce jute craft to Srikakulam district.The women were trained in techniques such as macrame and plaiting using jute yarn.A dhurrie is also woven on the frame loom with the use of cotton yarn as warp and jute yarn as weft.Palm leaf and bamboo strips are combined with jute to make contemporary interior items.Most of the designs available are reproductions of designs in bamboo,palm leaf and banana fibres.Bejipuram is the chief craft cluster near Srikakulam.Prototypes of new products are displayed for the guidance of the artisans.At Tamada,attractive dhurries are woven with jute fibres.

1. Detail of a pot hanger made in the macrame technique.The fibrous character of jute lends itself very well to non-woven techniques such as macrame. 2. Bag made from jute braids which have been stitched together. 3. A seamless bag made by interlacing braided strips.

METAL WORK Production Clusters Srikakulam district: Buditi Nalgonda district: Chandur Chittoor district: Sri Kalahasti Products Utensils Idols Tools Box Mould Lathe Files Chisels METAL CASTING is a age-old craft of Andhra Pradesh.Chidipudi which is in Buditi post is the prominent cluster where lost wax metal casting.Sheet metal work and sandcasting using a box mould are practiced.Idols of deities are cast in bronze by the lost wax method.Earlier bell metal was used,which has been replaced by bronze and brass.Rising cost of metal,inferior quality of brass procured have affected the quality of products.Some of the artisans have formed Buditi Brass and Bell Metal Workers Industrialist Cooperative Society.Brass metals used for storing water are made by forging or shaping sheet metal by beating.The vessel is made of parts which are later joined by brazing.A flat circular base plate is heated in a furnace and gradually shaped by beating it to form half the vessel.The other half is similarly shaped from a flat circular form with a hole in the centre that eventually becomes the mouth of the vessel.The two halves are joined in the middle with a soldering solution and the vessel is finished and polished on a lathe.

1, 3 Pots for storing water. 2 A craftsman makes the mould by taking an impression of the pattern in tightly packed sand.The other part of the mould that contains the pattern to be cast,is placed on the floor. 4 Metal bowl made by sand box casting method in Buditi.

MACHILIPATNAM located on the coast of Andhra Pradesh,is the headquarters of the Krishna district.The rivers Krishna and Godavari render the region very fertile.The coastal area around Machilipatnam,known as the Coromandel Coast used to be famous for the export of Chintz,floral,dye-painted fabrics.The accounts of early Arab travellers describes the port of Machilipatnam where ships of many nationalities lay anchored in the harbour waiting to pick up the choicest of handwoven and printed fabrics,which they traded in the Far East for spices.A flourishing trade in vegetable dyed textiles existed between the Golconda region and Persia for centuries.In the 17th and 18th centuries,the Coromandel Coast,with Machilipatnam as its trade centre,was a chief producer and exporter of `tree of life` kalamkari,dye-painted textiles to western Europe.The Dutch trade in India was responsible for introducing crochet to Narasapur,a large crochet lace-making cluster today.Eluru in West Godavari,is a carpet weaving cluster.East and West Godavari districts are the rice bowl of the state.The river is worshipped as an embodiment of Goddess Saraswati,symbolizing prosperity,wealth and fertility.A wide range of traditional textiles is produced in the weaving belt of the East and West Godavari districts.Shadow puppetry usingd RESOURCES translucent leather puppets is a traditional performing art practiced in Narsaraopet.Prakasam and Guntur districts are the Raw Craft Sources largest producers of cotton and tabacco,with cotton weaving Materials and block printing in the riverine district.Durgi in Guntur Block printing Teak wood Pedana district has soft stone,out of which idols ranging from 6-12 inches in height are carved. Knotted Woollen yarn Bikaner,Ludhiana, Uttar carpet Pradesh ACCESS Cotton yarn Eluru The closest airport to Machilipatnam is Vijayawada.It is well Stone carving Soft Stone Durgi in Guntur district connected by rail,road and by sea. 1. Craftsmen in Narsaraopet with their leather puppets and wall hangings 2. Weavers washing carpets in Eluru. 3. Veena-maker`s house in Nuzividu in Krishna district which is a craft cluster of veena-makers. 4. A block carver in a workshop in Pedana,Krishna district.

Subclusters of Machilipatnam West Godavari district: Eluru Ndarasapur Palakollu Krishna district: Kondapalli Machilipatnam Vijayawada Nuzividu,Pedana East Godavari district: Rajahmundry Guntur district: Guntur,Durgi, Narsaraopet Prakasam district: Prakasam Chirala Crafts of Machilipatnam Block printing Telia rumal-yarnresist-dyed textile Knotted carpet Leather puppets Crochet work Wooden toys of Kondapalli

BLOCK PRINTING Production Clusters Krishna district: Machilipatnam Pedana Vijayawada Polavaram Products Prayer mats Kanat-tent linen Bed covers Lungi-sarong Dress materials Tools Wooden blocks Colour tray Bamboo lattice Brush DYE PAINTED FABRICS from the Coromandel Coast referred to as Machilipatnam paintings,were renowed export goods made for Europe and Iran during the 16th to 17th centuries.The fabrics were referred to as kalamkari as earlier the mordant was painted with a kalam,pen.These were replaced by block printing in the 19th century,creating more repetitive surfaces such as borders ,a field of scrolling florals and a central medallion(lotus),or prayer mats which were exported to Iran.Bed covers,linen and clothing for men and women were exported to Europe.Locally,kalamkari skills were used for producing prayer mats,and kanat or tent covers used by the Mughal rulers during their encampments.Blocks were made from seasoned teak wood and designs carved in relief by skilled artisans in Machilipatnam,Pedana and Vijayawada.Block printing was labour intensive and comprised several stages:preparing the cloth by bleaching,washing and dipping in myrobalam solution,printing with iron mordant (black colour) and alum mordant(red colour),dyeing in alizarin,starching cloth and painting yellow colour with a kalam,finally processing in alum solution for fixing all the colours.Red was derived from the chay root found in the sandy soils and was known for its long lasting quality.Craftsmen from Sri Kalahasti in Chittoor district also brought chay (Oldenlandia Umbrellata)root dyes from Machilipatnam.The cost of dyes and raw material has increased in recent times and the used of natural dyes has declined.Thered has been an erosion of the quality of printing.The present range consists of bedcovers,dhurrie and yardage for use in making garments.

Outline blocks,reveal the superb craftsmanship and floral imagery of kalamkari.

Tools : A wooden tray with a printing pad is made of a bamboo lattice bed covered with a layer of sponge and topped with a thin fabric.The dye or mordant is poured over the pad and extra layers of fabric are added to control the consitency of the dye.

An intricately carved wooden block reveals an expertise in block carving still prevalent in Pedana.The large size of the block and the mango buta or motif are distinctive of kalamkari prints. Detail of the outline,block printed in black made from iron filings and jaggery.

Craftsman working in a block making workshop,Pedana.

1. Detail of a bedcover showing a corner motif and wide range of borders from the kalamkari print repertoire. 2. Detail of a border printed with the large stylized mangod buta and variations of the mango buti. 3. Detail of a contemporary block print which echoes the chintz. 4. Detail of an antique Tree of Life-kalamkari panel that was exported from Machilipatnam in the 18th century.The panel is composed of a central tree with a sinuous trunk and flowering branches that grow from a mound of rocks,and flanked by peacocks or exotic birds.The visualization borrowed and combined stylistic elements from Persia,China,Europe and India creating a unique imagery that has become an everlasting source of inspiration for craftspersons and designers.

TELIA RUMAL-YARN-RESIST-DYED TEXTILE Production clusters Prakasam district: Chirala Nalgonda district: Puttapaka Koyalagudem Choutupal Products Double and single squared rumaal Sari-draped cloth Dupatta-veils Tools Maggam-loom Achhu-healds Panni-reed Aasu-warping frame Chitkipita-weft ikat frame Kami-throw shuttle Nadi-fly shuttle Raatnam-yarm winder 1. A modern interpretation of telia rumal developed for a sari.The sari is predominantly white with coloured borders and a pallu or cross border with squares based on the delta rumal traditions. 2. Telia rumal with a geometrical pattern woven with ikat or tieresist-dyed warp and weft. 3. Telia rumal with a chaupad or dice game design woven with double ikat and single ikat used in the field. 4. The inner square of the telia rumal with contemporary motifs such as clocks,birds and flowers. 5. Telia rumal,44x44" in size,with a pattern formed by tie-resist-dyed warp and weft stripes. 6. Rumal with motifs of mathikai,a local fruit,and mallipu or jasmine. THE TELIA RUMAL,chowka,square,Asia rumaal,indicate the cloth with patterns created by an exacting process of tying and dyeing the threads prior to weaving.Telia is derived from the use of tel,oil,that is used to soften the yarn in preparation for dyeing,and rumaal means a handkerchief.The cotton cloths measuring 44X44 inches were exported to Myanmar,west Asia and east Africa.The fishermen in Mumbai and Andhra used then as lungi (loincloth),turban or shoulder cloths.The telia rumaal has a square format enclosed by red broad borders.Within this concentric structure,are featured geometric and figurative designs in single and double ikat techniques in black,red and white.The wrap and weftd yarns were dyed in natural madder that was later replace with alizarin dye.After dyeing,the yarns were treated in oil to give them a deeper shade of red thus imparting an oily texture and smell.Telia rumal are woven in pairs.The rectangular telia dupatta was used as a veil by Muslim women and as a multipurpose cloth by men.Telia rumal has been the mainstay of ikat in Andhra.Having originated in Chirala,the skills spread to Nalgonda district where ikat weaving is more vibrant than in Chirala.The festival of India exhibitions and design interventions restored the artisty of telia rumaal and enlarged the vocabulary of ikat weaving in the region.

KNOTTED CARPETS ELURU WAS FAMOUS for natural colour carpets in white,black,brown and semiblack or grey,woven with a low density of knots,which were mainly exported to the United kingdom.These were known as Harham carpets and have been gradually replaced with multiple colours by designers.Carpet weavers from Iran are believed to have introduced carpet weaving to Machilipatnam and the skills later moved to Eluru.According to oral accounts,the reason for moving to Eluru was because the farmers had a luxuriant supply of a shrub called tangellamudi from which yellow dye was extracted.Indigo and majistha were also locally grown.The designs of carpets are named after the person who created them.Thus,very often they are called Hussain Khani,Amarkhani,Tabrioz and Kiraman.Designs are also named after flowers,creepers or plants-gul-e-abbasi,gulab khani.The colours range from pale colours to deep reds,blues and gold.Embossed designs are created by clipping forms in the carpet so that they are at different levels. 1. A weaving workshop in Eluru showing knotted carpets being woven on vertical looms. 2. Detail of a knotted woollen carpet showing the central medallion motif with a symmetrical composition of floral forms 3. Detail of a knotted carpet. 4. Detail of a carpet which has an embossed effect due to skillful cutting of the dense pile surface that gives it dimension. 5. A contemporary knotted carpet. Production Clusters West Godavari district: Eluru Products Carpets Chair Cushions Tools Frame for tying Rubber tubes Dye pots Vertical loom Charkha-spinnig wheel Churi-knife Panja-tool for beating weft Kainchi-scissors

LEATHER PUPPETS Production clusters Guntur district: Narsaraopet Anantapur district: Nimmalakunta Products Mythical figures Animal figures Lampshades Tools Waterproof drawing ink Watercolour brushes Ari-needle Scissors,Blade,Punch Sodit-engraving tool Chiru-chisel Rekini-bamboo pen Manal-pipe-shaped tool Neta-metal tool to mark outlines LEATHER PUPPETS OF Andhra are large and made from translucent goat skin.The details are painted in bright colours and perforations are added.They are used as shadow puppets.The leather puppet theatre or Tolubommalata developed in the 16th century under the patronage of Vijayanagara rulers.It was part of a cultural heritage since leather puppetry combined the plastic arts of painting and sculpture with theatre.It also demanded deft hands for manipulating puppets and puppet-making.The artisans migrated to Andhra Pradesh from Maharashtra during the Maratha rule.Their original occupation was agriculture and fishing.Episodes from the epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata are the popular themes selected.The performance commences with the entry of the Ganesha puppet whose blessings are sought for a smooth performance. Besides the main characters are also jokers who provide comic relief in the narrative,and chariots and horses are introduced for an effective performance.A thin white cloth measuring 12x9 feet lit from the back with a bulb or oil lamp functions as a screen.Bot sides of the puppet are painted to enhance projection of the figure.The puppet is inserted in between two bamboo splits for stiffness and for movement.The puppets range from 3 to 6 feet in size.With the advent of television and cinema,leather puppetry is on the decline and the puppeteers are diversifying into the production of miniature puppets,lampshades and other utility items.

King Ravana from the epic Ramayana.The detailing and stylization of the figures is similar to kalamkari,painted textiles.

Hanuman from the epic Ramayana. The puppet was made in Narsaraopet.

Performance with shadow puppets in Anantapur.

WOODEN TOYS OF KONDAPALLI ANDHRA PRADESH HAS a number of toy forms made in Kondapalli,Tirupati,Nirmal and Etikoppaka.kondapalli toys stand apart since the craftsmen specialize in regional themes taken from their immediate surroundings and the toys are made into sets of various sizes.The craftsmen belong to the Aryakshatriya community and toy-making is a hereditary occupation for them.The toys are small,mostly narrative,archivist and lively.Every small detail is meticulously carved and painted.The limbs are carved separately and later assembled.The toys are made of seasoned tella poniki wood,which is lightweight and easy to carve.Myhtology,rural life,birds and animals are the main themes.Toys representing women drawing water from a well,snake charmer,ambari elephant with a mahout,potters,and mythological figures such as Krishna and Dasavtara sets are also popular.Oral accounts suggest that artisans from Rajasthan were called to Kondapalli by a Zamindar,during the rule of Krishnadeva Raya in the 16th century. Painted camel. Production Clusters Krishna district: Kondapalli Products Ambari elephants Krishna dolls Wooden toys depicting people from two different communities.These toys imaginatively visualize occupations and customs of local communities. Toys depicting people of different generations. Ganesha dolles Birds Animals Palm trees Village sets Dasavtara sets-ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu Corporate gift boxes. Tools Files Chisels Saw Bow saw Carving tools Cutting tools

CROCKET WORK IT IS COMMONLY affirmed that lace craft is a modern introduction of India.The word crochet comes from croc,or croche,the Middle French word for hook.The modern art of true crochet as we know it today was developed during 16th century. It became known as crochet lace in France and Chain lace in England.Crochet lace is textile made from a single thread that is interlooped by means of a hook in such a way that a new stitch in made by drawing thread through the previous stitch.The surface grows in a circle,spiral or in a to and fro manner.Geometrical and floral motifs are mostly preferred in lace work.Crochet lace craft was introduced in early 20th century,by the Macrae couple from Scotland,to women in West Godavari district where it has proliferated.Within a short span it has grown into an export oriented industry providing direct employment to more than 70,000 women.Artisans are informed about market trends by traders,Government and development organizations who have helped them form into cooperatives,while some artisans have formed Self Help Groups. 1. Jainamaaz,a prayer mat from Hyderabad,made in the filet crochet technique.Filet crochet is a mesh pattern with certain spaces filled to form a motif.It uses certain stitches for the openwork and a different stitch for filling. 2. Caps worn by Muslims for their daily prayers. 3. A vest done in filet crochet style. 4. A tabular crochet bag. Production Clusters West Godavari district: Palakollu,Narasapur, Seetharamapuram, Tanaku,Poduru, Pedamadupalli, Madapadu Doddipattala, Olamparu, Mogalturu, Annavarpadu, Veeravasaram Products Bedsheets Pillow covers Sofa backs Garments Tools Crochet hook

Subclusters of Cuddapah Nellore district: Udayagiri Anantapur district: Anantapur Kurmool district: Allagadda

RESOURCES Craft Stone carving Raw Materials Black stone Granite stone Marble stone Wooden cutlery of Udayagiri Raja-rani dolls Devadari wood,Nardi wood,Bikki wood,Kali wood Sarcar koyya or Andhra Pradesh wood, Sinthaka wood, Red sanders wood Sources Mysore Kanchipuram Jaipur Locally available Cuddapah

Crafts of Cuddapah Wooden cutlery of Udayagiri Raja -rani dolls

A girl doing muggulu in front of her house in Anantapur.Muggulu is a ritual floor painting done on the threshold of the house and in front of the loom,to invoke god`s blessings for the well being of the family and also business.

CUDDAPAH,IS ONE OF the districts of Rayalaseema,a geographical and cultural region of Andhra Pradesh which includes the districts of Kurnool,Anantapur,Chittoor, and Cuddapah slate.It is situated on the south of the Pennar River and the city is surrounded on three sides by the Nallamalai and Palkonda hills.The name Cuddapah is derived from the Telugu word kadapa meaning gate.The city derives its name because it is the gateway from the north to the sacred hill temple of Sri Venkateshwara of Tirupati.It was part of the Chola empire during the 11th and 14th centuries,under the Nizams from 1565,until the British took control in 1800.Cuddapah has the shape of an irregular parallelogram,divided into two nearly equal parts by the range of the Eastern Ghats,which intersects it throughout its entire length.The forest area is home to timber,as well as rare Red Sanders wood.Cuddapah is rich in mineral resources like limestone and the famous Cuddapah stone.It was known for the cultivation of Indigo,extraction of dye from the leaves and preparation of indigo cakes which were sold to weavers in karnataka as well as used by the kalamkari painters.Indigo is cultivated in Eguvapalli,Patha Cuddapah,Chanduvai,Badvel Vaillur,and Atmakur villages.Besides extracting dye,indigo plant is exported to the Middle East as a hair dye and some farmers use it as manure. ACCESS Chennai is the nearest international airport to cuddapah.It is accessible by rail from Hyderabad and Chennai.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Craftsman in Laxmigaripalli carving a figurine from Red Sanders wood. Craftsman using a big chisel to carve the basic forms of the idol in stone in Allagadda. Artisan polishing the sculpted stone pillar in a workshop in Allagadda. Craftsman making brass vessels,Tirupati.

STONE CARVING THE STONE CARVING traditional in Andhra Pradesh dates back to the 2nd century BC when Amravati was an important Buddhist centre under the Satavahanas.Buddhists ,Hindu and Islamic architecture in the region stand testimony to this craft.The state has a huge resource of stone;famous among them are the Cuddapah slate and Durgi stone.The granite available in Andhra Pradesh is locally referred to as Krishnashila,and is the main material used for stone carving.Largely temple-related sculpture-vigraha or idols, and architectural elements such as lintels and pillars are carved in these clusters.The quality,scale and range of architectural carvings in Allagadda are extensive and are comparable to established centres of stone carving,as in Mamallapuram in Tamil Nadu.In Durgi,a village of Guntur district,due to the soft nature of the Durgi stone,sculptures are relatively smaller in size ranging between 6 to 12 inches and are not installed in temples.In Tirupati,cultured marble casts,though not indigenous to the region,have been introduced as a substitute for stone.The idols are smaller in size and cater to the piligrims.Fine chisels are used in Durgi for detailing the soft sandstone.The master craftsman passes on his knowledge according to the vaastuvidya tradition wherein the guru,master,guides his apprentices with spiritual and practical knowledge of the craft. Production Clusters Kurnool district: Allagadda Guntur district: Durgi Warangal district: Ramadugu Products Vigraha-idols Pillars Tools Metna-ruler Kaivaram-dividers Akurai-files Compass Emery paper 1. Soft stone sculpture of Santhana Nago-entwined snakes worshipped as a fertility symbol,carved by a craftsman in Ramadugu,Warangal district. 2. Idol of Saraswati,the Goddess of knowledge,cast from cultured marble,Tirupati. 3. A template drawn on wood,used to make identical pieces,Allagadda. 4. Soft stone idol of krishna carved by a shilpi in Durgi,Guntur district. 5. Idol of Dakshinamurthi carved by craftsmen in Allagadda. Measuring tape Sutti-hammer Uli-chisels Chisels for finishing: Chanam Bumper Cheernam Juguraku Pallavan

WOODEN CUTLERY OF UDAYAGIRI Production Clusters Nellore district: Udayagiri Products Sets of Forks and spoons Paperknives Glasses Keychains Hair clips Tools Rampam-saw Sutti-hammer Badisa-axe Gor uli-chisel Churi ka samaan-file Gol kaadi-pointed file Mukhonam akuraitriangular file Drill Lakidi ka guttamhammer Inset Spoon made from kaldi wood. 1a,b,c Fork,paper knife and spoons made from kaldi wood. 2a,b Set of carved and fretworked fork and spoons. 3 Bikki,kaldi and nardi wood used in making cutlery. UDAYAGIRI is well known for the carved wooden cutlery such as forks,spoons and knives.The craft is a hereditary occupation and the whole family is involved in the craft.The most commonly used material is the nardi wood and the other woods used are devadari,bikki chakka and kaldi chakka.The carving is done on the handle;holes are drilled according to the pattern of the design and files are used for finishing.The smaller spoons or the pallis are made out of nardi and bikki wood.Bigger spoons and forks are made out of harder wood called kaldi.They are used to serve curry and rice.The decoration on the handles are made by drilling holes according to the pattern and finishing with files.Although it would appear to be made using a fret saw,the cutout patterns are done entirely by drilling and filling.

