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The objective of the investigation was to observe various genetic patterns in Drosophila Melanogaster and ensure that the

obtained results were parallel, if not identical to predecessors who had done comparable work. Scientists such as Gregor Mendel, Thomas Hunt Morgan, George W. Beadle and Edward L. Tatum had established a foundation in the field of genetics, a basis which would be utilized for centuries to come, unless refuted otherwise. The central aim was to ascertain that with proper measures one would obtain the very same results as the archetype. Gregor Mendels discoveries have revolutionized what we now know in the field of science and have brought about many other sub-categories of science, and with it Genetics. The ability to accurately breed garden peas gave Mendel an explanation for heredity. By studying genetic inheritance in pea plants, he was able to establish two basic laws that serve as the cornerstones of contemporary genetics: the Law of Segregation and Law of Independent Assortment. Mendels Law of Segregation essentially states that each trait contains two alleles, and that each gamete contains only one of these alleles; these alleles are a source of genetic variability among offspring. Mendels Law of Independent Assortment states that the alleles for one trait separate independently of the alleles for another trait. For example, the allele that codes for the color of ones hair assorts separately than that of the allele that represents ones eye color. This also helps ensure genetic variability among offspring. However, Mendels laws have their limitations. One such limitation is if two genes are on the same chromosome; in this case the assortment of alleles will not be independent. In addition, expression of genes found on the X chromosome can be associated with the sex of the offspring. Despite the fact that he spoke about his great discoveries in 1865 and published an article in 1866, his discoveries were not fully comprehended until

sixteen years after his death. Although our knowledge of genetics and the tools that we utilize have advanced by grand measures since Mendels time, his basic concepts still stand true and remain as a backbone to further amplifying our knowledge of the subject. When applied in practice, Mendelian Genetics can accurately measure or calculate the probabilities of offspring from breeding two parents with non-linked genes. Phenotypes can be affected by alleles that are on the same chromosome and this is referred to as sex autosomal linkage. When breeding corn for example, if the two parents are dominant for a trait (true-breeding or homozygous dominant), the offspring's alleles can be predicted by Mendelian Genetics. Drosophila, can have predicted offspring using Mendelian Genetics when the genes are not on the same chromosome; however, if they are on the same chromosome, which is the X-chromosome, then the expected Mendelian ratios will be greatly off. Sex-linkage can merely be analyzed, not predicted. Once numerous offspring for a sex-linked trait are produced, the order of the alleles can be identified as well as the map distance between each allele. Morgan was the first to discover sex-linkage and genetic recombination, which placed the fruit fly in the forefront of genetic research. Due to it's small size, ease of culture and short generation time, geneticists have been using Drosophila ever since. It is one of the few organisms whose entire genome is known and many genes have been identified. During the decade prior to this, Drosophila had been used in experiments such as fly reactions to light and gravity, and effects of rearing conditions on fecundity (amount of eggs produced), but not yet for genetic study. In his 1925 book, The Genetics of Drosophila, Morgan raised questions:All of the heritable characters about which we have definite information at present are referable to the genes, [but] whether

genes are active all the time or whether their activity is correlated with certain phases of development we do not know at present...[And] whether the gene is a chemical molecule or a collection of molecules is guess work at present. It was not until the 1950s that it was clear that the hereditary material of the chromosomes was DNA, and what the structure of this molecule entailed. The double helix model of DNA won James Watson and Francis Crick the Nobel Prize in 1962. Drosophila melanogaster are the ideal genetic specimens and have been used for genetic experiments since T.H. Morgan began his experiments in 1907. Through various experiments, Morgan was able to show that genes were located on chromosomes. He also discovered that some fruit fly traits such as eye color are found on the same chromosomes that also determine their sex. Morgan thought these subjects were ideal for the study of genetics, as they were easily reared in the laboratory, produce many offspring, have a relatively short life cycle, have relatively prominent characteristics that can be used in sex determination, have fairly simple chromosome organization. T.H. Morgan began the crossing process with red wild type fruit flies. After a while, something caught Morgans attention; amongst all the red wild type flies, a fly with white eyes appeared in one of the cages. Morgan then decided to breed this white eye male with a red wild type female. After some time, Morgan found all of the offspring to be red eyed; there was no sight of white eyed flies. Thus, he concluded that the trait for eye color must be recessive. Following in Mendels footsteps, Morgan bred the red eyed descendents with one another and he was astonished by his findings. Morgan received the expected 3:1 ratio but that was not what bewildered him. What had surprised him was that all the females had red eyes and all the males had white eyes. This turn of events was not something that could be explained by Mendels

