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# Lecture 6: Vector Calculus II – Gradient, Divergence and Divergence Theorem

Gradient of Scalars Consider scalar field V and its change dV between two infinitesimal neighbouring points: ∂V ∂V ∂V dV = dx + dy + dz ∂x ∂y ∂z

⎛ ∂V ⎞ ∂V ∂V = ⎜ ax + ay + a z ⎟ ⋅ ( dx a x + dy a y + dz a z ) . ∂y ∂z ⎝ ∂x ⎠

First bracketed factor is easily identified to be the gradient of V :

∇V =

∂V ∂V ∂V ax + ay + az ∂x ∂y ∂z

.

Geometrically,

dV = ∇ V cos θ . dl Maximum when θ = 0 implies ∇V gives the direction and dV = ∇V ⋅ d l = ∇V cos θ dl

⇒

magnitude of the maximum rate of change of V per unit distance. If instead, the neighbouring points lie on the surface V = constant, then dV = 0 which occurs when θ = π / 2 . Hence ∇V is perpendicular to V = constant and ∂V ∇V ≡ = normal derivative of V . ∂n Generalising,

**∇V ⋅ a = directional derivative of V along a .
**

1

. Solution: ∇W = ∂W 1 ∂W 1 ∂W ar + aθ + aφ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ = 10 sin 2 θ cos φ a r + 10 sin 2θ cos φ a θ − 10 sin θ sin φ a φ . ∇ (VU ) = V ∇U + U ∇V U ∇V − V ∇U ⎛V ⎞ ∇⎜ ⎟ = U2 ⎝U ⎠ ∇V n = n V n−1 ∇V . 2 . partial Example 3. Example (Sadiku. If a vector field A is in the form of a gradient i.Using earlier definitions of del operator and unit vectors for different coordinate system.e. then V is called the scalar potential of A . A = ∇ V .3): Find the gradient of scalar field W = 10 r sin 2 θ cos φ . . we have ∂V 1 ∂V ∂V aρ + aφ + az ∂ρ ∂z ρ ∂φ ∂V 1 ∂V 1 ∂V ∇V = ar + aθ + aφ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ ∇V = Other properties are linearity ( cylindrical polar ) ( spherical polar ) ∇ (V + U ) = ∇ V + ∇ U and (variants of) Leibniz property .

Substituting this relation into equation of ellipse gives the intersecting point(s): ( 2λ ) 2 + ( 2λ ) + 2λ 2 = 10 2 ⇒ λ = ±1 . z ) = x 2 + y 2 + 2 z 2 − 10 (equals zero). Solution: Note that the line will be parametrised by one parameter. The equation of ellipsoidal surface can be written as f ( x. Example 3. 3 .5): Find the angle of intersection between the line x = y = 2 z and the ellipsoid x 2 + y 2 + 2 z 2 = 10 . z) = ( 2. Its gradient is ∇ f = 2x a x + 2 y a y + 4z a z which should be normal to the ellipsoid. y. Taking λ = 1 gives the point r = 2 ax + 2 ay + az ⇒ ( x.1) . y. say λ and thus the line given by r (λ ) = 2λ a x + 2λ a y + λ a z . 2. The other point is the inversion image about the origin.Example (Sadiku.

a unit normal to the ellipsoid will be an = ± ∇f ∇f = ± ( 2. = ± The angle it makes with line r (± 1) can be obtained using the dot product formula: cos θ = an ⋅ r an ⋅ r = 2(1) + 2(1) + 1(1) 3 2 + 2 +1 2 2 2 = 5 3 3 . The angle required for the question is however the angle the line makes with tangent to the surface.79° . 4 .2.1) .1) 2(2) a x + 2(2) a y + 4(1) a z 42 + 42 + 42 ax + ay + az 3 .21° . which gives 15. 2.79° = 74.At point ( 2. which is 90° − 15. Note that there are other answers due to options of λ and the normal assignment.

z dx P dy dz y x A three-dimensional Taylor series of each component of A about P looks like A x ( x. Propose to define divergence of A at a point P is the outward flux per unit volume in zero volume limit around the point: div A = ∇ ⋅ A = lim ∆v → 0 ∫ S A ⋅ dS ∆v . 5 . z0 ) + ( x − x0 ) + ( z − z0 ) ∂A x ∂z P ∂A x ∂x P + ( y − y0 ) ∂A x ∂y P + higher order terms . z ) = A x ( x0 .Divergence of Vector Field and Divergence Theorem Earlier: ∫ A ⋅ dS as net outward flux of A from closed surface. y0 . y. Consider ∫ S A ⋅ dS for the durface of infinitesimal cuboid below.