RAJA-RANI DOLLS Production Clusters Cuddapah district: Koduru town: Laxmigaripalle village Products Traditional: Flower vases Jars Tumblers and glasses Raja-rani dolls Contemporary: Idols Furniture RAJA-RANI DOLLS are carved for the Dussehra Puja for the ritual of arranging dolls which is called bommalu kolueru.The dolls have a stylizded,traditional form,and apart from being decorative,have a ritual use.The raja-rani pair is adorned with jewellery and traditional costumes,and a mock marriage ceremony is conducted .This custom is also popular in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.Traditionally made of Red Sanders wood are known as Red Sandalwood,these dolls are now made of a substitute wood after the government`s ban on sandalwood.The dolls retain the natural texture of wood or at times are coloured black and polished.The wood is dyed red using chemical dyes to achieve the red sandal wood colour.Traditional products such as vessels and mortar and pestle were made,which have been men carve and the women do the finishing work.The carved idols are sold outside temples in Tirupati and Tiruchanur.

Tools Badisa-axe Hacksaw blade Olugu-to shave wood Chisels Nemulu Sanna chernam Chivay chernam 1. Figurines of raja,king,and rani,queen,carved in traditional style. 2. Rolu,the turned wooden mortar used to mash lentils. 3. Turned wooden container traditionally made from Red Sanders wood,Pterocarpus santalinus,is an endemic species found in dry deciduous forests of Andhra Pradesh mostly in cudddapah district.

PALM LEAF WORK PALMYRA,A TALL fan palm,yielding a hard wood and sweet sap,and a source of palm wine and sugar,is locally found in Nellore.The leaves are used for thatching and weaving.The central portion of the palm leaf,called moungu akku,is used in basketry.It is woven by women from the agricultural communities like the Malas and Madikas,and other communities such as the Mudraz,Muslims,Gowda,Vodera,Gammanla and Yadavas.The women artisans have been helped to form a palm leaf society as a part of the welfare schemes adopted to develeop local crafts and communities by non-governmental organizatons and with funding support from the government.Strips are also dyed to provide more pattens.Palm leaf strips are braided, plaited and interlaced in a variety of ways to create large 1. Palm leaf packaging made in Visakhapatnam district for storing agricultural produce is an unselfconscious form.The plaited structure is spherical in shape with a small circular opening and a flexible rim.This can be tied down to close the opening. 2. Palm leaf strips are gathered at the top of the cone in a radial manner.The other end of the strip is folded over the rim to be stitched down with a thong. A second row of stitches accentuates the conical shape of a hat and umbrella made for farmers and shepherds in Viskhapatnam adn Srikakulam districts. 3. Palam leaf container with a lid,made by women working at the Palm leaf society, a cooperative of palm leaf artisans. 4. A conical basket made by the coiling technique.The design was introduced for the export market. 5. Flower baskets with a handle.Some of the strips have been dyed to create an interesting pattern. containers for agricultural uses.The material is versatile and the local people have transformed it into numerous applications and forms such as umbrellas,hats,sunshades and large baskets.For contemporary markets and handicrafts emporia,a large range of baskets,trays and coasters are made using the coiled binding process.Here a spiralling core of palm leaf strands is wrapped around by another moving strip,which interlocks consecutive coils in a series of knots.The shape of the basket or tray is stringing forms,like in a garland,have been adapted to make Christmas decorations and as door curtains. Production Clusters Nellore district: Nellore Mattempadu Venkateshwarapuram Products Vases Wallhanging Trays Mats Garlands Basket with handle Shopping baskets Jadi-jar cover Pen holders Beer mug holders Tools Machine for splitting leaf Knife Blade

Subcluster of CHITTOOR Sri Kalasti Chittoor Madanpalli Crafts of CHITTOOR Kalamkari Bronze casting Terracotta Wood carving

RESOURCES Craft Raw Materials Sources Bahadurpet,Salipeta Chennai Kalamkari Sari Natural dyes: Myrobalam

Handwoven cloth Naryanapuram

Surul pattai Assam (powdered bark) Bronze casting Copper, Brass, Rajamundry Zinc, Gold, Silver Maelmayi,kothapalli and Malleru Locally available

Terracotta Clay Wood carving Mango wood,Seema, Sindha rapali wood, Neem wood Imported wood Teak wood Riverbed teak

CHITTOOR IS SITUATED IN the geographical and cultural region of Rayalseema that has irregular and scanty rainfall where droughts are a regular feature.However,commercial agriculture temples around the region suc as Tirumala,Sri Kalahasti adn Kannapa.The Shiva Temple of Sri Kalahasti supports a number of crafts such as stone carving and stringing of garlands.Sri kalahasti has been famous for painted temple cloth hangings,kalamkari panels,used as screens,canopies and to decorate chariots.The painters followed the older traditions of mural painting on the walls of the temple in Lepakshi in Anantapur district and evolved distinctive formats on cloth to illustrate religious themes and the epics.Shri Venkateshwara Temple in Tirupati is a sacred site visitied by thousands of Pilgrims,Icons of Lord Venkateshwara or Balaji,a form of Lord Vishnu,are made as souvenirs in stone,bronze and brass plaques and papier-mache .The theme of Dasavtara,ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu are depicted in kondapalli toys,ganjifa playing cards,kalamkari,stone and wood carvings and Cheriyal scroll paintings,Madanapalli town is on a higher altitude and has a small population of potters. ACCESS Chittoor is well connected by road and railways.The nearest airport is in Chennai.Madanapalli and Sri Kalahasti are well connecte by bus from Chittoor.

Chennai Maharashtra & Nigeria

Bhadrachalan & Kerala Images of Lord Venkateshwara,the presiding deity at Tirupati,are made in a variety of materials and techniques as souvenoirs for pilgrims who visit the sacred temple town in thousands.Seen here is a brass plaque made by metal craftsmen in Chandur,Nalgonda district. 1. Detail of a painting done on the wall of a Rama temple in Sri Kalahasti. 2. An artisan making the handle of a flower basket made in a palm leaf.Over one hundred women have been trained in palm leaf work and have been organized into a Palm leaf Society in Nellore. 3. A kalamkari craftsman making a sketch with a charcoal on cloth in Sri Kalahasti,well known for the traditional of the kalamkari painted textiles. 4. Potter in Guntavoor making wheel-thrown clay pots.

KALAMKARI-DYE PAINTED TEXTILES KALAMKARI refers to the mordant painted and dyeing traditions done with a kalam,pen.A unique form of resist dyeing,kalamkari is a part of a traditional of figurative and narrative paintings used in temples.The dyeing used metallic salts called mordants to bind the dye to the cotton fibres.What distinguishes kalamkari panels in Sri Kalahasti from other cotton paintings is the used of multicoloured mordant dyeing and human figure drawing.The process of Kalamkari is long drawn and consists of eighteen stages done over a period of sixty days.Favourable climatic conditions and flowing water are also necessary.Traditional themes are depicted from the epics or Puranas,stories of gods.The entire epic is depicted through several stories and each episode is depicted in horizontal panels,featuring the principal deity or episode.A single icon depicting a deity or deities,is also painted.Blue is associated with deities;red with demons;Hanuman is depicted green; 1. Detail of a large kalamkari panel depicting the leela,divine acts,of krishna.Seen here is Lord Krishna stealing butter and distributing it to his friends.A contemporary example from Sri Kalahasti. 2. The outlines of the figures are drawn by a kalamkari craftsperson who uses a kalam,pen to paint the iron mordant(for obtaining black colour)on a fabric that has been treated with myrobalam solution. 3. Mural detail depicting a deity,Veerabhadra Temple, Lepakshi.The narrative style and the depiction of figures and details such as the clothing have influencedd the kalamkari tradition. 4. Raw Materials used for preparing natural dyes. Tools : A kalam with pointed tip is made for drawing and painting outlines and the flat nib is used for filling in colour.a compact ball of hair or fibre absorbs the liquid dye that is guided by the pointed tip. 5 Detail from the horizontal kalamkari made in 1978.Two panels depict episodes from the epic Ramayana.Blue is used to represent Rama. 6 Detail showing Rama and Sita flanked by devotees-kalamkari panel produced in 2002. Production Clusters Chittoor district: Sri Kalahasti Products Traditional: Temple screens Wall panels of mythological themes Contemporary: Wall panels of Jataka and Panchatantra themes Sari-draped cloth Dupatta-stole Stationery Photo frames Thoranam-doorway hanging Handbags Spectacle cases Tools Wooden stick Copper vessels Kalam / Kuchi-Brush

yellow is used for the female body colour and also for gold ornamentation.Animals and geometrical designs are traced in black outline against a white background.Moving away from depicting mythological figures within a canonical style,the artists have used their creative skills both in terms of illustration and color palette in depicting the jataka and Panchatantra panels.Stories from the lives of Buddha and Christ,have been introdued in recent years.

BRONZE CASTING Production clusters Chittoor district: Chittoor Tiruchanur Dornakambala Products Idols of gods and goddesses Idols of folk deities Tools Hammers Chisels Files CLUSTERS FOR BRONZE casting in Andhra are located in the belt between Tirupati and Chittoor: Dornakambala,Tiruchanur and Chittoor.Dornakambala is known for its miniature idols which are mass produced and sold at piligrim centres.Tiruchanur and Chittoor clusters are known for lost wax casting in bronze.Details like ornaments are only modelled in the outline and are chiselled after the metal is cast.The craftsmen are also proficient in techniques that involve repousse work on sheet metal.To gain proficiency,the craftsman has to undergo training in drawing,knowledge of iconography,learning shlokas (verses)to know the A kavacham,ritual attire that adorns deities,for Lord Hanuman,made of sheet metal,Chittoor.Craftsmen from this region are as technically equipped to cast idols,as they are to design other products from sheet metal.Craftsmen use brass sheets and often recycle metal from scrap. 1. Idol of Hanuman cast in tribhang pose,the body bent at the knee,hip and neck.The form is reminiscent of the Chola bronzes. 2. Cast idol of Ganesha.The prabhavali or arch depicts the aureole and the kirtimukha,lion-like face,in the centre symbolizes the deity`s glory and also wards off evil. bhava(expressions),working on the wax model to gain confidence about the form and details.The crafts is strictly governed by the conons of iconography and iconometry.They are well versed in many south Indian sculptural styles such as Hoysala,Chola and Vijayanagara styles.Being a traditional craft,the products are religious in character.

TERRACOTTA Production clusters Chittoor district; Palamner Madanapalli Products Water Pots Animal figurinesElephants,Horses Tools Sari-potter`s wheel Sieve Kiln Stick TERRACOTTA POTS ARE made by the potters belonging to the Kumbara community who have migrated from Kannipatakkam village.The clay is got from ponds nearby and the products are made traditionally with the wheel.There is a distinct divide between the work allotted to men and women.The men traditionally throw on the wheel while the women create the design on the pots.In recent years,the 1. A Contemporary form in terracotta developed by a designer in collaboratin with the potters of Guntavoor in Chittoor. 2. Large elephant figures are made by potters. Different part are thrown on the wheel and joined together and decorated,and details added by the hand-modelling process. 3. Unfired wheel-thrown pots and planters left to dry before being coated with diluted clay slip and fired. craftspersons have diversified into making sculptures.In case of large sculptures like horses,the pieces are made separately,either on the wheel or by the coiling method.Most of the ornamentation is added on the surface by the women,and design are incised around the neck of the pot.The traditional shapes of the pots have been retained and by adding embellishments on the surface are being transformed into vases.

WOOD CARVING THE RANGE OF wooden crafted products in Chittoor consists of idols,carved wooden furniture,wooden panels and simply fashioned articles such as combs and white wood bird figures.Raw material is available in the surrounding forests of Tirupati and Sri Kalahasti.Red Sanders,Rakta chandhanam,grown around Tirupati and other local timbers are used.A characteristic feature of wooden products in Andhra is the softness of the wood varieties used in Nirmal,Kondapalli and Etikoppaka toys.In wood carving at Sri Kalahasti the craft has been practiced by Acharya families who branched out from Madhavamala,near Tirupati,Tiruchanur and Madhavamala are noted for the production of religious carvings and dolls.carving of temple chariots was also part of the tradition.The sthapathi in Sri Kalahasti are proficient craftsmen.White teak wood(Gmelina arborea),found in the Deccan peninsula has been carved into figurines of 1. Carved wooden bracelet made by traditional craftsmen in Sri Kalahasti. 2. Detail of a carved and painted idol of Shiva.The expressive details such as his hair,Goddess Ganga,fierce eyes,and snake have symbolic meaning. 3. Figure of a bird feeding its young,carved in white teak wood. 4. A carved comb made as a votive offering to a Goddess and also given as a gift duringd marriage ceremonies. 5. A simple wooden comb used for combing oiled hair. 6. Carved,painted and varnished idols of Radha and Krishna made by traditional craftsmen of Sri Kalahasti. white wood birds,the choice of wood being appropriate for the form and theme.A variety of combs are made.The usage of Pala wood is specially noticeable in the combs crafted at Sri Kalahasti and lac turned objects at Karlapudid.The designs are largely based on Etikoppak,Visakhapatnam,Channapatnam and Bangalore turnded wood products ranging from toy stands, holders, salt-and-pepper shakers, pen stands and eggcups to kumkum or vermilion container,a product which is adapted to cater to pilgrim centres around the regions-Sri Kalahasti and Tirupati.

Production Clusters Chittoor district: Sri Kalahasti Products Figurines and panel sculptures of idols Pillars Corner bracekets Door panels Furniture sets Tools Sutti-hammer Uli-chiselsd Files Goru charnamscooping tool Rekala-carving tool Matta gor chernamfile Vanke chernam-file Akurai-files Compass Rampam-saw

Districts - 30 Craftspersons - 0.87 Lakhs Tamil Nadu is one of the most industrialized and urbanized states of India. To its east is the Coromandel Coast which is a vanguard of India`s maritime hsitory. Traders and merchants used its ports to come to India for textiles and spices. The Eastern Ghats in the north meet the Western Ghats at Nilgiris. The Bay of Bengal meets the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea at Kanyakumari in the South. At its heart lies the perennial River Kaveri, central to Tamil culture. Tamil Nadu is the land of temple towns, classical music and dance, and religious processions. Tamil is the oldest surviving Dravidian lanuguage. Dravidian culture has been preserved in its classical form more than anywhere else in India, despite significant external influences from Brahmanism, Jainism, Buddhism and Christianity. The region witnessed the reign of powerful dynasties like the Chera, Pandya, Chola, Maratha, and the Vijayanagara kings. The British rule began in the 17th century with the establishment of the East India Company in Madras, now called Chennai, which paved the way for transformation. The rock-cut monoliths in the Mammallapuram are witness to an ancient stone carving tradition, kept alive through temple building and sculptures. The murals in many of these temples are proof of an ancient tradition of painting in South India. These temples played a pivotal role as they patronized many crafts such as bronze casting, stone carving, stucco work, wood carving, brass work, silver and gold claddings for deities, and applique. The region has prolific, varied and living textile traditions in cotton and silk. The Chettinad region, comprising Karaikudi and Devakottai towns and villages in Sivaganga district, is distinguished by large ornate mansions with intricately carved wood work. The Nilgiri Hills are home to many tribes, of which the Todas are the most remarkable with their distinct culture. Inset : Detail of a carved stone pedestal which supports the wooden pillar made from Burma teak, at the entrance of a Chettiar mansion, belonging to a member of the business community called Chettiars. 1. Flowers offered at the foot of Yali, a mythical creature carved on the colonnaded pillars along the central hall, Minakshi Temple in Madurai. 2. The ancient Church of the Holy Cross in Manapad has a fragment of the True Cross brought from Palestine. 3. The mansions of the merchant community of Chettiars, are a repository of wood, stone and terracotta craft styles of the region. Wooden pillars resting of lotusshaped stone pedestals support a system of wooden beams and rafters over the verandah that opens to a large inner courtyard in Karaikudi.

CRAFTS - TAMIL NADU Palm leaf work Kora mat weaving Seashell craft Bobbin lace Kavasam - sheet metal cladding Stucco work Stone carving Wood carving Silk garland making Handmade paper products Pottery Crochet and bead work Leather work Thanjavur glass painting Doll making Bronze casting Villaku - brass lamps Brass repousse Bell metal ware Thanjavur kalamkari Pallagai padam Thanjavur painting Nadaswaram - wind instrument Veena - String instrument Root carving Pith work Cut glass work Terracotta and pottery Applique Sungadi - tie resist dyeing Muthangi - pearl studded attire Brass ware Soapstone ware Woollen druggets Bhavani dhurrie Toda embroidery Rayon dhurrie Bamboo flutes Landmarks Shore Temple, Mamallapura Brihadishvara Temple, Thanjavur Minakshi Temple, Madurai Natraja Temple, Chidambaram Basilica of San Thome, Chennai Dakshina Chitra Chettiar Mansions, Karaikudi Auroville Cholamandalam Artists` Village, Chennai Kalakshetra, Chennai Mangrove forests, Pichavaram

Languages Tamil Urdu Festival Pongal-harvest festival Karthikai-auspicious full moon teppam (float)festival Thyagaraja music festival Vellanganni festival Thirupalli Ezhuchi Kanchipuram is an important silk weaving cluster.Seen here is a medallion brocaded in zari,gold thread,on a mulberry silk ground,that was developed for the Visvakarma series of exhibitions organized between 1982-1992 for reviving the market for high value craftsmans. At Madhurai`s Minakshi Temple,the floor is decorated by devotees with kolam,ritual floor paintings made in courtyards,to invoke god`s blessings.The basic proportions and design are decided by an underlying grid of symmetrical dots.The pattern of interlocking lines is drawn in continuous loops. Maha Shivaratri Garudotsavan Maham Attire Men: Veshti-lower garment Angavastramshoulder cloth Women: Pattu pavadal-silk skirt Thavani-half sari Cuisine Puliyodharaitamarind rice 4 A toda woman wearing a poothukuli,embroidered mantle. 5 The todas are one of the tribes that live in the Nilgiris.Their unique barrel-shaped huts made of bamboo,grass,cane and wood,have a very small doorway and a single room. 6 Terracotta votive figures of Ayyanar and elephant figures,in Virachalai Temple in Karaikudi.The rituals and terracotta crafts are related to Ayyanar,a prominent folk deity worshipped in the region.The animal figures represent the tallest terracotta structures in the world. Biodiversity Mangrove forests Flora: Teak,Palmyra,Rubber Sandalwood,Coconut, Jasmine,Mango Kora grass Fauna: Elephant, Tiger, Horse, Cow, Monkey, Deer, Swan, Peacock, Parrot Physical Features The Deccan Plateau The Coramandel Coast The Western Ghats Major Rivers: Kaveri, Palar, ,Cheyyar, Ponnaiyar, Meyar, Bhavani, Amravati, Vaigal, Tampraparani Menthaya kuzhambufenugreek curry Vepampoo rasamneem flower soup Kariveppilai podicurry leaves powder Pongal-cooked rice & lentils

Subclusters of Kanniyakumar Kanniyakumari district: Kanniyakumari Nagercoil Suchindram Tirunelveli district: Tirunelveli Pattamadai Crafts of KANNIYAKUMARI Palm leaf work Kora mat weaving Seashell craft Bobbin lace Kavasam-sheet metal cladding Stucco work Stone carving Bobbin lace Stone carving Craft Kora mat weaving

RESOURCES Raw Materials Kora grass Cotton thread Cotton Thread Black Granite Sources Banks of the Tampraparani Ambasamudram Nagercoil Thingampothai and Amaravathivillai

KANNIYAKUMARI TOWN IS the southernmost tip of India which is at the confluence of the Bay of Bengal,Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea.Bounded by Tirunelveli in the east and Kerala on the northwest,it is believed to be the aboded of Kumari,the Virgin Goddess.Th 8th century Kumari Amman Temple dedicate to her is a popular pilgrimage centre and the hub for many indigenous crafts like metal claddings for deities,palm leaf and seashell objects.Palm grows profusely in the region and fibre from its leaves used in basketry and packaging,has been developed into a sustainable craft.Christian missionaries have introduced crafts like bobbin or pillow lace and embroidery.Suchindram is a small temple town closely linked with the legend of the Kumari.Stanumalaya Temple dedicated to the Hindu trinity,Brahma,Vishnu and Shiva has massive brightly coloured gopurams or gateways embellished with sculptures depicting stories from the epics.Suchindram is a flourishing centre for stucco and sheet metal work mainly commissioned by temples in Tamil Nadu and Kerala.Tirunelveli is in the fertile tract fed by the River Tampraparani and paddyd is the main crop of the region.Tirunelveli is the district headquarters dominated by the Kanthimathi Nellaiyappar Temple complex.During the Annual chariot festival,which attracts thousands of devotees,the temple`s chariots are led in procession through the town.Pattamadai village is famous for its fine quality floor mats made of kora or sedge grass which grows in abundance on the fertile river banks.

