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Social welfare is one of the important issues not only in India but also all over the World. There are number of NGO organizations in India that address social welfare issues, focus on the rights of India s marginalized communities: handicapped people, children, minorities. The aim of the NGO organizations is the assistance to these people to claim their rights and improve the standard of living. By donating funds, educating people about their rights, undertaking different projects, seminars NGO organizations contribute to the improving social welfare in a country.


Social Welfare is an institution, comprising policies and laws, that are operationalized by organized activities of voluntary (private) and / or government (public) agencies, by which a defined minimum of social services, money and other consumption rights are distributed to individuals, families and groups, by criteria other than those of the market place or those prevailing in the family system, for the purpose of preventing, alleviating or contributing to solution of recognized social problems so as to improve the well being of the individuals, groups and communities directly.

Social Welfare . organized provision of resources and services for the society to deal with social problems

Social Welfare: All social interventions that are intended to enhance or maintain the social functioning of human beings may be defined as social welfare Ralph Dolgoff

All collective interventions to meet certain needs of the individual and / or to serve the wider interests of society is called as social welfare -Richard Titmuss

In a narrow sense, social welfare includes those non-profit functions of society, public or voluntary, that are clearly aimed at alleviating distress and poverty or ameliorating the conditions of causalities of society.
Ms. Snehal J Makawana, Assistant Professor of N. S. Patel college (MPA), Anand Page 1

Social Welfare includes all programs whose explicit purpose is to protect adults and children from the degradation and insecurity of ignorance, illness, disability, unemployment and poverty --Amy Gutmann

Social Welfare generally denotes the full range of organized activities of voluntary and governmental organizations that seek to prevent, alleviate or contribute to the solution of recognized social problems or to improve the well being of individuals, groups and communities. NASW Social Welfare is a system of laws, Programs, benefits and services which strengthen or assure provision for meeting social needs recognized as basic for the welfare of the population and for functioning of the social order -Elizabeth

Social Welfare is centered on two basic concepts

1. Social Problem 2. Ways in which the Society responds to its problem (Related to policy, legislation, procedure etc.).

Administration is the universal process of efficiently getting activities completed with and through others.

Administration is a process of defining and attaining objectives of an organization through a system of coordinated and cooperative effort.

Administration may be defined as the sum total of all activities which relate to: 1. Determination of objectives, plans, policies and programs. 2. Securing resources men, materials and machinery. 3. Putting all these resources in to operation through sound organization. 4. Controlling their performance to ensure achievement of ends 5. Providing sense of achievement to the workers in the operation through financial and nonfinancial incentives

Ms. Snehal J Makawana, Assistant Professor of N. S. Patel college (MPA), Anand

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Social problems are many

Resources to solve problems are limited

Social Development Vision

Identification of Population whose social needs and demands to be met

Identification of the type of services / needs to be provided / in order to meet the needs of the identified Population Specification of the type of instruments (administrative arrangements that will be required to carry out the welfare activities

This is expressed in the form of Social Policy Statements


Social Welfare/Work Administration is the process of transforming social polices into social services.

Social Welfare Administration is the process of efficiently providing resources and services to meet the needs of the individuals, families, groups and communities to facilitate social relationship and adjustment necessary to social functioning.

Social Welfare/work Administration may be thought of as the action of staff members who utilize social processes to transform social policies of agencies into the delivery of social services.


 Social Welfare Managers are routinely confronted with moral dilemmas that require ethically (naitik) defensible (secure) decisions.  Increase overall standard of living of individual of the nation.
Ms. Snehal J Makawana, Assistant Professor of N. S. Patel college (MPA), Anand Page 3

 To providing guidance and direction of inexperienced workers and for continuing growing of the experienced.  Both in academic study and in practice, social work provides supervision by qualified, professional personnel to help the worker to continue to grow professionally and to acquire increased knowledge and abilities. Social workers themselves are the tools in helping troubled persons  Social welfare manager seek to develop supportive and empowering (Samarth banavavu) process in the agency to increase standard of living of Nation s people or society.  Because society people are actively participates in the service experience and are largely responsible for the changes that are sought, the social welfare manager must attend to how they can be directly engaged for serving to the society.


 The Principle of Social Work Values- The values of the profession are the foundation upon which services are developed and made available to persons who need them.  The Principle of professional (specialized) responsibility- The administrator is responsible for the provision of high quality professional services.  The Principle of Communication. Open channels of communication are essential to the complete functioning  The Principle of leadership- The administrator must carry major responsibility for the leadership of the agency in terms of goal attainment and the provision of professional services.  The Principle of resource utilization- the resources of money facilities and personnel must be carefully preserved and utilized for society.  The Principle of planning- The Process of continuous planning is fundamental to the development of meaningful services.  The Principle of co-ordination: The work delegated to many people must be properly coordinated.
Ms. Snehal J Makawana, Assistant Professor of N. S. Patel college (MPA), Anand Page 4

 The Principle of change- The Process of change is continuous, both within the community and within the agency.  The Principle of growth- The growth and development of all participants is furthered by the administrator who provides challenging work assignments, thoughtful supervision, and Opportunities for individual and group learning.