For cylindrical polar coordinates. left +right ∫ A ⋅ dS = dx dy dz ∂A y ∂y P + higher order terms . thus ⎛ dx ∂A x A ⋅ dS = − dy dz ⎜ A x ( x0 . ∫ ⎜ 2 ∂x P ⎟ front ⎝ ⎠ For the back side have x = x0 − dx / 2 and dS = dy dz ( − a x ) . ⎟ P⎠ front +back ∫ A ⋅ dS = dx dy dz ∂A x ∂x P + higher order terms . the divergence can be given by ∇⋅ A = ∂A 1 ∂ 1 ∂A ( ρ Aρ ) + ρ ∂φφ + ∂zz ρ ∂ρ . top +bottom ∫ A ⋅ dS = dx dy dz ∂A z ∂z P + higher order terms . we have lim ∆v → 0 Thus. z0 ) − ∫ ⎜ 2 ∂x back ⎝ Together. ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠ P ⎝ ∇⋅ A = ∂A x ∂x + ∂A y ∂y + ∂A z ∂z . Summing over all surfaces and dividing by ∆ v = dx dy dz . and thus ⎛ dx ∂A x ⎞ A ⋅ dS = dy dz ⎜ A x ( x0 .For the front side have x = x0 + dx / 2 and dS = dy dz a x . y0 . ⎞ ⎟ + higher order terms . ∫ S A ⋅ dS ∆v ∂A y ∂A z ⎞ ⎛ ∂A = ⎜ x + + ⎟ . z0 ) + ⎟ + higher order terms . y0 . Similarly. 6 .

we have Divergence Theorem: The total outward flux of a vector field A through a closed surface S is the same as the volume integral of the divergence of A . 7 .7): If G ( r ) = 10 e −2 z ( ρ a ρ + a z ) . by definition and summing over infinitesimal volumes. 0 ≤ z ≤ 1. ∫ S A ⋅ dS = ∫ ∇⋅ A v dv Example (Sadiku Example 3. Note that the divergence operates only on vector fields (dot product operation) and always give a scalar. Finally. find flux of G out of cylinder ρ = 1 . and also obeys a generalized Leibnitz rule: ∇ ⋅ (VA ) = V ∇ ⋅ A + A ⋅ ∇ V . Confirm result through divergence theorem. The operation is distributive: ∇ ⋅ ( A + B) = ∇ ⋅ A + ∇ ⋅ B .The divergence for spherical polar coordinates is similarly given by ∇⋅ A = 1 ∂ 2 1 1 ∂A ( r Ar ) + r sin θ ∂∂θ ( Aθ sin θ ) + r sin θ ∂φφ r 2 ∂r .

z = 0 and dS = ρ d ρ dφ ( − a z ) . ⎣ ⎦ = = top 1 2π 1 −2 −2 ⎡ 1 2⎤ ∫ G ⋅ dS = ρ∫0 φ∫0 − 10 e ρ dφ d ρ = − 10 ( 2π ) ⎢ 2 ρ ⎥ 0 = − 10 π . but ∇⋅G = 1 ∂ 1 ( ρ Gρ ) + ρ ∂∂φ Gφ + ∂∂z Gz ρ ∂ρ 1 ∂ = ( ρ 210 e−2 z ) − 20 e−2 z = 0 . Flux through curved surface is 1 2π curved ∫ G ⋅ dS = z =0 =0 ∫ φ∫ 10 e −2 z ⎡ e −2 z ⎤ (1) dφ dz = 10 ( 2π ) ⎢ ⎥ = 10π (1 − e−2 ) . ∫ ( ∇ ⋅ G ) dv v = 0 = ∫ G ⋅ dS S . 8 . ρ = 1 and dS = ρ dz dφ a ρ . apply divergence theorem: ∫ G ⋅ dS S = ∫ ( ∇ ⋅ G ) dv v . Flux through bottom end is ⎡ 1 2⎤ −2 ∫ G ⋅ dS = ρ∫0 φ∫010 e ρ dφ d ρ = 10 e 2π ⎢ 2 ρ ⎥ 0 = 10 π e . ⎣ −2 ⎦ 0 2 1 Hence.Solution: For top end of cylinder. ⎣ ⎦ = = bottom 1 0 2π 1 For curved surface of cylinder. z = 1 and dS = ρ d ρ dφ a z . Flux through top end is For bottom end of cylinder. as required. Since surface is closed. ρ ∂ρ Thus. total flux is cylinder ∫ G ⋅ dS = 10 π e −2 + ( −10 π ) + 10 π (1 − e −2 ) = 0 .