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ACCESS Kanniyakumari has road and rail connections with Chennai (635km),Madurai and all other towns in the state.The nearest A farmer uses a palm leaf basket for carrying and storing groundnuts cultivated in his airport is Madurai(235km). field in Vallikulam,Ambassamudram. Woman wearing solidd gold earrings,Tirunelveli. Palmyra palm trees in Tirunelveli are used to make baskets,winnowing trays and fans. Craftsperson weaving a kora grassd mat on a horizontal floor loom at a mat weaversd` cooperative society in Pattamadai. Image of Infant Jesus made in papier-mache moulding,at a roadside shrine in Karumkulam

Production Clusters Tuticorin district: Manapad Kanniyakumari District: Kanniyakumari Ramanathapuram district: Ramanathapuram Chittarkottai Devipatnam Rameshwaram Kilakkarai Thirupullani Sekharnagar PALM LEAF WORK Palmyra is an important and significant tree of Tamil Nadu.Palm Leaf products are ecofriendly.Hence,programmes have been formulated with a long term view to grow and protect palmyra trees and to develop products using skills that help sustain rural communities. The palm leaf workers in Manapad are all craftswomen from Christian Nada,Hindu Nadar and Barnalalkkal communities who work from home.Green leaves are harvested and dried in the sun.The midrib is separated from the palm leaf and the leaf is cut into strips of varying widths.A section of midrib is folded over and used as a die to make uniform splits from the leaf.Strips are also dyed for ornamentation.Baskets and products are shaped either by weaving or coiling strips.The craft traces its origin to a rough palm leaf bag for storing onions which was exported in plenty from the kulasai harbour.The Paravars,a local fishing community who practised palm leaf basketry,introduced new products deriving ideas from goods that were imported from Sri Lanka.These nesting containers,boxes with libs,bins and trays have come to be associated with Manapad.The palm leaf cooperatives in Manapad supply to export markets and to retailers in Chennai and Bangalore who have developed new designs in collaboration with craftspersons.Palm leaf baskets for storing rice,fish and agricultural products,winnowing trays and pouches for betel nuts are made in several southern districts such as Tirunelveli,Ramanathapuram and Madurai.Of these , the woven baskery items made in Ramanathapuram for dowry have a distinctive character. Inset : Water pitcher made form a single freen palm leaf buched and bound to form a central handle.Such products are made for everyday use in Nagercoil. Dowry basket with an elaborately plaited lid and made from palm leaf strips,is used by the Muslim community usually produced in sets of nesting baskets,Thirupullani. Products Traditional: Dowry baskets Winnowing trays Hand fans,Rattles Pouches Storage baskets Contemporary: Bags,Bins,Boxes Ball Rattles Bowls,Nesting boxes Coasters,Dishes,Trays Christmas decorations Hats Purses Tools Needles Different stages in development of seer petti,dowry baskets,used by the bride`s family to gift rice to the groom`s family in Ramanathapuram. Metal scrapper Pen Knife

Nesting palm leaf trays made for the export and urban markets, Tirunelveli. Nesting containers made by the coiling technique using palm leaf strips of varying widths, Tirunelveli.

A large soft and pliable basket for carrying babies, Tirunelveli.

KORA MAT WEAVING Production Clusters Tirunelveli district: Pattamadai Kanniyakumari district: kanniyakumari Products Mats Table mats Wall Hangings Made ups: Bags, Coasters Hand fans, Folding mats Tools Basin Charkha-spinning wheel Chatti-mud pot Knife,Tablespoon Loom Mathu-mortar Metal vessel Parivattam-device for winding varn Planks Polishing stones Porcelain cup Pudi thalai-drawing wheel GRASS PAI , MATS , made from finely split korai(Tamil) or Kora ( Malayalam ) woven in Pattamadai,are refered to as pattu:the fine splits rendering then as smooth as pattu,silk.Pattamadai is home to the Labbai and Rowther communities who are known for weaving of fine kora grass mats.They had embraced Islam during the Muslim invasion.The Labbais were originally preachers of Islam who became traders and took to mat weaving several generations ago.According to local sources,the development of fine quality mats is attributed to Hassan Bawa Labbai a century ago when he discovered that kora grass could be split very fine,equivalent to 120 count instead of the earlier 30-40 count.The processing of Kora grass in the water of Tampraparani and the fine splitting of the grass have made the mats of Pattamadai famous.Soft,pliable kora mats are only woven in Pattamadai as the water of Tampraparani River helps to soften the kora grass and make finer splits.Only women weave mats and the craft is passed on from a mother to her children.Harvested grass is processed and cut into fine splits and woven into cotton warp that is outstretched on a floor loom.The designs are influenced by the traditions of sari weaving and the weft faced Bhavani dhurrie.Dyed splits are used in contrast with the natural colour of the grass.A few designs are done using tie-dyed splits such that the colour is localised to the motif.Grass splits are soaked in water before weaving.After weaving,the weft is moved closer for a uniform,compact surface.The weaving of pattu pai requires craftsmanship and creativity.A pair of pattu pai are gifted to the bride by her parents.Pattu perupai are woven with the names of the bride and groom and given as gifts at Brahmin weddings.

1. Detail of a pattu pai woven with finely split kora grass. 2. A reversible mat woven with black and natural colour kora grass. 3. Kora or sedge grass belongs to the family of Cyperaceae and is cultivated is Thiruchirappalli. 4. Folding mats are joined and finished by tailoring the edges with cloth piping.

Detail of kora grass mat with horizontal bands.The geometrical motifs require craftsmanship and time to weave as the pattern is manually picked up without the help of any mechanism for patterning.

Detail of reversible kora grass mat woven for the export market.

Production Clusters Kanniyakumari District: Kanniyakumari Kanchipuram district: Mamallapuram Products Paperweights SEASHELL CRAFT Enamel paints are also used to add designs on the shells.Some KANNIYAKUMARI situated at the confluence of the Bay of damaged shells are sold as dhrishti porutkal which are Bengal,Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea is great source for many attached to a thread and lemon and green chilles and kinds of seashells which have attained over time cultural and suspended in doorways to ward off evil. religious significance.Some shells are sold in their natural forms - valampuri and edampuri sanghu , conch shells 1, 3 Decorative products made of seashells,Kanniyakumari. associated with Lord Vishnu and Goddess Shakti.Both shells 2 Seashells,Mamallapuram. are buried below the front steps of the house so that the residents are blessed with wealth and good health.Shells of different sizes and shapes to make attractive products,decorative items.the shells are cleaned and ground to smoothen the edges. Pen Stands Keychains Toys Lamps Mirrors Birds and flowers Door curtains Ganesha images Dhrishti porutkal-to ward off evil Tools Bench grinder or electric brush Channakal-grinding stone

BOBBIN LACE BOOBIN LACE ALONG with embroidery was brought to the kanniyakumari region by Christian missionaries from Belgium and England.In Christian families , the younger women inherit this skill from their mothers and grandmother.Bobbin lace,known also as pillow or pin lace,is inextricably linked to Christian festivities.Occasions such as baptisms and weddings call for the display of intricate lace work.Lace kerchiefs may be folded and placed on the top pocket of the groom`s suit or used as napkins to carry the baby during the baptism ceremony.Bobbin lace is woven in paris of threads that are wound on bobbins.two stitches are used - half and whole stitch.

Christian symbols such as the cross in varying widths and sizes,and motifs such as Mary with Jesus and the lambs were used as designs.Over a period of time , varying floral designs based on sunflowers,dandelions,pansies,ferns and animals such as butterflies,swans and fawns have been developed. Bobbin Lace Tea Coater, Kanniyakumari

Production Clusters Kanniyakumari district: Kanniyakumari Mulagumoodu Azhagiamandapam Kootamavu Product Border lace Caps,Insertion lace Frocks Doilies Linen Blankets Triangular pillow corners Pillow covers Borders Tools Large pillow Pins Needle machine Pillow stand Cardboard

1. Detail of the fragile lace border attached to the fabric. 2. Lace borders are attached to square pieces of fabric to make table mats. 3. Bobbin lace made by intertwining multiple threads.

KAVASAM-SHEET METAL CLADDING Production Clusters Kanniyakumari District: Nagercoil Madurai district: Madurai Thanjavur district Swamimalai Kanchipuram district: Mamallapuram Products Kavasam-claddings Vohanam-mount for the deities Dvaja stambha-Flag poles Tools Uli-chisels Hammer,Die-punches KAVASAM OR KAVACHAM in Sanskrit literally meaning armour,are beaten sheet metal cladding made of silver or brass,sometimes with gold leaf surfaces.They are used on stone idols,temples,wooden chariots,gopurams,towers and doorways on special occasions.They are custom made for the ideols from the respective moulds of cement that are used as the base.Intricate patterns are embossed and details are chased on the sheet,which is embedded in lac.The finished kavasams are sent to workshops in Madurai for gold layering or they are sent to the temple jewellery cluster in Vadaserry for gold plating.Nagercoil in Kanniyakumari district has been a major craft centre where all the five crafts namely, wood, stone, goldsmithy, blacksmithy and vessel-making with metal work being the most prominen are practised by the Vishwakarma community.Besides temple related products,masks and images of village deities taken out during processions are made for the local market,and miniature cars and houses used as votive offerings in Christian churches. Tools Hammer and several types of chisels are used for embossing sheet metal,Kanchipuram. 1. Kavasam for Vishnu`s hand holding a rudraksha or uthracham,bead necklace,Mamallapuram. 2. Sheet metal cladding for Ayyanar,a prominent tribal deity of Tamil Nadu,Nagercoil. 3. A brass sword made from sheet metal,Nagercoil.

STONE CARVING Production Clusters Kanniyakumari District: Mylaudy,Suchindram Madurai district: Madurai Kanchipuram district: Mamallapuram Products Vigrahams-icons for temples Vahanas-mounts for deities Peedam-pedestals Lifesize statues of leaders Tombstones Commemorative plaques Flooring stone Made by stone carftsmen in Mylaudy, grinding stones used for wet grinding is an essential implement for home kitchens, which is now being rapidly replaced by electric stainless STONE CARVING has been an ancient craft in Kanniyakumari district due to the patronage of religious architecture and sculpture by the ruling dynasties of south india.Black and red granite are locally available and are used in carving tombstones,letter and gravestones,idols of deities and grinding stones.Stone carving of idols is closer to the kerala style since the region was once part of the Travancore state and patronage was and still is primarily from Kerala temples.The idols for worship are carved in adherence to the specifications in ancient scriptures.The stone is first levelled.The figure is drawn with a mixture of red oxide and water by the master craftsman,before carving oil is applied on the ideol,giving it the characteristic black colour and smoother surface.The idol is consexcrated with `opening of the eye ` or carving the expression in the eyes that is done after the initial puja worship.For letter stones a slab of granite is cut to required shape.It is polished and the text is written with a pencil and chiselled.In case of gravestones the upright cross,at the headstone,is stencilled onto a slab of required dimensions and sculpted. 1. Carved granite icon of a goddess by stone carvers, Mylaudy. 2. Sculpture of Garuda, the mount of Vishnu. Most Hindu gods have animal or bird mounts, called vahanas.

Stone carved wet grinders made in Mamallapura, from a museum`s collection. Tools Hammer, Scales Uli - chisels Aappu uli - to break stones into two parts Kandadvaru uli - to make holes into the stone. Palamunai uli - to level the stone. Vetumunai uli - a flat edged chisel to break bulk parts of stone. Thevu uli - very short chisel for fine desings. Kattu Uli - second longest chisel Periya Uli - longest chisel Tri-cutter machine

STUCCO WORK SUTHAI,STUCCO is a hereditary craft practised by the craftsmen belonging to the Pilamar caste in Kakampudur.Stucco has been the traditional alternative to stone as a sculptural material.Stucco craftsmen in Tamil Nadu see themselves as temple architects and scultors,taking up whole temple constuction projects.They employ the techniques of real stucco - mixtire of sand , cement and lime.In the first stage a brick structure of required shape in created.Calcium,cement and sand are ground in an ammi or grinding stone to a particular sticky

consistency and the mixture is applied to the brick structure to completely cover it and is left to dry.In the second stage the mixture with pulverized marble powder,which gives a sheen to the surface,is used to do the detail work and painted with enamel colours once it is dry.The craftsmen construct temples in both Tamil Nadu and Keral regions.Other elements such as wood work and stone carvings are commissioned to respective craftsmen. 1, 2 The gopuram tower of a temple is decorated with painted stucco work.The painted stucco tradition took root under the ageis of Nayaka dynasty.Many Chola temples were ` renovated` and new elements were added to it by the Nayakas;the stone core was plastered and painted while stucco friezes added greater ornamentation.Seen here are niches resembling those of a temple with fugures of deities , demons , apsaras,rulers and mythological creatures.

Production Clusters Kanniyakumari district: Suchindram Kakampudur village Products Temple architecture in the Tamil and keral styles Relief work Gods and Goddesses Tools Karandi-spoons kambu Karandiwooden spoon

A gate at the entrance of a temple is decorated with painted stucco figures of gods, guadian deities, and elements of south Indian temple architecture.

An unfinished succo lion that forms a part of an installation on top of a temple plinth, Kakampudur in Kanniyakumari.

Detail of stone pillar carved in the late Vijayanagara style in Vellore.The image of a rearing horse showing unrestained energy is also depicted in craved wooden brackets. Subclusters of CUDDALORE Cuddalore district Tiruvannamalai district: Tiruvannamalai Arani,Modaiyur Vellore district Perambalur district Arumbavur Crafts of CUDDALORE Wood carving Silk garland making RESOURCES Craft Wood Carving Silk Garland Raw Materials Teak,Mango Wood Silk Zari Sources Cuddalore disctrict Bangalore, Chennai CUDDALORE LIES on the east coast of Tamil Nadu.Flat plains slope gently from west to the sea.Pichavaram has a great wealth of biodiversity in the mangrove ecosystems that support and abundant growth of oysters and several important species of fish and prawns.Tiruvannamalai,Viluppuram and Perambalur districts are nestled within the land locked hills of Pachaimalai,the Javadi Hills and the Kalrayan Hills.The area is predominantly hilly and is interpersed with thick jungles.Water in open tanks provide irrigation for the green fields around.Palmyra trees border these fields much of the surrounding area is covered by reserve forests.The chief forest products are firewood,bamboo,cashew and to a lesser extent sandalwood and timber such as teak and rosewood.Varied influences have shaped the socio-cultural temper of the region.The sacred temple town of Chidambaram with the Nataraja Temple,fostered an enduring temple culture that spawned and supported crafts like stone and wood carving and stucco work.The Ramana Maharshi Ashram in Tiruvannamalai is responsible for encouraging crafts like leaf painting and embroidery with a view to fostering craft skills and bolstering fragile economies in the region.The area also had setllements of the Bristish and the Danish,resulting in nascent industrialization.Arumbavur is famous for its wood carving tradition which is of a religious nature.

A silk sari woven in Arani,another silk weaving cluster known to produce affordable saris.Shown here is a sari designed by kalashetra,an institution for classical dance that revived the Kanjeevaram sari and used it in the dance costumes.

ACCESS Cuddalore is connected by road and rail with other towns in the state.The nearest airport is Chennai which is 195 Km away. Musicians sitting on the verandah of a house in Vellore.The traditional white veshti,worn as a draped lower garment with a coloured border is one of the many textiles made by the handloom weavers.

Detail of a carved wooden chariot used in the processions of deities during chariot festivals.Monumental in size, a chariot is like a mobile pantheon with o profusion of carved figures of deities,sages,celestial dancers,birds and animals,Arumbavur.

WOOD CARVING ARUMBAVUR IN PERAMBALUR district is famous for its community of wood carvers,who migrated from Andhra Pradesh nearly 200 years ago.This community shares kinship ties with wood carvers from Kallakurichi, Chinnasalem and Thammampatti.The craft practiced by these traditional wood carvers, as in the other parts of Tamil Nadu , follows the rules of iconography described in Shilpa Shastra which are treatises on image making.Few craftsmen are specialists in skillfully working out geometric proportions and scale of detailing required for temple chariots.FGor wood carving a sketch is made on the wood and the master craftsman outlines a basic shape with a chisel.The junior craftsmen complete the carving under the supervision .Idols od deities are made for temples and sometimes as votive offerings.The woods used are vengai,mango,maavalingai and athi for temple work.The craftsmen mostly carve religious products in the tradional style which has changed little for centuries. Detail of a carved idol of Vishnu with intricately carved adornments. The idols range in height from 1 to 8 feet, Arumbavur. A carved bracket depicting a parrot made for the temple chariot, Arumbavur.

Production Clusters Perambalur district: Arumbavur Perambalur Salem district: Thammampatti Thanjavur district: Papanasam Madurai district: Madurai Virudhunagar district: Virudhunagar Kanniyakumari district: Nagercoil Kanchipuram district: Mamallapuram Chennai district: Chennai Products Idols of Hindu gods Figure of Christ Dasavatara panels Ashtalakshmi,Musicians Vahanam-mounts for temple deities Chariots Tools Chisels,Ruler Hammers Handsaw Screwdrivers Cutting pliers Spanners Sandpapers Dividers T-squares

A vertical panel depicting Krishan standing beside an affectionate cow under the peacock`s plumage spread like a tree.The lower panel has an image of Lakshmi,the consort of Lord Vishnu.

SILK GARLAND MAKING ARANI IS AN important cluster for weaving and is famous for its skills , like kanchipuram.the availability of silk thread has facilitated the craft of silk garland making.After removing the starch,silk strands.A biunch of strands is gathered in the hand and a thick nylon or viscose cord is inserted in the centre. Two multi stranded silk garlands, embellished with zari, gold thread, and tassels are made from silk yarn leftover from weaving silk saris. A zari string is knotted around the bunch.Once the zari loops are in place,they are pushed along the central cord,in the process gathering the silk strands into ball-shaped balls,the ends are fastened with beads and other ornamentation is gold colour.The single column of malai,garland thus made is combined with other columns and bound together to make larger garlands.Silk is considered pure and used for religious purposes by Hindus. A garland made by reusing cut or pierced cocoons. Waste silk cocoons are trimmed, strung and stitched to make a variety of garlands by women with disabilities who were given training by the Department of Sericulture in Salem. Production Clusters Tiruvannamalai district: Arani Tiruvannamalai Salem district Salem Products Ordinary malai Long malai Wedding malai Thomboi for temple chariots Bowthra malai for Tirupati Temple Silk cocoon malai Tools Wooden hair comb Cards Knives Scissors

Subclusters of AUROVILLE Viluppuram district: Auroville Crafts of AUROVILLE Handmade paper products Pottery Crochet and bead work Stone Carving Leather work

RESOURCES Craft Raw Materials Sources Grown locally Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Locally available Chennai Pondicherry Handmade paper Flowers and leaves products Pottery Crochet and Bead Work Clay Glass beads, Cermamic Beads Viscose thread , leather and rubber soles Stone Carving Leather Accessories Stones Leather and Fabric

Rajasthan Chennai

1. Painted terrracotta votive offerings at a wayside shrine in Kuyilapalayan village,Auroville. 2. Artisan sorting pottery at a unit in Auroville. 3. View of Kiln loaded for firing at a pottery studio.Auroville is a confluence of world cultures where architects,designers and craftsmen from all over the world have set up experimental laboratories to explore materials and craft traditions. 4. A design studio based on the traditional kerala tharavad house.

Auroville or the ` city of dawn ` was envisaged by spiritual leaders-Sri Aurobindo ( Aurobindo Ghose ) and the Mother ( Mirra Alfassa ) as a ` site for the manifestation of an actual human unity in diversity ` and founded by the latter in 1968.Auroville is an ` international cultural township ` governed by the Auroville Foundation and the township has been accorded special status by the Indian Government,drawing individuals from several countries.The residents are involved in a wide spectrum of activities including afforestration,ecological regeneration , organic farming , educational and energy research,health agriculture,rural development ,fine arts , construction and handicrafts.Most of the handicraft units in Auroville are in the north zone,in Auroshilpam , Kottakarai and Alankuppam areas.A large number of local villagers come to work in the various commercial units of Auroville designs. The range of materials includes wood,metal,textiles,stone,red clay,china clay , glass , paper , wax , leather and dry flowers.The western influence on aesthetics and functionality is apparent in the making of Auroville products.All the artisians have been trained on the job,having no hereditary skills common to the handicraft sector in the rest of the country.Auroville is a community with a humanist idealogy and a vision of glabal unity. ACCESS Auroville lies 9 km north of Pondicherry which is the nearest city that is well connected by road to all major towns.The nearest airport is in Chennai (165 km ).