rules. After some time, T.H. Morgan resolved this quandary. He proposed that the gene for red eyes and the gene that determined the female sex were on the same chromosome. After looking under the microscope, Morgan found that only three of the four pairs of chromosomes were evenly matched in size. In the fourth pair, those two chromosomes were identical in females, but one of the two was noticeably smaller in males. A small chromosome and a full sized one produced a male, while two full sized chromosomes produced a female. Today it is known that what is true of the fruit fly is true for all living organisms in which the male and female sex organs differ. Because of their shape, the full sized chromosome has been deemed the X chromosome,while the smaller one found only in males has been called the Y chromosome. Essentially what Morgan discovered was that there was a mutation which affected eye color, changing it from the normal wild type red found in nature, to unpigmented and therefore white eyes. a white-eyed male was crossed with a wild type female, all the offspring were red-eyed. This would show red-eyes to be dominant over white. When these red-eyed offspring were mated, the results followed a predictable 3:1 Mendelian ratio of red to white. But the interesting thing about these results were that all the white-eyed flies were males. Half of the males were red-eyed, and all of the females were red-eyed. Morgan realized that these results could be explained if the gene for red vs white eye color were located on the X chromosome. In this experiment the parent (P) females have two X chromosomes each with a dominant red-eyed gene (homozygous for this trait) Males have only one X, in this case carrying the white-eyed mutation, and no gene for eye color on the Y. ( This is termed hemizygous because the male can only have one possible copy of a gene, since the Y carries none.) The first generation (F1) offspring would be females all be carrying a red-eyed gene, and would therefore be red-eyed. In the F2 generation, all females would be red-eyed because male gametes could only have the red-

eyed gene. Males would have a 50/50 chance of being red or white-eyed because half of the female gametes carry a white-eyed gene. After 1900, Mendel's findings were quickly reproduced in experiments employing other plant genera and in animals. His methodological contributions were of a meticulous quantitative analysis and the application of combinatorial methods to verify the unitary and discrete nature of heritable traitsexact science. Although Mendel never solved the problem of inheritance in Hieracium, he postulated the existence of several forms of the same traitpolygenic inheritance in modern termsand also recognized the effects of environmental factors on their expression. Today the study of polygenic traits occurring in discrete classes of individuals with or without disease is an attractive focal point for medical research. Scientific understanding is cumulative, with present discoveries and understanding built upon the work of past scientists. Mendel did not discover genetic linkage but at the end of his first paper reported experiments with beans that almost certainly show that he was aware of another phenomenon, later elaborated by Bateson as epistasis. In epistasis, several genes that affect the same trait interact to influence the final phenotype, as clearly demonstrated in Mendel's case by the flower pigments This was most vividly shown by George Beadle and Edward Tatum in their studies of Drosophila eye colour and auxotrophic factors in the mould Neurospora leading to the `one gene-one-enzyme hypothesis'.11 In his Nobel lecture, Beadle paid handsome tribute to the then little-recognized work of Garrod; but the credit surely must also go to Bateson and Mendel. The genetic revolution in biology and medicine shows little sign of abating. In contrast, Mendel's discoveries, having eluded recognition in his lifetime, have passed through periods of glorification as well as ideological exclusion and Stalinist tyranny To praise Mendel's environment is not to detract from the man. For although he could not know of the processes taking place in the formation of gametes, he made the correct assumption that hereditary determinants segregate in the germ cells in such a way that each gamete contains only unitary elements. Moreover, Mendel justified the validity of this assumption by putting it to crucial experimental tests. As Morgan himself stated: `his analysis was a wonderful feat of reasoning. He verified his reasoning by the recommended experimental procedure of science'.10 In addition to governing the expression of hereditary characteristics, genes direct the manufacture of proteins that control the basic metabolic functions, which characterize life itself. This insight, with profound consequences for molecular biology, was experimentally confirmed in 1941 by George W. Beadle and Edward L. Tatum. Beadle, a geneticist, initially worked with the fruit fly Drosophila in the laboratory of Thomas Hunt Morgan at Columbia University. By 1935 he had developed suggestive evidence that eye color, known to be inherited, represents a series of genetically determined chemical reactions. His work over the next six years, much of it with Edward L. Tatum, a biochemist, furthered this hypothesis. But the complexity of Drosophila proved a drawback to developing experiments that would demonstrate a link between specific genes and their chemical products.