 Social welfare is one of the important issues not only in India but also all over the World.  There are number of NGO organizations in India that address social welfare issues, focus on the rights of handicapped people, children, minorities.  The aim of the NGO organizations is the assistance to these people to claim their rights and improve the standard of living. By donating funds, educating people about their rights, undertaking different projects, seminars NGO organizations contribute to the improving social welfare in a country.  For social welfare three important dates occur in the evolution (development ) of the Ministry of Social Welfare at the Centre.  These are 14 June 1964 when the Department of Social Security was created;  24 January 1966 when the Department of Social Security was redesignated as Department of Social Welfare;  Administrative Reforms Commission (1967) suggested group 1. The work relating to beggary and vagrancy (unemployed), young behaviour), dealt with by the Ministry of Home Affairs. 2. The Study Team further suggested that the work relating to youth welfare, education and welfare of the handicapped, social work research and training dealt with by the Ministry of Education; and delinquency (crime

Ms. Snehal J Makawana, Assistant Professor of N. S. Patel college (MPA), Anand

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 The Study Team also suggested that administration of a national social welfare policy; initiating, reviewing and watching implementation of social welfare legislation by State Governments; coordination of social welfare schemes of the State Governments on a broadly uniform pattern  24 August 1979 - when the Department of Social Welfare was eminent(aagad padatu, Janitu) to the status of an independent Ministry.  1985-86 - the erstwhile Ministry of Welfare was bifurcated into 1. The Department of Women and Child Development and the Department of Welfare. 2. Simultaneously, the Scheduled Castes Development Division, family Development Division and the Minorities and Backward Classes Welfare Division were moved from the Ministry of Home Affairs


 At the central level although the ultimate responsibility of formulating overall policy and planning of social welfare program will rest will be new department of social welfare. The execution of certain welfare services and polices is done by central social welfare board.  The central social welfare board was set up in Aug 1953 with Mr. Durgabhai Deshmukh as chairman on recommendation at national planning commission but as a part of administration under the ministry of education.

Objective of the central board

 The main objectives of the central social boards are 1. Health growth of voluntary social services agency by giving financial help. 2. The board has specially to assist voluntary welfare programs for various groups like Women, Children, Handicap people, People who face Financial Hardship. 3. It is co-ordinate the welfare skill of various central ministry and state government. 4. It develops a new programs of welfare and organizes projects.

5. It has been said that the goal of welfare administration is the turning of welfare policy into welfare

Ms. Snehal J Makawana, Assistant Professor of N. S. Patel college (MPA), Anand

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Scope of Central social welfare

The most important programmes of social welfare with which the Ministry of Education is concerned are those that relate to the welfare of women and children. For implementing them, the Central Social Welfare Board was set up in August 1953. The Board had undertaken a survey of the nature, quality and extent of the services rendered by voluntary agencies in different parts of the country and has been giving them financial and other assistance in order to develop. Their programmes of work in the field of social welfare. By the middle of 1954, Social Welfare Advisory Boards were set up in the States to assist the Central Social Welfare Board activities and to enabale it to maintain continuous contact with the aided institution

Function of central Board

Rural Welfare extension projects. Urban family welfare scheme. After Care Home for rescued (to deliver from Women discharged People. Urban welfare extension Projects. Night shelters for Shelter less Holiday Home For Children harm)

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1. Rural Welfare Extension  Among the schemes directly sponsored by the Board are the rural Welfare Extension Projects and the training programmes.  The scheme of Welfare Extension Projects was launched in August 1954. Each of these projects covers an area of about 25 to 30 villages and a population of about 20,000.  The programme and activities of the projects comprise balwadis (community creches and pre-Basic schools), maternity and infant health services (including those for the handicapped and the delinquent), literacy and social education for women, conduct of arts and crafts centers and, recreational activities.  Care was taken to avoid duplication of activities conducted by governmental and non- governmental organizations in, the areas covered by the Welfare Extension Projects.
 A Project Implementing Committee comprising mainly women, social workers is responsible for the

formulation and execution of programme in each welfare extension area. Each project area is generally divided into five centres of five Villages each, each centre being in the charge of a trained gram sevika who works with the team of a dai and a craft instructor. At the project level, there is a mukhya sevika and a midwife. Half the expenditure on each project is given by the Central Board and the other half is met through other sources such as State funds, local funds and public contributions.  From 1961-62 onwards, it has been decided that these activities should be conducted by local voluntary welfare organizations, each of which will be given a suitable grant under the Board's grantin-aid programme. Arrangements for deciding on the various institutions to take up this programme are being settled.  From April 1957, the Board has undertaken all work relating to the welfare of women and children in the Community Development Blocks. Each of these projects covers about 100 villages and a population of 60,000 to 70,000. Building grants for project centres of the Welfare Extension Projects are sanctioned by the Board in its grants-in-aid programme.