HANDMADE PAPER PRODUCTS The History of Handmade paper dates to 105AD,with its origin in China.However,in India paper was made from cellulose fibres during 3rd century BC.The handmade paper industry that had flourished in India during the Mughal era gradually declined with the establishment of paper mills during 18th and 19th centuries.Nevertheless,the art of Handmade papermaking was revived under the inspiration of Mahatma Gandhi.Handmade objects have been a trademark of Auroville.A range of handmade paper products which include lampshades,greeting cards,stationery and accessories are made in Auroshilpam,the industrial zone of Auroville.The grades of paper vary from thin to very thick drawing paper.The most successful items are the special papers:bagasse,bamboo,rice husk,gunny,straw,algae and tea leaves in paper pulp so that an abstract design is created on the paper when it finally emerges.Another type used in marbled 1. Freshly plucked flowers are pressed by placing them in white paper put between cardboard sheets in white paper put between cardboard sheets which are kept under pressure in a clamp for several days.A variety of pressed leaves,grass,flowers and stalks are the main decorative elements of the paper products. 2. Handmade paper showing the translucent quality of paper as well as the pipal leaf`s vein sturcture. A range of stationary products made from handmade paper. Organic materials and nature are predominant themes for developing products. paper with which stationery items are made.Marbling is a Japanese art of abstract painting done on water.Every sheet of paper is an individual work of art and varies both in shade and design.The unique feature of these products is the decoration done using tiny,delicate looking pressed flowers leaves which are grown in house,by gardens methods are remarkably simple.The paper cutting is done with simple cutters.In the case of lampshades,paper is pasted on simple welded metal frames.In another,imported Japanese paper is hand torn into small two-inch squares of multiple colours and made into a colourful collage on a white paper background. Production Clusters Viluppuram district: Auroville: Auroshilpam Products Books Stationery Lampshades Tools Electric grinding tubs Metal mesh Felt sheets Mechanical roller Cutters Binding equipment Lamination equipment Plywood clamps

The translucency of handmade paper lends itself very well for lampshades used in combination with wooden strips.

Tray made with laminated handmade paper. Fresh flowers, leaves and stalks are pressed in a clamp. Pressed flowers and leaves are composed on a white handmade paper, fixed with an adhesive and laminated for waterproofing.

POTTERY INTERNATIONAL POTTERS AND designers have intorduced and established a new school of studio pottery in Pondicherry and Auroville.All the potters in Auroville have learnt pottery at this workshop and have set out to work on their own.Some village potters in Auroville have also upgraded themselves directly or indirectly from this introduction of stoneware,finding an alternative to the traditional terrocotta work.Two main types of clay bodies are used for production-white and brown bodies.Different clays sourced from many places across the country such as Rajasthan,Gujarat,Andhra Pradesh and also clay that is locally available are blended into required proportions to create these clay bodies.The techniques consist of wheelthrowing for tea sets and crockery;slip casting with liquid clay for vases;slab building and glazing. Glazed stoneware pottery, cups and tea kettle with a cane handle.

Production Clusters Auroville Products Stoneware crockery Glazed pottery Terracotta lamps Tools Potter`s wheel Small hand tools

Unglazed terracotta glasses with simple decoration.

1. Large abstract forms ranging from 18 to 48 inches in height made in stoneware.Some can be used as vases. 2. A tray and cup with a specially formulated glaze which has high lustre,developed by a pottery design unit. 3. Terracotta lamp thrown on the wheel.Simple forms have been cut out of clay creating a lattice effect.

CROCHET AND BEAD WORK Production Clusters Viluppuram district: Auroville: Kottakarai Products Handbags Suede bags Shoes Lampshades Tools Crochet hook CROCHET AND BEAD work have been used to craft accessory products like bags,shoes,hats and belts.Crochet is a method of constructing a fabric or surface with stictches that consist of interlocking loops and a simple chain stitch,using a hooked needle and thread.In Auroville , crochet has been effectively used to make soft and comfortable footwear,garments,hats and lampshades.Flat surfaces and three dimensional forms are created with crochet.Bead work is used as an embellishment on soft suede leather bags,as decorative designs and in jewellery.A variety of shapes and colours in glass beads are sting together and stitched onto a surface.Beads are also crocheted,knitted or braided by passing them through the thread while knitting , crocheting and braiding.Beads are introduced in crocheted lampshades and as edge details. A pair of white shoes made with cotton yarn. A bag made from crochet in combination with leather and brass hardware.

Crochet shoes are flexible and soft as they are made from cotton yarn. The structure is porous and allows air and ventilation during summer.

Suede leather bags with bead work.

STONE CARVING STONE CARVING WORK is commissioned to village artisans who work from their own units.They have developed their skills and enterprise from the Auroville clients.The product range includes small dolls and animal forms,boxes and agarbatti,incense stands. Specialized products such as pendants,soapstone with brass inlay coasters are also made for Auroville clients.The types of stones used serpertine,green stone,bijri stone,soapstone,soft granite,durki and marble are all sourced from Rajasthan,with the exception of granite.The work is unlike the traditional products made in other clusters in Tamil Nadu.They are mostly utilitarian and decorative in nature.The animal forms are naturalistic representations.

Production Clusters Viluppuram district: Auroville: Kuyilapalayam village Products Small dolls & animals Boxes Incense stands Pendans Soapstone coasters with brass inlay Tools Electric stone cutter Lathe and drilling machine Chisels Files Emery stones

Frontal view of a shallow bowl carved from marble. An intricately carved stone fish.

Inset An incense stand carved in soapstone.Auroville being a secular and spiritual centre,a wide range of aromatic products and artifacts such as incense sticks and holders,aromatic candles,soaps and oils are made. Figures of frogs carved in stone.

LEATHER WORK AUROVILLE LEATHER UNITS are famous for their bags made of leather,cotton or crochet fabric.The designs come in a very wide range and the craftsmanship is excellent.The leather bags are machine and hand stitched using black nylon thread.Simple,elegant designs and brass work enhance the material.Very few models have fabric lining and the design approach utilizes the base material to its advantage.Products also include wallets,hairclips,folders and pen stands.Embossed leather is the chief design feature of these products.Braiding leather for the handles and finishing of edges is another special feature.Special tools made of stainless steel are used for the embossing process.Each tool has a geometric motif and is combined with other motifs in an infinite variety to create a surface design. Leather bound paperknife. The leather has an embossed texture. Detail of embossing and thonging done at the edge of leather purses. A leather bag embellished with embossed patterns. The edges of the handle, rim and base are finished with thonging wherein leather strips are used to wrap around the edge like in stitching. A range of small pouches for storing keys, spectacles, mobile phones and money are made from embossed leather.

Production Clusters Viluppuram district: Auroville: Kottakarai Products Belts Pouches Cloth bags Crochet & leather bags Tools Punching tools Mallets Nylon thread, needles

A bag crocheted with multi colour cotton yarn and combined with leather, display a sensibility and identity of Auroville`s handicraft products.

and stone carvings of the Pallava era that are characterized by a profound naturalism and vitality rarely seen in stone.of the latter,the most well known is a 20 feet high and 80 feet long bas relief sculpture depicting the Descent of the Ganges.Shown here is that sage Bhagiratha in a yogic posture while Shiva,pleased with his perseverance,bestows upon him his desire to bring the Ganga from her heavenly abode to the earth.The central feature of the composition is a natural depression in the rock through which a small stream of water,symbolizing the holy river,flows from the top of the monolith to a shallow pool at the base.The river,further highlighted through an array of snake gods and goddesses,is flanked by all sentient beingsanimals,humans and the celestials-who have gathered to witness the event. Subclusters of Kanchipuram Kanchipuram district: Kanchipuram Mamallapuram Sriperumbudur Tambaram Crafts of Kanchipuram Stone Carving Wood Carving 2 A couple gathering palmyra leaves which are used for making baskets and as roof thatch; Cheyyur, near Mamallapuram. 3 Detail of a Kanjeevaram or Kanchipuram silk sari, woven with four ply mulberry silk in contrasting colours and patterned in extra warp weave with zari, gold thread, on a ground of silk. Craft Stone carving Wood carving RESOURCES Raw Materials Granite stone Sources Quarries in Pattimalai Kuppam, Sirudhamur and Tiruvakkarai

Teak, Vengai Chengalpattu and Chennai wood

THIS CLUSTER IS located in the northern part of coastal Tamil Nadi.Kanchipuram is a temple town that is both a religious and commercial centre.The roads approaching the temple are lined with shops where festival processions co-exist with the business of buying and selling.The hills surrounding Chengalpattu yield feldspar,which is used for glazing pottery.kanchipuram was the ancient capital of several southern dynasties such as bronze casting and stone carving,fine examples of which can be seen today in the Shore Temple of Mamallapuram.These craft traditions have been kept alive by a community of traditional philosophers and trainers in stone carving called sthapatis.The Government College of Traditional Architecture and Sculpture a special syllabus comprising Vedas,Tamil literature,worship methodology,philosophy,vaastushastra,traditional Indian science of building,along with sculpture in stone, wood,metal and stucco.Initially Kanchipuram was a weaving and trade centre for cotton textiles that produced them primarily for the courts and temples.However from 19th century,with easy accessibility of mulberry silk from Karnataka,the craftsmen turned to weaving silk entirely,and their products are well known as Kanjeeraram silks.Mamallapuram or Mahabalipuram was a major port city in the 7th century during the Pallave rule.It comprises rock-cut caves and monolithic shrines called rathas,which stand testimony to the stone carving tradition still alive in workshops in the town. ACCESS Kanchipuram is well connected by road to chennai and to other cities and towns in Tamil Nadu.The nearest airport is Chennai.

Craftsman winding a warp of zari, gold threads, at the office of a weaver`s cooperative society. The office distributes warps of zari to weavers who undertake production of silk saris in their home.

Production Clusters Kanchipuram district: Mamallapuram Kanniyakumari district: Mylaudy Tiruvannamalai District: Modaiyur Products Temple sculptures Garden pieces Tools Suthiyal-hammer Uli-chisels Moola mattam and Kodi mattam two kinds of scales used for measurement STONE CARVING THE SKILLS OF carving idols in granite are unique in Tamil Nadu as the the carving tradition is still true to translating the sacred scriptures.In kanniyakumari,the 133 feet tall statue of Thiruvalluvar,the saint poet,was sculpted by a sthapati from Mamallapuram.Granite stone sculptures were mainly used for carving the idols for temples.However,in recent times they are fashioned as decorative items for the tourist market as well.Most of the craftsmen owning a pattarai,workshop,in Mamallapuram have settled here after completing their training from the Government College of Traditional Architecture and Sculpture in Mamallapuram,a town that has over 500 carvers.They have a flourishing trade in sculpture due to a large influx of tourists that has led to the availability of skilled craftsmen in this region.Granite is referred to and is believed to be the uyirottam kal, a living stone , hence its traditional value and its use in creating religious images.The carving style is echoed in the Pallava sculptures in the rock-cut caves and monoliths that surround these guilds.The types of granite used are the karuppu kal ( black ) , vellai kal ( white ) and pacchai kal ( green ).Soapstone or maavu kal is also used to carve small figures.The stones are polished and retain their natural colour.

1. The idol is consecrated by carving or opening the eyes of the deity ( second from left ).Kumkum is then applied over the eyes. 2. Products made of black,white and green granite on display. 3. A goddess in seated posture carved in black granite. 4. Head of the Buddha sculpted in black polished granite.

WOOD CARVING Production Clusters Kanchipuram district: Mamallapuram Chengalpattu Kanniyakumari district: Nagercoil Products Ther-chariots Doors Vahana-mounts Dvaja stambha-flag poles Idols,Figurines Tools Uli-chisels Suthiyal-hammer Ezhuppu uli-to smoothen the surface Keethu uli-for light incisions Vaal-hand saw Files Planer THE WOOD CARVING tradition in Tamil Nadu is second in prominence to stone carving.As stone is most enduring of all materials,stone carving was related to temples,monuments,architecture and scared sculptures.The use of wood stemmed from its ability to be carved into architectural elements such as brackets,pillars and capitals and its potential for sculpting idols.The availability of teak and vengai or country wood, and the importance of worship and the construction of temple chariots helped foster a high degree of craftsmanship in the region.Besides temples,carved elements were made for use in house construction as well,which is evident in Chettiar mansions.In Mamallapuram the wood carvers traditionally made ther ( temple chariots ) vahana ( mounts ) dvaja stambha ( flag poles ) and doors.Idols are also carved in Chengalpattu and Chennai.The craftsmen had migrated from Suchindram whose temple is central to the craft practiced in Kanniyakumari district.The present generation of craftsmen makes furniture using wood turning technique,as the demand for carving is done and sometimes the carved figures are painted.The temple chariot is a massive structure with enormous wheels,replete with carved figures and motifs on the vimana or superstructure made entirely from wood.The deities are taken out in prcessions in the chariots during the chariot festivals.

1 Puja mandapam,a miniature wooden shrine for idols for worshipping at people`s homes.Besides carving,some of the elements have been shaped by turning them on a lathe.The product has a huge market in India. 2a, 2b Wooden brackets and pillar made for a temple.The pillar has peacock and swan motifs which are auspicious symbols that are also used in Kanchipuram silk brocades,stone and bronze sculpture and brass lamps;Chennai 3 A carved figurine which will added to the temple chariot,Papanasam in Thanjavur district. 4 Detail of a carved door with a swan motif made in country wood;Mamallapuram. 5 Detail of a carved door with a swan motif.The door is finished with a coat of vanish;Mamallapuram.

A Yali mount for the deity. The vahanam or mount has been coated with lime prior to the final painting. Artisans assembling a Yali in a workshop in Papanasam, a wood carving cluster. Yali is a mythical creature, its body made of a combination of several animals.

CHENNAI is the capital of Tamil Nadu and also one of its most important districts.Located in the northeastern coastal area of the state,it is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in east,Triuvallur in the north and Kanchipuram in the south.The district consists almost entirely of the metropolis of Chennai,formerly known as Madras.The city was witness to the rise in power of the British in South India,who established their headquarters at the historic Fort St George.Within a few years the settlers had consolidated nearby villages to form what is today Chennai.It has an interesting mix of architecture reflecting different cultural influences.Several monuments such as the Fort St.Geroge,St Andrew`s Kirk,and buildings housing offices and shops today is the architectural legacy of the colonial period.The region is low lying,mainly composed of tracts of flatlands.Cooum and the Adyar River cut across the city.The pride of the area is the famous Marina Beach with larger than life images of political figures beside examples of Indo-Saracenic architecture.The city is a major fishing markets.Predominately urban,agriculture is virtually nonexistent.The major industries are the leather tanneries,textile mills,sugar,electric and electronic goods,and commercial vehicles.At Perumbur,the railways have an integral coach factory.The leading institutions are the Theosophical Society,Government College of Fine Arts,Central Leather Research Institute and Kalakshetra,an arts centre for classical dance that was set up by the visionary Rukmini Arundale in the 1930`s.She revived the traditional designs for the dance costumes which were redesigned and woven at the Kalakshetra weaving centre. ACCESS Chennai has an international airport,and a railway station that is linked to most of the important cities in the country.

RESOURCES Craft Wood carving Raw MAterials Sources Mango tree wood, Teak wood. Chennai

Subcluster of Chennai Chennai district: Chennai Tiruvallur district: Pulicat Crafts of Chennai Wood carving Palm leaf work Thanjavur glass painting Doll making

Thanjavur Gold paint, glass Glass paintings Aluminnnium sheet

Chennai

1. Presidency College on Marina Beach,is an example of mid-19th century Indo Saracenic architecture designed by Robert Chrisholm,who was a consultant to the Madras government and one of the founders of Indo-Saracenic architecture and also founder principal of the Government College of Fine Arts,Chennai. 2. A flower seller stringing samandhi or yellow floweres,often used to adorn Shaivite deities. 3. Wood carvers in a workshop in Chennai 4. A toddy tapper set to climb a palm tree with the tools of his trade:a pot for toddy,basket for his tools,a peg stool to assist climbing,a body harness and waist band.The tapper climbs the palm tree to extract and collect toddy and palm leaves used by craftspersons to craft baskets.Equipment needed is carried on a waist band and the tapper wears a body harness and a belt for protection,Chennai.

WOOD CARVING Production Clusters Chennai district: Chennai Perambalur district: Arumbavur Products Door Carved pillars Capitals Panels Tools Chalk Rambam-saw Uli-Chisels Seruva uli-turning the screw Tiruppu uli-turning the screw Elapp uli-leveling and planing Sittra uli-to carve small idols Aakkur-drill Malu-metal stick Kottapuli-wooden mallets Koradhu-cutting pliers Aram -gouges Files THE GUILD OF WOOD carvers in Chennai was set up four years ago.The master craftsman of this guild is from Sri Kalahasti in Andhra Pradesh whose family has been in the wood carving profession for many generations.The process consists of cutting the wood to size with sawing machines or hand saws.depending on the size of the wood.The design is drawn with a chalk on the naturally seasoned wood and it is then carved in many stages-from rough carving to smooth chiselling and is finally sandpapered.Most often the finished carving is varnished and at other times they are painted black or given an antique finish.Sometimes they are painted with enamel paints,in which case,a coating of sunnambhu kallu,limestone,is applied before painting.The types of wood used are mango and teak.The doors,pillars,capitals and relief panels are carved in the Andhra style;while,the motifs used in Chennai are the Yali,mythical beast,swan and other birds that are seen on pillars and brackets. 1. View of a Dasavatara panel;the top row consists of a series of Ganesha. 2. Detail of a carved door panel. 3. Relief sculpture of Goddess Lakshmi made for domestic use.

PALM LEAF WORK Production Clusters Tiruvallur district: Pulicat Vellore district: Vellore Tiruvannamalai district: Tiruvannmalai Ramanathapuram district: Thirupullani Sekharnagar Products Wastepaper baskets Flower baskets Trays Boxes Christmas decorations Rattles Hand fans Pouches Traditional baskets Tools Crude knife Sickle-shaped flat blade Rattles made from dyed palm leaf splits for the local market. PULICAT IS A fishing town on the Coromandel Coast,which was famous in the 17th century for painted fabrics and figurative panels that were exported to the Indonesian islands.The town is populated by Muslims and basket weaving is done mostly by women who had formed a cooperative of palm leaf artisans in 1958.According to oral tradition,their present craft is linked to baskets made for the Dutch settlers in Pulicat during the period of the East India Company.Palm leaf has been used extensively for making small containers,hand fans,toys and rattles for over a century.Men harvest the leaves and they are separated from the stalk and dried.The women remove the midrib and make splits used to weave baskets and containers.Woven baskets are made for local use.Newer products and containers are made by the coiling technique. 1. A section of the midrib of the palm leaf is folded and used as a guide to cut splits of uniform width;Pulicat. 2. Boxes made for the export market using dyed palm leaf splits.

THANJAVUR GLASS PAINTING 1 A finished Thanjavur painting of Lord Balaji,also known as Venkateshwara , an avatoor , or incarnation of Lord Vishnu in the temple at Tirupati , in Andhra Pradesh. 2 An unfinished painting of Lord Venkateshwara;gold foil is applied but application of colours remains. 3, 4 The painter has explored different ways of depicting Lord Ganesha. 5 An unfinished painting of the god Murugan kartikeya,Chennai.

TANJORE OR THANJAVUR glass paintings denote a distinctive style and technique which drew from the Thanjavur incon paintings in the gold leaf and gesso technique done on wood.Thanjavur paintings originated during the Maratha period from 17th to 19th century and were a synthesis of Tamil,Andhra and Maratha sensibilities-the professional painters were from Andhra,the culture of religious sculpture,architecture,classical music and dance in Thanjavur and the patronage of the Maratha rulers.The paintings have a decorative intent-the paintings being gilded with gold leaf and sparkling stones,used to highlight aspects like ornaments,dresses and architectural elements.The compositions consist of one main figure , a deity or several deities,housed in an enclosure depicted by

an arch or curtains.Most of the paintings depict the child form of Lord Krishna and his various pranks,or other deities and courtly and secular portraits.Glass paintings are done on the reverse side of the glass.The bold outlines and facial details are painted first so that they appear uppermost,followed by the larger areas of colour applied over the outlines.Gold paint and aluminium peices are used in place of precious and semiprecious stones to stimulate a jewelled effect.The paiting is mounted with its unpainted side on the face so that it is viewed through the glass.The craftsmen in Chennai were originally from Andhra Pradesh and continue with their hereditary occupation.

Production Clusters Chennai district: Chennai Thanjavur district: Thanjavur Products Glass paintings in secular and religious themes Tools Brush and inks

DOLL MAKING FROM EARLY TIMES,various materials have been used to make toys and dolls.Cloth has long been used as a material to make dolls.The cloth dolls have a metal framework made of the desired shape and then it is covered with either straw or platic scrap.A cloth is stitched over it and the doll is clothed with a costume specially specially made for it.The face is either Stuffed dols used as kolu dolls, displayed during the Navratri festival. made of wood or papier machie and then painted.The products mainly consist of Kolu dolls.The kolu or golu is tradition of displaying dolls during the nine days of Navaratri festival.It is popular in Karnataka,Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, and the dolls are preserved for future use or passed on from one generation to the next. Production Clusters Chennai district: Chennai Products Golu dolls Tools Metal wire armature Brushes , Needles

Subclusters of Tiruchirappalli Thanjavur district: Swamimalai Kimbakonam Tiruchirappalli district: Tiruchirappalli Nagapattinam Crafts of Tiruchirappalli Bronze casting Vilakku-brass lamps Brass repousse Bell metal ware Thanjavur kalamkari Pallagai padamThanjavur painting Nadaswaram-wind instrument Veena-string instrument Root carving Pith work Cut glass work

RESOURCES Craft Thanjavur kalamkari Raw Materials Cotton cloth Myrobalan flower NadasvaramAacha wood wind instrument (block wood) Vengai or country Veena-string instrument Cut glass work Jack wood Brindai Glass Aluminium paper, Recycled tins, Gold foil Sources Madurai and Erode Masulipatinam & Kalahasthi North Arcot district; Andhra Pradesh Kumbakonan Panruti Srinivasapuram Thanjavur Chennai

Women sowing paddy for the second crop of the year;Thanjavur district. Tiruchirappalli metaclusters comprises Tiruchirappalli,Nagapattinam and Thanjavur districts in central Tamil Nadu.The metacluster can be divided into three distinct physical regions:The hilly regions of the Tiruchirappalli district,the deltaic region which covers the river plains of Thanjavur,Nagapattinam,Tiruchirappalli districts and the coastal region which extends south of Thanjavur and Nagapattinam up to PAlk Stait.The River Kaveri and its tributaries are the primary water bodies in this region.Clay obtained for bell metal and bronze casting is acquired from soil deposits on the banks of the River.Plants such as erukku(gigantic swallow wort)provide raw material for indigenous crafts like root sculptures,The Kaveri delta region of Thanjavur is also rich in the growth of timber,especially teak.The black clayey soil in the region is highly retentive of moisture Thanjavur is also rich in the growth of timber,especially teak.The black clayey soil in the region is highly retentive of moisture and productive for growing cotton,resulting in the emergence of a strongly industrialized textile sector. Thanjavur,also known as Tanjore,dominated the political history as the capital of the Chola,Nayaka and Maratha kingdoms for nearly a thousand years and left their mark on the culture with bronze sculptures,Thanjavur paintings,Carnatic music and dance traditions.Thanjavur district became a major centre for crafts of musical instrument-making.The region also produced some of the country`s finest musicians.The nadasvaram and tavil,musical instruments essential to temple festivals,are made by craftsmen in Narsingapettai.Srirangam in Tiruchirappalli district with the Ranganatha Temple is one of the largest temple complexes in Tamil Nadu.The 9th century Jain caves at Sittanavasal have well preserved mural paintings.The Cholas,with their farsighted water management schemes in the delta transformed Thanjavur into the `rice bowl`of Tamil Nadu.The great temple cities that developed along the course of Kaveri became centres of religion,dance,music and the arts. ACCESS Tiruchirappalli has the nearest airport to all the clusters and is also accessible by rail and road from the other major cities in the state:Chennai(316km),Madurai(128km),Kanniyakumari(382km).

A large idol being finished at a bronze casting workship in Swamimalai.

A sthapati filing and finishing an idol of Krishna at a bronze casting workshop in Swamimalai,the main centre for bronze casting in Tamil Nadu.

Production Clusters Thanjavur district: Swamimalai Madurai district: Madurai Erode district: Products Vigraham-idols Tools Hammer BRONZE CASTING SWAMIMALAI near Kumbakonam is a major centre in Tamil Nadu,where bronze cast idols are made.It is located on the banks of the Tamoraoarani which is the main source for clayey soil used in the process of making the statue.The idols are cast by the lost wax process in the solid casting method.For 350 years,a clan of sthapatis have nurtured this art and helped it to survive.They have helped establish and run a school in Swamimalai that teaches this craft.In the lost wax process,a wax model forms the core of the image which is drained out by heating,which is then replaced by metal in the actual casting. Chisels: Porai Vettirimbu-cutting and chipping Keeruthanam engraving grooves Matla vettirimbuengraving Miridanam-to smoothen Mattasutthi or aram files 1. Bronze statues of Rama`s entourage,with a patina finish ,Erode. 2. A reproduction of a bronze from the Chola perios depicting two figures of Lord Shiva and his consort,made in Swamimalai. 3. Final mould of a massive bronze image lying under a lifting frame being readied for pouring molten metal through the open channels;Swamimalai. 4. An image,26x15 cm in size,of Nandi,Shiva`s mount,adorned with bells and ornaments.Nandi the bull symbolizes vigour,strength and power.The image is carried during processions with other images of deities.A seated or upright image of Nandi is placed at the entrance of a Shiva Temple facing the main idol that is kept inside the innder sanctum. 5. An image of Krishna subduing Kalia,the snake demon. 6. Sculpture depicting Shiva in a pose where he applies tilakam,vermilion mark,on his forehead with his right foot;Swamimalai. 7 Bronze sculpture of Saraswati,the goddess of knowledge.Her hands are in posture of playing a veena,Erode. This replacement can take place by two processes-solid casting,ghana in Sanskrit,and hollow casting,Sushira in Sanskrit-both of which are referred to in the Rig Veda.The torso and head of the figure are modelled separately and joined later.The main vigraham,idols ,such as those used for processions are solid cast and the decorations are hollow cast.Earlier images were of copper and were later replaced by the pancha loha,and alloy of copper,tin,lead,silver,and gold,believed to symbolize the five elements.The images are made in adherence to the iconographic canons in the Shilpa Shastra.The sthapati,master sculptor,has to master and manage atleast four dimensions of the craft:the aesthetic,the technical,the spiritual and the skill of craftsmanship that he alone can bring to the work.In Swamimalai-the only surviving centre today in this region-copies of earlier Chola masterpieces,Ganesha idols,folk deities are produced.

VILAKKU-BRASS LAMPS THE KUTHUVILAKKu is a brass cast stand lamp which is used during daily worship in homes and temples,and the heightd of lamps range from 5 inches to 9 feet.The vilakku is balanced by the wide and heavyd base plate.The wick plate is separated from the base by a slendder and curvaceous stem.The wick plate is divided into four,five,six or nine mukham or faces.Each face has a tiny lip,which serves as the wick holder.The top is a decorative head made of solid metal,shaped as various images such as abstraction of a flame,Ganesha,Lakshmi,and even as a cross for churches.Once the size and weight are calculated,the template is made in mud and baked or carved out in wood.This is then cast in brass or aluminium.The process of box moulding is used for the base,wick plate and the stem.The ornamental head is usually made by lost wax method of metal casting. Production clusters Thanjavur district: Nachiarcoil Products Kuthuvilakku-oil lamps Tools Wooden frame Wooden mallet Crucible Karandi-ladle Suthiyal-hammer 1. Brass lamp. 2. Shown here are sectional views of two different brass lamps. 3. Vilakku seen without the talai,top,to show the tapping done in the interior stem. BRASS REPOUSSE THE PITHALLAI THATU OR brass plates are unique to Thanjavur and are referred to as Thanjavur Art Plates and aer sculpted withd reliefs of deities,floral motifs and of the Brihadeshwara Temple and other such cultural landmarks.The Maratha king Sarfoji founded the local Kamala or Visvakarma community of artisans,who were experts in bidri craft and made by hammering thin sheets of metal on prepared lead dies.The plate is divided into three areas consisting of concentric circles.The circle in the centre is depressed and contains the primary relief in silver and is usually an image of a god or goddess.The second circle is encrusted with reliefs made of copper and silver.The outermost circle consists of floral motifs and often a single motif is repeated throughout.The plates are used as mementos or souvenirs. 1. A brass plate with a motif in the centre. Production Clusters 2. Brass mould seen with lead dies of the same Thanjavur district: pattern on which sheet metal is beaten. 3. Detail of a plate made in threee Thanjavur metals:copper,brass and silver. Products Art metal plates Tools Suthiyal-hammers Chinnadhu-dividers Vetriumbum-punches and chisels Tracers Bossing and cushioning chisels

BELL METAL WIRE METALWORKING in Nachiarcoil is Tools Production Clusters carried out by the Pathar Turning machine Thanjavur district: community,traditionally gold and silver smiths.The craftsmen had migrated Cutting tool Nachiarcoil from Nagercoil in Kanniyakumari Lathe district in the 19th century.They settled Products Sieve in Nachiarcoli upon discovering that Large temple bells vandal,the light brown sand on the banks of River Kaveri,was perfect for Mani-hand-held bells box mould casting.They produce large A finished bell for a for puja temple bells,hand-held bells for temple weighing nearly Tumblers workship at homes,water pots,and 320kg. tumblers used for rituals. Chembu-pots All the details of the outer surface of the bell are created on Koojas-used for the wax layer.A Hindu temple bell is distinguished from a drinking coffee Christian one by the presence of a rim around the bell at Temple and church one-third its total height.Other motifs and decorations are bells also made on the wax surface.The craftsmen also belong to other communities such as Padayachi, Pillai, Chettiar, Vellalar, Thevar, Bakhtar, Odayar, Nadir, Asari, Naidu and 1,2 Different stages of the process:the bell is given its basic form in clay; a wax layer on Muslim. which the motifs are made. Inset A finished bell for the temple.The ringing of bells forms an important part of worship in temples,churches and in homes.

THANJAVUR KALAMKARI - DYE PAINTED TEXTILES THE KALAMKARI CRAFTSMEN IN Tirupanandal near Kumbakonam have been practicing the craft for many generations and are orginally from Kodailkarupppur,which used to produce a unique combination of dye painted,resist dyed patterning done on brocade woven cotton fabric for the Tanjore court.Kalamkari is the tradition of dye painted figurative and patterned cloths made for temples such as ceiling cloth,umbrella covers,cylindrical hangings and chariot covers,using a kalam,stylus,made from bamboo and cloth to paint the vegetable dyes and mordant.The Tanjore tradition is different from that of Sri Kalahasti,which is largely thematic,narrative and didactic temple cloth hangings.The Tangore tradition had canopies,thombai(cylindrical hangings),umbrella covers and toranams (door hangings) with motifs of Yali,swan,peacock,and flowers,and images of deities.These bear a strong resemblance to the applique of Kumbakonam.The temples and religious matthds,establishments,commissioned textiles for their chariots: umbrellas, thombai, asmangiri or canopies and toranams. PRoduction Cluster Thanjavur district: Tirupanandal Sickinaikkenpet Kumbakonam PRoducts Thombai-cylindrical hangings for chariots Umbrellas Fans for processions 1. Detail from a kalamkari painted fabric. 2. A toranam,door hanging. 3. A close up of the thombai,temple chariot hanging,stitched in a tubular form. 4. A chariot decorated with a kalamkari covere and thombai,tubular hangings.The state of Orissa also has a tradition of appliqued textiles made for temple chariots. Toranam-door hanging Asmangiri-canopies Wall panels Bedcovers Tools Kottapuli-round wooden stick Kalam-bamboo brush

PALLAGAI PADAM - THANJAVUR PAINTINGS Production Clusters Thanjavur district: Thanjavur Products Religious themes Court scenes Royal portraits Gods and Goddesses Tools Knives Brushes Sulaiman stone THE TRADITIONAL OF Thanjavur paintings developed during the reign of the Maratha rulers between the 17th and 19th century.King Sarfoji played an important role in nurturing this art form.The art was practiced by the two main communities namely the Rajus in Thanjavur and Tiruchirappali,and the Naidus in Madurai.They were originally Telugu-speaking people who moved from Rayalaseema to Tamil Nadu in the wake of the Nayaka rule of Madurai and Thanjavur.With the decline of dynastic rule,the artists,split into three groups-one heading to Vuyaioor,the second to Mysore,and the third stayed on at Thanjavur.The styles developed were slightly different from each other.The emphasis at Thanjavur was on studded gems and gold leaf done on glass or on wooden board.Pallagai padam refers to paintings done on plank-coated cloth in which a wooden board is pasted with cloth,and an outline sketch is drawn.Gesso work is done to emboss the details in the figures and in the background,and inlaid with gemstones.The themes are religious and usually depict Hindu deities and sains.The most popular are the various images of Child Krishna or the coronation of Rama.A small number of works depict court scenes and royal portraits.The figure type are generally well-rounded and monumental;in terms of designs and pigments used although the forms still retain a roundness.Thematically,besides the traditional figures of Hindu deities and saints,images of other religious figures like Gurunanak,Saibaba and Mother Mary are represented in the Thanjavur style of painting. 1. Some parts of the painting are embossed by painting with a mixture of chalk powder and Arabic gum(gesso work). 2. Thanjavur painting of Lord Krishna seated on a swing and wearing ornaments on his feet,arms,hands,neck,ear and head along with peacock feathersd.The ornaments,details in the clothes,curtains and the swing are embossed.Gold foil is pasted in some places and the other areas are inlaid with glass stones from jaipur in Rajasthan,The painting of colours is done last. 3. Detail of a painting of Child Krishna seen wearing ornaments.

VEENA-STRING INSTRUMENT THE VEENA IS A STRING instrument,about 1.5 m long,which belongs to the Carnatic tradition of Indian classical music,played with accompaniments.Veena-making has been practiced in Thanjavur for over many generations.The pot-like shape of the veena is hollowed out from pala maram or jack wood,using the kolavu uli,round chisel.A circular piece of wood is stuck to this hollowed shape to cover it.Over the length of the Veena,where the strings are to be attached,the 24 mettus, metal frets made of brass/bell metal are embedded in a hard-ened mixture of beeswax and charcoal powder called gaadi sakai.The upper circumference of the pot-shape of the veena is decorated by inlay work.These decorative techniques which have succumbed to commercial pressures,need to be returnedd to their original.Traditional decorations along the edges and over the face of the resonator were once crafted out of ivory or maan kombhu(deer antlers)but are nowadays replaced by coloured vinyl.The tambura,a chordaphone belonging to the lute family,which is an accompaniment in musical recitals,is also made similarly. 1. A close up of the pot-shape of the veena decorated with a plastic transfer of floral designs. 2. Veenas on display. 3. Drilling holes on the neck of the veena. Production Clusters Thanjavur district: Thanjavur Products Types of veena: Ekandum and ottu Tambura-drone instrument Tools Mulai mattam-set square Types of ulis (chisels): Madal uli, sirruli, china uli, elappuli malugu uli Hand drilling tool

NADASWARAM-WIND INSTRUMENT NADASWARAM,also called nagaswaram,is one of the most popular classical instruments of south India and the world`s loudest non-brass acoustic instrument.It is a wind instrument of north India,but with a large flaring bell,sometimes in metal.It may be swung through the air while playing,creating a doppler effect.It has a simple double reed.It is considered a very auspicious instrument and is played in temples and at weddings.This traditional art of playing the nadaswaram has developed along with Carnatic music which is a part of the cultural tradition in Thanjavur.The wood is used to carve out the mouth of the instrument,which is called the anasu,through which the sound emanates.A flat edged chisel and hammer are used to the kendai,a small metallic cylinder on the top part of the nadaswaram. Production clusters Thanjavur district: Narasingapettai Products Nadasvaram in different pitches Toolsq Drilling tools 1. 2. 3. 4. An unfinished tavil,a percussion instrument also made by the same craftsmen.The tavil, and the nadaswaram are essential to temple festivals. Seevali-the mouth piece of the nadasvaram. The pieces used to make the seevali. Nadaswaram.

ROOT CARVING Production Clusters Thanjavur district: Kumbakonam Products Ganesha idols Tools Sandpaper Chisels Pencil THE CRAFTSMEN PRACTICING this craft for generations believe that the sage Agasthya Maharishi,in his book Mooligai Jaala Rathinam advises the worship of Ganesha made out of white erukka(Calatropis gigantean),roots.The presence of a Ganesha carved out of erukku root in one`s house is supposed to bring good luck and ward off evil.The craftsmen sculpt the image of Ganesha by adhering to the sculptural rules given in Shilpa Shastra,Sree Thaththuvanithi,and Muthkala Puranam.The root is boiled,and dried in the sun.It is then cut to size and a pencil drawing is inscribed on it.A rough carving is followed by the carving of finer details with a blunt chisel and it is polished with sandpaper finally. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A carved image of Ganesha. A carved and polished Ganesha in erukku root. A range of small chisels used for carving. Detail of sanddpapering done on a carved idol. Different stages in the carving of an idol.

PITH WORK Production Clusters Thanjavur district: Kumbakonam Products Models of : Taj Mahal Brihadishvara Temple Tirupati Temple Madurai Minakshi Temple Mahabhalipuram Shore Temple Tools Knife A carved model of a temple. 1. Detail of the carving done in pith. 2. Various types of knives. SHOLA PITH WORK was once a traditional art form in Thanjavur district.Like many other traditional crafts,it had its origin in the ritual and religious needs of the people.The pith was originally used in Thanjavur for making garlands out of slices beautifully cut into cylindrical and round shapes and then dyed with different colours.Bulls and buffaloes were garlanded during Mattu Pongal,the harvest festival.For all the popular representations the shapes of temples are kept as cardboard cutours that serve as templates.The pith work is generally stuck to a wooden base and covered with glass.Usually,the natural colour of the pith is perferred to be retained.

CUT GLASS WORK Production Clusters Thanjavur district: Thanjavur Products Ornamental glass plates Poorna kumbham-the motif of a pot with a coconut on top Kunguma chimizhvermillion container Visiri-wooden base for fans CUT GLASS WORK is a ornamentation done on aluminium plates which are used during marriage ceremonies.The cut glass plates consist of coloured glass arranged in ornate patterns on an aluminium plate.A coloured foil made by mixing dye and arakku,asphalt;and rojanam,a type of varnish,is put under the glass and heated.The colour sticks to the glass in this process. 1. An aluminium plate decorated with embossed sheet metal and coloured cut glass. 2. An elephant figure decorated with cut glass work. The glass is cut in the required measurements using a diamond cutter.This craft is mainly sustained through commissions for Hindu weddings.These glass plates have a central motif of a god or goddess.Other products include the vermillion container and a base for hand fans.

Master craftsman standing alongside votive terracotta horses that have been crafted by him,outside Muppiliyan Kovil,a temple in Virachalai. THE TEMPLE TOWN OF Madurai,built around the Minakshi Sudareswarar Temple,is situated in the southern part of Tamil Nadu.The city comes closest to the classical Hindu design of a square mandala,a sacred diagram symbolizing the cosmos.At the centre of the city is the Minakahi Sundareswarar Temple,which is vibrant with devotees,rituals of worship,temple and festival processions,and streets lined with shops-activities that support crafts of wooden chariot making,bronze casting,stone carving,applique and embroidery and metal utensils.Madurai is famed for its orchards and forest products.Granite deposits have helped sustain and develop the craft of granite carving in the district.The land is interlaced by the rivers Vaigai,Suruliar and Govindan Nadi and is primarily an agricultural district.Though lacking in significant mineral deposits,it still has some cystalling limestone and building stone that is used in the making of cement.Madurai is a famous dyeing centre,probably the largest in southern India.It was also prominent for wax printing,that is being replaced by newer printing techniques.The region emcompassing the towns of Karaikudi,Devakottai and neighbouring villages known as Chettinad is distinguished by large ornate mansions with intricate wood work.Ramanathapuram,the district headquarters is an ancient town and is connected to the sacred island of Rameshwaram,a major pilgrimage site.The Madurai metacluster also comprises Sivaganga,Dindigul,Virudhunagar,Teni and Pudukottai districts.All across the southern districts of the state,imposing terracotta Ayyanar horses stand in majestic grace on the outskirts of villages and in the middle of fields. ACCESS The nearest airport to the clusters is in Madurai which is well connected by road and rail.Madurai is accessible by air from Mumbai and chennai. RESOURCES Craft Raw Materials Sources The local kammai or river bed in Vilachery Madurai Terracotta and Kakiman or clay pottery Muthangi Velvet cloth,Beads, Semi-precious stones, Zari Brass & Copper sheets Subclusters of Madhurai Madurai district: Madurai Sivaganga district: Karaikudi Madurai Devakottai Ramanathapuram district: Ramanathapuram Dindigul district: Dindigul Virudhunagar distict: Virudhunagar Teni district: Teni Pudukottai district: Pudukottai Crafts of Madurai Terracotta and pottery Wood carving Applique Sungadi-tie-resistdyeing Muthangi-pearlstudded attire Brass ware Soapstone ware Woollen druggests Bhavani dhurrie weaving

Bronzeware

1. All over the south,women daily clean the floor in front of their house every morning and decorate it with kolam,to invite the blessings of gods.Seen here is a kolam,ritual floor painting done with rice flour on the thresholdd and entrance of a shrine in Srirangam.The walls of the temple are painted with stripes. 2. Applique products sold at a shop inside the temple complex of Minakshi Amman Temple,Madurai. 3. Craftsman beating an old brass vessel into shape Madurai. 4. Craftsman lifting an intricately carved wooden pillar in a workshop at Palanganathan,Madurai

The folk deity Nallathangal and her seven children at an Ayyanar shrin.

Close up of a terracotta horse. Terracotta horses at Muppiliyan Kovil,temple.Two to three potters work on building these monumental figures,which are made with very simple tools.