2. Urban family welfare schemes.  A scheme called urban family welfare scheme has been sponsored for promoting welfare of women of the lower middle class family.  Industrial co-operative have been formed for starting small scale industry in selected urban area each of this industry will provide employment in their homes to about 800 Women.
Ms. Snehal J Makawana, Assistant Professor of N. S. Patel college (MPA), Anand Page 8

3. Urban welfare extension projects.  These projects are meant to provide a Community Welfare Centre for the residents of slum areas of large cities and towns, where such services are needed.  The activities undertaken in these projects may include starting of creche, balwadis, ante-natal and post-natal advisory services, infant health centres, hobby clubs, vocational guidance, training in arts and crafts for women, referral And placement services for the handicapped and the like.  These services are centred round the family as a unit. The Board gives grants to the institutions running these projects. Up to the end of October, 1960, 72 voluntary institutions had been sanctioned grants amounting to Rs. 18 lakhs, for running these projects in urban areas.

4. Night shelter for shelter less  A shelter for the shelterless has been the growing need in big industrial cities. In order to have some sort of temporary accommodation for these people, the Board started a scheme of night shelters for the shelterless in the big cities. This scheme is being implemented, coordination being undertaken by the Bharat Sevak Samaj.  Up to the end of October, 1960, schemes for the opening of 42 night shelters in different States had been approved. 5. Holiday Homes for Children.  Under this scheme the Central Social Welfare Board gives assistance for organising holiday camps for children coming from lower income groups in the hill stations and summer resorts.  The Scheme is being implemented throw the Indian council of child welfare.  The scheme is being coordinated by the Indian Council of Child Welfare. Up to the end of October, 1960, 78 batches of 50 children each had been sanctioned a total grant of Rs. 2.10 lakhs for arranging Holiday Homes at various places.

6. Training Programmes.  For the execution of the rural welfare programme, 317 mukhya sevikas, 3,767 gramsevikas, 221 midwives and 335 dais had been trained at various training centres run by Kasturba Gandhi National Memorial Trust and other voluntary agencies. The training has been suspended for the time being. It may be revived when required.
Ms. Snehal J Makawana, Assistant Professor of N. S. Patel college (MPA), Anand Page 9

7. Condensed Courses for Adult Women. -There is now an increasing scope for a large number of women being trained and employed as gramsevikas, midwives, teacher& etc. in rural areas under various Plan The Board, therefore, gives grants-in-aid to institutions giving training through condensed courses to the adult women between the ages of 20 to 35 years. Up to the end of October, 1960, 222 voluntary institutions had been sanctioned grants amounting to Rs. 60 lakhs, for this purpose. 8. Socio-Economic Programmes.  An important programme the Central Social Welfare Board initiated in recent years is in regard to industrial programmes, with a view to providing an economic base to its existing welfare activities. With the cooperation and technical as well as financial assistance of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry and its industrial boards and Khadi Commission, a number of production units are being organised which would provide remunerative work to the needy women and the physically handicapped.  Under this programme so far 102 ambar parishramalayas have been set up providing training to women in rural areas, with the assistance of the All-India Handloom Board. where about 500 women and handicapped persons would be given training and subsequent employment;, about 140 instructors have been trained in handicrafts at the Regional Handicrafts Training Institutes conducted with the assistance of the All-India Handicrafts Board and about 40 handicrafts training centres, production centres and procurement units are being set up; production units as ancillary to larger industries have already been set up at Poona and Bangalore and two more would be shortly organised at Calcutta. silk reeling and spinning units have been set up in the States of Assam, Bihar, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa.  In addition to these, the Central Social Welfare Board also gives grants to voluntary institutions up to extent of Rs. 15,000 for setting up small production units providing employment to about 30 to 35 needy women per unit.  Under the Urban Family Welfare Scheme initiated earlier by the Central Social Welfare- Board, industrial cooperative societies set up at Vijayawada and Hyderabad provide work to 500 women workers in the production of safety matches.