TERRACOTTA AND POTTERY Production Clusters Pudukottai district: Pudukottai: Virachalai village Products Mann paanai-clay pot Kolambu chattycooking vessels Aduppu-stoves Katthi sootti-lamos Undial-money boxes Agni chatti-fire pot Kolli paanaicremation pot Votive offereings to Ayyanar: Thottilum pillaiyumcradle and child Veeran-soldiers of Ayyanar Koothukudhirai or Gramathu Kuttiraihorses for the veeran Ambari yannaielephants in procession Painted pots Chicken coops Tools Throwing wheel Wooden paddle Stone anvil Carving tools Coir rope for slings 1. Terracotta figure of Ayyanar,the popular folk deity worshipped as a guardian and protector.Deopicted with large eyes and a prominent moustache,he carries a sword adn his horse is always at his side indicating his readiness to ride after trouble makers in the dark,Karaikudi. 2. Terracotta chicken coop used by potter families at Virachalai. is the primary recipient of these offerings.In the souther districts,one may see numerous gramathu kuttirai,terracotta horses,installed in shrines of Ayyanar that are located on the banks of a pond or lake or in the fields.The potter are from the Velar and Kulalard communities.The votive figures are made by a combination of throwing and coiling techniques.Clay is a mixed with local sand and paddy husk.The horse is made in three sections-lower leg and upper thigh,neck and head.A ledge is formed around the edge of this first section to fit into the next thigh portion.Some liquid clay slip is smoothed over the surface to cover up the coarse rice husks.The products are dried,fired in a furnace and painted with enamel colours.Smaller offerings of horses,bulls and elephants require a coating of lime and ochre.August and September is the golu,dolls,season during Navaratri festival when dolls are displayed and much of the sales take place then.Large terracotta imagesd of Lord Ganesha are also produced prior to the festival celebratingd his birth.The market for terracotta pots and stoves has declined.However,during Pongal,the harvest festival,the pots are in demand.The market for votive offerings has remained constant. IN TAMIL NADU,terracotta figures of horses and elephants are votive offerings made to village deities.Ayyanar,the sone of Goddess Mohin and Lord Shiva,believed to be the deity who grants boons and guards the boundaries of the village,

Terracotta pot and stoves.

Inset Image of Ayyanar`s warrior.

Production Clusters Madurai district: Madurai Virudhunagar district: Virudhunagar Chennai district: Chennai Perambalur district: Arunbavur Salem district: Thammampatti Thanjavur district: Papanasam Products Traditional products: Vahanam-mount Kodi maram-flag staff Unjals-swings for the deity the Madurai region were developed for furniture in the late 19th century with patronage of the British and the Victoria Technical Institute.The development of carved furniture coincides with WOOD CARVING modernization of India.European influence on Indian urban life contributed to the need for furniture in Indian homes.This entailed IN PALANGANATHAN ON THE outskirts of Madurai and in the application of traditional Indian ornamentation Virudhunagar,the craftsmen are located close to the Minakshi Temple,and are referred to as Asaris.These wood carvers specialize both in carved furniture and temple related products.Asaris in Madurai belong to the Kammalan group,the traditional artisans of India.The traditional carving skills extant in The carved bulk of a wooden ther,temple chariot,made in Papanasam. Doors for inner shrine Ther-temple chariots Contemporary: Carved doors Cobra-shaped lampshades Yali leg tables Small tables Elephant-leg stands Puja room decorations. Tools Aasu-templates Uli-chisels Kirthu uli-V-shaped chisel to western style objects such as designs derived from temples at Maduari,Vellore and Thanjavur-like Yali or tables with elephantshaped legs.Traditional patron for the wooden doorways,pillars and furniture were the Chettiar,merchant community,of Chettinad.The temples and ashrams patronize religious products such as vahana or animal mounts,flat poles,swings for the deities and doors for the inner shrine. Ritual article:nei karandi,ghee spoon,Sivaganga. A coconut grater with a densely carved base. Kolavu uli-round chisel Saathara uli-flat chisel Hand saw Screwdrivers Spanners Jack plane Dividers T-squares Gauges Putty knifes

1. Intricately carved and sculpted door of a Chettiar house;Karaikudi.The mansions of Chettiars,the merchant community,use wood extensively in their doors,pillars,bracekets,rafters and beams. 2. Carved wheel of a wooden ther,Papanasam in Thanjavur district. 3. An old pallankuzhi,a traditional boardgame of women in Tamil Nadyu from a private collection in Kottar Nagercoil,Made in a variety of configurations (seven holes and a home each),the game pieces vary from seeds of tamarind to precious stones

according to the economic status of the players.

APPLIQUE Production clusters Madurai district: Madurai Tirchirappalli district: Lalgudi Products Kodai-umbrella Poochakara kodaiflower wheel umbrella Magara toranamdoorway hanging Thombai-cylindrical hangings for temple chariot Vaasal malai-gateway garland Aasandhadu malaiswaying garland Tools Scissors Sewing machine Needles THERE ARE ONLY A few hereditary craftsmen practicing applique in Madurai.They are from the Pilamar caste and are all closely related.The applique technique is used to produce decorated cloth used to produce decorated cloth used for religious processions of the temples.The process consists of making paper stencils of the required design pinned onto a polyester cloth and cut according to the shape.This pieces is then placed on the base cloth and stitched down.Piping rope is run along the outline and stitched on the sewing machine,in addition to outlines done in embroidery stitches.The main product is the ther seelai comprising many components which are part of an ensemble for decorating the temple chariot.Orders from temple continue today for ther seelai.Applique decorations are used not only in major temples but also for village festivals propitiating various forest goddesses.Costumes for priests are also made.The bustling Madurai Market,well known for selling temple related products,is located near the Minakshi Temple in Madurai. 1. Detail of an elephant motif which is appliqued on a thombai,tubular hanging used to decorate the temple chariot which is takeb out during the chariot festival.shaped pieces of cotton fabric are stitched down on to a base fabric and detailed with different embroidery stitches. 2. Hand fans depiciting the sun and the moon which are used in Muslim festivals,Madurai. 3. An applique umbrella on display at the Pudumanadapam,Minakshi Madurai Temple. 4. An antique applique toranam,nearly a 100 years old,from a private collection in Tiruchirappalli district.

MUTHANGI-PEARLSTUDDED ATTIRE MUTHI MEANS PEARL AND angi means garment,and together muthangi denotes special garments and accessories made for the temple deity which were earlier studded with pearls,preicous stones and zari.They are used during festivals to dress the idols.Inexpensive alternatives such as beads are used today.Embroidery units are concentrated around the Minakshi temple in Madurai.Items like garments and accessories (headdress)are studded with artifical pearls,artifical stones,zari by stitching them on a cloth base,usually blue velvet.It serves a similar function to that of the metal cladding or kavasam and the rathnangi thus falling within the category of nagai alangaram or adorn-ment of the deity.Muthangi,can be both custom-made for specific idols or made in standard sizes for sale in shops selling temple related products. 1. The upper and lower part of the costume for Lord Vishnu. 2. The accessories and costume studded with beads makes the muthangi-muthu (pearl)and angi(costume). 3. The sudarshanachakra and conch shell of Lord Vishnu.

Produciton Clusters Madurai district: Madurai Products Muthangi Tools Needles Scissors Sewing machine

BRASS WARE THE CRAFTSMEN IN Madurai are involved in producing brass ware for temple rituals as well as for domestic use.As the temple rituals became more elaborate,the requirement for specifically designed vessels increased.For instance the abhishekam,consecration ritual water to drip constantly on the lingam,the abstract form that represents Lord Shiva.This is achieved by hanging the sahasarasala thattu,a plate with 1008 perforations that shower water poured from a conch on to the deity.The others like the ritual bath,and puja,worship in the morning,noon,evening and night all required different sizes and shapes of vessels,some of which were intricately carved.These traditional are still followed and hence the craft has been preserved over the generations.The making of these vessels consist of cutting the brass metal sheet,which are then beaten,shaped and bent individually.They are then joined together with a mixture of pithala podi,the fine white brass powder obtained when utensils are being turned on a lathe and polished. 1. Sahasarasala thattu used to pour holy water on the idol during the abhishekam ceremony. 2. Brass pot for rituals 3. Badam or almond milk cup. 4. Brass vessel. Production Clusters Madurai district: Madurai Products Vessels for domestic use: Anda-cauldron Paanai-large pot Kodam-water pot Madras paanaiMadras pot Idli paanai-rice cake pot Agni kundam-fire pot Gangalaam-to store water Thavalai-to cook rice Karandi-ladle Cups Vessels for rituals: Komuha thattu Karaga chembu-ritual ewer Sahasarasala thalluplate Saami petti-storage box Tools Uli or poraigalchisels Suthiual -hammer Otangi-three -legged

iron stand.

Subclusters of SALEM Salem district: Salem Namakkal district: Namakkal Kumarapalayam Dharmapuri district: Dharmapuri Erode district: ERode Bhavani Crafts of SALEM Wood carving Soapstone ware Bhavani dhurrie Woollen druggets Rayon Dhurrie Bamboo flute Craft Wood caving

RESOURCES Raw Materials Teak wood Sources Kumbakonam and Thanjavur Hilly areas of Thombankaradu

Soapstone Soapstone ware Bhavani dhurrie Bamboo flutes

Cotton and Bhavani yarn threads Bamboo coimbatore and Kutralam,Nagercoil

THE NAME SALEM is derived from the Sanskrit word sailam meaning an area surrounded by hills.The region lies to the north and is mainly hilly,interspersed by undulating plains.It also has an extensive forested area with trees like sandalwood,silver oak and fuel wood.Mettur Dam is one of the largest dams in the world and irrigates the area in and around Salem,Tiruchirappalli and Thanjavur districts.Yercaud in the shevaroy Range,is a famous hill resort.The rivers of the region are the Kaveri,Vasishta Nandi and Sweda Nandi that irrigate the predominantly agricultural district.The soil is mostly red loam.The land has rich mineral deposits such as bauxite,magnetite,quartz,feldspar,soapstone and iron ore.The Salem Steel Plant is a large enterprise in the area,other industries being rice mills,sago industry and silk production.The largest sector is,however,the textile and handloom production renowed for cotton and silk saris and dhotis,for the home market;furnishings and towels for the export market.The Salem metacluster also includes the districts of Namakkal and Dharmapuri which were part of Salem district until recently.The region has seen the rise and fall of all the major dynasties of south India until the British,who took over the control of this area after victory over Tipu Sultan,from 1792 AD till the independence of India.The predominant communities found in this area are the Kapu,Lingayath,Okkaliga,Baliya Chetty,Oddar,Holeya and Madiga. ACCESS Salem is well connected by road and rail to all major cities in Tamil Nadu.The nearest airport is Tiruchirappali,which is 134 km away.

1. Batik or wax resist dyed,and tie-resist-dyed textiles are produced by a few entrepreneurs in Bhavani.Shown here is tie-dyed yardage fabric made on a large scale. 2. Woman using a wet grinding stone made out of granite.Grinding stones were widely used in the south till electric stainless steel wet grinders began replacing them.Rice and lentil are ground for preparing idli and dosa,snacks that are popular all over India. 3. Bhavani has a large population of handloom weavers producing striped cotton dhurrie called jamkalam. 4. A workshop in Namakkal where kalchatty,soapstone utensils,are made.

WOOD CARVING WOOD CARVING of religious idols and panels is a traditional craft of the Oddar community.The entire family is involved in the craft;the master craftsman makes the drawing,male artisans do the carvings and the women paint them.wood is seasoned naturally by exposing it to the changing weather conditions for many days.It is cut to size and a sketch is drawn on the wood with chalk.This sketch is carved out roughly with chisels.The crude carving is further smoothed with the use of smaller chisels.Finer details of ornamentation and the face are carved in the end.The wood is then polished with sandpaper.The eyes are carved after all other processes have been completed.Products are finished with natural colour or with the application of lacquer,or given an antique finish.The wood carvings of figures resembled their sandalwood counterparts in their intricate details.The designs and motifs are usually derived from architectural details of temples. 1. Sculptural panel of a yakshi,a tree spirit,with a deer and a stag.The tree and stag are symbols of fertility. 2. Sculptural panel of a yakshi,a water spirit,painted with enamel colours. 3. A braclet used to support the pillar. 4. An image of Vishnu. 5. Nandi,the bull,the mount of lord Shiva.

Production clusters Salem district: Thammampatti Madurai district: Madurai Virudhunagar district: Virudhunagar Chennai district: Chennnai Perambalur district: Arumbavur Thanjavur district: Papanasam Kanniyakumari district: Nagercoil Kanchipuram district: Mamallapuram Products Idols and religious panels Yali figurines Door carvings Vahanam-mounts for deities Tools Carving tools: Rambam-saw Aakra-drill Patta uli-flat,broad chisel Dokku uli-small chisel Tacchu uli-pointed chisel Elappu-planer for levelling Finishing tool: Malu-metal rod used as hammer

SOAPSTONE UTENSILS ALMOST ALL FAMILIES IN Thankankoundanpalayam village have been involved in making utensils of soapstone which are called kalachattys.The process consists of cutting the stone down as blocks.It is then cut to the size of the object that is to be made,and the objects is directly carved and chiselled without any prior drawing.Neelam or liquid blue added to stone powder is rubbed on all the objects for uniformity of colour,and the object is then washed.The jars with lids are good for storing pickles since the stone aids preservation. 1. Kuzhipaniyaram chatty,a mould for preparing a Chettinad sweet dish. 2. Soapstone products:a mortar and pestle,storage jar with a lid and a container. Tools Uli-chisels Thavuttu uli-to smoothen Olai uli-to carve thin ridges Yetra uli- to carve out holes Kotla-to cut Production Clusters Namakkal district: Namakkal Products Lamps Kuzhipaniyaram chatty-mould for making a food dish Sirpangal-idols Incense stands Candle stands Paperweights The advantage of using kalchatty utensils,for storing and serving food NAtchatra vilakku-

products is that they have a cooling effect on the contents,so the food products do not spoil easily.The kalchatty utensils are generally sold by itenerant traders and in local temple fairs and festivals.

star-shaped lamps Kondai vilakku Dosa Toy-miniature household articles Rolling pin Jars with lids.

BHAVANI DHURRIES Production Clusters Erode district: Erode: Pallipalayam Bhavani Salem district: Kumarapalayam Products Jamkalam-dhurrie Pandhi pai-long narrow dhurrie Tools Kai thari-handloom Pannai-bamboo reed Vadi settu-heald shaft Oorulai-pulleys Bowani ratta-hank winder Bowani-bobbin Tharu kutchi-quill Sendu kutchistretcher The twin towns of Bhavani and Kumarapalayam situate on the confluence of River Kaveri and its tributary Bhavani,has a sizeable population of dhurrie weavers.The origins of the multicoloured stripped cotton flat weave dhurrie called jamkalam,is linked to temple festivals,as temples required floor coverings for seating devotees.The numerous weavers spread in and around Bhavani were organized into a consortium initiated by a weaver Sangameshwar Chettiar.This enabled the weaving cluster to supply large quantities of striped cotton dhurries all over India.Woven on simple pit treadle looms,the dhurries are made in cotton,rayon and acrylic,in a weft-faced plain weave structure.2/175 cotton yarn is set openly and the weft,10s single cotton is densely woven.There is a wide range of sizes available-from 28x72 inches to 192x120 inches-the latter requiring three weavers working simultaneously.The weavers 1. A weaver weaving a Bhavani dhurrie on a pit treadle loom are from Hindu comm-unities of Vaneer,Devanga at a workshop in Kumarapalayam. Mudaliyar,Chettiar and Gounder communities and the reed and 2. Bhavani dhurrie features:Patta,thick bands of colour heald makers are Muslims. interspersed with kettai,thinner bands.Seen here is a detail of the ribbed texture due to the weft-faced plain weave structure.

WOOLLEN DRUGGETS Production Clusters Salem district: Salem Vaniambadi Tools Sickle-shaped knife Hattan-iron comb Katthi-knife Charkha-spinning wheel Products Drugget THE NATURAL COLOURED woollen drugget of Salem are rugs made of thick coarse woollen yarn.They are woven on vertical looms wiht a cotton warp and woollen weft.Raw wool is cleaned and carded on a machine and handspun into yarn on a charkha,spinning wheel.The hanks of woollen yarn are then dyed.The closely woven weft faced druggets are very thick and rough,and mainly purchased by buyers in north India.The demand for the druggets increases during cold seasons.The products are available in various sizes,with designs in stripes,geometrical forms due to the coarseness of the woollen yarn. 1. Mudi(raw wool),panju(carded wool)and kondai,handspun woollen yarn. 2. A motif woven by the tapestry technique using natural wool combined with dyed wool on a vertical loom,Salem.

RAYON DHURRIE Production clusters Erode district: Bhavani Products Jamkalam-dhurrie Terai seelai-religious icons Wall hanging Tools Kai thari-hand loom Pannai-bamboo reed STRIPED COTTON BHAVANI DHURRIE IS WELL known hand woven product of Bhavani and Kumaraplayam.These flat thinner rayon weft or two-plied thicker rayon yarn.Besides the striped designs,a few weavers weave ornamented rayon wall hangings in bright colours with floral borders and motifs.The unique feature of the rayon textiles is thed introduction of borders and figurative forms of animals and birds,deities,alphabets and mythical figures woven in the extra weft technique.Religious icons of Balaji,Christ,Ganesha,Laxmi and other deities are woven where the icon is decorated with a border or row of motifs.Patterning in extra weft is done by manually picking up warp threads according to the desired motif and a 12-plied weft of rayon is woven,which rests on a ground of finer rayon(only two-plied).This makes the motif prominent and gives it a relief texture. Detail of a parrot motif woven in the extra weft technique,using 12 -plied rayon weft.The ornamented dhurrie used on special occasions,is predominantly blue with a large peacock motif in the centre enclosed by a multicoloured border. Vadi settu-heald shaft Oorulai-pulleys Bowani ratta-hank winder Bowani-bobbin Tharu kutchi-quill Sendu kutchistretcher

Detail of a patta kettai,traditional striped Bhavani dhurrie woven with a cotton warp and rayon filament weft.Patta refers to the broad stripes and kettai to thin stripes. Detail showing the ribbed texture of a Bhavani dhurrie due to the weft-faced plain weave structure,woven with two-plied rayon filament.The design is called patta akurai calar goundu,stripe with a pointed tip.

Detail of lamp motif used in the border around an image of Ganesha.

BAMBOO FLUTE 1. Bamboo flutes of different pitches and sizes. 2. Craftsman using a red hot poker to burn holes in the bamboo at measured intervals.

THE CRAFTSMAN IN Erode is originally from Kumbakonam in Thanjavur district which has a flourishing tradition of classical music.The craftsman is adept at making and playing flute in Thanjavur.The bamboo procurred from Coimbatore,Kutralam and Nagercoil is cut and holes are drilled in it using a metal poker called the tholai podum kambi,which is heated and its pointed tip placed on the marked areas to burn holes on the bamboo.The finished flute is polished with sandpaper.Different degrees of polish are done according to the client`s requirements.Finally varnish is applied as a protective layer on the flute.Flute of different pitches ranging from number 1 to 7,are made and each flute is made for a kattai,one particular pitch.

Production Clusters Erode district: Erode Products Bamboo flutes of different pitches Tools Tholai podum kambi - metal poker

A view of the tea planatation cultivated on the hill slopes near Coonoor with the backdrop of the Nilgiris,literally blue mountains,located in the Western Ghats. Subclusters of Coimbatore Coimbatore Erode Niligiris Gobichettypalayam Crafts of Coimbatore Toda embroidery Women at a coir rope making unit along the Pollachi-Coimbatore highway.Tamil Nadu is one of the largest producers of coconuts and so many crafts have emerged due to this abundant resource. RESOURCES Craft Toda embroidery Raw Materials Cloth Embroidery thread Sources Karur and Erode Ooty and Kotagiri COIMBATORE DISTRICT SITUATED in the interiors of Tamil Nadu,is bounded on the west by the Western Ghats and in the south by the Anamalai Hills.The district headquarters is Coimbatore and to the southwest lies a mountain pass known as the Palghat Gap.The district is benefited by the southeast monsoons,and the rest of the state is in a rain shadow area.The Palghat Gap is also responsible for the strategic importance of Coimbatore in trade and commerce with Kerala on the western coast.Coimbatore is one of the few districts ot boast of a dense forest cover,which accoutns for nearly 20% of the total land area.The Anamalai Hills are home to a wildlife sanctuary with elephant herds and tigers that draw tourists from surrounding places.Teak,sandalwood,rosewood,vengai and pillaimaruthu are the most common trees,while the growth of bamboo led to the development of related crafts such as basketry and flute-making.The district is also known for developing animal husbandry and its indigenous breed of kangeyam,cattle.The district is irrigated by a system of anicuts fed by the rivers is Noyyal,Palar,Aliyar,Amaravathi and Bhavani.Coimbatore is aptly known as the Manchester of south India because of its prosperous textile industry.The handloom industry has survived and thrived alongside the modern mills,making a significant contribution to the economy.The district also has a booming engineering sector,alongside cement,rayon and synethic gem industries. ACCESS Coimbatore is linked by air to Chennai(491km),Bangalore and Cochin.The district is also well-connected by rail and road to other cities and districts in Tamil Nadu:Salem (165km),Thanjavur(259km).

A Toda artisan embroidering a shawl at Thalptheri Mund,near Udagamandalam.The Toda men and women wear poothukuli,derived from pooth meaning to wrap.It is double layered cotton mantle embroidered with red and black threads.

The Nilgiris district is home to many tribes:Toda,Kota,Irula,Kurumba,Paniya and Mullukurumba among others.Seen here is a Kota woman wearing gold earrings.Their jewellery made from other metals like copper and steel is distinct,consisting of bangles,rings and necklaces.

TODA EMBROIDERY THE NILGIRIS ARE HOME to 18 tribal among whom the Todas are the most distinct.Their language,though Dravidian,has no script and their first contact outside their region was when the East India company annexed the Nilgiris in 1799.Todas are involved in agriculture and buffalo rearing.The women embroider the traditional draped garment called poothkuli or shwal.It is a thick white cotton cloth used as a mantle by both men and women.The main material of unbleached,white cotton is woven in a balanced weave structure.On one end of the cloth three stripes-two of red and one of black-are woven into it.It is in these stripes that the embroidery is worked before the two lengths of the fabric are sewn together.The darning stitch is used for embroidering motifs and patterns.While formerly vegetable fibre was used as threads,now embroidery threads are used.In the last 10years,a lot of funding from developmental organisations,has been provided to these Toda settlements.Toda shawls are embroidered by women and sold as part of an income generating scheme for the community.The embroidery on the shawls which is done on the left of the black stripe(around the two red stripes),is called the karnol,while the embroidered pattern on the right is called the karthal.Of all the embroideries,the one intended for funeral is usually the most elaborate.The poothukuli is worn by the Todas during their festivals and funerals.Today,the women make other products like bags and bed covers for the commercial market. 1. Detail of the darning stitch or counted thread embroidery.Patterns used in the embroidery are similar to the ones used as tattoo marks. 2. Darning stitch embroidery is done in continuous bands along the width of the fabric.Base fabric woven with the red and black bands is used for making a poothukuli. 3. Embroidery used on a new product such a pounch. 4. Detail of embroidery on a poothukuli.The base fabric is unbleached white cotton with a balanced weave structure that enables the artisan to count and embroider the pattern which is done with a high degree of skill. Production Clusters Nilgiris distict: Udagamandalam Kotagiri Products Poothukuli-thick mantle Table linen Shawls Bed covers Pouches Bags Embroidered patches Tools Sewing machine

A Toda womanb wearing the poothukul,which is worn over a torp,full length wrap with a blouse worn underneath.

Crafts of PONDICHERRY Terracotta and pottery Soapstone sculpture Kora mat weaving Seashell craft Subclusters of PONDICHERRY Pondicherry Kalapet Villianur Mudaliarpet Arikemedu Karaikal

Districts - 4 Craftspersons - 0.01 Lakhs

Languages Tamil French Telugu Malayalam Attire Veshti - draped lower garment Sari Festivals Pongal Thai Pusam Masi Magam Lourdes Car Festival Fete Nationale Fete De Pondicherry Landmarks Roman settlement at Arikemedu Aurobindo Ashram French - Tamil architecture Cathedrals Botanical Gardens

A former French colony, and a union territory now, Pondicherry also known as Puddchcheri, has a unique place in Indian geohistory. Along with the town of Pondicherry, which is physically located within the boundaries of Tamil Nadu, its administrative territory lies scattered in the states of Tamil Nadu (Karaikal), Andhra Pradesh (Yanam) and Kerala (Mahe), all of which were under French control until 1954. Excavations at the ancient site of Arikemedu have revealed that it was a commercial centre and had trade links with the Roman Empire as early as 1st ecntury AD. It has been a part of the Pallava, Chola and Pandya empires, later the Vijayanagara empire, followed by Mughal rule. Pondicherry attracted the Europeans who came looking for textiles and spices along the Inset : Plaster surface ornamentation on the arched entrances of the Cluny embroidery centre.

Coromandal Coast. It was not long before Podicherry town had the Dutch, Portuguese, French and English fighting over it, until finally the French prevailed in 1816. The present day Pondicherry town was constructed by the French and has two parts - Tamil and French quarters whose street scapes and buildings have a distinct identity. Pondicherry has preserved many things reminiscent of the French architectural style in terms of well planned roads, magnificent churches and public buildings. The other parts of Pondicherry that lie scattered within other states are culturally attenued to the states that they are located in. Pondicherry is identified with the Aurobindo Ashram which was set up Sri Aurobindo in 1926. The Ashram residents work and live by the philosophy of Sri Aurobindo and the Mother.

ACCESS Pondicherry is well connected by road and rail, Viluppuram is the nearest railway station. 1. At Kuchi Kuppam, catamarans are lodged into the sandy areas of the Chennai, 160 km from Pondicherry, is the nearest beach. These are ingeniously built by tying together shaped wooden logs, airport. traditional to the Coromandal Coast. 2. Seen here is the airy courtyard that is surrounded by wide verandahs leading int the suites of Hotel de l`Orient. Built in 1809, the hotel was once the home of a wealthy French family. The mansion is now restored as a heritage property. 3. Continuous walls, white plastered pilasters, an arched entrance, horizontal cornices with plastered ornamentation on the surface are some common features of street facades in the French quarter of Pondicherry.

Chiselling out the design on a Kamakshi Amman (Goddess Kamakshi) lamp.

An artisan weaving a bamoo basket. RESOURCES Craft Terracotta Raw Materials Savuddu (rough textured clay) Kallippu (fine clay) Manal (rough sand) Soapstone Kora mats Soapstone Kora or sedge grass Sources Sandipalayam Thenal Locally available Thandrampet & Omalur Villanur Andaman & Nicobar Islands

Seashell crafts Seashell

A mortar and pestle made of variegated softstone.

A shiva lingam, a phallic symbol made of softstone that represents Lord Shiva. The lingam is the centre of reverence and worship in Shaivite temples that abound in southern India. Garlands, bridal decorations sold by a flower vendor.

A carved wooden temple door.

TERRACOTTA AND POTTERY Production Clusters Pondicherry district: Villanur Products Ganesh figurines Ayyanar figures Flower vases Hanging lamps Jugs Tools Moulds Shaping tools Terracotta is practiced as a hereditary craft in the village of Villianur. According to the craftsmen, it has been practiced for at least the last three generations. Only pots were made earlier. There has been a transition from traditional pottery and ritual objects to decorative objects for the tourist industry and urban households. At Villianur in Pondicherry, clay is shaped by hand and then fired. Three types of soil of varying consistencies have to be mixed together for the clay that is crafted into dolls. In order of quantity, they are - kalippu (soft clay), saavudu (mud) and manal (sand). The mud is broken and surrounded by podi kal (the smaller broken dried clay) to stop the water poured on it from flowing otu. The water is left to be absorbed for a night. The next day, the clay is stamped for an hour and is gathered finally into a mould. It is shaped with the help of a variety of shaping tools into the required product and fired. 1. A small lamp. 2. Incense stick stand. 3. Keerai chatty (spinach - utensil), the rough surface is conducive to mash spinach. 4. Left - muham yaludhuna paanai, face drawn on the pot, installed like a scarecrow when a house is being built; and right - terracotta head of a demon that wards off evil spirits. 5. Pot placed on top of terracotta stoves referred to locally as thavidu addupu, rice stove. 6. Elephant - shaped terracotta telephone stand.

SOAPSTONE SCULPTURE Product Clusters Pondicherry district: Kossapalayam Products Idols of deities Religious icons Incense stick holders Turned bowls Mortar & Pestle Animal figures Tools Suthiyal - hammers Uli - chisels Soapstone sculpture is a recent craft sculpture is then carved spontaneously without measurements. Crative forms have been introduced in Pondicherry. It was introduced by the design influence from the international community at Auroville in developed as a training scheme of Tamil Nadu. the Government and was headed by craftsmen who relocated from Modayur in North Arcot district of Tamil Nadu. Soapstone is obtained from quarries in Tiruvannamalai and Salem districts of Tamil Nadu. Idols are carved and sculpted out of soapstone while bowls and utensils are turned on the lathe machine. Soapstone is a softer material than granite and facilitates easy carving. As the idols are of lower value, the process consists of rough cutting the stone to required size without markings of drawing. The 1. Idol of Shiva in black finish. 2. Seven headed Ganesha in his traditional posture, in natural finish.

KORA MAT WEAVING In Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry, kora or sedge grass grows wild on river banks, beside ponds and water channels. Four generations ago weavers came from Sirkali, Thekkal and Chidambaram and settled in Odiampet, Villanur. The Kumbakkam Lake provides the necessary water for growing and processing the grass stalks. Harvested grass is split into two manually or by a splitting machine and dried in the Sun. Mostly women practice this craft. The process of weaving is identical to Kora mat weaving in Pattamadai in Tamil Nadu. Only the coarser varieties of mats are woven here. The skills of weaving are elementary thus most mats are woven with simple stripes created with dyed splits that are used in combination with natural kora grass. 1. Detail of a kora grass mat woven with 305 count dyed splits. 2. The ribbed texture of a kora grass mat. Production Clusters Pondicherry district: Villianur Odiampet Products Table mats Floor mats Tools Charkha - spinning wheel Chatti - mud pot Knife Loom Parivattam - yarn winder Planks Polishing stones Loom Paavu - warp Aacha - reed Kucchali - shuttle Vilda kamba - healds Anai kunal - lease stick Mukali - vertical post

SEASHELL CRAFT Seashell craft is practiced on a small scale at Karaikal. The raw material is specially ordered from Andaman and Nicobar islands. The shells are cleaned and cut according to the product ideas and then carved delicately. The products are mainly contemporary, mostly used for personal adornment. Various kinds of jewellery and accessories such as bracelets, bangles, brooches, rings, earrings, boxes and hairclips are made out of shell. Production Clusters Karaikal Products Vermillion container Jewellery Table top products Tools Chanakal - grinding stone Glue Asphalt Bench grinder electric brush cleaner

1. Seashell 2. A small container made out of seashel and fitted with a lid and base made out of sheet metal. 3. Hair Clips

4 Carved seashell bangle that is finished with diepressed metal endings.

CRAFTS KERALA Bell metal utensils Marapani - wood carving Palmyra basketry Ramacham root products Horn carving Vallam - boat making Aranmula kannadi metal mirrors Stone carving Coconut based crafts Coir work Bamboo crafts Rattan and cane products Natural fibre crafts Laminated wood work and inlay Pooram crafts Bronze casting Kora mat weaving Districts - 14 Craftspersons - 0.10 Lakhs Young coconut fronds are knotted on a rope to create festive installations at a shrine dedicated to Ayyankali at Paravur, Kollam. Screw pine craft Ship building Kathakali and Theyyam headgear Nettur petti jewellery boxes Symmetric wood stringing Lace making Embroidery

Physical Features Hills & Valleys Midland plains Coastal belt Backwaters & rivers: Achenkovil, Bharatpuzha, Periyar, Pamba, Manimala, Meeachil, Moovattupuzha. Biodiversity Flora Indian rosewood, Malabar Kino, Teak, Coconut, Rubber, Shandalwood, Mango, Bamboo, Orchids, Rice, Tapioca, Cashew, Banana Fauna: Elephants, Wild boar, Lion tailed monkey, Lions, Tigers, Leopards, Great Indian Hornbills, Brahminy kites, Fied kingfishers.

Sculpted to resemble the form of an elephant, a padi or stepped entrance to a shrine at the Ananthapura Temple, near Bekal. Erected in the centre of a lake this temple is said to be the original abode of the Ananthapadmanabha, the presiding deity at the Padmanabhaswami Temple, Thiruavanathapuram. In the backwater regions of Kerala, domstic properties connected by waterways; boats known as vallam are used to travel from one`s home to the mainland.

Nestled between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea is the state of Kerala. Aptly known as `God`s Own Country`, it is a land of coconut groves and lush vegetation, wide beaches and labyrinthine backwater canals, verant hills and rainforests.

The abundance of natural materials such as wood, fibre, coir, bamboo, metal and stone has resulted in long established craft practices that, unlike the highly decorative crafts of most of India, exhibit a simplicity and minimalism of form. Primarily agro based economy, its tea, coffee, rubber and cadamom plantations accorded it a crucial position on the spice route, thus introducing to the region a melange of religions and cultural incluences. Due to the history of avid trade, the major cities of Kerala are situated along the coastlline. Kerala essentially comprised of three distinct political entities Malabar, the northeren kingdom of the Zamorins of Calicut, the kingdum of the Kochi kings who

ruled from Cochin or Kochi, and the southern kingdom of the Travancore dynasty who ruled from Thiruvananthpuram, the present state capital. The three regions share a common architectural and craft vcabulary which is largely defined b the availability of natural materials and a predilection for pristine forms, which although intricately detailed, are largely governed by the principle of functionality rather than purely by an aesthetic of the ornamental. Inset : The painted masks of the Kathakali dancers adhere to an elaborate symbolism where the colours used are selected on the basis of the nature of the character. Thus the faces of noble male characters, such as the virtuous god king Rama, are green while characters of high birth that have an evil streak, such as the demon king Ravana, are allotted a similar green make up slashed with red marks on the cheeks; extremely angry of excessively evil characters wear red make up and a flowing red beard; woven and ascetics have yellow faces.

Languages Malayalam English Tamil Hindi Festivals Vishu - New Year Trikartika Maha Shiva Ratri Thiruvatira Onam Attire Mundu - a wrapped sarong worn by women. Mundu neriyath - two piece women`s garment wrapped around like a sari

1. Due to the intense humidity and heat, Kerala did not have a tradition of using furniture; mats woven from strips of screw pine were used as bedding in households of all economic strata. 2. Seen at the fishing village of Pallikkara in Kasaragod, a temple priest, his forehead adorned with sacred paste and his ears ornamented with the traditional ear studs. 3. At the fishing village of Vanjippura, a fisherman wearing a hat made of woven palm leaf. 4. Fine cotton handwoven saris are produced by skilled weavers in Balaramapuram near Thiruvananthapuram. These are based on the mundu and neriyath, (traditional two piece unstitched garment), that has a striking combination of kasav (silk core wrapped with silver and gold plated thread) with unbleached white cotton. The kasav sari is used during festival and religious occasions. 5. This tharavadu, or upper caste Nair family home, at Kumbala near Kasaragod, is constructed of locally quarried laterite; this porous material allows walls made from it to `breathe` and is therefore highly suitable for construction in the tropical heat of Kerala. 6. The exterior of a traditional Syrian Christian house, Puthengadi, Kottayam. 7. The temple of the Kochi roya family, situated at Tripunithura, houses their chief deity Poornathrayeesa; especially notable are the intricately carved wooded pavilions, the sanctum encased in repousse treated metal sheets and the large stone dwarapalas or guardien deities.

Cuisine Malabar biryani - rice with spiced mutton Puttu - rice flour and coconut steamed in bamboo Thoren - mustard flavoured vegetable dish. Avial - vegetable gravy thickened with grated coconut and yogurt. Pachadi - pumpking cooked in a sauce of coconut milk and curd. Paal payasam - milk and sugared rice or vermicelli. Meen vevichathu fish in red chilly sauce. Landmarks Padmanabhapuram Palace Aranmula Kaladi Mannarsala Sabarimalai Periyar Tiger reserve Munnar Napier Museum Kuthiramalika Palace Museum

Subclusters of THIRUVANANTHAPURAM Thiruvananthapuram district: Anavoor Anayara Attingal Sree Kariyam Chakai Chalai Neyyatinkara Nediyamcode Perumkadavila Parassala Kovalam Varkala Pallipuram Vizhinjam Kollam district: Kollam Eravipuram Crafts of THIRUVANANTHAPURAM Bell metal casting Wood carving Palmyra basketry Ramachan root products Horn carving

RESOURCES Craft Raw Materials Sources Thiruvananthapuram Bell metal Brass, Copper, Tin, casting Zinc, Beeswax, Coal, Coconut husk Palmyra craft Horn carving Palm leaves, dyes Buffalo, Bullock and Bull horns

Thiruvananthapuram Thirivananthapuram & Thrissur A doorway of a house facing the market outside the Padmanabhaswami Temple, Thiruvananthapuram; the carved wooden gable of the doorway the paint work are characteristic of the local architecture aesthetic. Now the capital of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, known as Trivandrum earlier was the seat of the former royal family of Tranvancore from 1750 to 1956. The city derives its name from the temple dedicated to Anantha, the sacred thousand headed serpant. The oldest part of the city had developed around the temple. As the gateway to the south and the producer of vast quantities of timber, ivory, pepper, ginger, cinnamon and other spices, this port city was an important trade centre and consequently was privy to interactions with mercantile communities from China, Arabia and later with the Portuguese, Dutch, French and British colonial traders as well. This region of lw lying paddy fields and coconut palms is also home to a training centre for kalaripayattu, the form of martial arts that originated in Kerala in the 11th century. Kollam, situated 71 km from Thiruvananthapuram, is a key participant in the state`s trade and commerce due to its large cashew trading and processing industry. Balaramapuram in Thiruvananthapuram district has a large cluster of handloom weavers, who produce pristing, fine cotton textiles such as mundu and neriyath, the traditional two piece unstitched garment worn by women of a communities. The neighbouring district of Kollam has weaving clusters that produce cotton textiles, furnishings and torth, the simple, open weave, absorbant towel.

A craftsperson demonstrating the process of weaving strips of screw pine into mobiles.

ACCESS Thiruvananthapuram is a major junction on the southern road and railway networks with connections to many major cities in the country. The city also has a national and international airport, effectively linking it by air to Kochi, Chennai, Delhi, Goa and Mumbai, as well as other countries , especially those in the Middle East. Inset : Detail of wood carving inside the Anantha Padmanabhaswamy Temple, built in the heart of Thiruvananthapuram city. Every minute detail in this temple built in stone is carefully designed and carved - the beams and pillars, joints and brackets carved in wood have received special attention, making it one of the finest examples of religious architecture done on a grand scale in Kerala.

Copper connecting pins are hammered into the wax, these act as a support between the core and the outer mould. An outer clay mould is carefully executed and all edges are sealed. The firing involves two simultaneous activites - baking the mould and melting metal in crucibles. Metal is poured into conical openings while air escapes through strategically located vents, a process that may take up to two days. The mould is cooled and then broken to reveal the metal object.

Production Clusters Thiruvananthapuram district: Thiruvananthapuram Thrissur district: Nadavaramba Irinjalakuda Kunnamkulam Kadavallur Ernakulam district: Manjapara Kannur district: Payyanur Kasaragod district: Kasaragod Products Urli - domestic vessel

BELL METAL UTENSILS The Moosaries, a caste of metal smiths believed to have migrated to Kerala from Tamil Nadu, specialize in the making of cast bell metal utensils with thick cooking surfaces. The smaller of these, known as the urli and the varpu, are approximately 1 to 2 feet in diameter and are used in most households in Kerala for making delicacies such as payasam. The large charakku, usually 3 to 8 feet in diameter with a surface thickness of as much as 20 mm, is used in temples, gurukuls and devaswoms for the preparation of large quantities of food - a tradition that stems from the practice of feeding hundreds of Brahmins during temple festivals and royal ceremonies. Following and invocation to Lord Ganapati and the ritual blessing of the axle, the core is made using a variety of clays, each of which is selected for its plasticity, bonding properties, strength or surface finish.A mixture of pure beeswax, tree resin and castor oil, prepared according to traditional means, is pinched onto the core in rolls or beaten into sheet and applied. Gauges for resin thickness are affixed to ensure an even rim and a constancy of body. A heater tool is used to remove the access wax while the core is turned and surface motifs made of wax rolls that are carved out of wax plates are attached. Wax runners, made broad at the top and narrow at the joint and distributed so as to ensure a convenient and balanced inflow of metal are placed at intervals.

1. The maintenance of consistent proportions and surface detailing lends the disparately sized urli, varpu and charakku a singular visual identity. Shown here is a charakku, large vessel from a museum collection. 2. The linear edge of the charakku grip is integrated with the curve of the rim through the use of vegetal or floral creepers symmetrically placed on either side of the central ring. 3. The outer clay mould of a small charakku, the conical wax runners clearly visible. 4. The straight edges of the urli facilitate easy maintenance; due to the absence of handles and the vessel`s small size, it is usually lifted by the rim, either with a cloth or with tongs.

Varpu - large domestic vessel Charakku - large vessel used in temples Other household utensils Tools Lathe Axle Bamboo supports Bent metal and bamboo rods Wax rods Copper pins Clay caps Crucilble Stone kiln Curved metal rods Files

MARAPANI - WOOD CARVING Production Clusters Thiruvananthapuram district: Chakai Muttathhara Manachaud Palkulangara Poonthura Kulathoor Karamana Kunnampura Vazhutacaud Vellandad Products Fluted coloumns Wooden lintels Window shutters Brackets Capitals Statuary Relief carved panels Idols Decorative artefacts Tools Kanup mattam - right angle Chinderam - planar Choropanam & vill traditional bow and drill structure Kottudi - mallat Uli - chisels: Kanap uli - flat chisel Churut uli - half rounded chisel Keech uli - V shaped chisel Mona uli - pointed chisel Aram - file Kanup aram - flat file Urund aram - half round file Kon aram - V shaped file Saw The vernacular architecture of Kerala is characterized by its incorporation of elaborately carved wooden elements that are simultaneously functional and decorative. Fluted columns topped by ornamental capitals, brackets resembling stylized floral forms or composite animals, arved lintels and beams, and lion headed joists are features common to temples, mosques, palaces and old family homes. The ceilings are generally divided into panels, each bearing a relief carved motif of a lotus, deity or dikpala, guardians of the cardinal directions. The heavy rainfall, harsh sunlight and intense humidity of the local climate have given rise to an architectural vocabulary of tiled sloping roofs with decorated glarbles that rise in two or more superrimposed tielrs to create steep pyramidal profiles, latticed shutters and slatted panels of te exterior porches in order to 1. The outer wooden structure, or malaika, of the Taikottaram at the Padmanahapuram Palace; the slats diffuse the intensity of he light and allow air to flow into the inner spaces. 2. Detail of wooden Yali brackets in the Ambari Mukhappu, Padmanabhapuram Palace. 3. Decorative wood carving is incorporated into this entrance porch to the Navaratri Mandapam, Padmanabhapuram Palace. 4. The latticed west wall of the queen`s dressing room, Padmanabhapuram Palace. 5. A teak wood bench with curved headrests at the porch of the Kuthiramalika Palace; common features of the exterior halls in most traditional upper caste homes, such casual yet austere seating arrangements are usually intended for the use of the male members of the family and their visitors. ensure the drainage of rainwater and the passage of air through the rooms as well as prevent heat from getting trapped. The interiors of the koothambalam, the theatres located within precints of temples and palaces, have latticed screen like walls on three sided that grant ventilation and diffuse light; specially designed roofs provide excellent acoustics. The fine carving may be seen in many temples and churches of the region - the Mahadeva Temple near Thiruvananthapuram feature and ornate ceiling with a central image of Brahma seated on a lotus and numerous depictions of warriors wielding swords. Similarly, intricate detailing is present in the local churches where the altar, pulpit and the ceiling above the chancel usually sport carved and glided vines, grapes and wheat.