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 No doubt the overall responsibility for the co-ordination and the formulation of plans for welfare service for the country as a whole will rest with the social welfare department the central social welfare council at the central level but the detail planning and Co-ordination will have at the state and district level.  Functioning and planning about the social welfare regarding various issues is very difficult that s why it is necessary to have a united welfare department in each state deal with social welfare program and welfare facilities. The Function (Purpose) of state social welfare board  To Promote the growth of voluntary social welfare agencies with the special reference to development of welfare service in an covered area.  To assist the central Social welfare board in the Provision of field counseling.  To administrate the Programs of rural welfare Project.  To co-ordinate between voluntary welfare agencies at state and Local Level.  To Assist the central social Welfare board and the Further Development of Welfare Service.


1. School Books Grant Scheme A grant scheme is available for students in primary schools to help with the cost of school books. The scheme is mainly aimed at student from low-income families and families experiencing financial hardship. Funding for this scheme comes from the Department of Education and Skills and the scheme is administered in each school by the school principal. 2. Broadly speaking, students who may be eligible for assistance under the School Books Grant Scheme include:

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Families that are mainly dependent on social welfare payments Families on low incomes, Families experiencing financial hardship because of particular circumstances (for example, where there is prolonged (Lambanvadu) illness of a parent/guardian, addiction problems, etc.) Exemption from examination fees Remote Areas Boarding Grant How to apply For assistance under the School Books Grant Scheme you should apply for assistance directly to the principal of your child's school. The principal has total discretion (Vivekbudhdhi) in deciding which students are most in need. Further information about the operation of the scheme in your child's school is available from the school principal. 3. Integrated (sugranthit) Rural Development Programme (IRDP): The following steps have been taken by Govt, to increase employment opportunities: In 1978-79, government of India introduced IRDP to create full employment opportunities in rural areas. Under this programme agriculture, animal husbandry (krushi), forests, fisheries (machala pakadnar), small and cottage industries (kutir udhyogo), construction of roads and canals etc. Moreover, to provide more employment, in the Seventh Plan a sum of Rs. 312 crores was spent on this programme. It benefited 182 lakh families. In 1995- 96 about 21 lakh families have been benefited. 4. Training for Self-Employment: This programme was launched on 15th August, 1979 by the Government of India. It is called National Scheme of Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM). The main objective of this programme is to reduce unemployment among the youth. During Seventh Plan about 11.6 lakh youth were imparted training under the programme.

5. Employment in Foreign Countries:  Government also helps people to get employment abroad. Special agencies have been set up to recruit people to serve in gulf countries like Kuwait, etc.
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 During training period, young men are given financial assistance. On completion of training, they are asked to prepare project report. Arrangements are made to get them financial assistance from the banks. Every trained youth is given a financial help varying from Rs. 3,000 to Rs. 5,000 to start his work.  In the Seventh Plan, under this programme, Composite Rural Training and Technical Centres (CRTTC) were set up to impart training to rural youth. In 1995-96 training was to be provided to 2.8 lakh rural youth under this programme. 6. Self-employment to Educated Unemployed Youth: In 1983, a scheme namely self-employment of educated unemployed was initiated. Under this scheme (yojana), loans up to Rs. 25,000 are given to those educated unemployed who have no other financial resources. This scheme is enforced by District Industries Centers. Government will give 25 percent as subsidy (sarkar taraf thi madati arthik sahay) of the loans given by the banks under this scheme. 7. Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana: Jawahar Rozgar Yojana has been restructured as Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana with effect from April 1999. This Yojana has been formulated to improve the quality of life of the rural poor by providing the additional gainful employment. 8. Pre-matric Scholarship Pre- matric Scholarship to students of notified backward Classes is provided from 4th class to 10th class provided income of parents is less than Rs. 750/p.m 9. Training Programmes The young ladies/ girls are provided training in the trade of cutting & tailoring for the period of 11 months with stipend of Rs. 100/p.m. (18 to 45 years. of age), whose monthly family income does not exceed Rs. 1500/10. Post Matric Scholarship  Post Matric Scholarship to SC/ST/OBC and Physically Handicapped students.  Scholarships are provided to the Scheduled Caste students for graduate, P.G Courses and professional courses i.e. B.A./B.Sc, M.Sc/MBBS/B.E etc. Who are within the income group of Rs. 44000/- per annum
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and Rs. 60950 per annum. Physically Handicapped students are also provided scholarship from 9th class onwards subject to production of medical certificates.  The procedure for claiming the post matric scholarship is also to fill up requisite application form duly authenticated (true thing) by the Principal / Head master concerned along with supporting documents viz. Caste Certificate, Income Certificate, and Disability Certificate and other formalities as required under rules.

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