The ubiquitous Panayola, palmyra leaves, are used to create a number of products ranging from the patta - the cup made by folding a section of the ola, leaf that is used to drink padneer, the fresh juice of the palmyra fruit - to hand held fans, winnows and baskets. Constructed with vertical and diagonal plaiting or through coiling, the baskets are traditionally made with

Production Clusters Thiruvananthapuram district Anavoor Manvil Neyyatinkara Nedumangad Perumkadavila Parassala Sree Kariyam a square base and a circular rim. Often they are made of two layers - the inner, woven with a coarse, natural coloured ola while the outer, which is woven with colourful finer strips. The mature leaf is used to make crude baskets of little structural strength, used for packaging fish, fruit and vegetables. Naar, inner section, of the leaf stem, on the other hand, is used to make storage and shopping baskets. Although extremely strong, these baskets have little market appeal due to their mottled colouring; consequently, the naar is now dyed to give it a bright and lacquerlike appearance. 1. Detail of a palm leaf graland similar in technique to paper streamers. 2. Rectangular box with a lid woven with multicoour dyed palmyra fibre. 3. A doubled handled, square basket. 4. A hand held palm leaf fan. 5. The semi woven base of a palm leaf product. Products Traditional square baskets Shopping baskets Storage baskets Packaging, Trays Hand fans, Garlands Tools Splicing machines Scissors Needle Nail frames

RAMACHAM ROOT PRODUCTS Ramacham (Vetiveria Zizaniodes), renowned for its perfume, cooling and medicinal properties, is crafted into a number of products specifically designed to counter the tropical heat. Hand held fans made of this material produce wafts of cool perfume if peridiocally sprinkled with water during their use; and mats made of ramacham are used as blinds to block the harsh sunlight and keep the rooms cool. During the summer evenings, dried ramacham is usually spread out on the roofs of houses and sprinkled with water in order to cool the rooms below. Indigenous low costs coolers generate sprays of moist perfumed air with the aid of a motor and ramacham infused water. Ramacham infused water is drunk due to the widely prevalent belief that it serves to lower body temperature. Production Clusters Thiruvananthapuram district Palakkad district Products Ramacha vishari hand held fan Thailam - aromatic liquid Blinds Mats Hats Pen stands Boxes Chappal - slippers 1. A ramacham hat edged with coloured fabric. 2. Footwear constructed ramacham and trimmed with coloured fabric. Tools Electric motor Neeld

HORN CARVING The craft of horn carving in Kerala has roots in the tradition of ivory carving. Although such exquisite examples of ivory carving as the ivory throne of Maharaja Swati Tirunal are still extant, the craft itself ceased to be practiced after the use of ivory was banned in India. The craftsmen transferred their carving skills to the horns of buffalo, bullock and bull. Buffalo horn is commonly used due to its large size and tapered base; bullock horns are smaller and hence , useful for making smaller objects. The horns of hte bull is only occasionally used since it is hollow and suitable only for carving the form of a peacock with a sweeping tail. The process begins with the upper layers of the horn being stripped off with chisels; the desired shape is marked with chalk, and the extraneous surfaces are sawn or chiselled onto the horn until its surface heats up doe to friction and the paste is absorbed into the grainy structure of the horn and lends it a fine sheen. Textures are created by applying a mixture of chalk and adhesive to etched patterns; the polished areas gleam while the etched areas catch colour. 1. The hollow horn of the bull is used exclusively to form the peacock with its extensive tail. 2. This figurine of a parent bird feeding its young is carved out of buffalo horn. 3. A lobster carved out of animal horn; its spindly legs are individually carved and fixed to the body. Production Clusters Thiruvananthapuram district: Thiruvananthapuram Anayara Thrissur district: Avittathur Products Bird & animal figures Peacocks, Fish Trees, Vases Cigarette cases Tools

off. The horn may also be moulded to the desired shape by softening it through heating; it is then tempered with water and polished. The horn is sandpapered and rubbed with the spine of a soaked leaf from the kadaplaava or small jackfruit tree - this process induces a milky liquid to form and settle on the surface of the horn. A black, sooty paste - prepared by burning a palm leaves or panayola and mixing the residual ash with water - is rubbed

Hammers, Pliers, Files Mallet made from tamarind wood Konaran - etching tool

Subclusters of ERNAKULAM Ernakulam district: Cherai, Parur, Kochi Angamally Maradu Alappuzha district: Alappuzha, Chertala Changannur Pattanakkad Kottayam district: Kottayam, Vaikom Palai Thalayolaparambu Idukki district: Idukki Pathanamthitta district: Aranmula Thodupuzha Crafts of ERNAKULAM Vallam - boat making Aranmula kannadi metal mirrors Stone carving Coconut based crafts Coir work Bamboo work Natural fibre craft Laminated wood work

RESOURCES Craft Raw Materials Sources Cherai in Ernakulam, Kanjirapally in Kottayam, Palappuram in Palakkad, Tamil Nadu Forests of Poyankuttu and Lamalayar in Ernakulam district Ranji in Pathanamthitta district Coconut Coconut shell, based craft stem and husk

Bamboo work

Bamboo

Bamboo reeds

Natural Hemp, Sisal, Locally available fibre crafts Banana stem, Pineapple leaves, screw pine, Kora grass, Coconut palm, Palmyra, Rush grass Laminated Rosewood, wood Whitewood Ernakulam, Maraud, Kottayam, Kasaragod

Kochi or Cochin in Ernakulam district, once constituted the domain of the Kochi rulers. The metacluster comprises the districts of Ernakulam, Idukki, Kottayam, Alappuzha and Pathanamthitta. Christened the `Queen of the Arabian seas`, Kochi`s naturl harbour was a flourishing trade centre on the spice route and was occupation by many colonial powers the Portuguese, the Dutch, the French and finally the British. The bungalows and narrow streets of the Mattancherry area of Kochi display and amalgamation of the architectural styles of thse countries; the hybrid aesthetic serving as a testament to the legacy of thisintercultural exchange.Clustered around the harbour, the town of Kochi has come to be the most cosmopolitan of the cities of Kerala as well as the state`s commercial capital. The backwaters extending to the south and the east from the harbour are dotted with tiny islands formed by the alluvial deposits of the rivers. Towards the south is the region known as Kuttanad comprising the district of Alappuzha, also known as Alleppey, a land of lush coconut trees. A network of waterways weave their way through this region thus epitomizing rural Kerala. The land and water are inseperable elements contributing towards and economy driven by coconut harvests, rice crops and coir industries. The neightbouring district of Kottayam isrich in cardamom, pepper, coffee and tea as well as vast paddy fields and rubber plantations. Towards the east lie the vast stretches of the forests of Idukki and Pathanamthitta and the pilgrim town of Sabarimalai.

ACCESS Kochi is well connnected by road and rail alike. it also has a national and international airport that is located at Nedumbassery, 32 km northeast of Ernakulam city. Kochi Harbour`s periodical service plies to the Lakshadweep island; boats are available to all of the Kochi islands from the main ferry station situated 1 km from the Ernakulam railway station. 1. The first step of the construction of the kettuvallam involves the tying of planks to the eravupalaka, or central spine. Four to six holes are drilled along the sides of each plank leaving about one inch from the edges; the corresponding holes are tied through and tightened using nylon ropes. 2. A bronze cast lamp called kedavilakku, lamp of eternal flame, inside Malankar Orthodox Church in Chengannur, Alappuzha district. 3. A craftsman at Chertala cuts a woven coir mat as per a hardboad pattern while maintaining a marginal allowance; all weft threads near the desired form are removed and the edges are knotteed with a thin thread in order to give the product a finish. 4. At a stone carving workshop in Chengannur, a craftsman marks the desired details onto a previously roughly blocked out granite form.

VALLAM - BOAT MAKING Before the introduction of motorable roads to the backwater regions of Alappuzha, Kottayam and Pathanamihitta, vallam or wooden boats were used for ransportation. Of these the most well known is probably the kettuvallam - large open air structures propelled by means of long bamboo punts - they were capable of carrying 7 to 9 lorry loads of cargo. The construction process begins with the formation of the spine the eravupalaka, central plank, that runs through the entire length of the vallam. Once the secondary planks are coated with neem oil, they are heated on a fire fed with coconut husk, and bent to the curvature required to join them to the body with a simple lip and groove joint and then secure them with nylon rope. A team of two stars working on the kettu or tying, one man inside the vallam and the other standing outside - the first passes the rope over a bundle of coconut husk embedded in the grooved joint and through one of the holes drilled along the length of each plank; the second draws out the rope and tightens it as the man inside hammers the rope bundle into a condensed mass. The rope is then inserted into the diagonally situated hole and pulled out by the man seated inside; the process is repeated until a criss cross pattern is achieved. The kombu and thalamaram, or two mastheads, are made seperately and attached to the main body. A paste of charcoal powder, chanchalyam (arpus), lime powder and fish oil is applied on the kettu to prevent water from seeping in; it also serves to waterproof the wood and thward termite infestation. The outside of the vallam is coated with a mixture of cashew oil and coal pwoder to give it its characteristic black colour. 1. A small taravallam, Products used to ferry three to Kettuvallam - boats four people at the most, stands anchored constructed by tying planks together. in the backwaters of Mahamma, Taravallam - boats Alappuzha; these constructed by boats generally have nailing planks a U-shaped base to together. enhance the vessel`s Chundanvallam stability. The boat snake boats gets its name from the Preparations for the regatta at Kumarakom; seen here is the Houseboats process employed in chudanvallam or snake boat. Measuring 130-150 feet in length, these its construction - that boats are usually manned by 100 or more rowers who practice for of hammering tara or months to achieve the smooth coordination required for them to perform nails. effectively as a team. 2. The coiled masthead of a vallam moord at the Alappuzha boat jetty. 3. The roofing of the kettuvallam is made of mats of woven bamboo splits that are tied onto vaulted bamboo splits that are tied onto vaulted bamboo frames such as the one the featured here. The body of the kettuvallam has be redesigned to adapt it for use as a houseboat for tourists - the height of the roof was increased to grant sufficient headroom, windows and other openings were provided for light, better ventilation and to allowthe occupier of the houseboat an uninhibitd view of the passing scenery. The interior space is generally divided with bamboo screen to form bedrooms with a common toilet, a living space, a kitchen and a deck balcony. Production Clusters Alappuzha district: Alappuzha Tattampally Tools Handsaw, Planer Wooden mallet Mattoru - rope Uli - chisel Thadichutiga - mallet Thamar or birma hand drill Kitti - stick used to align and bend the wooden planks. Bamboo needle Kuthira - long plank Noolu - alignment thread Nilanthadi - wood or stone base for construction Iron and copper nails Kavar - wedge Chelu kayaru - 2 play coir ropes Kettu kayaru - 4 play coir ropes

ARANMULA KANNADI - METAL MIRROR Production Clusters Pathanamthitta district: Aranmula Products Traditional: Cheppukannadi - box mirror Kunkumacheppurmirror attached to a vermillion container Vaal kannadi - mirror with a handle Contemporary: Various sized and shaped mirrors, usually with stands Tools Iron tongs, Files Hammers, Chisels Fine emery paper 1. Two contemporary kanaddi from Aranmula; the traditional bronze cast frame has been replcaed with brass frames with stands. 2. Cast metal mirror lined up for polishing. 3. A craftsman polishing the cast metal mirrors by rubbing them vigorously against soft velvet fabric. At Aranmula, a township in the district of Pathanamthitta, generations of a family of highly specialized goldsmiths have been using the lost wax process to cast metal kannadi, mirrors, of an alloy of copper and tin. This technique was utilized to create the vaalkannadi or hand held mirrors with cast bronze frames that were utilized by royalty and in rituals related to the temple. As opposed to the image produced in common mercury coated glass mirrors, the reflection formed in the Aranmula kannadi does not undergo and refraction. Due to the arduous labour required in the casting process, a craftsman may make a maximum of 20 mirrors during a month. The high costs involved in the craft process cannot be met by large sections of contemporary market and consequently, efforts are being made to reduce the overall pricing of the product - these include the substitution of the bronze frames with brass ones that are outsourced rather than made by the mirror maker himself. The form of the mirror too has been greatly transformed; the sinous elegance of the vaalkannadi has ben superceded by flamboyant forms with pedestals and platforms to allow the mirror to stand without manual support.

STONE CARVING Production Clusters Thrissur district: Kurukanpara Palakkad district: Ottapalam Ernakulam district: Paruvur (near Alwaye) Alappuzha district: Chengannur Thiruvananthapuram district: Thiruvananthapuram Products Temple idols Fence stones Tombstones Multitiered lamps Temple lamps Naga stones Stone grinders Name plates Tools Hammer Chisels The stone carving tradition of Kerala is given a unique local character through its employment of the locally available granite and laterite rocks believed to have originated in the neighbouring state of Tamil Nadu. Granite is the widely favoured medium for all stone carved products, and a specific variety known as krishashila is sourced from Omalur in Pathanamthitta district and from Tirthala in the south Malabar, and is reserved for the clulpting of temple idols. Laterite, the red muddy stone that is abundantly available throughout Kerala, was widely used to build both domestic structures and temples such as the Mahadeva temple at Kazhakuttam and the Vaddakkunathan Temple at Thrissur. Although soft when quarried, the materials rapidly hardens on coming into contact with the elements, forming into a highly durable and strong construction materials. Further, the stone is somewhat popous, a phenomeneon that is said to allow the rock to `breathe` in the humid tropical heat. Despite its immense suitability to the climate of Kerala, the use of laterite appears to be suffering a decline due to the changing aesthatic of the local populace, who prefer cement as a building material.

COCONUT BASED CRAFTS Every part of the ubiquitous coconut tree is effectively utilized in this region the flesh of the coconut is eaten, its fibre spun into coir or burnt for fuel, the shell with its natural concave shape converted into bowls and spoons, the stem into tables, chairs, banisters, vases and insense stick holders, and the husk into figurines of monkeys and Buddha heads. The recent emphsis on eco friendly consumer goods has given an additional impetus to this traditional cottage industry. One of the cheif beneficiaries of this phenomeneon has been the craft of working with coconut shells; the traditional repertoire of coconut shell bowls and ladles has not extended to include a variety of lidded containers , trays, boxes, bowls, cups and cutlery. The process involved is relatively simple - the outer surface of the hard coconut shell is smoothened with a saw like tool while the inner is smoothened with the aid of small chisels; the resultant surface is sandpapered. A circular base and a handle are seperately made, either in shell or in cast brass, and attached to the cup by fixing screws. Koyilandi in the district of Kozhikode is renowned for its brass-broidered coconut shell hookah; these were presumably made for the Arabs who had commercial trade links with Malabar Coast during the rule of the Zamorins of Kozhikode district. The trend continues till today, with most of the coconut shell products being produced for export. 1. Containers carved out of coconut shell; the handles are either of cast brass or are individually carved pieces of coconut shell. 2. Bowls made of coconut shell are teamed with spoons made by maximizing the natural curvature of the material. 3. Ladles of various sizes made with coconut shell. 4. Cutlery made with coconut stem. Production Clusters Alappuzha district: Alappuzha Kottayam district: Vaikom Irumbuzhikara Ernakulam district: Cherai Kozhikode district: Koyilandi Kozhikode Thiruvananthapuram district: Thiruvananthapuram Attungal Neyyattinkara Products Of coconut stem: Turned tables and chairs Banisters Vases Incense stick stands Paperweights Of coconut husk: Carved figurines Lidded containers with brass handles Cups Bowls Ladles Snuff boxes Sugar basins Powder boxes Spoons Trays with compartments Soap dishes Hookah Tools Patiyaram - steel saw Small chisels Sandpaper

COIR WORK Production Clusters Alappuzha district: Chertala Products Coir yarn Mats: Bevelled mats Rope mats Mottled mats Inlaid mats Fibre mats Mattings Rugs, Carpets Tools Mallet Spinning wheels Eco friendly chemical dyes Air compressor Corridor mat press Steel rods, Latex Stencil, Weights Smoking chamber Hardboard moulds Gluing machine The process of creating coir mats begins with the retting of the coconut husk in the lagoons for between six to ten months; the husk thus softened is beaten with wooden mallets and later spun into coir yarn on traditional spinning wheels known as ratt. The coir is then woven into floor coverings either by hand or by loom; patterns are achieved by inlaying coir dyed in eco friendly pigments or through post weaving embellishment techniques such as hand bevelling and stencilling. The product range includes compressed fibre mats, mottled mats made of yarn and handwoven coir rope mats as well as rugs and crush The edges of the coir mats are hand knotted; the craftsmen wears a self made rubber glove for protection and support while pulling and pushing the thick needle through the tightly woven coir mat. 1. Patterns are emphasized through hand bevelling whereing the craftsmen manually trims the pile to define raised forms. 2. proof pile carpets. In addition to being and eco friendly material, coir is also exceedingly durable - mothproof and resistant to fungi, flame-retardent, anti static - and with regular maintenance, can be easily kept clean. Kerala produces a variety of graded coir yarns which are used for different purposes such as the stuffing of couches and pillows, making cordage including large sized cables, saddles, brushes, fishing nets, upholstery, hats and finally, the manufacture of rubberized coil, a blend of coir and latex, which is used to pad mattress and cushioning. 3. A medium sized mat, woven using bleached and natural coir. 4. A coir mat made by the knotted pile technique. During the finishing stage, the surface of the mats are sheared and then manually cut using clipping scissors.

BAMBOO CRAFTS Production Clusters Ernakulam district: Angamally Thiruvananthapuram Dedunganda Aryanad Malapuram district: Malapuram Products Bamboo reed mats Fruit baskets Storage and Packaging containers Table mats, Screens Wall hangings Table top products Of all the handicrafts of Kerala, the widely prevalent art of weaving reed baskets and mats is the simplest in form and most adaptable to usage. The reed weavers play a crucial role in agriculturalist villages by crateing a wide range of items necessary for the occupational requirements of the villagers; these include mats for drying grain, winnowing fans for seperating chaff, baskets for storing grain and for drying foodgrain, pepper corns and coconut kernels. The history of the bamboo reed industry of Kerala may be traced to the 14th century when the Arab traveller, Ibn Batuta,recorded the use of bamboo mats as sails on the Chinese ships at Kozhikode. Inset : Bamboo mats often serve as partitions and screens in small shops and homes in rural Kerala. 1. A bamboo ladle 2. This large basket is used by vegetable vendors to carry their wares to the local market. 3. A large storage basket with a lid.

NATURAL FIBRE CRAFTS During the last three decades craftspersons in Kerala have developed an array of products using natural fibres extracted from banana stems, pineapple leaves and sisal leaves in addition to those from more traditional sources such as screw pines, kora grass, coconut husks and palmyra leaves.The extraction of yarn begins with retting, decortication and scotching - processes that are employed to seperate the fibres from the shoots, leaves of roots of plants and trees. The process may be manual as in the extraction of banana fibre or mechanical as in that of sisal fibre. Once extracted, the fibre is Production Clusters Alappuzha district: Chertala Thiruvananthpuram district: Anavoor Sree Kariyam Neyyattinkara Nediyamcode Perumkadavila Parassala Products Rush mats graded to ensure quality control and then usually carded and plaited to create the final products. The fibres may be dyed to generate specific visual impact; the current interest in eco friendly products has created a potentially huge export market for vegetable dyed natural fibre products. Local demand for these products is generally restricted to the season of the Sabarimalai pilgrimage and the many temple and church festivals. 1. A kora grass bag. 2. A basket woven of banana stem. 3. Table mats made of naturally coloured banana husk. Table mats Floor matting Door mats Window and wall mats Letter boxes Bags Baskets Tools Scissors Needles Nail frames Frame looms

LAMINATED WOOD WORK AND INLAY Production Clusters Ernakulam district: Maradu Kottayam district Thalayokaparambu Products Kathakali masks Candle stand Peacock Star wheel Pictorial representations created by inlaying cut pieces of various woods into a base panel. This craft technique involves the glueing o layers of wood together so as to create specific forms and structures.